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Sample records for insoluble phosphate solubilization

  1. [The solubilization of four insoluble phosphates by some microorganisms].

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    Zhao, Xiaorong; Lin, Qimei; Li, Baoguo

    2002-04-01

    Four insoluble phosphates of ferric phosphate (Fe-P), aluminum phosphate (Al-P), fluorapatite (FAP) and rock phosphate (RP) were used as a sole phosphorus resource for some phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. It was found that there was significant difference in solubilizing these phosphates by the tested isolates. The fungi normally were more powerful than the bacteria in dissolving the phsophates. The microorganisms generally solubilized more phosphate when supplied with NO3- than with NH4+. However, the isolates of 2TCiF2 and 4TCiF6 had much higher capacity to solubilize FAP and Al-P respectively in NH4+ medium. Most of the isolates solubilized readily FAP and RP, and then Al-P. Ferric phosphate was the least soluble to these isolates. Only isolate 2TCiF2 showed strong ability to solubilize Fe-P. In particular, two Aspergillus sp. had much higher capacity of dissolving Fe-P when suppled with NO3-. The isolates of Evwinia sp. 4TCRi22 and Enterobacter sp. 1TCRi15 had higher capacity of solubilizing FAP. But two Arthrobacter sp. showed the highest activity in RP medium. It is supposed that complexion of organic acids with metals may be the main reason for these isolates to solubilize the phosphates. However, other chelant substances may be much more important for Enterobacter sp. and Erwinia sp. to release phosphorus from the phsphates.

  2. The population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB from Cikaniki, Botol Mountain, and Ciptarasa Area, and the ability of PSB to solubilize insoluble P in solid pikovskaya medium

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    SULIASIH

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB were collected from plant rhizosphere at Cikaniki (1100 m asl., soil at Botol Mountain (1000, 1500, and 1800 m asl., and Ciptarasa (600, 1000, and 1500 m asl., area at Gunung Halimun National Park (GHNP. The soil ware collected randomly from 3 areas and taken from 0-15 cm depth in the plants rhizosphere at Cikaniki and forest floor soil in Gunung Botol and Ciptarasa. The result showed that the difference of elevation area, soil pH, forest vegetation, and microbial habitat (rhizosphere and forest floor were not the inhabitation factors of the biodiversity of PSB and their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate, but the inhabitation factors on the growth of the PSB population. The highest population of PSB at GHNP was founded in the plant rhizosphere of Altingia exelsa Norona and Schima wallichii (Dc. Korth (107sel/g soil at Cikaniki and in the forest floor soil (108sel/g soil at Botol Mountain (1000 m asl.. Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Bacillus megaterium, and Chromobacterium sp. dominated Cikaniki, Botol Mountain and Ciptarasa area. Those isolates could solubilize insoluble phosphate on solid Pikovskaya medium with the range of diameter is 1.5-2.5 cm.

  3. Mechanisms for solubilization of various insoluble phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different soils by an efficient and salinity-tolerant Aspergillus niger strain An2.

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    Li, Xiaolong; Luo, Lijin; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms for solubilization of different types of phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different types of soils by an efficient fungal strain An2 were explored and evaluated in this study. An2 was isolated from a Chinese cabbage rhizosphere soil and identified as Aspergillus niger. It could fast release up to 1722, 2066, and 2356 mg L(-1) of soluble phosphorus (P) from 1 % Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2, and AlPO4 (Ca-P, Mg-P, and Al-P) and 215 and 179 mg L(-1) from 0.5 % FePO4 and rock phosphate (Fe-P and RP), respectively. HPLC assay demonstrated that An2 mainly secreted oxalic acid to solubilize Ca-P, Mg-P, Al-P, and Fe-P whereas secreted tartaric acid to solubilize RP. Furthermore, An2 could tolerate salinity up to 4 % NaCl without impairing its phosphate-solubilizing ability. The simulation experiments validated that An2 was able to effectively activate immobilized phosphates in general calcareous, acidic, as well as saline-alkali soils with high total P content. This study shows new insights into the mechanisms for microbial solubilization of different types of phosphates and supports the future application of strain An2 in different types of soils to effectively activate P for plants.

  4. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  5. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil Solubilização de fosfato inorgânico insolúvel por Burkholderia cepacea DA23 isolada de solo cultivado

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    Ok-Ryul Song

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation.Uma bactéria capaz de solubilizar fosfato mineral, Burkholderia cepacea DA23, foi isolada de solo cultivado. A capacidade dessa bactéria solubilizar o fosfato de três tipos de fosfato insolúvel foi quantificada. Quando foi utilizada glicose a 3% como fonte de carbono, a bactéria apresentou uma intensa atividade solubilizante de fosfato, sendo a solubilização diretamente relacionada com a queda de pH causada pela bactéria. A análise do meio de cultura por cromatografia líquida de alta pressão indicou o ácido glicônico como principal ácido produzido por Burkholderia cepacea DA23. Aparentemente, a produção de ácido glicônico foi causada pela atividade da glicose desidrogenase. A enzima foi afetada pela regulação do fosfato.

  6. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  7. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing and Potassium Decomposing Strains and Study on their Effects on Tomato Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tin Mar Lynn; Hlaing Swe Win; Ei Phyu Kyaw; Zaw Ko Latt; San San Yu

    2013-01-01

    Seven strains were collected for phosphate solubilizing and potassium decomposing activities from Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Shweziwa Biofertilizer Plant. When phosphate solubilizing activity of selected strains was qualitatively determined, all strains except from B1 strain, gave clear zone formation on NBRIP media. But when quantitatively determined by spectrophotometric method, all strains solubilized insoluble tricalcium phosphate. Among seven strains, Ps strain...

  8. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  9. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  10. Factors determining rock phosphate solubilization by microorganisms isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, E

    1996-11-01

    Forty two soil isolates (31 bacteria and 11 fungi) were studied for their ability to solubilize rock phosphate and calcium phosphate in culture medium. Eight bacteria and 8 fungi possessed solubilizing ability. Pseudomonas cepacia and Penicillium purpurogenum showed the highest activity. There was a correlation between final pH value and titratable acidity (r=-0.29 to -0.87) and between titratable acidity and soluble phosphate (r=0.22 to 0.99). Correlation values were functions of insoluble phosphate and of the group of microorganisms considered. A high correlation was observed between final pH and soluble phosphate only for the rock phosphates inoculated with the highest concentration of solubilizing bacteria (r=-0.73 to -0.98).

  11. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  12. Solubilization and Transformation of Insoluble Zinc Compounds by Fungi Isolated from a Zinc Mine

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    Thanawat Sutjaritvorakul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated from zinc-containing rocks and mining soil. They were screened for the ability to solubilize and transform three insoluble zinc compounds: ZnO, Zn3(PO4, and ZnCO3. Fungi were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium which was supplemented with 0.5% (w/v of insoluble zinc compounds. Of the strains tested, four fungal isolates showed the highest efficiency for solubilizing all the insoluble zinc compounds, producing clearing zone diameters > 40 mm. These were identified as a Phomopsis spp., Aspergillus sp.1, Aspergillus sp.2, and Aspergillus niger. Zinc oxide was the most easily solubilized compound and it was found that 87%, 52%, and 61% of the tested fungi (23 isolates were able to solubilize zinc oxide, zinc phosphate, and zinc carbonate, respectively. Precipitation of zinc-containing crystals was observed in zinc oxide-containing agar medium underneath colonies of Aspergillus sp.1, and these were identified as zinc oxalate. It is suggested that these kinds of fungi have the potential application in bioremediation practices for heavy metal contaminated soils.

  13. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

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    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  14. Study of Acid Phosphatase in Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates by Piriformospora indica.

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    Seshagiri, Swetha; Tallapragada, Padmavathi

    2017-01-02

    Phosphorus is an essential plant macronutrient present in the soil. Only a small portion of phosphorus in soil is taken up by plants and the rest of it becomes unavailable to plants as it is immobilized. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a vital role in converting the insoluble form of phosphates to the soluble form. The present paper reports the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, single super phosphate, zinc phosphate and aluminum phosphate by Piriformospora indica with the production of organic acids as well as acid phosphatase. The amount of phosphate released (4.73 mg ml(-1)) and titratable acidity (0.12%) was found to be the highest in the case of single super phosphate as compared to other phosphate sources. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and succinic acid in the media. Highest phosphatase activity was observed with the cell membrane extract of the organism in the presence of zinc phosphate.

  15. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting properties of rhizobacteria isolated from chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.) producing areas of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Midekssa, Mulissa J.; Löscher, Carolin; Ruth A Schmitz; Assefa, Fassil

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea is one of the major legume crops widely grown in Ethiopia. The low availability of phosphorus in soil is among the stresses that constrain the production of this crop in the country. However, there are rhizobacteria capable of solubilizing insoluble forms of phosphorus in soil and make it available to the plant. Thus, this study was aimed at isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from chickpea rhizosphere. Fifty phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were...

  16. Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.

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    Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization.

  17. The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

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    Atekan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was further purified by the Pikovskaya method on selective media. Eight isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were obtained from all wasted studied. Amongst them, T-K5 and T-K6 isolates were superior in dissolving P from Ca3(PO42 in the media studied. The two isolates were able to solubilize P with solubilizing index of 1.75 and 1.67 for T-K5 and T-K6, respectively. Quantitatively, T-K6 isolate showed the highest P solubilization (0.74 mg / L, followed by T-K5 isolate (0.56 mg / L, while the lowest P solubilization (0.41 mg / L was observed for T-K4 isolate. The increase of soluble P was not always followed by the decrease in pH.

  18. Study of Viability of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria in Phosphate granules

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    hajar rajabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: sustainable development and the environment are interconnected. Sustainable agriculture is continuous utilization of a farm with respect to various aspects of environmental conditions by using fewer inputs (other than Bio-fertilizers. Phosphorus is one of the essential elements for the plants. Management of soil is possible by using biological fertilizers pillar of sustainable agriculture and providing some of the phosphorus needed by plants via bio-fertilizers. Phosphorus deficiency is extremely effective on the plant growth and productivity. The application of phosphorus fertilizers is expensive and dangerous. In addition, phosphorus in the soilmay become insoluble and will be unavailable to the plants. Studies showed that phosphate solubilizing bacteria in the soil rhizosphere are active and by root exudates solve insoluble phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate, and form absorbable P for plant. Consequently, the use of microbial fertilizers could reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers and lead to decrease their harmful effects and protect the environment and conservation of available resources. The biological phosphate fertilizer industry uses sugar beet molasses as a binder and drying granules at high temperatures. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the durability of the bacteria in molasses at high temperature. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement.10 isolates were selected and the ratios of 50%, 25%, 15% and 10% of the apatite, organic matter, sulfur and soluble granule (ratio 1: 1 and 2: 1 bacteria and molasses, respectively, for each isolate was prepared. The final product was dried at 28 and 40 °C and remained for 4 months and population counted at first day and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after the preparing. The population was counted by the serial dilution technique and cultured at Sperber media. Results and Discussion:Comparing the

  19. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Min Liu; Xu Liu; Bao-Sen Cheng; Xue-Lei Ma; Xiao-Tong Lyu; Xian-Fang Zhao; Yan-Lun Ju; Zhuo Min; Yu-Lin Fang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the ...

  20. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... patterns. Four insoluble phosphate sources; purulia rock phosphate (PRP), mussourie rock phosphate .... phosphate in gradient soils, there might be changes in ..... resistance properties, fatty acid profiling and nucleic acid.

  1. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D

    nitrophenylphosphate by the culture. One mole of nitrophenol is equivalent to 1 atom of phosphorus. The absorbance was read at 418 nm using DU-6 Beckmann spectrophotometer. The activity was expressed as ?mol.Pml-1d-1. The cultures which showed good phosphate... strengthening the fact that the isolates are of marine origin. Maximum activity of 5 ?mol.P.ml-1d-1 was observed for strain P6 in 4.5% NaCl Location Beaches Islands Coasts Offshore Table 1?Phosphate solubilizing bacteria in various niches. No. of cultures...

  2. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Qurban Ali Panhwar; Shamshuddin Jusop; Umme Aminun Naher; Radziah Othman; Mohd Ismail Razi

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed ...

  3. Organic acid production in vitro and plant growth promotion in maize under controlled environment by phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas

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    Vyas Pratibha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint to crop production due to rapid binding of the applied phosphorus into fixed forms not available to the plants. Microbial solubilization of inorganic phosphates has been attributed mainly to the production of organic acids. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms enhance plant growth under conditions of poor phosphorus availability by solubilizing insoluble phosphates in the soil. This paper describes the production of organic acids during inorganic phosphate solubilization and influence on plant growth as a function of phosphate solubilization by fluorescent Pseudomonas. Results Nineteen phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains of P. fluorescens, P. poae, P. trivialis, and Pseudomonas spp. produced gluconic acid, oxalic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, citric acid and malic acid in the culture filtrates during the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, Mussoorie rock phosphate, Udaipur rock phosphate and North Carolina rock phosphate. The strains differed quantitatively and qualitatively in the production of organic acids during solubilization of phosphate substrates. Cluster analysis based on organic acid profiling revealed inter-species and intra-species variation in organic acids produced by Pseudomonas strains. The phosphate-solubilizing bacterial treatments P. trivialis BIHB 745, P. trivialis BIHB 747, Pseudomonas sp. BIHB 756 and P. poae BIHB 808 resulted in significantly higher or statistically at par growth and total N, P and K content over single super phosphate treatment in maize. These treatments also significantly affected pH, organic matter, and N, P, and K content of the soil. Conclusion The results implied that organic acid production by Pseudomonas strains is independent of their genetic relatedness and each strain has its own ability of producing organic acids during the solubilization of inorganic phosphates

  4. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Fraga, R

    1999-10-01

    The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants simultaneously increases P uptake by the plant and crop yield. Strains from the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhizobium are among the most powerful phosphate solubilizers. The principal mechanism for mineral phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids, and acid phosphatases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous in soil. Several phosphatase-encoding genes have been cloned and characterized and a few genes involved in mineral phosphate solubilization have been isolated. Therefore, genetic manipulation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria to improve their ability to improve plant growth may include cloning genes involved in both mineral and organic phosphate solubilization, followed by their expression in selected rhizobacterial strains. Chromosomal insertion of these genes under appropriate promoters is an interesting approach.

  5. Isolation and phosphate-solubilizing ability of a fungus, Penicillium sp. from soil of an alum mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Wu, Yan; Liu, Pengming; Liu, Biao; Gao, Meiying

    2011-02-01

    The use of microorganisms to solubilize elemental phosphorus from insoluble rock phosphate is a promising method to greatly reduce not only environmental pollution but also production costs. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were isolated from soils in China, and a fungus strain (PSM11-5) from a soil sample from an alum mine, with the highest phosphate solubilization potential, was selected and identified as a Penicillium sp. Strain PSM11-5 could grow in buffered medium with pH values between 3.0 and 8.0 and showed phosphate solubilizing activity at pH values from 5.0 to 8.0. It also exhibited a degree of tolerance to the heavy metal ions, Cd(2+), Co(2+), and Cr(6+). PSM11-5 could rapidly solubilize tricalcium phosphate, and a high phosphate-solubilizing efficiency of 98% was achieved in an optimized medium. The strain could solubilize rock phosphate and aluminum phosphate with a solubilizing efficiency of approximately 74.5%, but did not solubilize iron phosphate. Solubilization of phosphate depended on acidification. Analysis of PSM11-5 culture supernatants by capillary electrophoresis showed that tricalcium phosphate was solubilized to PO(4) (3-) and Ca(2+) , and that the organic acid produced by the fungus was mainly gluconic acid at approximately ca. 13 g l(-1). In addition, PSM11-5 produced ca. 830 mg l(-1) of citric acid when it was used to solubilize rock phosphate. These excellent properties of strain PSM11-5 suggest that the fungus has potential for agricultural and industrial utilization.

  6. Organic acid production in vitro and plant growth promotion in maize under controlled environment by phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas Pratibha; Gulati Arvind

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint to crop production due to rapid binding of the applied phosphorus into fixed forms not available to the plants. Microbial solubilization of inorganic phosphates has been attributed mainly to the production of organic acids. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms enhance plant growth under conditions of poor phosphorus availability by solubilizing insoluble phosphates in the soil. This paper describes the production of organic acid...

  7. Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their potential for lead immobilization in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-01-30

    Lead (Pb), a highly toxic heavy metal forms stable compounds with phosphate (P). The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to immobilize Pb by enhancing solubilization of insoluble P compounds was tested in this research. Eighteen different PSB strains isolated from P amended and Pb contaminated soils were screened for their efficiency in P solubilization. The PSB isolated from P amended soils solubilized 217-479 mg/L of P while the PSB from Pb contaminated soil solubilized 31-293 mg/L of P. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and P solubility kinetics indicated that the major mechanism of P solubilization by PSB is the pH reduction through the release of organic acids. From the isolated bacteria, two PSB were chosen for Pb immobilization and these bacteria were identified as Pantoea sp. and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The PSB significantly increased P solubilization by 25.0% and 49.9% in the case of Pantoea sp., and 63.3% and 88.6% in the case of Enterobacter sp. for 200 and 800 mg/kg of rock phosphate (RP) addition, respectively, thereby enhancing the immobilization of Pb by 8.25-13.7% in the case of Pantoea sp. and 14.7-26.4% in the case of Enterobacter sp. The ability of PSB to solubilize P, promote plant growth, and immobilize Pb can be used for phytostabilization of Pb contaminated soils.

  8. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastager, Syed G; Damare, Samir

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence and distribution of an actinobacteria group of bacteria capable of dissolving insoluble phosphates were investigated in this study in marine environments, especially in sediments of Chorao Island, Goa Province, India. A total of 200 bacterial isolates of actinobacteria was isolated. All isolates were screened for phosphate-solubilizing activity on Pikovskaya's agar. Thirteen different isolates exhibiting maximum formation of halos (zone of solubilization) around the bacterial colonies were selected for quantitative estimations of P-solubilization. Quantitative estimations for P-solubilization were analyzed for up to 10 days at intervals of 24 h. Maximum solubilization from 89.3 ± 3.1 to 164.1 ± 4.1 μg ml(-1) was observed after 6 days of incubation in six of all isolates, while the isolate NII-1020 showed maximum P-solubilization. The increase in solubilization coincided with the drop in pH. Many of these species showed wide range of tolerance to temperature, pH, and salt concentrations. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were carried to identify the bacterial groups which are actively solubilized phosphate in vitro. Gene sequencing results reveal that all isolates were clustered into six different actinobacterial genera: Streptomyces, Microbacterium, Angustibacter, Kocuria, Isoptericola, and Agromyces. The presence of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize phosphate were indicative of the important role played by bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  9. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  10. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

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    Kahar Muzakhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  11. Assessment of genetic and functional diversity of phosphate solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from rhizospheric soil

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    Narayanan Kannan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for the growth of plants. However, in most soils a large portion of phosphorus becomes insoluble and therefore, unavailable to plants. Knowledge on biodiversity of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonads is essential to understand their ecological role and their utilization in sustainable agriculture. Results Of 443 fluorescent pseudomonad strains tested, 80 strains (18% showed positive for the solubilization of tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 by the formation of visible dissolution halos on Pikovskaya's agar. These phosphate solubilizing strains showed high variability in utilizing various carbon sources. Numerical taxonomy of the phosphate solubilizing strains based on their carbon source utilization profiles resulted into three major phenons at a 0.76 similarity coefficient level. Genotypic analyses of strains by BOX (bacterial repetitive BOX element-polymerase chain reaction (PCR resulted into three distinct genomic clusters and 26 distinct BOX profiles at a 80% similarity level. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. mosselii, P. monteilii, P. plecoglossicida, P. putida, P. fulva and P. fluorescens. These phosphate solubilizing strains also showed the production of plant growth promoting enzymes, hormones and exhibited antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi that attack on various crops. Gene specific primers have identified the putative antibiotic producing strains. These putative strains were grown in fermentation media and production of antibiotics was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion Present study revealed a high degree of functional and genetic diversity among the phosphate solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonad bacteria. Due to their innate potential of producing an array of plant growth promoting

  12. Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Singh, K P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of vermicompost with nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter chroococcum strains, Azospirillum lipoferum and the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas striata on N and P contents of the vermicompost was assessed. Inoculation of N2 fixing bacteria into vermicompost increased contents of N and P. Enriching vermicompost with rock phosphate improved significantly the available P when inoculated with P. striata. During the incubation period, the inoculated bacterial strains proliferated rapidly, fixed N and solubilized added and native phosphate.

  13. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  14. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from tropical areas around the Indian peninsula. Two of the isolates showed high phosphatase activity. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus pumilus, and they showed high...

  15. Moroccan rock phosphate solubilization during a thermo-anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... thermo-anaerobic grassland waste biodegradation process. Moussa S. .... plating the nutrient agar isolate on the solid NBRIP medium. (Nautiyal, 1999) ..... solubilizing fungi isolated from phosphate mines. Ecol. Eng. 33:187-.

  16. Enhanced solubilization of iron and calcium phosphates by Aspergillus niger by the addition of alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Babá Barroso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effect of increased concentrations of alcohols (methanol and ethanol on the solubilization of FePO4 and CaHPO4 by Aspergillus niger. The efficiency of solubilization (ES of inorganic phosphates, fungal growth, acid production and pH variation were determined. The concentrations of alcohols that most favored the solubilization of phosphates were 4% methanol and 3% ethanol. The ES of phosphates by the fungus in media containing methanol ranged from 11-96% and 0.4-87% for ethanol. The stimulation or inhibition of solubilization was dependent on greater or lesser fungus growth, acid production and decreased pH. These responses were supported by the correlation between the amount of phosphate dissolved and fungal growth (0.630** to 0.831**, the production of acids (0.529* to 0.989** and a decrease in pH (-0.755** to -0.962**. Thus, the addition of alcohols facilitated insoluble phosphates dissolution during the fungus growth.

  17. Application of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and organic acids on phosphate solubilization from phosphate rock in aerobic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg(-1)), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot(-1)), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g(-1)) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  18. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  19. Multifunctional properties of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Maria; Serrano, Mercedes; Bravo, Vicente; Jurado, Encarnación; Nikolaeva, Iana; Martos, Vanessa; Vassilev, Nikolay

    2010-02-01

    One of the most studied approaches in solubilization of insoluble phosphates is the biological treatment of rock phosphates. In recent years, various techniques for rock phosphate solubilization have been proposed, with increasing emphasis on application of P-solubilizing microorganisms. The P-solubilizing activity is determined by the microbial biochemical ability to produce and release metabolites with metal-chelating functions. In a number of studies, we have shown that agro-industrial wastes can be efficiently used as substrates in solubilization of phosphate rocks. These processes were carried out employing various technologies including solid-state and submerged fermentations including immobilized cells. The review paper deals critically with several novel trends in exploring various properties of the above microbial/agro-wastes/rock phosphate systems. The major idea is to describe how a single P-solubilizing microorganism manifests wide range of metabolic abilities in different environments. In fermentation conditions, P-solubilizing microorganisms were found to produce various enzymes, siderophores, and plant hormones. Further introduction of the resulting biotechnological products into soil-plant systems resulted in significantly higher plant growth, enhanced soil properties, and biological (including biocontrol) activity. Application of these bio-products in bioremediation of disturbed (heavy metal contaminated and desertified) soils is based on another important part of their multifunctional properties.

  20. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria associated with runner bean rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms, especially rhizobacteria, play a key role in soil phosphorus (P dynamics and the subsequent availability of phosphate to plants. Utilization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria as biofertilizers instead of synthetic chemicals is known to improve plant growth through the supply of plant nutrients, and may help to sustain environmental health and soil productivity. The main purpose of this study was to identify new phosphate-solubilizing bacteria isolated from runner bean rhizosphere. Ten out of 25 isolated bacterial strains solubilized Ca3(PO42 in qualitative and quantitative P-solubilization. The strain that exhibited the highest potential to solubilize Ca3(PO42, was selected for further determination of the mechanisms involved in the process. The medium pH was measured, organic acids released in the culture medium were identified by HPLC analysis, and the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined. Our results showed that strain R7 solubilized phosphorous through the production of various organic acids such as lactic, isocitric, tartaric and pyruvic acids, and that it can be used as a potential biofertilizer.

  1. Arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata efficiently solubilized phosphate rock to sustain plant growth and As uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing-Wei; Liu, Xue; Han, Yong-He; Mei, Hanyi; Cao, Yue; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Liu, Yungen; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-01-31

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils. In this study, we demonstrated that As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was efficient in acquiring P from insoluble phosphate rock (PR). When supplemented with PR as the sole P source in hydroponic systems, P. vittata accumulated 49% and 28% higher P in the roots and fronds than the -P treatment. In contrast, non-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis was unable to solubilize P from PR. To gain insights into PR solubilization by plants, organic acids in plant root exudates were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that phytic acid was the predominant (>90%) organic acid in P. vittata root exudates whereas only oxalic acid was detected in P. ensiformis. Moreover, P. vittata secreted more phytic acid in -P and PR treatments. Compared to oxalic acid, phytic acid was more effective in solubilizing PR, suggesting that phytic acid was critical for PR utilization. Besides, secretion of phytic acid by P. vittata was not inhibited by arsenate. Our data indicated that phytic acid played an important role in efficient use of insoluble PR by P. vittata, shedding light on using insoluble PR to enhance phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  2. Characterization of the mineral phosphate solubilizing activity of Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mounira; Farhat, Ameny; Bejar, Wacim; Kammoun, Radhouan; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Fourati, Amin; Antoun, Hani; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2009-11-01

    The mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability of a Serratia marcescens strain, namely CTM 50650, isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa, was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP broth). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including rock phosphate (RP), calcium phosphate (CaHPO(4)), tri-calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)) and hydroxyapatite were tested as sole sources of phosphate for bacterial growth. Solubilization of these phosphates by S. marcescens CTM 50650 was very efficient. Indeed, under optimal conditions, the soluble phosphorus (P) concentration it produced reached 967, 500, 595 and 326 mg/l from CaHPO(4), Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), hydroxyapatite and RP, respectively. Study of the mechanisms involved in the MPS activity of CTM 50650, showed that phosphate solubilization was concomitant with significant drop in pH. HPLC-analysis of culture supernatants revealed the secretion of gluconic acid (GA) resulting from direct oxidation pathway of glucose when the CTM 50650 cells were grown on NBRIP containing glucose as unique carbon source. This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR for the first time in a S. marcescens strain producing GA, of a gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase responsible for GA production, as well as the genes pqqA, B, C and E involved in biosynthesis of its PQQ cofactor. This study is expected to lead to the development of an environmental-friendly process for fertilizer production considering the capacity of S. marcescens CTM 50650 to achieve yields of P extraction up to 75% from the Gafsa RP.

  3. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  4. Effects of Phosphate-solubilizing Microbial Inoculums on Soil Nutrients and Corn Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Lin-zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms(PSMs, which are commonly found in soil, can solubilize insoluble phosphate(P, reduce phosphorus fertilizer fixation, increase the utilization ratio of P fertilizers, and promote crop growth. In order to analyse the effects of different phosphate-solubilizing microbial inoculums in field, the experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil nutrients and output of corn af-ter three phosphate-solubilizing microbial inoculums in plot experiment. The results showed that available phosphate in soil was increased remarkably after Penicillium oxalate I1(I1, Aspergillus niger H1(H1and Bacillus Megaterium(BMwere inoculated. When the concer-tration of P2O5 were 0, 46, 75 kg·hm -2 and 92 kg·hm -2, the content of soil available phosphate was increased 6.47%-37.13%. At prophase of corn growth, when P2O5 was 92 kg·hm -2, the soil pH was decreased, and the soil exchangeable Ca, Mg and available Fe, Cu and Zn were in-creased significantly, and the activity of SOD, POD and CAT enzyme was also increased. However, at the same condition, the content of available Mn was decreased higher than CK. As a whole, the ability of increasing exchangeable Ca, Mg and available Zn was H1>I1>BM, the ability of increasing available Fe was H1>BM>I1, and the ability of increasing available Cu was BM>H1>I1. The output of corn increased remarkable after three inoculums were inoculated, and the output were increased 8.2%-12.1% higher than CK at 92 kg·hm -2 of P2O5.

  5. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  6. Characterization of the mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity of Pantoea agglomerans MMB051 isolated from an iron-rich soil in southeastern Venezuela (Bolívar State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, Miguel; Pérez, Elizabeth; Ball, María M; Bahsas, Alí; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2009-04-01

    The mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) activity of a Pantoea agglomerans strain, namely MMB051, isolated from an iron-rich, acidic soil near Ciudad Piar (Bolívar State, Venezuela), was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including tri-calcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)], iron phosphate (FePO(4)), aluminum phosphate (AlPO(4)), and Rock Phosphate (RP) were tested as sole sources of P for bacterial growth. Solubilization of Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) was very efficient and depended on acidification of the external milieu when MMB051 cells were grown in the presence of glucose. This was also the case when RP was used as the sole P source. On the other hand, the solubilization efficiency toward more insoluble mineral phosphates (FePO(4) and AlPO(4)) was shown to be very low. Even though gluconic acid (GA) was detected on culture supernatants of strain MMB051, a consequence of the direct oxidation pathway of glucose, inorganic-P solubilization seemed also to be related to other processes dependent on active cell growth. Among these, proton release by ammonium (NH(4)(+) ) fixation appeared to be of paramount importance to explain inorganic-P solubilization mediated by strain MMB051. On the contrary, the presence of nitrate (NO(3)(-) ) salts as the sole N source affected negatively the ability of MMB051 cells to solubilize inorganic P.

  7. Mineral Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Various Plant Rhizosphere under Different Aluminum Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Iriani Damarjaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to isolate and characterize the mineral phosphate solubilizing bacteriafrom rhizosphere and evaluate their potential as plant growth promoting bacteria in Al-toxic soils. The halozone formation method was used to isolate PSB using the media containing insoluble phosphates (Ca-P or Al-Pas a source of phosphate. Eight of acid and Al-tolerant PSB isolates that were able to solubilize Ca-P wereobtained from rhizosphere of clover, wheat, corn, and sunflower grown in Al-toxic soil. Identification of theisolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolates were strains of Burkholderia(5 strains, Pseudomonas (1 strain, Ralstonia (1 strain, and unidentified bacterium (1 strains. All PSB isolatesshowed the capability to dissolve Ca-P, and only 1 strain (Ralstonia strain was able to dissolve Al-P in agar platemedium. The P-solubilization by these isolates was correlated with pH of medium. Inoculation of the bacterialstrains on clover on Al-toxic medium showed that all isolates increased the plant dry weight compared withuninoculated treatment. Our results showed that those PSB isolates have potential to be developed as a biofertilizerto increase the efficiency of P-inorganic fertilizer used in Al-toxic soils.

  8. Increasing potassium (K release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria

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    Mohammad Reza Sarikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus and potassium are major essential macronutrients for biological growth and development. Application of soil microorganisms is one approach to enhance crop growth. Some bacteria are efficient in releasing K and solubilizing P from mineral sources but their behavior was not studied more in presence together. Materials and methods: In this study the ability of seven bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas putida P13, P. putida Tabriz, P. fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao, Pantoea agglomerans P5, Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium JK3 to release mineral K from muscovite and biotite with application of insoluble (Ca3(PO42 or soluble (Na2HPO4 P-sources was investigated. Nutrient Broth was used to prepare an overnight culture of bacteria to inoculate in Aleksandrov medium, which was used to study the dissolution of silicate minerals. It should be mentioned that Aleksandrov medium was used to determine the amount of released P from tricalcium phosphate (TCP while muscovite was added to the medium as a sole source of potassium. Concentration of P was determined spectrophotometrically by ammonium-vanadate-molybdate method and K was determined by flame photometry. Results: The insoluble P-source led to a significantly increased released K into assay medium (66%, and the net release of K from the biotite was significantly enhanced. Among bacterial strains, the highest mean of released K was observed with P. putida P13 which released more K (27% than the control. The amounts of released K from micas in the presence of insoluble and soluble phosphate by P. putida P13 were 8.25 and 4.87 mg/g, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Application of insoluble phosphate could increase K release from mica minerals. The enhanced releasing of mineral K might be attributed to the release of organic acids from the bacteria, a mechanism which plays a pivotal role in solubilizing phosphate from inorganic source of phosphate.

  9. Potential Application of Biohydrogen Production Liquid Waste as Phosphate Solubilizing Agent-A Study Using Soybean Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    With CO2 free emission and a gravimetric energy density higher than gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol, biohydrogen is a promising green renewable energy carrier. During fermentative hydrogen production, 60-70 % of the feedstock is converted to different by-products, dominated by organic acids. In the present investigation, a simple approach for value addition of hydrogen production liquid waste (HPLW) containing these compounds has been demonstrated. In soil, organic acids produced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria chelate the cations of insoluble inorganic phosphates (e.g., Ca3 (PO4)2) and make the phosphorus available to the plants. Organic acid-rich HPLW, therefore, has been evaluated as soil phosphate solubilizer. Application of HPLW as soil phosphate solubilizer was found to improve the phosphorus uptake of soybean plants by 2.18- to 2.74-folds. Additionally, 33-100 % increase in seed germination rate was also observed. Therefore, HPLW has the potential to be an alternative for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers available in the market. Moreover, the strategy can be useful for phytoremediation of phosphorus-rich soil.

  10. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  11. Concomitant rock phosphate dissolution and lead immobilization by phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Enterobacter sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the potential value of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae) in the dissolution of rock phosphate (RP) and subsequent immobilization of lead (Pb) in both bacterial growth medium and soils. Enterobacter sp. showed resistance to Pb and the bacterium solubilized 17.5% of RP in the growth medium. Enterobacter sp. did not enhance Pb immobilization in solution because of acidification of bacterial medium, thereby inhibiting the formation of P-induced Pb precipitation. However, in the case of soil, Enterobacter sp. increased Pb immobilization by 6.98, 25.6 and 32.0% with the RP level of 200, 800 and 1600 mg P/kg, respectively. The immobilization of Pb in Pb-spiked soils was attributed to pyromorphite formation as indicated by XRD analysis. Inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria with RP in soil can be used as an alternative technique to soluble P compounds which can cause eutrophication of surface water.

  12. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

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    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  13. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  14. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

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    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer in an oil palm field.

  15. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria: Comparison between coastal and deep sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biche, S.; Pandey, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for sustaining marine life (Karl, 2000). It is an important macromolecule and it plays vital role in the primary production in marine environment. In some organisms it can also be present as intracellular... organic compounds (Hoppe and Ullrich, 1999). Fig:3a Scatter plot of phosphate solubilizing activity v/s Pore water phosphate in the coast R² = 0.1423 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 Ph os ph at e uM PSA µg P ml-1 h-1 PSA v/s P...

  16. Nutritional influences on the solubilization of metal phosphate by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brian R; Mitchell, Derek T

    2004-08-01

    Four ericoid mycobionts (two isolates of Hymenoscyphus ericae, and two dark, sterile ericoid mycobionts isolated from metal-contaminated mine sites) were grown on solid agar plates supplemented with zinc phosphate (0.25 %) containing different forms of nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium or alanine) and different concentrations of carbon (glucose) and phosphorus (K2HPO4). The influence of nutrient variation on solubilizing ability of the fungi was assessed by measuring the zones of solubilization appearing beneath the growing colonies. All four mycobionts were capable of zinc phosphate solubilization in the presence of all three nitrogen sources and in media containing no nitrogen. No solubilization was observed at 0 mM glucose-C but was observed with increasing glucose concentration from 300 to 600 mM C. Increasing phosphorus concentration (0-5 mM P) had no effect on the solubilizing ability of the isolates. All but one of the mycobionts were capable of solubilizing calcium phosphate (CaHPO4), while no solubilization was observed in media containing aluminium phosphate (AlPO4), iron phosphate (FePO4 x 4H2O) or copper phosphate (Cu3O8P2 x 2H2O) under conditions which were found to be optimal for zinc phosphate solubilization. Under conditions of glucose at 300 mM C and alanine as the N source in the zinc phosphate-amended agar medium, one of the mycobionts produced new crystals, which were morphologically distinct from the original zinc phosphate crystals. It is concluded that medium composition influences the metal-phosphate solubilizing ability of ericoid mycobionts. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms involved in solubilization and the potential benefits of metal-phosphate solubilization to ericoid mycobionts and their host plants.

  17. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

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    Min Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA, and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai and JY22 (B. aryabhattai were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  18. Phosphate-solubilizing microbes and their occurrence in the rhizospheres of Piper betel in Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    TALLAPRAGADA, Padmavathi; SESHACHALA, Usha

    2012-01-01

    Low phosphate solubility is one of the most important factors limiting the plant growth in Indian soils. Many microorganisms can enhance phosphate solubility, but little is known about the magnitude of their phosphorus-solubilizing ability. The native populations of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and fungi were studied in different rhizospheric soil samples obtained from betel vine plants (Piper betel L.) in order to compare the results. The present study focuses on the phosphate-solubilizin...

  19. Role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on rock phosphate solubility and growth of aerobic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Q A; Radziah, O; Zaharah, A R; Sariah, M; Razi, I Mohd

    2011-09-01

    Use of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as inoculants has concurrently increased phosphorous uptake in plants and improved yields in several crop species. The ability of PSB to improve growth of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) through enhanced phosphorus (P) uptake from Christmas island rock phosphate (RP) was studied in glasshouse experiments. Two isolated PSB strains; Bacillus spp. PSB9 and PSB16, were evaluated with RP treatments at 0, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1). Surface sterilized seeds of aerobic rice were planted in plastic pots containing 3 kg soil and the effect of treatments incorporated at planting were observed over 60 days of growth. The isolated PSB strains (PSB9 and PSB16) solubilized significantly high amounts of P (20.05-24.08 mg kg(-1)) compared to non-inoculated (19-23.10 mg kg(-1)) treatments. Significantly higher P solubilization (24.08 mg kg(-1)) and plant P uptake (5.31 mg plant(-1)) was observed with the PSB16 strain at the highest P level of 60 kg ha(-1). The higher amounts of soluble P in the soil solution increased P uptake in plants and resulted in higher plant biomass (21.48 g plant(-1)). PSB strains also increased plant height (80 cm) and improved root morphology in aerobic rice. The results showed that inoculation of aerobic rice with PSB improved phosphate solubilizing activity of incorporated RP.

  20. Effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos, on phosphate-solubilizing efficiency of soil fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Saxena, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Soil is a sink of pesticide residues as well as microorganisms. Fungi are well known for solubilization of inorganic phosphates, and this activity of fungal isolates may be affected by the presence of pesticide residues in the soil. In the present study, five generically different fungal isolates, viz. Aspergillus niger JQ660373, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium aculeatum JQ660374, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp., were tested and compared for their phosphate-solubilizing ability in the absence and presence of monocrotophos (500 mg L(-1)). After 168 h of incubation, four times high amount of tricalcium phosphate was solubilized by isolates in the growth medium containing monocrotophos in comparison to control (without monocrotophos). Concurrently, 78 % of the applied monocrotophos was degraded by these fungal isolates. Kinetics of phosphate solubilization shifted from logarithmic to power model in the presence of monocrotophos. Similarly, the phosphatase activity was also found significantly high in the presence of monocrotophos. The combined order of phosphate solubilization as well as monocrotophos degradation was found to be A. niger JQ660373 > P. aculeatum JQ660374 > A. flavus > F. pallidoroseum > Macrophomina sp. On the contrary, phosphate solubilization negatively correlated with the pH of the growth medium. Hence, it could be concluded that these fungal species efficiently solubilize inorganic phosphates and monocrotophos poses a positive effect on their ability and in turn degraded by them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on P solubilization by Macrophomina sp. and F. pallidoroseum.

  1. Interaction Effects of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Mycorrhiza on the Growth and Phosphorus uptakeof Sorghum

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    Abdolhossein ziaeyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most abundant of agricultural soils in Iran, are calcareous. In calcareous soils, phosphorus fertilizers use efficiency is low. The usage of soil microorganisms is one of the effective ways to increment the uptake of phosphorus in calcareous soils. This microorganisms using various mechanisms, including the production of plant hormones or the production of organic and inorganic acids to dissolve the insoluble phosphorous compounds. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is also one of the most recognized and important symbiosis relationship found in the world. In a mycorrhizal symbiosis,plants can be able to absorb more nutrients and water from soil and fungus plays a protective role as a growth enhancer and make the plants more tolerable to biotic (pathogens and abiotic (drought, cold and salinity stresses .This research conducted to study phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhiza roles on sorghum growth and phosphorus availability to this plant. Materials and methods: To achieve the desired goals, a pot experiment was conducted as a factorial in completely randomized design with sixteen treatments in three replications. The treatments were combination of four P levels of zero, 25, 50, and 75 mg kg-1 P2O5 from triple super phosphate source, the two treatments of inoculation and without inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and the two treatments of inoculation and no inoculation of mycorrizal fungus. Required fertilizers based on initial soil test results were supplied. Accordingly, the same amount of nitrogen, 80 mg kg-1 (30 mg kg-1 before planting and 50 mg kg-1 after planting twice as urea source, 10 mg Zn kg-1 and 5 mg kg-1 Cu per kg soil as the forms of Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4.7H2O and copper sulphate (CuSO4.H2O were added to each soil sample. Required Phosphorus also was calculated based on treatments and added to potting soil. Each pot size was 5 kg. every sample was thoroughly mixed and then were placed in pots. At the same

  2. Solubilization of phosphates and micronutrients by the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum rifai 1295-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare; Norvell; Bjorkman; Harman

    1999-07-01

    We investigated the capability of the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai 1295-22 (T-22) to solubilize in vitro some insoluble or sparingly soluble minerals via three possible mechanisms: acidification of the medium, production of chelating metabolites, and redox activity. T-22 was able to solubilize MnO2, metallic zinc, and rock phosphate (mostly calcium phosphate) in a liquid sucrose-yeast extract medium, as determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Acidification was not the major mechanism of solubilization since the pH of cultures never fell below 5.0 and in cultures containing MnO2 the pH rose from 6.8 to 7.4. Organic acids were not detected by high-performance thin-layer chromatography in the culture filtrates. Fe2O3, MnO2, Zn, and rock phosphate were also solubilized by cell-free culture filtrates. The chelating activity of T-22 culture filtrates was determined by a method based on measurement of the equilibrium concentration of the chrome azurol S complex in the presence of other chelating substances. A size exclusion chromatographic separation of the components of the culture filtrates indicated the presence of a complexed form of Fe but no chelation of Mn. In liquid culture, T. harzianum T-22 also produced diffusible metabolites capable of reducing Fe(III) and Cu(II), as determined by the formation of Fe(II)-Na2-bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid and Cu(I)-Na2-2, 9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid complexes. This is the first report of the ability of a Trichoderma strain to solubilize insoluble or sparingly soluble minerals. This activity may explain, at least partially, the ability of T-22 to increase plant growth. Solubilization of metal oxides by Trichoderma involves both chelation and reduction. Both of these mechanisms also play a role in biocontrol of plant pathogens, and they may be part of a multiple-component action exerted by T-22 to achieve effective biocontrol

  3. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

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    Dipak Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 were used for the removal of phosphate. Among the individual strains, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20 was removed maximum phosphate (61.75% from synthetic wastewater in presence of glucose as a carbon source. The consortium was effectively removed phosphate (74.15-82.50% in the synthetic wastewater when compared to individual strains. The pH changes in culture medium with time and extracellular phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline were also investigated. The efficient removal of phosphate by the consortium may be due to the synergistic activity among the individual strains and phosphatase enzyme activity. The use of bacterial consortium in the remediation of phosphate contaminated aquatic environments has been discussed.

  4. Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Firew

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major bioelements limiting agricultural production. Phosphate solubilizing fungi play a noteworthy role in increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphates for plants. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing phosphate solubilizing fungi from different rhizospheres using both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) medium. A total of 359 fungal isolates were obtained from 150 rhizosphere soil samples of haricot bean, faba bean, cabbage, tomato, and sugarcane. Among the isolates, 167 (46.52%) solubilized inorganic phosphate. The isolated phosphate solubilizing fungi belonged to genera of Aspergillus (55.69%), Penicillium spp. (23.35%), and Fusarium (9.58%). Solubilization index (SI) ranged from 1.10 to 3.05. Isolates designated as JUHbF95 (Aspergillus sp.) and JUFbF59 (Penicillium sp.) solubilized maximum amount of P 728.77 μg·mL−1 and 514.44 μg mL−1, respectively, from TCP (tricalcium phosphate) after 15 days of incubation. The highest (363 μg mL−1) soluble-P was released from RP with the inoculation of JUHbF95 in the PVK broth after 10 days of incubation. The present study indicated the presence of diverse plant associated P-solubilizing fungi that may serve as potential biofertilizers. PMID:27688771

  5. THE EFFICACY OF USING PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS IN GRANULAR BIOFERTILIZERS WITH PHOSPHATE ORE

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    Dunaitsev I. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two granular formulations of phosphorus biofertilizers combining rock phosphate and two highly active phosphate solubilizing strains: Acinetobacter species 305 and Pseudomonas species 181а have been investigated. Granules of about 3 mm in size were obtained by contact-convective drying of a mixture of ground ore, concentrated biomass of two different strains, starch and glucose. Micro granules with size of 0.1- 0.5 mm were obtained by spray drying the biomass of two different strains and application of dried cells on the particles of the ground ore. Starch was used as a binder. In the model liquid medium it was shown that the microorganisms have retained the ability to solubilize mineral phosphates in granular formulations prepared. In laboratory pot trial on marigold (Tagetes patula it was demonstrated that both formulations of biofertilizer increased the dry weight of the plants to the same level as that of chemical fertilizer - double superphosphate, but were inferior in the concentration of phosphorus in plants. Both formulations exceeded the effectiveness of rock phosphate and biomass used as biofertilizers both separately and jointly. No significant differences were noted between the two strains and the two granular formulations both for plant dry weight, and the content of phosphorus therein. Both granular formulations of biofertilizer retained their structure and avoided aggregating over a year of storage at 4 oC. The average persistence of living cells in the microbeads was about 1.5%, in granules - 32 %

  6. Isolation of phosphatase-producing phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Loriya hot spring: Investigation of phosphate solubilizing in the presence of different parameters

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    Maryam Parhamfar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers are the microorganisms that can convert useless nutrient to usable compounds. Unlike fertilizer, cost of biofertilizer production is low and doesn’t produce ecosystem pollution. Phosphate fertilizers can be replaced by phosphate biofertilizer to produce improvement. So, it is necessary to screen the climate-compatible phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Materials and methods: In this project samples were picked up from Loriya hot spring, which are located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in PKV medium for 3 days. Screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria was performed on the specific media, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Phosphate solubilizing activity of this strain was considered in different carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and pH sources. Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results show that B. sp. LOR033 is closely related to Bacillus licheniformis, with 97% homology. In addition, results show that maximum enzyme production was performed after 2 days that incubation pH was decreased simultaneously when the time was increased. Carbon sources investigation show that glucose is the most appropriate in enzyme production and phosphate releasing. Furthermore, results show that the optimum initial pH for phytase production was pH5.0. Different phosphate sources show that tricalcium phosphate has the suitable effect on enzyme activity in three days of incubation. Discussion and conclusion: Phosphatase enzyme production capacity, growth in acidic pH and phosphate solubilizing potential in different salt and phosphate sources show that this strain has considerable importance as biofertilizers.

  7. Why do proteins aggregate? “Intrinsically insoluble proteins” and “dark mediators” revealed by studies on “insoluble proteins” solubilized in pure water [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z0

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, I reviewed and proposed a model for our discovery in 2005 that unrefoldable and insoluble proteins could in fact be solubilized in unsalted water. Since then, this discovery has offered us and other groups a powerful tool to characterize insoluble proteins, and we have further addressed several fundamental and disease-relevant issues associated with this discovery. Here I review these results, which are conceptualized into several novel scenarios. 1) Unlike 'misfolded proteins', whic...

  8. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Widawati S (2011 Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB. While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from the sample registered 18.59 g-1L-1, 18.31 g-1L-1, and 5.68 g-1L-1 of calcium phosphate (Ca-P, Al-P and rock phosphate solubilization after 7-days. Phosphate solubilizing capacity was the highest in the Ca-P medium. Two strains, 13 and 14, registered highest Phosphomonoesterase activities (2.01 µgNP.g-1.h-1 and 1.85NP µg.g-1.h-1 were identified as Serattia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescense, respectively. Both strains were isolated from the crops of Amaranthus hybridus and I. aquatica, respectively, which are commonly observed in coastal ecosystems. The presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize various types of phosphate species are indicative of the important role of both species of bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  9. Microbial Efficacy of Phosphate Solubilization in Agro-Saline Soils of Various Areas of Sindh Region

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    Agha Asad Noor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the most prominent entities for solubilization of phosphate in various soils of different areas of Sindh Province including Tando Muhammad Khan, Tando Allah Yar, Nawabshah, Rato Dero-Larkana, Shikarpur and Umer Kot. These soils, having varying concentrations of chemicals, different climatic conditions, pH and varying numbers of microorganisms for PSA (Phosphate Solubilization Activity. This presentation shows the isolation of different fungi and bacteria capable Psa including fungi (Fusarium sp. Aspergillus sp. Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. and bacteria (Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp.. From the observations, it was revealed that fungi Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp. showed greater phosphate solubilization activity as compared to other fungi and bacteria showing 60 and 53.33% Psa (Phosphate Solubilizing Activity respectively

  10. Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from seagrass rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Upasana; Subhashini, Ponnambalam; Dilipan, Elangovan; Raja, Subramanian; Thangaradjou, Thirunavukarassu; Kannan, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses ( Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary. Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6 was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 375 ± 8.54, followed by the strain PSSG5 with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 275 ± 27.3. Of the 6 strains isolated, the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus, and PSSG1, PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp., Shigella sp., and Klebsiella sp., respectively, by conventional method, and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from Seagrass Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upasana Ghosh; Ponnambalam Subhashini; Elangovan Dilipan; Subramanian Raja; Thirunavukarassu Thangaradjou; Lakshmanan Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses (Halophila ovalis (R.Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary.Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E=375 ± 8.54,followed by the strain PSSG5with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E=275 ± 27.3.Of the 6 strains isolated,the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus,and PSSG1,PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp.,Shigella sp.,and Klebsiella sp.,respectively,by conventional method,and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  12. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Widawati S (2011) Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from ...

  13. Effect of Combined Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Phosphrous Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikmehr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is considered to be one of the most essential macro elements required for growth and development of plants, but, due to low solubility and fixation in soils, only a small fraction of phosphorus in soil (1 ppm or 0.1% is readily available to plants. chemical fertilizers are widely used in meeting the phosphorous need of crops. However, as the fertilizer production is dependent upon fossil energy sources, continuous use of chemical fertilizers has become a matter of great concern, not only because of the diminishing availability of costly inputs but environmental concerns also. Under this background, it has obviously brought the subject of mineral phosphate solubilization in the forefront. A group of soil microorganisms is recognized to be involved in microbial phosphate solubilization mechanisms through which insoluble forms of inorganic and organic phosphates convert into soluble forms (HPO4-2 or H2PO4-. Acidification of the medium, chelating, exchange reactions and production of various acids has been discussed as the key processes attributed to the conversion. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB are a group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that convert unavailable forms of phosphorus to available forms and it helps to the growth and yield of plant. The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is considered one of the most important factors increasing sesame yields. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of PGPR and phosphorus fertilizer on some growth parameters and components of yield and also phosphorus and Zinc uptake in sesame. Materials and Methods: In order to investigation of the effect of combined application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of Sesame, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications including five levels of

  14. Evaluation for rock phosphate solubilization in fermentation and soil-plant system using a stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing Aspergillus niger WHAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chunqiao; Zhang, Huaxiang; Fang, Yujuan; Chi, Ruan

    2013-01-01

    A strain WHAK1, identified as Aspergillus niger, was isolated from Yichang phosphate mines in Hubei province of China. The fungus developed a phosphate solubilization zone on modified National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth (NBRIP) agar medium, supplemented with tricalcium phosphate. The fungus was applied in a repeated-batch fermentation process in order to test its effect on solubilization of rock phosphate (RP). The results showed that A. niger WHAK1 could effectively solubilize RP in NBRIP liquid medium and released soluble phosphate in the broth, which can be illustrated by the observation of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Acidification of the broth seemed to be the major mechanism for RP solubilization by the fungus. Indeed, multiple organic acids (mainly gluconic acid) were detected in the broth by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These organic acids caused a significant drop of pH and an obvious rise of titratable acidity in the broth. The fungus also exhibited high levels of tolerance against temperature, pH, salinity, and desiccation stresses, although a significant decline in the fungal growth and release of soluble phosphate was marked under increasing intensity of stress parameters. Further, the fungus was introduced into the soil supplemented with RP to analyze its effect on plant growth and phosphate uptake of wheat plants. The result revealed that inoculation of A. niger WHAK1 significantly increased the growth and phosphate uptake of wheat plants in the RP-amended soil compared to the control soil.

  15. Bioturbation-induced phosphorous release from an insoluble phosphate source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, D; Das, S K

    2007-01-01

    The influence of bioturbation caused by common carp fry in 5 L jars (5 L each) in the laboratory and in 150 L outdoor vats in increasing the fertilizer value of phosphate rock was evaluated. Soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) was determined to quantify the effects of bioturbation, fish excrements and soil. The level of SRP was always lowest in the control series. Introduction of common carp fry resulted in a net increase of 0.09-0.10 mg L(-1) of SRP attributable to the effect of fish excrement. Bioturbation caused by common carp resulted in a 64.8-90% influx of phosphate from bottom soil in the presence of phosphate rock but only about 6.3-7.2% in the absence of phosphate rock. The bioturbation that occurred in these treatments resulted in a significant release of phosphorous into the overlying water from the apatite source. The results confirm the benefits of the application of environmentally friendly phosphate rock in fish farming ponds at low cost.

  16. Phosphate solubilizing ability of Emericella nidulans strain V1 isolated from vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Satya Sunder; Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Duary, Raj Kumar; Goswami, Linee; Mandal, Narayan C

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus is one of the key factors that regulate soil fertility. Its deficiencies in soil are largely replenished by chemical fertilizers. The present study was aimed to isolate efficient phosphate solubilizing fungal strains from Eisenia fetida vermicompost. Out of total 30 fungal strains the most efficient phosphate solubilizing one was Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), identified by custom sequencing of beta-tubulin gene and BLAST analysis. This strain solubilized 13 to 36% phosphate from four different rock phosphates. After three days of incubation of isolated culture with black Mussorie phosphate rock, the highest percentage of phosphate solubilization was 35.5 +/- 1.01 with a pH drop of 4.2 +/- 0.09. Kinetics of solubilization and acid production showed a linear relationship until day five of incubation. Interestingly, from zero to tenth day of incubation, solubility of soil phosphate increased gradually from 4.31 +/- 1.57 to 13.65 +/- 1.82 (mg kg(-1)) recording a maximum of 21.23 +/- 0.54 on day 45 in respect of the V1 isolate. Further, enhanced phosphorus uptake by Phaseolus plants with significant pod yield due to soil inoculation of Emericella nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), demonstrated its prospect as an effective biofertilizer for plant growth.

  17. Thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes for multi-functional biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2009-02-01

    In order to prepare the multi-functional biofertilizer, thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were isolated from different compost plants and biofertilizers. Except Streptomycesthermophilus J57 which lacked pectinase, all isolates possessed amylase, CMCase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, and nitrogenase activities. All isolates could solubilize calcium phosphate and Israel rock phosphate; various isolates could solubilize aluminum phosphate, iron phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. During composting, biofertilizers inoculated with the tested microbes had a significantly higher temperature, ash content, pH, total nitrogen, soluble phosphorus content, and germination rate than non-inoculated biofertilizer; total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio showed the opposite pattern. Adding these microbes can shorten the period of maturity, improve the quality, increase the soluble phosphorus content, and enhance the populations of phosphate-solubilizing and proteolytic microbes in biofertilizers. Therefore, inoculating thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes into agricultural and animal wastes represents a practical strategy for preparing multi-functional biofertilizer.

  18. Transformation of inorganic P fractions of soil and plant growth promotion by phosphate-solubilizing ability of Penicillium oxalicum I1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mingbo; Du, Peng; Liu, Xue; Zhu, Changxiong

    2014-12-01

    The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate is often considered as the standard for screening of most phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs). However, usually the effect of large-scale application of PSM on the promotion of crop growth varies. This study presents an efficient method for screening and testing phosphate-solubilizing fungus that enhance plant growth. A fungus Penicillium oxalicum I1 (P-I1) was isolated and identified that had high ability of phosphate-solubilization and could utilize maize root exudates as sources, and propagate well in vitro and in soil. P-I1 excreted oxalic acid and reached 593.9 μg/ml, and the pH value was decreased from 6.90 to 1.65 in 26 h. The amount of P-I1 increased by 48-fold in 28 d and was maintained for 49 d in soil. PSM showed selectivity on the transformation of the different forms of phosphorus, a wide range of insoluble phosphates, such as Ca₈H₂(PO₄)₆·5H₂O, AlPO₄, FePO₄, and Ca10(PO₄)₆(OH)₂, were converted to soluble CaHPO₄in soil, and CaHPO₄was also inhibited from being converted into insoluble phosphate by P-I1. The Ca₂-P content reached 27.11 μg/g soil on day 28 at 20°C, which increased by 110.32%, and plant growth promotion was tested and verified, the results showed that maize yield increased remarkably than control after inoculated P-I1, maize yield increased maximum by 14.47%. The data presented that P-I1 appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application.

  19. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis-enhanced mineral phosphate solubilization by groundnut-associated Serratia marcescens GPS-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripura, Chaturvedula; Sashidhar, Burla; Podile, Appa Rao

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-three bacterial isolates were screened for their mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability on Pikovskaya and National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate (NBRIP) agar. The majority of the isolates exhibited a strong ability to solubilize hydroxyapatite in both solid and liquid media. The solubilization in liquid medium corresponded with a decrease in the pH of the medium. Serratia marcescens GPS-5, known for its biocontrol of late leaf spot in groundnut, emerged as the best solubilizer. S. marcescens GPS-5 was subjected to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, and a total of 1700 mutants, resulting after 45 minutes of exposure, were screened on buffered NBRIP medium for alterations in MPS ability compared with that of the wild type. Seven mutants with increased (increased-MPS mutants) and 6 mutants with decreased (decreased-MPS mutants) MPS ability were isolated. All seven increased-MPS mutants were efficient at solubilizing phosphate in both solid and liquid NBRIP medium. Among the increased-MPS mutants, EMS XVIII Sm-35 showed the maximum (40%) increase in the amount of phosphate released in liquid medium compared with wild-type S. marcescens GPS-5, therefore, it would be a useful microbial inoculant in groundnut cultivation. EMS III Sm W, a nonpigmented mutant, showed the lowest solubilization of phosphate among the 6 decreased-MPS mutants.

  20. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Damare, S.R.

    The occurrence and distribution of an actinobacteria group of bacteria capable of dissolving insoluble phosphates were investigated in this study in marine environments, especially in sediments of Chorao Island, Goa, India. A total of 200 bacterial...

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Sources Influence Tricalcium Phosphate Solubilization and Extracellular Phosphatase Activity by Talaromyces flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoni Rubio, P J; Godoy, M S; Della Mónica, I F; Pettinari, M J; Godeas, A M; Scervino, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study phosphate (P) solubilization (and the processes involved in this event) by Talaromyces flavus (BAFC 3125) as a function of carbon and/or nitrogen sources. P solubilization was evaluated in NBRIP media supplemented with different carbon (glucose, sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose) and nitrogen (L-asparagine, urea, ammonium sulfate (AS), and ammonium nitrate (AN) combinations. The highest P solubilization was related to the highest organic acid production (especially gluconic acid) and pH drop for those treatments where glucose was present. Also P solubilization was higher when an inorganic nitrogen source was supplemented to the media when compared to an organic one. Although not being present an organic P source, phosphatase activity was observed. This shows that P mineralization and P solubilization can occur simultaneously, and that P mineralization is not induced by the enzyme substrate. The combination that showed highest P solubilization was for AN-glucose. The highest acid phosphatase activity was for AS-fructose, while for alkaline phosphatase were for AS-fructose and AN-fructose. Acid phosphatase activity was higher than alkaline. P solubilization and phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline) were influenced by the different carbon-nitrogen combinations. A better understanding of phosphate-solubilizing fungi could bring a better use of soil P.

  2. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  3. Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema B; Sayyed, Riyaz Z; Trivedi, Mrugesh H; Gobi, Thivakaran A

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is the second important key element after nitrogen as a mineral nutrient in terms of quantitative plant requirement. Although abundant in soils, in both organic and inorganic forms, its availability is restricted as it occurs mostly in insoluble forms. The P content in average soil is about 0.05% (w/w) but only 0.1% of the total P is available to plant because of poor solubility and its fixation in soil (Illmer and Schinner, Soil Biol Biochem 27:257-263, 1995). An adequate supply of phosphorus during early phases of plant development is important for laying down the primordia of plant reproductive parts. It plays significant role in increasing root ramification and strength thereby imparting vitality and disease resistance capacity to plant. It also helps in seed formation and in early maturation of crops like cereals and legumes. Poor availability or deficiency of phosphorus (P) markedly reduces plant size and growth. Phosphorus accounts about 0.2 - 0.8% of the plant dry weight. To satisfy crop nutritional requirements, P is usually added to soil as chemical P fertilizer, however synthesis of chemical P fertilizer is highly energy intensive processes, and has long term impacts on the environment in terms of eutrophication, soil fertilility depletion, carbon footprint. Moreover, plants can use only a small amount of this P since 75-90% of added P is precipitated by metal-cation complexes, and rapidly becomes fixed in soils. Such environmental concerns have led to the search for sustainable way of P nutrition of crops. In this regards phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) have been seen as best eco-friendly means for P nutrition of crop. Although, several bacterial (pseudomonads and bacilli) and fungal strains (Aspergilli and Penicillium) have been identified as PSM their performance under in situ conditions is not reliable and therefore needs to be improved by using either genetically modified strains or co-inoculation techniques. This review

  4. Effect of carbon substrates on rock phosphate solubilization by bacteria from composts and macrofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameeda, B; Reddy, Y Harish Kumar; Rupela, O P; Kumar, G N; Reddy, Gopal

    2006-10-01

    Five of the 207 isolates from different composts, farm waste compost (FWC), rice straw compost (RSC), Gliricidia vermicompost (GVC), and macrofauna, showed rock phosphate (RP) solubilization in buffered medium in plate culture. When tested in RP broth medium, all five strains, Enterobacter cloacae EB 27, Serratia marcescens EB 67, Serratia sp. EB 75, Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35, and Pseudomonas sp. BWB 21, showed gluconic acid production and solubilized RP. Based on cellulose-degrading and P-solubilizing ability, two strains were selected for further studies. In the presence of different carbon sources, both strains showed a drop in pH and solubilized RP. P released was maximum with glucose (1212 and 522 micromol) and minimum with cellobiose (455 and 306 micromol) by S. marcescens EB 67 and Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35, respectively. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was 63 and 77% with galactose and 35 and 46% with cellobiose when compared to glucose (100%) by EB 67 and CDB 35, respectively. Both strains solubilized RP in the presence of different crop residues. EB 67 and CDB 35 showed maximum cellulase activity (0.027 units) in the presence of rice straw and a mixture of rice straw and root. P solubilized from RP in the presence of pigeonpea root was 134 and 140 micromol with EB 67 and CDB 35. Significantly, these bacteria isolated from composts and macrofauna solubilized rock phosphate in the presence of various pure carbon substrates and crop residues and their importance in soil/rhizosphere conditions is discussed.

  5. Potentiality of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in Microbial Solubilization of Phosphate Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dhakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the solubilization behavior of the tailings produced by the floatation of a complex low grade phosphate ore. The composition of the tailings was essentially dolomite (52.04% with minor amounts of phosphate, iron and aluminium oxides (10.4 and 0.5% respectively. The presence of these products created uncontrolled land pollution and severely affected groundwater. An initiative has been taken up for utilization of this waste to generate an eco-friendly product. First step towards this panorama is incorporation of suitable microorganisms for the biodegradation of this effluent. Sulphur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produces sulphuric acid which neutralizes the dolomitic tailings and convert it into plant available forms. The solubilization activity was tested in sulphur medium with 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentration of tailings. The solubilization is graded on the basis of pH, Electrical conductivity (EC, soluble calcium and magnesium and soluble phosphate. The results from ex-situ experiments showed that the treatment with 15% tailings ended with highest solubilization. The values of pH, EC, soluble calcium and magnesium and soluble phosphate for this treatment were 4.92, 31.6 dS/m, 10.8 mL EDTA and 17.24 µg/mL respectively. Also, the results proved that sulphur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans is capable of solubilizing dolomitic tailings from the Jhamarkotra mines. Finally, an important factor taken into account was solubilization of residual phosphate along with dolomite in the tailings. This combined action affects the solubilization behaviour of the residue, which was also showed successfully with the assayed laboratory studies.

  6. Effects of Soluble Phosphate on Phosphate-Solubilizing Characteristics and Expression of gcd Gene in Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JW-SD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wen, Xinyi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria have the ability of solubilizing mineral phosphate in soil and promoting growth of plants, but the activity of phosphate solubilization is influenced by exogenous soluble phosphate. In the present study, the effects of soluble phosphate on the activity of phosphate solubilization, acidification of media, growth, and organic acid secretion of phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JW-SD2 were investigated under six levels of soluble phosphate conditions. The activity of phosphate solubilization decreased with the increase of soluble phosphate concentration, accompanying with the increase of media pH. However, the growth was promoted by adding soluble phosphate. Production of gluconic, tartaric, and oxalic acids by the strain was reduced with the increase of concentration of soluble phosphate, while acetic and pyruvic acids showed a remarkable increase. Gluconic acid predominantly produced by the strain at low levels of soluble phosphate showed that this acid was the most efficient organic acid in phosphate solubilization. Pyrroloquinoline quinone-glucose dehydrogenase gene gcd (pg5SD2) was cloned from the strain, and the expressions of pg5SD2 gene were repressed gradually with the increase of concentration of soluble phosphate. The soluble phosphate regulating the transcription of the gcd gene is speculated to underlie the regulation of the secretion of gluconic acid and subsequently the regulation of the activity of phosphate solubilization. Future research needs to consider a molecular engineering strategy to reduce the sensitivity of PSB strain to soluble phosphate via modification of the regulatory mechanism of gcd gene, which could improve the scope of PSB strains' application.

  7. Solubilization of Rock Phosphate in Liquid Culture by Fungal Isolates from Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-Hua; ZHOU De-Rui; YANG Qian; JIN Jian; LIU Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    Rock phosphate (RP) is a low efficiency P fertilizer that is directly applied to the soil and can be solubilized by phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs) in fermentation or soil conditions. This study investigated dynamic solubilization of 2 concentrations of rock phosphate in a liquid culture with different dosages of glucose by two fungal isolates,Aspergillus niger P39 and Penicillium oxalicum P66, from soybean and wheat rhizosphere soil. Although during the 20day culture period A. niger P39 had a stronger ability to acidify the culture media than P. oxalicum P66, soluble P concentrations at glucose dosages of 30 and 50 gL-1 with RP of 15 g L-1 in the culture solution were much higher by P. oxalicum P66. The greater effectiveness of P. oxalicum P66 compared to A. niger P39 in the solubilization of RP was strongly associated with the production of organic acids. This study suggested that for RP solubilization the type rather than the concentration of PSM-produced organic acids was more important.

  8. Mineral phosphate solubilization by wild type and radiation induced mutants of pantoea dispersa and pantoea terrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, Senthilkumar; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jung Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Three mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) bacteria where isolated from rhizosphere soil samples of common bean and weed plants. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the isolate P2 and P3 are closely related to Pantoea dispersa while isolate P4 is closely related to Pantoea terrae. Islates P2 and P3 recorded 381.60 {mu}g ml{sup -1} of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization respectively on 3 days incubation. Isolate P4 recorded the TCP solubilization of 215.85 {mu}g ml{sup -1} and the pH was dropped to 4.44 on 24 h incubation. Further incubation of P4 sharply decreased the available phosphorous to 28.94 {mu}g ml{sup -1} and pH level was raised to 6.32. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis was carried out at LD{sub 99} dose of the wild type strains. The total of 14 mutant clones with enhanced MPS activity and 4 clones with decreased activity were selected based on solubilization index (SI) and phosphate solubilization assay. Mutant P2-M1 recorded the highest P-solubilizing potential among any other wild or mutnat clones by releasing 504.21 {mu}g ml{sup -1} of phosphorous i.e. 35% higher than its wild type by the end of day 5. A comparative evaluation of TCP solubilization by wild type isolates of Pantoea and their mutants, led to select three MPS mutant clones such as P2-M1, P3-M2 and P3-M4 with a potential to release >471.67 {mu}g ml{sup {sub {sup 1}}} of phosphorous from TCP. These over expressing mutant clones are considered as suitable candidates for biofertilization.

  9. Encapsulation in alginate enhanced the plant growth promoting activities of two phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa

    OpenAIRE

    Mounira Ben Farhat; Salma Taktek; Hichem Chouayekh

    2014-01-01

    To develop a maize inoculant allowing the use of sparingly soluble inorganic phosphates, the potential of two phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from the Gafsa rock phosphate mine, namely Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 and Enterobacter sp. US468 was assessed. At first, these phosphate solubilizing bacteria were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities like acid and alkaline phosphatase, and indole acetic acid production. Both isolates produced alkaline and acid phosphatase at 35.73...

  10. Ability of rhizobacteria of valerian in phosphate solubilization and their symbiotic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Ghods-Alavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N are the most essential nutrients for plant growth. Deficiency of these elements causes a considerable loss of crop yield. Nowadays, using of biofertilizers in cultivation of strategic crops, such as greenhouse crops, is very important because of resolving the P and N deficiency. This research was carried out to evaluate the potential of rhizobacteria of valerian (as a medicinal plant in phosphate solubilization, N fixation, as well as salinity tolerance in the root zone, in laboratory conditions. To do so, 40 bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of valerian, and their mineral-phosphate solubilizing activities were measured on solid and liquid Sperber media. Besides, N-fixation ability of the isolates in symbiosis with wheat was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that 77.5% of the isolates had the ability to solubilize mineral phosphate. Two isolates belonging to Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera and two isolates belonging to Pseudomonas genus had the maximum ability for phosphate solubilization in solid and liquid media, respectively. Among the isolated bacteria, one isolate belonging to Pseudomonas genus, showed the highest symbiosis efficiency (132%. Furthermore, results of the salinity-tolerance test of the bacteria revealed that all of the isolated bacteria could tolerate 500 mM NaCl concentration and two isolates (belonging to Pseudomonas genus were able to tolerate salinity of 1000 mM NaCl. Overall, it can be concluded that rhizobacteria of valerian have high potential to be used as biofertilizer.

  11. [Combination of phosphorus solubilizing and mobilizing fungi with phosphate rocks and volcanic materials to promote plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, María S; Cabello, Marta N; Elíades, Lorena A; Russo, María L; Allegrucci, Natalia; Schalamuk, Santiago

    2017-09-08

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the uptake of soluble phosphates, while phosphorus solubilizing fungi (S) promote solubilization of insoluble phosphates complexes, favoring plant nutrition. Another alternative to maintaining crop productivity is to combine minerals and rocks that provide nutrients and other desirable properties. The aim of this work was to combine AMF and S with pyroclastic materials (ashes and pumices) from Puyehue volcano and phosphate rocks (PR) from Rio Chico Group (Chubut) - to formulate a substrate for the production of potted Lactuca sativa. A mixture of Terrafertil®:ashes was used as substrate. Penicillium thomii was the solubilizing fungus and Rhizophagus intraradices spores (AMF) was the P mobilizer (AEGIS® Irriga). The treatments were: 1) Substrate; 2) Substrate+AMF; 3) Substrate+S; 4) Substrate+AMF+S; 5) Substrate: PR; 6) Substrate: PR+AMF; 7) Substrate: PR+S and 8) Substrate: PR+AMF+S. Three replicates were performed per treatment. All parameters evaluated (total and assimilable P content in substrate, P in plant tissue and plant dry biomass) were significantly higher in plants grown in substrate containing PR and inoculas with S and AMF. This work confirms that the combination of S/AMF with Puyehue volcanic ashes, PR from the Río Chico Group and a commercial substrate promote the growth of L. sativa, thus increasing the added value of national geomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. EVALUATION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS (PSMs FROM RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF DIFFERENT CROP PLANTS AND ITS ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samikan Krishnakumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous rhizosphere soil samples were collected during study period (October 2011 – March 2012 of different crop plant from Thiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, India for the enumeration of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs. Efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated. Maximum heterotrophic bacterial populations (19.4 X105, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (4.7 X 105 were recorded in the month of February and phosphate solubilizing fungi (3.9 X 102 were documented in the month of December in rhizosphere soil of ground nut. Minimum bacterial populations (14.3 X 105 were observed in rhizosphere soil of chilli in the month of March. Lowest phosphate solubilizing bacteria (1.2 X105 and phosphate solubilzing fungi (1.2 X 102 were observed in rhizosphere soil of paddy during the month of October. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonassp. - BS1, Bacillus sp. – BS2, Micrococcus sp. – BS3 and fungi Aspergillus sp. – FS1, Penicillium sp. – FS2.and Trichoderma sp. – FS3 were identified. Pseudomonas sp. - BS1. exhibited maximum solubilizing efficiency (SE and solubilizing index (SI of 300.0 and 4.0 respectively. In fungi Aspergillus sp. – FS1 showed a maximum solubilizing efficiency (SE and solubilizing index(SI of 283.3 and 3.8 respectively. Antagonistic activity of P-solubilizing Pseudomonassp. - BS1 was deliberated against selected fungal plant pathogens. Among pathogens studied Aspergillus sp. showed a maximum inhibition activity (16 mm and minimum activity (12 mm was observed against Fusarium sp. Moreover inhibition efficiency (IE and inhibition index (II of Pseudomonas sp. - BS1. also calculated base on the antagonistic activity. Aspergillus sp. exhibited highest inhibition efficiency and inhibition index of 166.6 and 3.6 respectively.

  13. Screening for phosphate solubilizing bacteria inhabiting the rhizoplane of rice grown in acidic soil in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Animesh; Islam, Tofazzal; Biswas, Gokul Chandra; Alam, Shohidul; Hossain, Mikail; Talukder, Nur Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the research were to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. BRRIdhan 29 cultivated in acidic soils of Tangail in Bangladesh and evaluate their performances in phosphate solubilization in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A total of 10 bacterial strains were isolated and purified by repeated streak culture on nutrient agar medium. Upon screening, five isolates (OS01, OS03, OS07, OS08 and OS10) showed varying levels of phosphate solubilizing activity in agar plate and broth assays. Among them, the strain OS07 (B1) and two previously isolated PSB strains B2 and B3 were selected for evaluation for their performances in rice alone or in combination of TSP (triple super phosphate: P1) and rock phosphate (P2). Plant height and the number of tillers per plant were significantly increased by all PSB isolates when used in combination with TSP but PSB alone did not influence much on plant height and the number of tillers except B1. The levels of mineral nutrients content in rice plant tissues were generally increased by the application of the PSB in combination with TSP, while the performances of B1 isolate was superior in all aspects to B2 and B3 isolates.

  14. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  15. Use of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria to Leach Rare Earth Elements from Monazite-Bearing Ore

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    Doyun Shin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feasibility to use phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB to develop a biological leaching process of rare earth elements (REE from monazite-bearing ore was determined. To predict the REE leaching capacity of bacteria, the phosphate solubilizing abilities of 10 species of PSB were determined by halo zone formation on Reyes minimal agar media supplemented with bromo cresol green together with a phosphate solubilization test in Reyes minimal liquid media as the screening studies. Calcium phosphate was used as a model mineral phosphate. Among the test PSB strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, P. rhizosphaerae, Mesorhizobium ciceri, Bacillus megaterium, and Acetobacter aceti formed halo zones, with the zone of A. aceti being the widest. In the phosphate solubilization test in liquid media, Azospirillum lipoferum, P. rhizosphaerae, B. megaterium, and A. aceti caused the leaching of 6.4%, 6.9%, 7.5%, and 32.5% of calcium, respectively. When PSB were used to leach REE from monazite-bearing ore, ~5.7 mg/L of cerium (0.13% of leaching efficiency and ~2.8 mg/L of lanthanum (0.11% were leached by A. aceti, and Azospirillum brasilense, A. lipoferum, P. rhizosphaerae and M. ciceri leached 0.5–1 mg/L of both cerium and lanthanum (0.005%–0.01%, as measured by concentrations in the leaching liquor. These results indicate that determination of halo zone formation was found as a useful method to select high-capacity bacteria in REE leaching. However, as the leaching efficiency determined in our experiments was low, even in the presence of A. aceti, further studies are now underway to enhance leaching efficiency by selecting other microorganisms based on halo zone formation.

  16. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "m...

  17. Effectiveness of a rock phosphate solubilizing fungus to increase soil solution phosphate impaired by the soil phosphate sorption capacity

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    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Available phosphate (P deficiency in tropical soils has been recognized as a major factor that limits soil quality and plant performance. To overcome this, it is necessary to add high amounts of soluble P-fertilizers; however, this is inefficient and costly. Alternatively, rock phosphates (RP can be used, but their low reactivity limits their use. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM can enhance RP dissolution and, thus, improve the RP agronomic effectiveness as fertilizer. Nonetheless, their effectiveness may be impaired by the soil P fixation capacity. An experiment was carried out to assess the in vitro effectiveness of the fungus Mortierella sp. to dissolve RP in an axenic culture medium and, thus, enhance the solution P concentration in the presence of aliquots of soils with contrasting P fixation capacity. The results showed that the fungus was capable of lowering the medium pH from 7.7 to 3.0 and, thus, dissolving the RP. The presence of soil aliquots in the medium controlled the effectiveness of the fungus to increase the concentration of the soluble P. In the presence of soils with a low or medium P sorption capacity, the concentration of the soluble P was high (63.8-146.6 mg L-1 in comparison with the inoculated (soilless treatment (50.0 mg L-1 and the uninoculated control (0.7 mg L-1. By contrast, with very-high P fixing soil aliquots, the concentration of the soluble P was very low (3.6-33.1 mg L-1; in addition, in these soils, the fungus immobilized more P into its mycelia than in soils with a low or medium P fixation capacity. The capacity of a soil to fix P seems to be a good predictor for the effectiveness of this fungus to increase the soluble P concentration via RP dissolution.

  18. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) Lactococcus lactis strains associated with Lippia sidoides Cham. are able to solubilize/mineralize phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Jackeline Rossetti Mateus; da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Marques, Joana Montezano; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Eight strains isolated from the stems of Lippia sidoides were identified as belonging to Lactococcus lactis, a bacterial species considered as "generally recognized as safe". Their capacity to solubilize/mineralize phosphate was tested in vitro with different inorganic and organic phosphorus (P) sources. All strains were able to solubilize calcium phosphate as an inorganic P source, and the best result was observed with strain 003.41 which solubilized 31 % of this P source. Rock phosphate, a mined rock containing high amounts of phosphate bearing minerals, was solubilized by five strains. When calcium phytate was the organic P source used, the majority of the strains tested showed phosphate mineralization activity. Moreover, all strains were able to solubilize/mineralize phosphate from poultry litter, a complex P source containing inorganic and predominantly organic P. The presence of genes coding for phytase and alkaline phosphatase was searched within the strains studied. However, only gene sequences related to alkaline phosphatase (phoA and phoD) could be detected in the majority of the strains (excepting strain 006.29) with identities varying from 67 to 88 %. These results demonstrate for the first time the potential of L. lactis strains for phosphate solubilization/mineralization activity using a broad spectrum of P sources; therefore, they are of great importance for the future development of more safe bioinoculants with possible beneficial effects for agriculture.

  19. [Filamentous and phosphate solubilizing fungi relationships with some edaphic parameters and coffee plantations management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Raúl Hernando; Sánchez de Prager, Marina; Sieverding, Ewald; Aguilar Dorantes, Karla; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Soil properties and the environment have multiple outcomes on fungal communities. Although, the interaction effects between management intensity, pH, available phosphorus, organic carbon, soil texture and different fractions of water stable macro-aggregates on the communities of microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF), iron phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-Fe), and iron and calcium phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-(Fe+Ca)), have been previously evaluated in field conditions, this has never been performed in terms of their combined effects, neither with phosphate solubilizing fungi. To assess this, we collected 40 composite soil samples from eight Mexican and Colombian coffee plantations, with different management intensities and physico-chemical edaphic parameters, during 2008-2009. We isolated different communities of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca), by wet sieving and soil particles culture in Potato-Dextrose-Agar from soil samples, and we classified isolates in terms of their phosphate solubilizing ability. Following the principal component analysis results, we decided to analyze fungal communities and abiotic factors interactions for each country separately. Structural Equation Models revealed that organic carbon was positively associated to MFF richness and number of isolates (lambda>0.58), but its relationship with PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were variable; while the available phosphorus, pH and water stable macro-aggregate fractions did not show a clear pattern. Management intensity was negatively related to PSF-Fe (lambda fungi (PSF). This study highlights the need to take into account edaphic and geographic context in order to reach a better understanding of the intensity management effects on MFF and PSF function in agroecosystems.

  20. Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants

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    Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

  1. Molecular identification of phosphate-solubilizing native bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Prosopis glandulosa in Mexicali valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, L; González-Mendoza, D; Cecena-Duran, C; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2015-03-31

    One of the main limitations in intensive crop production in Northwestern Mexico is the dependence on the use of phosphate fertilizer. In this study, we isolated indigenous microorganisms with phosphate solubilization capacities from mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) present in the Mexicali valley. In total, 4 bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of mesquite, including ICA01, ICA02Ba, ICA03Bs, and ICA04Ma. The bacterial isolates were identified based on their phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to be Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The results showed that ICA01 was the most efficient in solubilizing phosphate, followed by ICA02Ba and ICA03Bs, while ICA04Ma showed the lowest phosphate-solubilizing activity. The pH value of the culture medium decreased with bacterial growth, suggesting that these strains produce organic acids that solubilize phosphorus. These results will be useful for biotechnological studies and A. calcoaceticus may be employed for biofertilization programs in northwest Mexico.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5T (=DSM 16299T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterium for bacterial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Jung, Byung Kwon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-10

    Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5(T) (=DSM 16299(T)), isolated from the rhizospheric soil of grass growing in Spain, has been reported as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas harboring insoluble phosphorus solubilizing activity. To understanding the multifunctional biofertilizer better, we report the complete genome sequence of P. rhizosphaerae IH5(T). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  4. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

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    Leandro M. Marra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP. The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici, UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp., UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis, UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.. The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO42 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO42 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  5. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

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    Hemanta Adhikary

    Full Text Available Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1 and citrate transporter (citC genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  6. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  7. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  8. INFLUENCE OF THE COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK ON THE AMOUNT OF WATER-INSOLUBLE PHOSPHATE IMPURITIES IN SEMI-HYDRATE PHOSPHOGYPSUM

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    Nora Kybartiene

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a chemical and mineral composition of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum was investigated in order to identify which impurities of phosphate rock prevent natural phosphates from decomposing in full during the production of phosphoric acid and increase the amount of water-insoluble phosphate impurities in phosphogypsum. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRF, X-ray fluorescence (XRD, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS and granulometry was carried out. The results showed that phosphate rocks (Kovdor and Kirovsk apatites and the semi-hydrate phosphogypsums differ by their chemical composition. The apatites and phosphogypsums differ in the amount of the major components, as well as other components (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, BaO, ZrO2, Ln2O3. In phosphate rock, Ln2O3 can be found in the composition of the mineral monazite. The SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the minerals of the apatite group and monazite form aggregate crystals. Monazite dissolves in sulphuric and phosphoric acids very marginal, therefore it prevents the apatites from full decomposition, thus influencing the quantity of insoluble phosphates in semi-hydrate phosphogypsum. The higher is the amount of minerals containing Ln2O3 in phosphate rock, the more water-insoluble phosphates remain in phosphogypsum. It was found that influence of Ln2O3 impurity is significant higher than influence of particles size of apatite.

  9. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  10. Soil application of dinitroaniline and arylphenoxy propionic herbicides influences the activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amal Chandra; Nayek, Hemanta; Chakravarty, Arunabha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of two systemic herbicides, viz. pendimethalin (a dinitroaniline) and quizalofop (an arylphenoxy propionic acid) at their recommended field application rates (1.0 kg and 50 g active ingredient per hectare, respectively), either separately or in a combination, on growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in relation to their effects on biochemical transformations and availability of organic carbon, total and available phosphorus in a Typic Haplustept soil of West Bengal, India. Application of herbicides, in general, significantly stimulated the growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms which increased microbial biomass resulting in higher accumulation of oxidizable organic carbon, total and available phosphorus in soil as compared to untreated control. The combined application of both the herbicides highly stimulated the proliferations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, while pendimethalin alone significantly accentuated phosphate-solubilizing capacities 36.4% as compared to untreated control and retained highest amount of total phosphorus due to greater microbial activities in soil. The separate application of quizalofop also manifested an induced effect on the proliferations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and accounted significant amounts of organic carbon and available phosphorus in the soil system. The results of the present study thus indicated that the cited herbicides at their field application rates can be safely used to eradicate weeds in the crop fields.

  11. Growth promotion of maize by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria isolated from composts and macrofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameeda, B; Harini, G; Rupela, O P; Wani, S P; Reddy, Gopal

    2008-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with phosphate-solubilizing ability and other plant growth promoting traits increased the plant biomass (20-40%) by paper towel method. Glasshouse and field experiments were conducted using two efficient strains Serratia marcescens EB 67 and Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35. Increase in plant biomass (dry weight) was 99% with EB 67 and 94% with CDB 35 under glasshouse conditions. Increase in plant biomass at 48 and 96 days after sowing was 66% and 50% with EB 67 and 51% and 18% with CDB 35 under field conditions. Seed treatment with EB 67 and CDB 35 increased the grain yield of field-grown maize by 85% and 64% compared to the uninoculated control. Population of EB 67 and CDB 35 were traced back from the rhizosphere of maize on buffered rock phosphate (RP) medium and both the strains survived up to 96 days after sowing.

  12. Inoculation with Phosphate-Solubilizing Fungi Diversifies the Bacterial Community in Rhizospheres of Maize and Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-Hua; JIN Jian; XU Mei-Na; PAN Xiang-Wen; G.TANG

    2007-01-01

    Application of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms(PSMs)has been reported to increase P uptake and plant growth.However,no information is available regarding the ecological consequences of the inoculation with PSMs.The effect of inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing fungal(PSF)isolates Aspergillus niger P39 and Penicillium oxalicumreaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(PCR-DGGE).Compared with the control,the number of culturable microbes for soybean Was significantly greater with P39,whereas for maize,the same Was significantly greater with P66.In addition,a greater number of microbes were fouud in the rhizosphere of maize compared with soybean.The fingerprint of DGGE for 16S rDNA indicated that inoculation with PSF also increased bacterial communities,with the P66 treatment having higher numbers of DGGE bands and a higher Shannon-Weaver diversity index compared with P39;the composition of the microbial community was also more complex with the P66 treatment.Overall,complex interactions between plant species and exotic PSMs affected the structure of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere.but plant species were more important in determining the bacterial community structure than the introduction of exotic microorganisms.

  13. Responses of Pinus halepensis growth, soil microbial catabolic functions and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria after rock phosphate amendment and ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouahmane, L.; Revel, J.C.; Hafidi, M; Thioulouse, J.; Prin, Y.; Galiana, A; Dreyfus, Bernard; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of an ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus, Pisolithus sp., on of the growth of Pinus halepensis (Allepo pine) seedlings, soil microbial functions and rock phosphate solubilization in a un-disinfected soil amended or not with a Moroccan rock phosphate. Allepo pine seedlings were inoculated with an EM fungus (Pisolithus sp. strain PH4) isolated from a P. halepensis plantation and selected for its high ability to mobilize P from an inorganic form of phosphate. After 4 month's cul...

  14. Isolation and characterization of a phosphate solubilizing heavy metal tolerant bacterium from River Ganga, West Bengal, India

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    Dipak Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphates solubilizing bacterial (PSB strains were isolated from the jute mill effluent discharge area of the Ganga river water at Bansberia, West Bengal, India. Experimental studies found that the strain KUPSB16 was effective in solubilization of phosphate with phosphate solubilization index (SI = 3.14 in Pikovskaya’s agar plates along with maximum solubilized phosphate production of 208.18 g mL-1 in broth culture. Highest drop in pH value was associated with maximum amount of phosphate solubilization by the PSB strain KUPSB16 where pH decreased to 3.53 from initial value of 7.0±0.2. The isolated PSB strains were tested for tolerance against four heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn at concentrations 1-15 mM. The results showed that most of the PSB isolates grew well at low concentrations of heavy metals and their number gradually decreased as the concentration increased. Isolated PSB strain KUPSB16 was tested for its multiple metal resistances. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for Cd2+, Cr6+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in tris-minimal broth medium were 4.2, 5.5, 3.6 and 9.5 mM respectively. The MIC values for the metals studied on agar medium was higher than in broth medium and ranged from 4.8-11.0 mM. The isolated bacterial strain KUPSB16 was subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and identified as the species of the genus Bacillus. The phosphate solubilizing bacterium possessing the properties of multiple heavy metal tolerance in heavy metal contaminated areas might be exploited for bioremediation studies in future.

  15. Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S; Carey, Elizabeth; Burns, Justin L; Fennessey, Christine M; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell density. Anaerobic Fe(III) solubilization activity is detected with either Fe(III) oxides or Fe(III) citrate, suggesting that the organic ligand produced is strong enough to destabilize Fe(III) from soluble or solid Fe(III) substrates. Results also demonstrate that Fe(III) oxide dissolution is not controlled by the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the Fe(III) oxides. Instead, the chemical reaction between the endogenous organic ligand is only affected by the number of reactive surface sites available to S. putrefaciens. This report describes the first application of voltammetric techniques to demonstrate production of soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes by any Fe(III)-reducing microorganism and is the first report of a Fe(III)-solubilizing ligand generated by a metal-reducing member of the genus Shewanella.

  16. The effect of phosphate solubilizing microbe producing growth regulators on soil phosphate, growth and yield of maize and fertilizer efficiency on Ultisol

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    Betty Natalie Fitriatin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultisol is soil that have problem of soil acidity, low organic matter and low available macro nutrient in particularly low P availability. This is only small part of phosphorus is available for plant because most of the phosphate was still present in the soil were fixed by soil colloids. Some soil microbes are known phosphate solubilizing microbes have capability to dissolve phosphate that transform of P fixed into the soluble P. The field experiment conducted at Jatinangor, West Java Indonesia to determine the effect of PSM on phosphate solubility, growth and yield of maize and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency. Design experiment of Randomized Block Design (RBD was used in field experiment, consisted of two factors and three replications. Phosphate solubilizing microbe as the first factor consisted four levels i.e without, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB, phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF, mixture of PSB and PSF. While the second factor was P fertilizer consists five levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% doses of recomendation. The results of the field experiment showed that application of phosphate solubilizing microbes significantly improve the yield of maize in Ultisol Jatinangor, but did not significantly affect on soil P, available soil P, phosphatase and P uptake of plants. Application of a mixture of PSB and PSF better effect on soil available P and yield of maize. Phospate fertilizer dosing at a dose of 25 % , 50 % , 75 % and 100 % recommendations increased available soil P. Fertilizer of P could inhibit the activity of phosphatases. Phosphate fertilizer with dose 50 % recommendation gave better effect on soil P and yield of maize.

  17. Effect of succinate on phosphate solubilization in nitrogen fixing bacteria harbouring chick pea and their effect on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2017-09-01

    Diverse nitrogen fixing bacteria harbouring chick pea rhizosphere and root nodules were tested for multiple plant growth promoting traits like tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, production of ammonia, indole 3-acetic acid, chitinase, phytase and alkaline phosphatase. Isolates belonged to diverse genus like Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Ensifer, Klebsiella, etc. Most isolates solubilized TCP and RP along with the lowering of media pH, indicating acidification to be the chief mechanism behind this solubilization. However, lowering of media pH and P release decreased by 32-100% when media was supplemented with succinate, a major component of plant root exudates indicating succinate mediated repression of P solubilization. Maximum TCP and RP solubilization with P release of 850μg/mL and 2088μg/mL was obtained with lowering of media pH up to 2.8 and 3.3 for isolate E43 and PSB1 respectively. This pH drop changed to 4.4 and 4.8 with 80% and 87% decrease in P solubilization in the presence of succinate. Maximum 246μg/mL indole 3-acetic acid production in Lh3, 44.8U/mL chitinase activity in MB3, 11.3U/mL phytase activity in I91 and 9.4U/mL alkaline phosphatase activity in SM1 were also obtained. Most isolates showed multiple PGP traits which resulted in significant plant growth promotion of chick pea plants. Present study shows repression of P solubilization by succinate for various bacterial groups which might be one of the reasons why phosphate solubilizing bacteria which perform well in vitro often fail in vivo. Studying this repression mechanism might be critical in understanding the in vivo efficacy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  19. 多花黑麦草根际解磷菌的分离及解磷能力测定%Isolation and the Phosphate Solubilizing Capacity of Italian Ryegrass Rhizosphere Phosphate-Solubilizing Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉竹; 赵建军; 曾兵; 明晓燕; 朱全伟

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were isolated from Italian ryegrass rhizospheres using PKO inorganic and Mengjinna organic culture media. The phosphate solubilizing capacities were investigated from 41 strains based on phosphate-solubilizing circle and the molybdenum blue method. Among them, 13 strains had an ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and D/d (diameter of phosphate-dissolving zone/ diameter of bacterial clone) value was from 1. 13 to 4; and 28 strains had an ability to solubilize organic phosphate on Mengjinna organic culture medium and D/d value was from 1. 13 to 16. 4. In liquid culture, the available phosphate increment was detected using molybdenum blue method from 15. 6 mg·L-1 to 557.2 mg·L-1 by inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microorganism and from 52 mg·L-1 to 341. 6 mg·L-1 by organic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Strains b9,bl3 and f5 had a significantly higher ability of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing than others did. Strains B1 and B3 had a higher ability of organic phosphate-dissolving showing great potential for agricultural use in microbiological fertilizer and deserve further study. There was a significant correlation between the phosphate solubilizing capacity of inorganic phosphate dissolving microorganism and the pH of medium, whereas there was no such correlation for organic phosphate dissolving bacteria.%选用PKO(无机培养基)和蒙金娜有机培养基,从多花黑麦草(Lolium multi florum L.)根际分离出41株具有溶磷能力的菌株,利用溶磷圈法和钼蓝比色法对其溶磷能力进行测定,其中13株具有溶解无机磷能力,其D/d值(溶磷圈直径与菌落直径比值)在1.13~4之间,用钼蓝比色法测定有效磷增量为15.6~557.2 mg·L-1.28株在蒙金娜有机磷培养基上形成明显透明圈,其D/d值在1.13~16.4之间,有效磷增量分别为52~341.6mg·L-1.经解磷能力分析,b9,b13,f5菌株具有较强的解无机磷能力,D/d值为2.75,4,2.5,

  20. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizer Azospirillum, Bacillus and Enterobacter strains by 16SrRNA sequence analysis and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahir, M.; Mirza, M.S.; Zaheer, A.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Smidt, H.; Hameed, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and investigate their potential for plant growth promotion. Three phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated by serial dilution method from the rhizosphere of wheat grown under wheat-cotton

  1. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizer Azospirillum, Bacillus and Enterobacter strains by 16SrRNA sequence analysis and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahir, M.; Mirza, M.S.; Zaheer, A.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Smidt, H.; Hameed, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and investigate their potential for plant growth promotion. Three phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated by serial dilution method from the rhizosphere of wheat grown under wheat-cotton

  2. Distribution of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Soil Phosphatase Activity in Different Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Sarikhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorous is one of the essential macronutrients for plant growth and development but its mobility in soil is very low. The utilization of the soil biological potential, in particular phosphate solubilizing bacteria, is an efficient way which can be used for exploiting available sources of phosphorous in the soil. The principal mechanism for mineral phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acid, and acid and alkaline phosphatases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous in the soil. Presence and distribution of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in the soil and soil phosphatase activities is influenced by soil conditions such as climate, soil type, vegetation and land uses. In order to understand the relationships and considering the importance of the subject, the soil samples were chosen from two different climates; semi-moist (Fandoghlou-Ardabil and semi-arid (Namin- Ardabil under culture of legumes, cereals and uncultivated areas, in this experiment. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effects of different land uses, climate conditions and soil physicochemical properties on phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM distribiution and soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activity, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was performed with considering three different land uses (including legumes, cereals and wasteland and two climate conditions (semi-moist: Fandoghlu- Ardabil and semi-arid: Namin-Ardabil. Four composite soil samples (0-25 cm were taken from each land uses. Finally, a total number of 24 soil samples were used to enumerate phosphate solubilizng bacteria and evaluate soil phosphatase activities. The enumeration and selection of bacteria in the mineral Sperber medium was done by attention to the clear zone production in the presence of tri-calcium phosphate and in organic sperber (IHP+BCIP due to blue phenotype of grown colonies. Also, phosphatase activity

  3. 荒漠草原植物根际溶磷细菌的分离鉴定及其溶磷能力的比较%Isolation, Characterization and Phosphate-solubilizing Ability Determination of Phosphate-solubilizing Bacteria from the Rhizobacteria of Dominant Plants in Desert Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩瑞红; 王小兵; 赵吉睿; 张胜男; 王瑞刚; 孟建宇

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major groups of plant growth-promoting bacteria,phosphate-solubilizing bacteria play an important role in the development of green agriculture and control of desertification.The present research mainly focus on phosphate - solubilizing bacteria of farmland,classic grassland and desert ecosystem,however plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of desert steppe has rarely been studied.The phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated by the insoluble phosphate medium, and the phosphate-solubilizing ability of the isolates were detected by the potassium persulfate digestion and Mo-Sb anti colorimetric method.42 phosphate -solubilizing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of four dominant plants in desert steppe of Siziwang Banner.The 42 strains were classified into 5 groups and 19 genuses.Among them,19 isolates (45.2%) belong to the Actinobacteria,5 strains (11.9%) belong to the Bacilli,16 strains (38.1%) belong to α-proteobacteria,1 strain (2.4%) belong to β- proteobacteria,and 1 strain (2.4%) belong to γ -proteobacteria.The results showed that strain GP0501,GP0506,GP0507 and GP0509 have the strongest phosphate solubilizing ability,the phosphate solubilization capacity was 77.57,65.89,58.08,68.02g/μ mL,respectively.The 4 strains have great potential of application,which all belong to Bacillus.%溶磷细菌是主要的根际促生菌的类群之一,其在发展绿色农业和荒漠化防治中具有重要作用。已有的相关研究主要集中于农作物等,而对于荒漠草原植物溶磷细菌的研究尚很缺乏。该研究利用涂布划线方法、以无机磷培养基从四子王旗荒漠草原四种优势植物根际土壤中分离溶磷细菌,采用过硫酸钾消解-钼锑抗比色法检测菌株的溶磷能力。从4种优势植物兔唇冬青草、银灰旋花、蒙古黄芪和短花针茅根际土壤共分离得到42株溶磷细菌,归为五个类群19个属。其中19株(45.2%

  4. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the development of coffee seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adolfo Cisneros-Rojas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solubilizing phosphate bacterias (BSF, Kocuria sp. and Bacillus subtilis, on the development of coffee seedlings Castillo variety. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse condition, in Palmira, Colombia during 2013-2014 years. The experimental design was completely random, with nine treatments and ten repetitions. The treatments were established under three types of substrates for the seedlings: natural soil (Typic Melanudand + decomposed coffee pulp (1:1 lacking or presenting BSF (treatments 1-4, natural soil + decomposed coffee pulp (1:1 + phosphate rock (RF with or without microorganisms (treatments 5-8, and natural soil without BSF subjected to fertilization with diammonium phosphate (DAP (treatment 9. The application of decomposed coffee pulp with and without RF and BSF favored the availability of phosphorus that helped to the development of coffee seedlings, the above was re ected in the chemical analysis of the substrate and the response of variables, root and total dry aerial weight. Length and volume root, foliar P and recovery phosphorus ef ciency (ERF, did not present signi cant differences.

  5. Characterization of mineral phosphate solubilization traits from a barley rhizosphere soil functional metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sagar; Brazil, Dina; Morrissey, John; Burke, James I; O'Gara, Fergal; N Dowling, David

    2013-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization (MPS) microorganisms are important for their provision of orthophosphate anions for plant growth promotion activity in soil. In this study, we applied a functional metagenomic approach to identify this trait directly from the microbiome in barley rhizosphere soil that had not received P fertilizer over a 15-year period. A fosmid system was used to clone the metagenome of which 18,000 clones (~666 Mb of DNA) was screened for MPS. Functional assays and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis recognized gluconic acid production and MPS activity in the range 24.8-77.1 mmol/L and 27.6-38.16 μg/mL, respectively, when screened in an Escherichia coli host (at frequency of one MPS-positive clone hit per 114 Mb DNA tested). The MPS clones (with average insert size of ~37 kb) were analysed by 454 Roche sequencing and annotated. A number of genes/operons with homology to Phosphorous (P) uptake, regulatory and solubilization mechanisms were identified, linking the MPS function to the uncultivated microbiome present in barley rhizosphere soil.

  6. Repression of mineral phosphate solubilizing phenotype in the presence of weak organic acids in plant growth promoting fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya K; Murawala, Prayag; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2011-02-01

    Two phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), M3 and SP1, were obtained from the rhizosphere of mungbean and sweet potato, respectively and identified as strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing abilities were found to be due to secretion high amount of gluconic acid. In the presence of malate and succinate, individually and as mixture, the P solubilizing ability of both the strains was considerably reduced. This was correlated with a nearly 80% decrease in the activity of the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) but not gluconate dehydrogenase (GAD) in both the isolates. Thus, GDH enzyme, catalyzing the periplasmic production of gluconic acid, is under reverse catabolite repression control by organic acids in P. aeruginosa M3 and SP1. This is of relevance in rhizospheric conditions and is a new explanation for the lack of field efficacy of such PSB.

  7. Improvement of Soil Chemistry Characteristic of Upland with Rock Phosphate, Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Farm Yard Manure For Increase of SoybeanYield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidi Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available he experiment aims to know the role of rock phosphate, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and farm yard manure application in improve quality of acid upland and its influence to soybean yield. Experiment was conducted in the greenhouse using Ultisols from Kentrong at 2001 year. Factorial experiment design with two factors was used in randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factors was rock phosphate dosages i.e. : 0; 30; 60; 90 kg P ha-1, and the second factor was combination of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and farm yard manure (FYM i.e. : without PSB and FYM (control; PSB (Pseudomonas fluorescens; FYM 10 t ha-1, and PSB+FYM. Results indicated that rock phosphate and combination of PSB and FYM application increased available P and decrase exchangeable Al of soils, increase nutrient uptake N, P, nodulation and grain yield of soybean. Application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and farm yard manure combination with rock phosphate 30 kg P ha-1 dosages average increase grain yield soybean 23.5% compared with control. Grain yield of soybean 87% affected by variables of available P soils (X1, nutrient uptake N (X4 and P (X5, with multiple regression equation : Y = 0.241 + 0.03900 X1 + 0.00470 X4 + 0.04263 X5.

  8. Phosphate-solubilizing microbes in rhizosphere soils of 19 weeds in southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Low phosphorus (P) availability is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth in red soils across southeastern China. Many non-symbiotic microorganisms in rhizosphere can enhance P solubility, but little is known about the magnitude of their phosphorus-solubilizing ability (PSA) and the difference in phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) among plant species. The number of phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms and their PSA in rhizosphere soils of 19 weed species in a citrus orchard on red soil at Changshan, Zhejiang, China, were investigated. Inorganic P (powdered phosphate rock, PR) and organic P (lecithin, OP) were respectively used as the sole P-source to examine the PSA of isolated microbes. The PS actinomycetes community varied greatly among the different weed rhizospheres while the PS fungus community showed to be most stable to the weed rhizosphere. The highest number of PR-PS and OP-PS bacteria was found in rhizosphere soil of Mollugo pentaphyll, and the highest number of PR-PS and OP-PS actinomycetes was found in rhizosphere soil of Polygonum lapathifolium. The highest number of PR-PS fungi was found in Erigeron annuus and Mollugo pentaphyll rhizosphere soil, and the highest number of OP-PS fungi was found in rhizosphere soil of Mazus stachydifolius. Mazus stachydifolius showed the strongest PR-PS ability (6340.75μg) while Eragrostis pilosa showed the strongest OP-PS ability (1301.84μg). The PR-PS ability and OP-PS ability of Mollugo pentaphyll was 4432.87μg and 1122.05μg respectively. A significant correlation between the number of PR-PSM and OP-PSM was found. Significant correlation was only found between the PR-PS fungi number and its PSA(r=0.75, P<0.05) and between the number of OP-PS fungi and its PSA(r=0.87, P<0.01}). It indicated that plant species had significant influence on components of the non-symbiotic PSM community and their activity in its rhizosphere soil. Fungi play a leading role in phosphorus solubilization in

  9. Phosphate-solubilizing microbes in rhizosphere soils of 19 weeds in southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 唐建军; 方治国; HUShui-jin

    2002-01-01

    Low phosphorus (P) availability is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth in red soils across southeastern China. Many non-symbiotic microorganisms in rhizosphere can enhance P solubility, hut little is known about the magnitude of their phosphorus-solubilizing ability (PSA) and the difference in phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) among plant species. The rmmber of phosphorns-solubilizing microorganisms and their PSA in rhizosphere soils of 19 weed species in a citrus orchard on red soil at Changshan, Zhejiang, China, were investigated. Inorganic P (powdered phos-phate rock, PR) and orgatfic P (lecithin, OP) were respectively used as the sole P-souree to examine the PSA of isolated microbes. The PS actinomycetes community varied greatly among the different weed rhizospheres while the PS fungus community showed to be most stable to the weed rhixosphere.The highest number of PR-PS and OP-PS bacteria was found in rhizos, phere soil of Mollugo pentaphyll and the highest nuraber of PR-PS and OP-PS actinomycetes was found in rhizosphere soil of Polygonum lapathlfollum. The highest number of PR-PS fungi was found in Erigeron annuus and Mollugo pen-taphyll rhizosphere soil, and the highest number of OP-PS fungi was found in rhizosphere soil of Maxus stachydifolius. Mazus stachydifolius showed the strongest PR-PS ability (6340.75μg) while Eragrostis pilosa showed the strongest OP-PS ability (1301.84μg). The PR-PS ability and OP-PS ability of Mollugo pentaphyll was 4432.87μg and 1122.05μg respectively. A significant correlation between the number of PR-PSM and OP-PSM was found. Significant correlation was only found between the PR-PS fungi number and its PSA( r = 0.75, P < 0.05 ) and between the number of OP-PS fungi and its PSA( r=0.87, P<0.011 ). It indicated that plant species had significant influence on components of the non-symbiotic PSM community and their activity in its rhizosphere soil. Fungi play a l~ role inphosphorus solubilization

  10. Phosphate solubilization and acid phosphatase activity of Serratia sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Mahanadi river delta, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Behera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is an essential element for all life forms. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria are capable of converting phosphate into a bioavailable form through solubilization and mineralization processes. Hence in the present study a phosphate solubilizing bacterium, PSB-37, was isolated from mangrove soil of the Mahanadi river delta using NBRIP-agar and NBRIP-BPB broth containing tricalcium phosphate as the phosphate source. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization, the strain was identified as Serratia sp. The maximum phosphate solubilizing activity of the strain was determined to be 44.84 μg/ml, accompanied by a decrease in pH of the growth medium from 7.0 to 3.15. During phosphate solubilization, various organic acids, such as malic acid (237 mg/l, lactic acid (599.5 mg/l and acetic acid (5.0 mg/l were also detected in the broth culture through HPLC analysis. Acid phosphatase activity was determined by performing p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay (pNPP of the bacterial broth culture. Optimum acid phosphatase activity was observed at 48 h of incubation (76.808 U/ml, temperature of 45 °C (77.87 U/ml, an agitation rate of 100 rpm (80.40 U/ml, pH 5.0 (80.66 U/ml and with glucose as a original carbon source (80.6 U/ml and ammonium sulphate as a original nitrogen source (80.92 U/ml. Characterization of the partially purified acid phosphatase showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 (85.6 U/ml, temperature of 45 °C (97.87 U/ml and substrate concentration of 2.5 mg/ml (92.7 U/ml. Hence the present phosphate solubilizing and acid phosphatase production activity of the bacterium may have probable use for future industrial, agricultural and biotechnological application.

  11. Characterization and Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolate GPC3.7 from Limestone Mining Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriyanti, D.; Mubarik, N. R.; Tjahjoleksono, A.

    2017-03-01

    Phosphate (P) are one of major macronutrients needed by plants. P in the soil are present in the organic and inorganic form. The amounts of P in marginal soil can be increased with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The aim of this study was to characterize and identify P solubilizing bacteria (PSB) isolate GPC3.7 that characteristically could fix N from the soil around limestone mining area. There were 44 PSB isolates found from 15 soil samples around limestone mining area, Blindis mountain, Cirebon. The solubility index of all strain were measured about 0.125 to 2.375 on Pikovskaya media. There were 22 PSB isolates were grown on N-free bromothymol blue (NfB) medium and 19 isolates were grown on Congo Red Agar (CRA) medium. Only 10 isolates were indicated as symbiotic living microorganisms whereas 12 others were categorized as N-free fixing bacteria. Isolate GPC3.7 was chosen to be further observed, based on its P solubility index, N-fixing ability and growth stability. Phosphate quantitative estimation assay of isolate GPC3.7 was unmeasured. The P soluble concentration of GPC3.7 might be lower than 1 mg/L. The colony of GPC3.7 morphologically had round shape, entire margin, raised elevation and white color. Isolate GPC3.7 was Gram negative bacteria with coccus cell shape. Based on 16S rRNA gene, GPC3.7 was closely relative to Acinetobacter baumannii.

  12. Value added phytoremediation of metal stressed soils using phosphate solubilizing microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the soil is a matter of growing concern due to their toxic and non-biodegradable nature. Lack of effectiveness of various conventional methods due to economic and technical constraints resulted in the search for an eco-friendly and cost-effective biological techniques for heavy metal removal from the environment. Until now, phytoremediation has emerged as an innovative technique to address the problem. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation process is hindered under the high metal concentration conditions. Hence, phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) assisted phytoremediation technique is gaining more insight as it can reduce the contamination load even under elevated metal stressed conditions. These microbes convert heavy metals into soluble and bioavailable forms, which consequently facilitate phytoremediation. Several studies have reported that the use of microbial consortium for remediation is considered more effective as compared to single strain pure culture. Therefore, this review paper focuses on the current trends in research related to PSM mediated uptake of heavy metal by plants. The efficiency of PSM consortia in enhancing the phytoremediation process has also been reviewed. Moreover, the role of phosphatase enzymes in the mineralization of organic forms of phosphate in soil is further discussed. Biosurfactant mediated bioremediation of metal polluted soils is a matter of extensive research nowadays. Hence, the recent advancement of using biosurfactants in enhanced phytoremediation of metal stressed soils is also described.

  13. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  14. Rock phosphate solubilization and colonization of maize rhizosphere by wild and genetically modified strains of Penicillium rugulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, I; Bernier, L; Antoun, H

    2002-07-01

    Maize root colonization and phosphate solubilizing activity of the fungus Penicillium rugulosum were assessed in a greenhouse trial using soil-plant microcosms. The bacterial gene hph conferring resistance to hygromicin B was introduced by electroporation in the wild-type strain IR-94MF1 of P. rugulosum and one transformant, w-T3, was selected. Maize plants were grown for 5 weeks in a P-poor soil and fertilized with a Florida apatite mineral, with Navay, an apatite rock deposit from Venezuela, or with simple superphosphate. Inoculation treatments included strain IR-94MF1, transformant w-T3 and two IR-94MF1 UV-induced mutants with enhanced (Mps++) or reduced (Mps-) in vitro mineral phosphate solubilizing activity. In the absence of P fertilization, inoculation with any P. rugulosum isolate significantly reduced the size of the total and P-solubilizing bacterial community present in maize rhizosphere. The bacterial community significantly increased in maize inoculated with IR-94MF1 and w-T3 when P was added as apatites Navay or Florida. All P. rugulosum strains were able to stimulate the growth of maize plants as indicated by 3.6 to 28.6% increases in dry matter yields. In the presence of rock phosphate, P uptake by maize plants inoculated with the two mutants Mps++ and Mps- was not always in agreement with their P-solubilizing phenotypes. Strain IR-94MF1 and transformant w-T3 increased P assimilation by the plants fertilized with Navay rock phosphate by 26 and 38%, respectively. In this treatment, w-T3 showed its highest significant maize rhizosphere colonization. With the simple superphosphate treatment, w-T3 increased P uptake in plants by 8% over the uninoculated control and also decreased significantly the community size of total bacteria, total fungi, and P-solubilizing fungi in the rhizosphere.

  15. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate.

  16. In vitro DISSOLUTION OF ACIDULATED ROCK PHOSPHATE BY PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Patricia Moreno Quevedo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The low availability of phosphorus (P in the soil and the high cost of P fertilization are factors that limit agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative for to handle this problem is to use soil microorganisms capable of dissolving rock phosphate (RP, thus improving its effectiveness as a P fertilizer. This study was carried out with the objective of determining the effectiveness of Aspergillus niger –As-, Penicillium sp. –Pn-, Bacillus sp –B-. and an unidentified actinomycete –At- in the in vitro dissolution of two partially acidulated rock phosphates. The treatments consisted of 2x16 factorial arrangement [2 levels of RP: either Boyaca RP or Norte de Santander RP; 16 levels of inoculum: an uninoculated control, individual inoculations (with As, Pn, B, At, dual inoculations (AsPn, AsB, AsAt, PnB, PnAt, BAt, triple inoculations (AsPnB, AsPnAt, AsBAt, PnBAt, and quadruple inoculation (AsPnBAt]. Each treatment was replicated three times. Each treatment was replicated three times. It was found that the microbial effectiveness in the in vitro dissolution of RP depended on the type of RP, the composition of the inoculum used and the interaction of both factors. The best results were obtained with the Norte de Santander RP and A. niger used alone. When this fungus combined with the other microorganisms, its capacity to dissolve RP was significantly reduced.RESUMENLa baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P en el suelo y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo capaces de disolver rocas fosfóricas (RP y así mejorar su efectividad como fertilizante fosfórico. Con este fin se realizó un ensayo para determinar la efectividad microbial en la disolución in vitro de dos RP (Norte de Santander y Boyacá parcialmente aciduladas. Los tratamientos consistieron en un arreglo factorial 2x16

  17. Effects of phosphate solubilization and phytohormone production of Trichoderma asperellum Q1 on promoting cucumber growth under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; ZHANG Ya-qing

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop growth and yield. This study investigated the underlying mecha-nisms of Trichoderma asperel um Q1 in promoting cucumber growth under salt stress, including the abilities of the strain to solubilize phosphate and to produce phytohormone. The results showed that T. asperel um Q1 could solubilize inorganic or organic phosphate and the activities of phosphatases and phytase could be detected in the culture supernatant. In hydroponic experiments, the growth of cucumber seedlings was increased in the hydroponic system treated by culture ifltrate of strain Q1 with tricalcium phosphate or calcium phytate under salt stress. This strain also exhibited the ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberel ic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in liquid medium without any inducers. The levels of those three phytohormones in cucumber seedling leaves also increased after inoculated with this strain, along with increased root growth and root activities of the plant. These results demonstrated the mechanisms of T. asperel um Q1 in al eviating the suppression effect of salt stress involving the change of phytohormone levels in cucumber plant and its ability of phosphate solubilization.

  18. 茶树根际土壤解磷细菌的筛选及解磷活性分析%Screening and Analysis of Phosphate-solubilizing Activity of Phosphate-solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere Soil of Tea Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳华; 李俊州; 臧睿; 才艺

    2014-01-01

    为了获得具有高效解磷活性和应用潜力的根际促生菌,从河南省信阳黄棕壤茶区采集茶树根际土壤样品,采用选择性培养基,以稀释培养法筛选具有解磷能力的细菌。结果表明,共筛选获得具有较强解磷能力的根际细菌36株,其中,解无机磷细菌23株,解有机磷细菌13株;解磷细菌主要分布于芽孢杆菌属、类芽孢杆菌属、伯克氏菌属、肠杆菌属、不动杆菌属和假单胞菌属,其中,芽孢杆菌和类芽孢杆菌为优势种群。解磷特性和活性测定结果表明,蜡样芽孢杆菌、类芽孢杆菌和伯克氏菌兼具解无机磷和有机磷的作用,而假单胞菌仅具有解有机磷的作用;23株解无机磷细菌中,18株的解磷活性大于100μg/mL,13株解有机磷细菌的解磷活性均大于40μg/mL。%In order to screen the strains with potential applications in microbial fertilizer,phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were screened from rhizosphere soil of tea plants grown in brown-yellow soil of Xinyang area in Henan province,using dilution-culture method on selective media.The results showed that a total of 36 phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains(PSBs)were obtained.Among the 36 PSBs,23 strains could solubilize inorganic phosphate,and 1 3 strains could solubilize organic phosphate.The 3 6 PSBs mainly distributed in Bacillus,Paenibacillus,Burkholdeia,Enterobacter,Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas,in which,Bacillus spp.and Paenibacillus spp.were the dominant population in rhizosphere soil of tea plants.Phosphate-solubilizing ability of 3 6 PSBs were assayed,and the results indicated that strains of Bacillus cereus,Paenibacillus spp.and Burkholdeia spp.could solubilize both inorganic phosphate and organic phosphate,but strains of Pseudomonas spp.could only solubilize organic phosphate.Among 2 3 inorganic PSBs,the inorganic phosphate-solubilizng activities of 1 8 strains were more than 100μg/mL,and the organic phosphate

  19. Phosphate Solubilizing Ability and Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacteria from P-Rich Soils Around Dianchi Lake Drainage Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Pei-Xiang; YANG Fa-Xiang; MA Li; CHEN Ming-Hui; XI Jia-Qin; HE Feng; DUAN Chang-Qun; MO Ming-He; FANG Dun-Huang; DUAN Yan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) distributed in P-rich soils in the Dianchi Lake drainage area of China was characterized,and the tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilizing activities of isolated PSB were determined.Among 1328 bacteria isolated from 100 P-rich soil samples,377 isolates (28.39% of the total) that exhibited TCP solubilization activity were taken as PSB.These PSB showed different abilities to solubilize TCP,with the concentrations of solubilized P in bacterial cultures varying from 33.48 to 69.63 mg L -1.A total of 123 PSB isolates,with relatively high TCP solubilization activity (> 54.00mg L-1),were submitted for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis,which revealed 32 unique RFLP patterns.Based on these patterns,62 representative isolates,one to three from each RFLP pattern,were selected for 16S rRNA sequencing Phylogenetic analysis placed the 123 PSB into three bacterial phyla,namely proteobacteria,Actinobacteria and Firrnicutes.Members of proteobacteria were the dominant PSB,where 107 isolates represented by 26 RFLP patterns were associated with the genera of Burkholdema,Pseudomonas,Acinetobacter,Enterobacter,Pantoea,Serratia,Klebsiella,Leclercia,Raoultella and Cedecea.Firmicutes were the subdominant group,in which 13 isolates were affiliated with the genera of Bacillus and Brevibacterium.The remaining 3 isolates were identified as three species of the genus Arthrobacter.This research extends the knowledge on PSB in P-rich soils and broadens the spectrum of PSB for the development of environmentally friendly biophosphate fertilizers.

  20. Mutual stimulation by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and myelin basic protein of their phosphorylation by the kinases solubilized from rat brain myelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, D.S.; Kuizon, S.; Brockerhoff, H.

    1984-01-16

    Myelin basic protein and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate are phosphorylated in vitro by ATP and solubilized rat brain myelin. When both substrates are present together, the rate of phosphorylation of each is increased about eight-fold. It appears likely that the phosphate turnover of myelin basic protein and of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate are coupled in vivo.

  1. Analysis of the Peltigera membranacea metagenome indicates that lichen-associated bacteria are involved in phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Margrét Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2015-05-01

    Although lichens are generally described as mutualistic symbioses of fungi and photosynthetic partners, they also harbour a diverse non-phototrophic microbiota, which is now regarded as a significant part of the symbiosis. However, the role of the non-phototrophic microbiota within the lichen is still poorly known, although possible functions have been suggested, including phosphate solubilization and various lytic activities. In the present study we focus on the bacterial biota associated with the foliose lichen Peltigera membranacea. To address our hypotheses on possible roles of the non-phototrophic microbiota, we used a metagenomic approach. A DNA library of bacterial sequence contigs was constructed from the lichen thallus material and the bacterial microbiota DNA sequence was analysed in terms of phylogenetic diversity and functional gene composition. Analysis of about 30,000 such bacterial contigs from the P. membranacea metagenome revealed significant representation of several genes involved in phosphate solubilization and biopolymer degradation.

  2. In situ stable isotope probing of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the hyphosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Ning; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Feng, Gu

    2016-03-01

    This study used a [(13)C]DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technique to elucidate a direct pathway for the translocation of (13)C-labeled photoassimilate from maize plants to extraradical mycelium-associated phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) that mediate the mineralization and turnover of soil organic phosphorus (P) in the hyphosphere. Inoculation with PSB alone did not provide any benefit to maize plants but utilized the added phytate-P to their own advantage, while inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis alone significantly promoted shoot biomass and P content compared with the control. However, compared with both sole inoculation treatments, combined inoculation with PSB and R. irregularis in the hyphosphere enhanced organic P mineralization and increased microbial biomass P in the soil. There was no extra benefit to plant P uptake but the hyphal growth of R. irregularis was reduced, suggesting that PSB benefited from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelium and competed for soil P with the fungus. The combination of T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis with a clone library revealed that one of the bacteria that actively assimilated carbon derived from pulse-labeled maize plants was Pseudomonas alcaligenes (Pseudomonadaceae) that was initially inoculated into the hyphosphere soil. These results provide the first in situ demonstration of the pathway underlying the carbon flux from plants to the AM mycelium-associated PSB, and the PSB assimilated the photosynthates exuded by the fungus and promoted mineralization and turnover of organic P in the soil.

  3. Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Frank C

    2010-06-01

    Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p<.05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Paraburkholderia tropica Strain P-31 Isolated from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Chandandeep; Selvakumar, Govindan; Ganeshamurthy, Arakalgud Nanjundiah

    2016-08-18

    We report the 8.9 Mb draft genome sequence of phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Paraburkholderia tropica strain P-31, isolated from pomegranate (Punica granatum) rhizosphere. The draft genome sequence of Paraburkholderia tropica strain P-31 consists of 8,881,246 bp with a G+C content of 64.7%, 8,039 protein-coding genes, and 49 RNAs.

  5. Changes of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Population on Paddy Field with Intensive Farming became Sustainable Organic Farming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermiyati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the change of population of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms according to the application time of bokashi which were applied continously on organic paddy rice fields since years of 2000 up to 2006. The research was conducted in a Randomized Completely Block Design in four replicates. The treatments were without bokashi (control; with intensively application of NPK fertilizers, bokashi application for 3 planting seasons (12 t ha-1, bokashi application for 4 planting seasons (16 t ha-1, bokashi application for 7 planting seasons (28 t ha-1, and bokashi application for 9 planting seasons (36 t ha-1. The results showed that the population of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms were not affected by continously applied of bokashi and did not have correlations to organic carbon, total nitrogen, ratio C/N, soil pH, and soil water content. However, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms had played a role in the availability of the soil available-P which were shown by increasing of paddy yields year by year, although the contribution of soil phosphorus from bokashi is a relatively low. Yet, the bokashi application on the organic paddy fields did not increase the soil availble-P because most of the P which was absorbed by the plants coming from residual P fertilizers either from bokashi or SP-36 which were intensevely given before.

  6. Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarah, I; Deka, M; Saikia, N; Deka Boruah, H P

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the management of nutrient use efficiency by the application of PSB was targeted in order to make the applied nutrients more available to the plants in the rice (Oryza sativa) and yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation. Results have shown that the treatments with PSB alone or in the form of consortia of compatible strains with or without the external application of chemical NPK gave more germination index (G. I.) from 2.5 to 5 in rice and 2.7 to 4.8 in bean seeds. They also showed a higher growth in both shoot and root length and a higher biomass as compared to the control. This gives us an idea about the potentiality of these PSB strains and their application in rice and yardlong bean cultivation to get a better harvest index. Their use will also possibly reduce the nutrient runoff or leaching and increase in the use efficiency of the applied fertilizers. Thus, we can conclude that the NPK uptake and management can be improved by the use of PSB in rice and yardlong bean cultivation, and their application may be much more beneficial in the agricultural field.

  7. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes.

  8. Phosphate-Solubilizing and -Mineralizing Abilities of Bacteria Isolated from Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Guang-Can; TIAN Shu-Jun; CAI Miao-Ying; XIE Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of solubilizing and mineralizing phosphorus (P) pools in soils are considered vital in promoting P bioavailability. The study was conducted to screen and isolate inorganic P-solubilizing bacteria (IPSB) and organic P-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) in soils taken from subtropical flooded and temperate non-flooded soils, and to compare inorganic P-solubilizing and organic P-solubilizing abilities between IPSB and OPMB. Ten OPMB strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, and five IPSB strains as B. megaterium, Burkholderia caryophylli,Pseudomonas ciehorii, and Pseudomonas syringae. P-solubilizing and -mineralizing abilities of the strains were measured using the methods taking cellular P into account. The IPSB strains exhibited inorganic P-sohibilizing abilities ranging between 25.4-41.7 μg P mL-1 and organic P-mineralizing abilities between 8.2-17.8 μg P mL-1. Each of the OPMB strains also exhibited both solubilizing and mineralizing abilities varying from 4.4 to 26.5 μg P mL-1 and from 13.8 to 62.8 μg P mL-1, respectively. For both IPSB and OPMB strains, most of the P mineralized from the organic P source was incorporated into the bacterial cells as cellular P. A significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) was found between culture pH and P solubilized from inorganic P by OPMB strains. The results suggested that P solubilization and mineralization could coexist in the same bacterial strain.

  9. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper bacteria" promoting establishment of both the indigenous and the introduced AM endophytes despite a gradual decrease in bacterial population size, which dropped from 10(sup7) at planting to 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) of dry rhizosphere soil at harvest. Dual inoculation with G. intraradices and B. subtilis significantly increased biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Regardless of the rhizobacterium strain and of the addition of RP, AM plants displayed lower specific activity ((sup32)P/(sup31)P) than their comparable controls, suggesting that the plants used P sources not available in their absence. The inoculated rhizobacteria may have released phosphate ions ((sup31)P), either from the added RP or from the less-available indigenous P sources, which were effectively taken up by the external AM mycelium. Soluble Ca deficiency in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. At least 75% of the P in dually inoculated plants derived from the added RP. It appears that these mycorrhizosphere interactions between bacterial and fungal plant associates contributed to the biogeochemical P cycling, thus promoting a sustainable nutrient supply to plants. PMID:16535730

  10. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, M; Azcon, R; Barea, J

    1997-11-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper bacteria" promoting establishment of both the indigenous and the introduced AM endophytes despite a gradual decrease in bacterial population size, which dropped from 10(sup7) at planting to 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) of dry rhizosphere soil at harvest. Dual inoculation with G. intraradices and B. subtilis significantly increased biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Regardless of the rhizobacterium strain and of the addition of RP, AM plants displayed lower specific activity ((sup32)P/(sup31)P) than their comparable controls, suggesting that the plants used P sources not available in their absence. The inoculated rhizobacteria may have released phosphate ions ((sup31)P), either from the added RP or from the less-available indigenous P sources, which were effectively taken up by the external AM mycelium. Soluble Ca deficiency in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. At least 75% of the P in dually inoculated plants derived from the added RP. It appears that these mycorrhizosphere interactions between bacterial and fungal plant associates contributed to the biogeochemical P cycling, thus promoting a sustainable nutrient supply to plants.

  11. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions.

  12. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experimental Forest, Bogor. Furthermore, we also tried to find out the fungal potential ability to solubilize phosphate and suppres fungal pathogen by in vitro assay. Surface sterilization method was used to isolated fungal endophytes from root tissues. Trichoderma spirale, Velsalceae sp., Melanconiela ellisii, Chaetosphaeria callimorpha, and Trichoderma asperellum were isolated during this study. These fungi appear to have specific association between fungal species and host plant, but no evidence of fungal order-level specificiation in S. leprosula and S. selanica. In vitro test also suggested that root fungal endophyte Trichoderma spirale and Melanconiella elisii have potential ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. In addition, this result also present that root fungal endophyte T. spirale and T. asperellum have the potential to inhibit pathogen fungi Fusarium sp.

  13. Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterium, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Component of Maize (Zea mays L. under Normal and Limited Irrigation Conditions in the Karaj Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghorchiani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of balanced application of chemical phosphorus fertilizer and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacterium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L. under normal and limited irrigation conditions, a split-split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted. Treatments consisted of two levels of irrigation including: irrigation of 60 (normal irrigation and 120 (limited irrigation mm evaporation from class A pan evaporation; combination of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus and phosphate solubilizing bacterium at four levels; and phosphate chemical fertilizer at three levels includes: no consumption of phosphate chemical fertilizer (control, consumption of 50% triple superphosphate fertilizer needed based on soil-test results and consumption of rock phosphate (based on the quantity of consumed phosphate of triple superphosphate source. The results showed that the irrigation levels had significant affect on all traits except harvest index, and the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms had significantly affected all traits except harvest index and number of row in ear. The results of mean comparison indicated that the maximum of amount most traits related to normal irrigation treatment, and co-application of phosphate solubilizing bacterium-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The effect of phosphate chemical fertilizer on all traits was significant. Results of interactions between irrigation and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in both normal irrigation and limited irrigation conditions showed that the co-application of phosphate solubilizing bacterium-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increased grain yield more than other treatments; Also, the result of balanced application of phosphate chemical fertilizer with phosphate solubilizing microorganisms showed that effect of

  14. Occurrence of symbiotic fungi and rhizospheric phosphate solubilization in weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecido dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the ecology of the organisms involved in the production process are necessary for the development of sustainable agriculture, and sustainability is currently closely linked to the profitability of production. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in weeds infesting Brazilian crops and to evaluate the inorganic phosphate solubilization potential of the associated microbiota. A total of 36 weed species were evaluated for the occurrence of mycorrhizae; of these, 11 were selected to evaluate their potential for total and relative phosphate solubilization. All of the species demonstrated mycorrhizal colonization, including a member of the Brassicaceae family, which is usually assumed to be non-mycorrhizal. In most of the species, morphological types of arbuscular and coiled hyphae were observed, with the coiled hyphae being the most common in the grasses. Dark septate endophytic fungi were observed in most of the plants. The weeds presented different potentials for P solubilization in the rhizosphere; Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa and Leonotis nepetaefolia showed high values of relative phosphate solubilization. This is the first report on the mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilization activity in weeds in Brazil.

  15. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

  16. Conversion of spent mushroom substrate to biofertilizer using a stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing Pichia farinose FL7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Sun, Li-Fan; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2012-05-01

    To develop high-efficient biofertilizer, an environmental stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microorganism (PSM) was isolated from agricultural wastes compost, and then applied to spent mushroom substrate (SMS). The isolate FL7 was identified as Pichia farinose with resistance against multiple environmental stresses, including 5-45°C temperature, 3-10 pH range, 0-23% (w/v) NaCl and 0-6M ammonium ion. Under the optimized cultivation condition, 852.8 mg/l total organic acids can be produced and pH can be reduced to 3.8 after 60 h, meanwhile, the soluble phosphate content reached 816.16 mg/l. The P. farinose was used to convert SMS to a phosphate biofertilizer through a semi-solid fermentation (SSF) process. After fermentation of 10 days, cell density can be increased to 5.6 × 10(8)CFU/g in biomass and pH in this medium can be decreased to 4.0. SMS biofertilizer produced by P. farinose significantly improved the growth of soybean in pot experiments, demonstrating a tremendous potential in agricultural application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreased the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria in an alkaline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Hao, Xiu-Li; Ding, Kai; Zhou, Guo-Wei; Chen, Qing-Lin; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria (iPSB) are essential to facilitate phosphorus (P) mobilization in alkaline soil, however, the phylogenetic structure of iPSB communities remains poorly characterized. Thus, we use a reference iPSB database to analyze the distribution of iPSB communities based on 16S rRNA gene illumina sequencing. Additionally, a noval pqqC primer was developed to quantify iPSB abundance. In our study, an alkaline soil with 27-year fertilization treatment was selected. The percentage of iPSB was 1.10~2.87% per sample, and the dominant iPSB genera were closely related to Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces. Long-term P fertilization had no significant effect on the abundance of iPSB communities. Rather than P and potassium (K) additions, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the iPSB abundance, which was validated by reduced relative abundance of pqqC gene (pqqC/16S). The decreased iPSB abundance was strongly related to pH decline and total N increase, revealing that the long-term N additions may cause pH decline and subsequent P releases relatively decreasing the demands of the iPSB community. The methodology and understanding obtained here provides insights into the ecology of inorganic P solubilizers and how to manipulate for better P use efficiency. PMID:28181569

  18. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreased the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria in an alkaline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Hao, Xiu-Li; Ding, Kai; Zhou, Guo-Wei; Chen, Qing-Lin; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-02-01

    Inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria (iPSB) are essential to facilitate phosphorus (P) mobilization in alkaline soil, however, the phylogenetic structure of iPSB communities remains poorly characterized. Thus, we use a reference iPSB database to analyze the distribution of iPSB communities based on 16S rRNA gene illumina sequencing. Additionally, a noval pqqC primer was developed to quantify iPSB abundance. In our study, an alkaline soil with 27-year fertilization treatment was selected. The percentage of iPSB was 1.10~2.87% per sample, and the dominant iPSB genera were closely related to Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces. Long-term P fertilization had no significant effect on the abundance of iPSB communities. Rather than P and potassium (K) additions, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the iPSB abundance, which was validated by reduced relative abundance of pqqC gene (pqqC/16S). The decreased iPSB abundance was strongly related to pH decline and total N increase, revealing that the long-term N additions may cause pH decline and subsequent P releases relatively decreasing the demands of the iPSB community. The methodology and understanding obtained here provides insights into the ecology of inorganic P solubilizers and how to manipulate for better P use efficiency.

  19. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreased the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria in an alkaline soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Hao, Xiuli; Ding, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria (iPSB) are essential to facilitate phosphorus (P) mobilization in alkaline soil, however, the phylogenetic structure of iPSB communities remains poorly characterized. Thus, we use a reference iPSB database to analyze the distribution of iPSB communities...... based on 16S rRNA gene illumina sequencing. Additionally, a noval pqqC primer was developed to quantify iPSB abundance. In our study, an alkaline soil with 27-year fertilization treatment was selected. The percentage of iPSB was 1.10~2.87% per sample, and the dominant iPSB genera were closely related...... to Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces. Long-term P fertilization had no significant effect on the abundance of iPSB communities. Rather than P and potassium (K) additions, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the iPSB abundance, which was validated by reduced relative abundance...

  20. Isolation and Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing and Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria from Soil in Wamena Biological Garden, Jayawijaya, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB from soil samples of Wamena Biological Garden (WbiG. Eleven soil samples were collected randomly to estimate microbial population which used plate count method. The result showed that the microbial population ranged from 5.0x103-7.5x106 cells of bacteria/gram of soil and 5.0x103-1.5x107 cells of bacteria/gram of soil for PSB and NFB respectively. There were 17 isolates which have been identified till genus and species. The isolated microorganism were identified as PSB i.e. Bacillus sp., B. pantothenticus, B. megatherium, Flavobacterium sp., F. breve, Klebsiella sp., K. aerogenes, Chromobacterium lividum, Enterobacter alvei, E. agglomerans, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp. and as NFB i.e. Azotobacter sp., A. chroococcum, A. paspalii, Rhizobium sp., and Azospirillum sp.

  1. Organic acid production and plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization by Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 isolated from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Arvind; Sharma, Natasha; Vyas, Pratibha; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Pathania, Vijaylata; Prasad, Ramdeen

    2010-11-01

    An efficient phosphate-solubilizing plant growth-promoting Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 exhibited significantly higher solubilization of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) than Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP). Qualitative and quantitative differences were discerned in the gluconic, oxalic, 2-keto gluconic, lactic, malic and formic acids during the solubilization of various inorganic phosphates by the strain. Gluconic acid was the main organic acid produced during phosphate solubilization. Formic acid production was restricted to TCP solubilization and oxalic acid production to the solubilization of MRP, URP and NCRP. A significant increase in plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, root dry weight, and root, shoot and soil phosphorus (P) contents was recorded with the inoculated treatments over the uninoculated NP(0)K or NP(TCP)K treatments. Plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization suggested that the use of bacterial strain would be a beneficial addition to the agriculture practices in TCP-rich soils in reducing the application of phosphatic fertilizers.

  2. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, S M R; Aghaalikhani, M; Khavazi, K; Chaichi, M R

    2007-10-15

    The effect of seed inoculation by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L. SC. 704) was studied in a field experiment. Positive effect on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculum of Glomus intraradices (AM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf). Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and P, soil available P, root colonization percentage and crop WUE under water deficit stress. In some of investigated characteristics under well-watered conditions, chemical fertilizer treatment was higher than double inoculated treatments, but this difference was not significant. Seed inoculation only with AM positively affected the measured parameters as amount as co-inoculated treatments. According to the results showed in contrast to the inoculated treatments with AM+Pf and AM, the application of alone Pf caused a comparatively poor response. Therefore, this microorganism needs to a complement for its activity in soil. All of measured parameters in inoculated treatments were higher than uninoculated treatments under water deficit stress conditions. Furthermore, the investigated characteristics of co-inoculated plants under severe water deficit stress conditions were significantly lower than co-inoculated plants under well-watered and moderate-stressed conditions. Therefore it could be stated, these microorganisms need more time to fix and establishing themselves in soil. The present finding showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms can interact positively in promoting plant growth as well as P uptake of maize plants, leading to plant tolerance improving under water deficit stress conditions.

  3. Bacteria with Phosphate Solubilizing Capacity Alter Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Both Inside and Outside the Root and in the Presence of Native Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Yuli Marcela; Fernandez, Belen Rocio; Lara, Lidia Susana; Rodriguez, Alia; Uribe-Vélez, Daniel; Sanders, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas bacteria (PSB) could potentially interact synergistically because PSB solubilize phosphate into a form that AMF can absorb and transport to the plant. However, very little is known about the interactions between these two groups of microorganisms and how they influence the growth of each other. We tested whether different strains of bacteria, that have the capacity to solubilize phosphate, are able to grow along AMF hyphae and differentially influence the growth of AMF both outside the roots of carrot in in vitro conditions and inside the roots of potato in the presence of a microbial community. We found strong effects of AMF on the growth of the different bacterial strains. Different bacterial strains also had very strong effects on the growth of AMF extraradical hyphae outside the roots of carrot and on colonization of potato roots by AMF. The differential effects on colonization occurred in the presence of a microbial community. Our results show that these two important groups of rhizosphere microorganisms indeed interact with each other. Such interactions could potentially lead to synergistic effects between the two groups but this could depend on whether the bacteria truly solubilize phosphate in the rhizosphere in the presence of microbial communities.

  4. Bacteria with Phosphate Solubilizing Capacity Alter Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Both Inside and Outside the Root and in the Presence of Native Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Marcela Ordoñez

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas bacteria (PSB could potentially interact synergistically because PSB solubilize phosphate into a form that AMF can absorb and transport to the plant. However, very little is known about the interactions between these two groups of microorganisms and how they influence the growth of each other. We tested whether different strains of bacteria, that have the capacity to solubilize phosphate, are able to grow along AMF hyphae and differentially influence the growth of AMF both outside the roots of carrot in in vitro conditions and inside the roots of potato in the presence of a microbial community. We found strong effects of AMF on the growth of the different bacterial strains. Different bacterial strains also had very strong effects on the growth of AMF extraradical hyphae outside the roots of carrot and on colonization of potato roots by AMF. The differential effects on colonization occurred in the presence of a microbial community. Our results show that these two important groups of rhizosphere microorganisms indeed interact with each other. Such interactions could potentially lead to synergistic effects between the two groups but this could depend on whether the bacteria truly solubilize phosphate in the rhizosphere in the presence of microbial communities.

  5. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and alkaline phosphatase activity in coastal waters off Trivandrum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Gobika, A.; Janani, P.

    Phosphorus is a key nutrient in marine environment. Phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilise ionic forms of orthophosphoric acid to free form of phosphrous in the water column. Both PSB and alkaline phosphatase activity...

  6. Candida sp. yeast solubilizing phosphate isolated from soil in Wamena Biological Garden, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATIT KANTI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates of yeast were isolated from soil of Wamena Biological Garden. Out of 20 isolates tested, 3 isolates were able to increase solubility of Ca3(PO42, as indicated by formation of clearing zone surrounding growing colonies. Nutrient of media, which was mainly contained of glucose (20%, were metabolically converted into of either biomass or and metabolic product that may have cause a change of pH profile, and biomass during cell cultivation. Conversely, pH of media decreased during cell cultivation, and that may have cause acceleration of Ca3(PO42 dissolution, which have resulted in an increased of ortho-fosfat in the bulk solution during cell growth. The three isolates having ability of accelerating Ca3(PO42 dissolution belonging to genera of Candida. The three isolates have ability to solubilize about 5-6 mg/L-P, with phosphomonoesterase activity of about 0.10-0.65 unit. Ecological incentive of Fosfat solubilizing yeasts in soil ecosystem are enormous, among other is provision of available P for plant growth and for other soil microorganism.

  7. Ancestral mutations as a tool for solubilizing proteins: The case of a hydrophobic phosphate-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable and soluble proteins are ideal candidates for functional and structural studies. Unfortunately, some proteins or enzymes can be difficult to isolate, being sometimes poorly expressed in heterologous systems, insoluble and/or unstable. Numerous methods have been developed to address these issues, from the screening of various expression systems to the modification of the target protein itself. Here we use a hydrophobic, aggregation-prone, phosphate-binding protein (HPBP as a case study. We describe a simple and fast method that selectively uses ancestral mutations to generate a soluble, stable and functional variant of the target protein, here named sHPBP. This variant is highly expressed in Escherichia coli, is easily purified and its structure was solved at much higher resolution than its wild-type progenitor (1.3 versus 1.9 Å, respectively.

  8. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  9. Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria from an organic farm and their influence on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurdeep; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it avoids the use of synthetic chemicals. Plant production in organic farming mainly depends on nutrient release as a function of mineralization processes in soils. In the present study, efficient phosphate mineralizing bacteria were isolated and their efficacy tested in plant mineral uptake and soil fertility of an organic field. Amongst 12 P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) isolated from an organic field, two isolates were selected for field inoculation based on their rock phosphate (RP) solubilzing ability, exudation of organic acids, phosphatase and phytase activity and production of indole acetic acid and siderophores. On the basis of biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these isolates were identified as Pantoea cypripedii (PSB-3) and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida (PSB-5). These isolates significantly increased yield and total P uptake in maize. Soil analysis showed that available P, organic carbon and soil enzyme activities were significantly increased. Present study results suggested that inoculation of these bacteria has great application potential in improving the crop yield and soil fertility in organic farming.

  10. Establishment of phosphate-solubilizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in the rhizosphere and their effect on wheat cultivars under green house conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Behl, R K; Narula, N

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the green house to investigate the establishment of phosphate solubilizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum, including soil isolates and their mutants, in the rhizosphere and their effect on growth parameters and root biomass of three genetically divergent wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Five fertilizer treatments were performed: Control, 90 kg N ha(-1), 90 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha(-1), 120 kg N ha(-1) and 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha(-1). Phosphate solubilizing and phytohormone producing parent soil isolates and mutant strains of A. chroococcum were isolated and selected by an enrichment method. In vitro phosphate solubilization and growth hormone production by mutant strains was increased compared with soil isolates. Seed inoculation of wheat varieties with P solubilizing and phytohormone producing A. chroococcum showed better response compared with controls. Mutant strains of A. chroococcum showed higher increase in grain (12.6%) and straw (11.4%) yield over control and their survival (12-14%) in the rhizosphere as compared to their parent soil isolate (P4). Mutant strain M37 performed better in all three varieties in terms of increase in grain yield (14.0%) and root biomass (11.4%) over control.

  11. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation.

  12. The application of isotopic ({sup 32}P and {sup 15}N) dilution techniques to evaluate the interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium to improve the agronomic efficiency of rock phosphate for legume crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J.M. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain)]. E-mail: jmbarea@eez.csic.es; Toro, M.; Azcon, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain); Orozco, M.O. [Instituto de Sistematica y Ecologia, Academia Cubana de Ciencias, Habana (Cuba); Campos, E. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Quimica Ambiental Estacion Experimental del Zaidin (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Azcon, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain)

    2002-05-15

    A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the interactive effects of multifunctional microbial inoculation treatments and rock phosphate (RP) application on N and P uptake by alfalfa through the use of {sup 15}N and {sup 32}P isotopic dilution approaches. The microbial inocula consisted of a wild type (WT) Rhizobium meliloti strain, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and a phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium (Enterobacter sp.). Inoculated microorganisms were established in the root tissues and/or in the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.). Improvements in N and P accumulation in alfalfa corroborate beneficial effects of Rhizobium and AM interactions. Inoculation with selected rhizobacteria improved the AM effect on N or P accumulation in both the RP-added soil and in the non RP-amended controls. Measurements of the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio in plant shoots indicate an enhancement of the N{sub 2} fixation rates in Rhizobium-inoculated AM-plants, over that achieved by Rhizobium in non-mycorrhizal plants. Whether or not RP was added, AM-inoculated plants showed a lower specific activity ({sup 32}P/{sup 31}P) than did their comparable non-mycorrhizal controls, suggesting that the plant was using otherwise unavailable P sources. The phosphate-solubilizing, AM-associated, microbiota could in fact release phosphate ions, either from the added RP or from the indigenous 'less-available' soil phosphate. A low Ca concentrations in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. Under field conditions, the inoculation with AM fungi significantly increased plant biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria improved mycorrhizal responses in soil dually receiving RP and organic matter amendments. Organic matter addition favoured RP solubilization. This, together with a tailored microbial inoculation, increased the agronomic efficiency of RP in the

  13. Bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfato inorgánico aisladas de suelos de la región sojera Phosphate inorganic solubilizing bacteria isolated from soybean region soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Andrea Fernández

    2005-07-01

    ía de los aislamientos de la microflora. No se destacó la capacidad de solubilización de fosfato de la cepa comercial con respecto a lo observado en los aislamientos de este trabajo. Nuestros resultados permiten concluir que existen aislamientos de bacterias del suelo con diferente capacidad solubilizadora de fósforo inorgánico y que las cepas de Bradyrhizobium sp. muestran capacidades de solubilización comparables a las de otros géneros bacterianos.The present research focuses on the study of the ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate of different bacterial groups as well as of Bradyrhizobium sp. strains isolated from soybean soils. Soil samples were collected and the microflora as well as the total number of bacteria, fungi, and solubilizers was assessed. The phosphate solubilization ability of the predominant bacterial groups, of 250 Bradyrhizobium sp. strains, and of 10 collection strains was tested in Petri dishes containing NBRIP supplemented with 5 g L-1 of tricalcium phosphate. The size of solubilizing halos was measured and those colonies showing halos larger than 4 mm were isolated. Solubilized phosphate was quantitavely estimated in broth with and without buffer in these strains and it was compared with a commercial strain. The total bacteria mean values reached 5.1 106 (0.06% solubilizers while the total fungi reached 3.3 104 (9.70% solubilizers. No significant differences in the number of solubilizing bacteria were observed in the different soils. Fourteen solubilizing strains were obtained: 10 from microflora and 4 Bradyrhizobium sp. strains whose halos ranged from 4 to 15 mm. All collection strains except MSDJ G49 solubilized phosphate in the plate assay. The amounts of solubilized phosphate by the strains of microflora varied from 3% to 24.1% in a liquid medium without buffer while with buffer varied from 0.07% to 4.82%. In a liquid medium without buffer, the strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. solubilized in percentages ranging from 7.1% to 8

  14. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from isolate of thermophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Evy; Rakhmawati, Anna

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to select bacteria that has the ability to dissolve phosphate from thermophilic bacteria isolates after the Merapi eruption. Five isolates of selected bacteria was characterized and continued with identification. Selection was done by using a pikovskaya selective medium. Bacterial isolates were grown in selective medium and incubated for 48 hours at temperature of 55 ° C. Characterization was done by looking at the cell and colony morphology, physiological and biochemical properties. Identification was done with the Profile Matching method based on the reference genus Oscillospira traced through Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Dendogram was created based on similarity index SSM. The results showed there were 14 isolates of bacteria that were able to dissolve phosphate indicated by a clear zone surrounding the bacterial colony on selective media. Five isolates were selected with the largest clear zone. Isolates D79, D92, D110a, D135 and D75 have different characters. The result of phenotypic characters identification with Genus Oscillospira profile has a percentage of 100% similarity to isolate D92 and D110a; 92.31% for isolates D79, and 84.6% for isolates D75 and D135. Dendogram generated from average linkage algorithm / UPGMA using the Simple Matching Coefficient (SSM) algorithms showed, isolate thermophilic bacteria D75 and D135 are combined together to form cluster 1. D110a and D92 form a sub cluster A. Sub cluster A and D79 form cluster 2

  16. High quality draft genome sequence of the type strain of Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Park, Gun-Seok; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T) (=LMG 21974(T), CECT 5822(T)) is the type strain of the species and was isolated from the rhizosphere of grass growing in Spain in 2003 based on its phosphate-solubilizing capacity. In order to identify the functional significance of phosphate solubilization in Pseudomonas Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, we describe here the phenotypic characteristics of strain OK2(T) along with its high-quality draft genome sequence, its annotation, and analysis. The genome is comprised of 5,647,497 bp with 60.15 % G + C content. The sequence includes 4,846 protein-coding genes and 95 RNA genes.

  17. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03.

  18. Igneous phosphate rock solubilization by biofilm-forming mycorrhizobacteria and hyphobacteria associated with Rhizoglomus irregulare DAOM 197198.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taktek, Salma; St-Arnaud, Marc; Piché, Yves; Fortin, J André; Antoun, Hani

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces was studied with two hyphobacteria, strongly attached to the surface of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizoglomus irregulare (Ri) DAOM 197198 and two mycorrhizobacteria, loosely attached to the roots of different mycorrhizal plants. When the sparingly soluble igneous phosphate rock (PR) from Quebec, or when the chemical hydroxyapatite were used as sole phosphorus (P) source, hyphobacteria Rhizobium miluonense Rm3 and Burkholderia anthina Ba8 produced significantly more biofilms than mycorrhizobacteria Rahnella sp. Rs11 and Burkholderia phenazinium Bph12, as indicated by the crystal violet assay or by quantifying biofilm exopolysaccharides. As previously observed with planktonic bacteria, biofilms mobilized P by lowering the pH and releasing gluconic acid. The high efficiency of P mobilization by the hyphobacteria Ba8 was linked to the presence of more viable cells in its biofilm as revealed by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed a high adherence of the best P-solubilizer hyphobacteria Ba8 on the surface of Quebec PR. Hydroxyapatite porous structure did not allow a good adherence of Ba8. Ba8 formed an important biofilm on the hyphae of Ri DAOM 197198 with low reactive Quebec PR while no biofilm was observed with the high reactive hydroxyapatite. Results confirm the possible presence of specificity between the Ri DAOM 197198 and the hyphobacteria and suggest that the interaction would be regulated by the availability of P.

  19. Effect of Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Inoculants on Symbiotic Traits, Nodule Leghemoglobin, and Yield of Chickpea Genotypes

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    G. S. Tagore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2004-05 to find out the effect of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB inoculants on symbiotic traits, nodule leghemoglobin, and yield of five elite genotypes of chickpea. Among the chickpea genotypes, IG-593 performed better in respect of symbiotic parameters including nodule number, nodule fresh weight, nodule dry weight, shoot dry weight, yield attributes and yield. Leghemoglobin content (2.55 mg g−1 of fresh nodule was also higher under IG-593. Among microbial inoculants, the Rhizobium + PSB was found most effective in terms of nodule number (27.66 nodules plant−1, nodule fresh weight (144.90 mg plant−1, nodule dry weight (74.30 mg plant−1, shoot dry weight (11.76 g plant−1, and leghemoglobin content (2.29 mg g−1 of fresh nodule and also showed its positive effect in enhancing all the yield attributing parameters, grain and straw yields.

  20. Phosphorus and Compost Management Influence Maize (Zea mays) Productivity Under Semiarid Condition with and without Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah; Khan, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam). The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1) inoculated seed with PSB (+) and (2) seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control)] and three compost application times (30, 15, and 0 days before sowing) combination (six treatments) were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P ha(-1)) used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha(-1)) had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+) had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (-) under semiarid condition.

  1. Phosphorus and compost management influence maize (Zea mays productivity under semiarid condition with and without phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanullah eAmanullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam. The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1 inoculated seed with PSB (+ and (2 seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control] and three compost application times [(30, 15 and 0 days before sowing (DBS] combination (six treatments were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75 and 100 kg P ha-1 used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha-1 had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+ had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (- under semiarid condition.

  2. Characterization of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic strain of Pseudomonas putida (B0) isolated from a sub-alpine location in the Indian Central Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anita; Trivedi, Pankaj; Kumar, Bhavesh; Palni, Lok Man S

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic bacterial strain, designated as B0, isolated from a sub-alpine Himalayan forest site have been described. The isolate is gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8 x 1.6 microm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature that could grow from 0 to 35 degrees C (optimum temp. 25 degrees C). It exhibited tolerance to a wide pH range (3-12; optimum 8.0) and salt concentration up to 4% (w/v). Although it was sensitive to kanamycin, gentamicin, and streptomycin (1000 microg mL(-1)). The isolate showed maximum similarity with Pseudomonas putida based on 16S rRNA analysis. It solubilized tricalcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. The phosphate solubilization was estimated along a temperature range (4-28 degrees C), and maximum activity (247 microg mL(-1)) was recorded at 21 degrees C after 15 days of incubation. The phosphate solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium. The isolate also exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi in Petri dish assays and produced chitinase, ss-l,3-glucanase, salicylic acid, siderophore, and hydrogen cyanide. The plant growth promotion and antifungal properties were demonstrated through a maize-based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in plant biomass, it stimulated bacterial and suppressed fungal counts in the rhizosphere. The present study is important with respect to enumerating microbial diversity of the colder regions as well as understanding the potential biotechnological applications of native microbes.

  3. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

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    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  4. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

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    Zhong Chuan-qing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc.

  5. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuan-qing; Cao, Guang-xiang; Huang, Wei-yi; Luan, Xing-she; Yang, Yi-fei

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc.

  6. Effect of Cd⁺² on phosphate solubilizing abilities and hydrogen peroxide production of soil-borne micromycetes isolated from Phragmites australis-rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Silva, Jose Roberto; Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Kuschk, Peter; Loera, Octavio; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the phosphate-solubilization and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by the soil-borne micromycetes, Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium dipodomyicola, isolated from Phragmites australis rhizosphere and to study the effect of several concentrations of Cadmium (Cd(2+)) on both variables. Our results showed that P. italicum achieved a higher P-solubilization and H2O2 production than A. japonicus and P. dipodomyicola, as only P. italicum showed a positive correlation (R(2) = 0.71) between P-solubilization and H2O2 production. In dose-response assays, P. italicum was also more tolerant to Cd(2+) (0.31 mM) in comparison to A. japonicus (0.26 mM). Analysis of the 2(4) factorial experimental design showed that P-solubilization by P. italicum was negatively affected by increases in Cd(2+) (p = 0.04) and yeast extract (p = 0.02) in the culture medium. The production of H2O2 was positively affected only by glucose (p = 0.002). Fungal biomass production was reduced significantly (p = 0.0009) by Cd(2+) and increased (p = 0.0003) by high glucose concentration in the culture medium. The tolerance and correlation between P-solubilization and H2O2 production in the presence of Cd(2+) was strain and species dependent. The effects of Cd(2+), glucose, ammonium sulfate and yeast extract on those variables were evaluated through a two-level factorial design. P. italicum is promising for P-solubilization in soils contaminated with Cd(2+) and may be an alternative for manufacture of biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers.

  7. Synergism Among VA Mycorrhiza, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Rhizobium for Symbiosis with Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) UnderField Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the G.B. Pant University Research Station, Ujhani (U.P.) in rainy (Kharif) season of the year 1994-1995 to study the effect of Rhizobium, VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) and PSB (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) inoculation, with and without P, on blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) seed yield. Phosphorus application in soil with medium P content (5.4 mg kg1) increased nodulation, grain yield, N and P in plant and grain over no phosphorus control. Forty kilograms of P2O5 each hactare recorded an increase of 20.6 % in nodule dry weight, significant increases of 0.35 g kg-1 in N concentration and 1.28 g kg-1 in P concentration of plant over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Similar significant increases of 0.59 g kg-1 in grain yield and 0.54 and 0.23 g kg-1 in N and P concentrations of the grain, respectively, over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 were also obtained with higher dose. Inoculation of Rhizobium + VAM + PSB at all the stages of plant growth recorded maximum increases in all the parameters studied. Dual inoculation of Rhizobium with either VAM or PSB was generally significant in the effect and better than that of VAM + PSB, however, P accumulation in plant and grain was more with VAM + PSB. Among single inoculations, Rhizobium gave highest and 21.0 % more nodule number, 34.7 % more nodule dry mass, 0.73 g kg-1 more N in grain and 4.2 % higher grain yield over PSB. PSB, however, registered significant increases in P concentration in plant and grain over VAM and Rhizobium.

  8. Pb remobilization by bacterially mediated dissolution of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl in presence of phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, Justyna; Latowski, Dariusz; Kaschabek, Stefan; Manecki, Maciej; Merkel, Broder J; Rakovan, John

    2014-01-01

    Remediation of lead (Pb)-contaminated sites with phosphate amendments is one of the best studied and cost-effective methods for in situ immobilization. In this treatment, a very stable mineral, pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl, is formed. Several studies propose to improve this treatment method with the addition of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The effect of bacteria on solubilization of pyromorphite is unknown. In this study, the effect of the soil microorganisms on the stability of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl has been investigated in a set of batch solution experiments. The mineral was reacted with Pseudomonas putida, a common soil microorganism. Dissolution of pyromorphite was enhanced by the presence of P. putida, resulting in an elevated Pb concentration in the solution. This occurred even when the bacteria were provided with an additional source of phosphate in the solution. Pyromorphite has been shown to be a potential source of nutrient phosphorus for common soil bacteria. Thus, the use of PSB in remediation treatments of Pb contaminated sites may have adverse long-term impacts on Pb immobilization. Conscious phosphate management is suggested for long-term sustainability of the in situ Pb immobilization by pyromorphite formation.

  9. Development of an engineered soil bacterium enabling to convert both insoluble inorganic and organic phosphate into plant available phosphate and its use as a biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Du, Wenya; Luo, Wenyu; Su, Yi; Hui, Jiejie; Ma, Shengwu

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrient elements for plant growth and metabolism. We previously isolated a P-solubilizing bacterium 9320-SD with the ability to utilize inorganic P and convert it into plant-available P. The present study aims to enhance the P-solubilizing capacity of 9320-SD, as our long-term goal is to develop a more effective P-solubilizing bacterial strain for use as a biofertilizer. In this end, we introduced a bacterial phytase encoding gene into 9320-SD. One randomly selected transformant, SDLiuTP02, was examined for recombinant protein expression and phytase activity, and assessed for its ability to promote plant growth. Our results indicate that SDLiuTP02 is capable of expressing high levels of phytase activity. Importantly, corn seedlings treated with the SDLiuTP02 cell culture exhibited increased rates of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance as well as increased growth rate under laboratory conditions and increased growth rate in pot assays compared to seedlings treated with cell cultures of the parental strain 9320-SD. Field experiments further indicated that application of SDLiuTP02 promoted a greater growth rate in young cucumber plant and a higher foliar chlorophyll level in chop suey greens when compared to 9320-SD treated controls. These results indicate that SDLiuTP02 has the potential to be a more effective P biofertilizer to increase agricultural productivity.

  10. Screening of Phosphate-solubilizing Bacteria Adaptable to Corn and Effects of the Bacteria on the Growth of Corn%适应玉米的溶磷细菌筛选及其对玉米生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅新兰; 闪安琪; 蒋益; 韦中; 王誉瑶; 王世梅; 沈其荣; 徐阳春; 刘建

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria(PSB)are a group of beneficial bacteria capable of hydrolyzing organic and inorganic phosphorus from insoluble compounds. P-solubilization ability of the microorganisms is considered to be one of the most important traits associated with plant phosphate nutrition. A number of PSB strains have been screened out from soils in laboratory,however,few reports are available on their successful application in fields. More and more evidence suggests that root colonization of PSB is very important for phosphate solubilization;therefore,survivability of PSB in plant rhizosphere is one of the basic principles for PSB screening. In present study,20 strains of PSB with phosphate solubilization halos ranging from 7.9~20 mm were isolated from the rhizosphere of the corn growing in calcareous soil with the Pikovskaya medium plate method. Ten of the 20 strains of PSB,coded as X3,X5,X6,Z2,Z3,Z4,Z5,Z7,Z8 and Z9,with bigger phosphate solubilization halos were further tested for phosphate-solubilizing capacity in the NBRIP medium. Results show that gram-negative(G-)PSB(X3,X5,X6,Z2,Z3andZ5)solubilized much more phosphate than gram-positive(G+)ones(Z4,Z7,Z8 and Z9)did. The mean phosphate concentration in the NBRIP medium of the G- PSB treatments was 449.7 µg ml-1,with phosphate concentration in Treatment G- PSB Z3 being the highest,reaching to 562.2 µg ml-1. However,the highest phosphate concentration obtained by G+ PSB was only 46.9 µg ml-1. In further experiment,8 strains of PSB(G+:Z4, Z7,Z8 and Z9;and G-:X5,X6,Z3 and Z5)were evaluated for corn root exudate utilization capacity. All of the 8 strains of PSB were found to be able to utilize corn root exudate as sole carbon source and the G-PSB grew much better than G+ ones. Consistent with the findings in the culture in NBRIP medium,G- PSB solubilized much more phosphate than G+ PSB did when using corn root exudate as sole carbon source. Based on phosphate-solubilization and root exudate utilization

  11. Improving the aqueous solubility of triclosan by solubilization, complexation, and in situ salt formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Christine; Liebenberg, Wilna; du Preez, Jan L; Yang, Wenzhan; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2003-01-01

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial, although widely incorporated into many skin care products, toothpastes, and liquid soaps, presents formulation difficulties because it is practically insoluble in water. The objective of this study was to improve the aqueous solubility of triclosan through solubilization, complexation, and salt formation. The solubility of triclosan in distilled water and in phosphate buffers (pH 7.4) was determined at 30 degrees C. The order of solubilizing performance of the solubilizers was: N-methylglucamine> or =L-arginine>sodium lauryl sulfate>beta-cyclodextrin> or =hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin>ethanolamine>sodium benzoate>sodium methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate>triethanolamine> or =diethanolamine. These solubilizers increased the solubility of triclosan from 80- to 6000-fold. Micellar solubilization and the formation of either salts or complexes are postulated as possible mechanisms for the increase in the solubility of triclosan by the surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate, the cyclic sugar derivatives beta-cyclodextrin and 2-hydropropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, the amino acid L-arginine, and the amino sugar alcohol N-methylglucamine. Furthermore, although the bacteriostatic efficacy of triclosan was significantly increased when solubilized with N-methylglucamine, L-arginine, and ethanolamine, increased solubilization did not increase the effectiveness of triclosan for all solubilizers tested.

  12. Atividade de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos na presença de nitrogênio, ferro, cálcio e potássio Phosphate solubilizing activity of microorganisms in the presence of nitrogen, iron, calcium and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Nunes Silva Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade e o potencial de solubilização de 21 isolados de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos (Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Penicillium, Aspergillus e Paecilomyces foram avaliados em cultivos em meio de cultura Glicose-Extrato de Levedura contendo diferentes fosfatos (Ca, Al ou Fe, na presença de fontes de N (peptona, amônio e nitrato e teores de Fe, Ca e K. O crescimento e a atividade solubilizadora variaram em função do tipo de microrganismo e dos fatores nutricionais. Em relação às fontes de N, a presença de amônio favoreceu a solubilização em seis isolados; destes, três solubilizaram somente nesta fonte. O nitrato diminuiu a atividade solubilizadora, reduzindo ou inibindo a solubilização. Para a maioria dos microrganismos, a atividade solubilizadora não foi afetada pelas variações nos teores de ferro. Baixos teores de Ca e K limitaram o crescimento de cinco isolados que apresentam características de amplo crescimento (Aspergillus. Em dois desses isolados, a solubilização de fosfato de Ca foi favorecida. Variações na capacidade e no potencial de solubilização dos microrganismos, em resposta às condições do meio de cultura, indicam que o processo ocorre com eficiência variável ou sugerem a presença de diferentes mecanismos de solubilização.Twenty-one isolates of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Paecilomyces were evaluated for their solubilizing capacity and potential in broth media (Glucose-Yeast Extract amended with different types of phosphates (Ca, Al or Fe, in the presence of N sources (peptone, ammonium and nitrate as well as concentrations of Fe, Ca and potassium. Microbial growth and phosphate solubilizing activity varied according to the microorganism and the nutrient supplied. Ammonium increased solubilization activity of six isolates and three of these solubilized only in this source. Nitrate

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Bio Fertilizers Containing non Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohtadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat crop plays an important role in food security in a country such as Iran. Therefore, serious attention has been paid to ecological farming systems and sustainable management of wheat. For this purpose extensive efforts is done to find proper strategies to improve the quality of soil, agricultural products and started removal pollutants. One of the factors to achieve sustainable agriculture is to use natural agents such as biofertilizers. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain how effective plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is for growth and development of plants. These mechanisms include two groups, direct and indirect in general. Indirect mechanism is to increase absorption and availability of the nutrient elements soluble, producing plant growth regulators, siderophore production of iron chelator, and the phosphate soluble. Through indirect mechanisms such as antagonistic relation, PGPRs moderate the harmful effects of of plant pathogens and thereby lead to increase plant growth. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of biofertilizers containing non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on quantitative and qualitative traits of wheat. Materials and Methods This Experiment was conducted in the research farm of Baykola agricultural research stations affiliated by agriculture and natural resources research center of Mazandaran during 2011-12 cropping season. In order to determine physical and chemical properties of the soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm,. Experimental design was split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. In this experiment chemical fertilizer was assumed as the main plot in 3 levels include: 1- noconsumption (C0, 2- equivalent to 50% of the fertilizer recommendations (C1, 3- equivalent to 100% of the fertilizer recommendations(C2 and two types of biological fertilizers was applied in the sub plot in

  14. Microbial Phosphorus Solubilization and Its Potential for Use in Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alori, Elizabeth T.; Glick, Bernard R.; Babalola, Olubukola O.

    2017-01-01

    The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P) fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se), arsenic (As) in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants. These microorganisms improve the growth and yield of a wide variety of crops. Thus, inoculating seeds/crops/soil with Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM) is a promising strategy to improve world food production without causing any environmental hazard. Despite their great significance in soil fertility improvement, phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms have yet to replace conventional chemical fertilizers in commercial agriculture. A better understanding of recent developments in PSM functional diversity, colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application should facilitate their use as reliable components of sustainable agricultural systems. In this review, we discussed various soil microorganisms that have the ability to solubilize phosphorus and hence have the potential to be used as bio fertilizers. The mechanisms of inorganic phosphate solubilization by PSM and the mechanisms of organic phosphorus mineralization are highlighted together with some factors that determine the success of this technology. Finally we provide some indications that the use of PSM will promote sustainable agriculture and conclude that this technology is ready for commercial exploitation in various regions worldwide. PMID:28626450

  15. Microbial Phosphorus Solubilization and Its Potential for Use in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Alori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se, arsenic (As in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants. These microorganisms improve the growth and yield of a wide variety of crops. Thus, inoculating seeds/crops/soil with Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM is a promising strategy to improve world food production without causing any environmental hazard. Despite their great significance in soil fertility improvement, phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms have yet to replace conventional chemical fertilizers in commercial agriculture. A better understanding of recent developments in PSM functional diversity, colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application should facilitate their use as reliable components of sustainable agricultural systems. In this review, we discussed various soil microorganisms that have the ability to solubilize phosphorus and hence have the potential to be used as bio fertilizers. The mechanisms of inorganic phosphate solubilization by PSM and the mechanisms of organic phosphorus mineralization are highlighted together with some factors that determine the success of this technology. Finally we provide some indications that the use of PSM will promote sustainable agriculture and conclude that this technology is ready for commercial exploitation in various regions worldwide.

  16. A regulating method for the distribution of phosphorus fractions based on environmental parameters related to the key phosphate-solubilizing bacteria during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Wei, Zimin; Cao, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Xinyu; Lu, Qian; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the abundance, incidence and diversity of the culturable phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) community during different organic wastes composting. The key PSB affecting different phosphorus (P) fractions and their relationship with environmental variables were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results showed that there were distinct differences in amounts, incidence and community composition of PSB for the composts from different sources. Regression analysis demonstrated significant corrections between the density and incidence of PSB and pH, temperature, OM and DOC/DON. Most of culturable PSB showed high percentages of identity with the phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. There were thirteen key PSB correlated closely (pcomposting based on the relationship between the key PSB and P fractions as well as environmental parameters.

  17. Aislamiento de hongos solubilizadores de fosfatos de la rizósfera de Arazá (Eugenia stipitata, Myrtaceae Isolation of phosphate solubilizer fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Hernando

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Arazá (Eugenia stipitataMcVaugh, es una planta originaria de la región amazónica,que ha sido descrita como especie promisoria ya que su fruto comestible presentaexcelentes posibilidades de comercialización (Quevedo, 1995. El frutal muestra unaelevada productividad aún en suelos con muy bajo contenido de fósforo. La presenciade microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos podría contribuir a aumentar la dispo-nibilidad de este macroelemento. Dado que no se han publicado estudios al respecto,durante esta investigación se realizó el aislamiento y la caracterización de hongos so-lubilizadores a partir de 12 muestras de suelo en cultivos de Arazá, procedentes de 2Unidades Fisiográficas (paisajes del departamento del Guaviare (Colombia, utilizandoel método de lavado de suelo. Se obtuvieron 18 aislamientos de hongos a partir de1.152 agregados de suelo, los cuales demostraron capacidad de solubilizar fosfato nodisponible, procedente de 2 fuentes diferentes (hidrogenofosfato de calcio y fosfato dehierro III hidratados. Los principales solubilizadores del fosfato de calcio fueron Trichodermaaureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichodermacepa 1 y Trichodermacepa 2 y para el fosfatode hierro: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomycescepa 3, Gongronella butleriy Fusarium oxysporum.Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region which has been describedas a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995. This plant has highproductivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphatesolubilizazing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability.In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungiprocessed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were Araza is cultivated attwo regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizingphosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most importat species that solubilized phosphate from

  18. Screening and identiifcation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in rhizosphere soil of Xinjiang walnut%新疆核桃根际土壤中解磷菌的分离筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 李建贵; 郭艺鹏; 韩超; 秦韵婷

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide strain material for development of specific walnut microbial fertilizer, through separation and purification of the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in rhizosphere soil ofXinjiang walnut, some high quality and efficient phosphate-solubilizing strains were screened, which had growth-promoting effect for walnut tree and could colonize stably in its rhizosphere. 54 strains of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Aksu, Hotan and Kashgar walnut-producing areas in Xinjiang, ability of its phosphate-solubilizing were measured by using the methods of dissolved phosphorus ring screening and liquid shakeflask screening, and 14 strains of bacteria with strong phosphate-solubilizing ability were screened out. 13 strains of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were reserved after inducted by rifampicin resistance, and eventually 11 strains of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were selected out after the field colonization experiments. The11 strains of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were identified by 16S rDNA, they belonged to 5 genera, and they werePseudomonas,Staphylococcus, Planomicrobium,Microbacterium, and Acinetobacter. Among them,Pseudomonas was the dominant population and its phosphate-solubilizing effect was best.%为给核桃专用微生物肥的研制提供菌株材料,通过对新疆核桃根际土壤中解磷菌的分离纯化,筛选出对核桃树具有促生作用且能在其根际稳定定殖的优质高效解磷菌株.从阿克苏、和田、喀什等新疆核桃主产区的根际土壤中分离出解磷菌54株,采用溶磷圈初筛法和液体摇瓶复筛法对其解磷能力进行测定,筛选出解磷能力强的菌株14株.经耐利福平诱导后剩余13株,再进行大田定殖试验,最终筛选出11株解磷菌.经16S rDNA鉴定,得出这11株解磷菌归属于5个属,分别为假单胞菌属Pseudomonas,葡萄球菌属Staphylococcus,动性杆菌属Planomicrobium,微杆菌属Microbacterium,不动杆菌

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  20. Optimization of Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization in solid-state fermentation and use of the resulting product as a P fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; da Silva, Nina Morena Rêgo Muniz; Anastácio, Thalita Cardoso; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Ribeiro, José Ivo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2015-11-01

    A biotechnological strategy for the production of an alternative P fertilizer is described in this work. The fertilizer was produced through rock phosphate (RP) solubilization by Aspergillus niger in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) with sugarcane bagasse as substrate. SSF conditions were optimized by the surface response methodology after an initial screening of factors with significant effect on RP solubilization. The optimized levels of the factors were 865 mg of biochar, 250 mg of RP, 270 mg of sucrose and 6.2 ml of water per gram of bagasse. At this optimal setting, 8.6 mg of water-soluble P per gram of bagasse was achieved, representing an increase of 2.4 times over the non-optimized condition. The optimized SSF product was partially incinerated at 350°C (SB-350) and 500°C (SB-500) to reduce its volume and, consequently, increase P concentration. The post-processed formulations of the SSF product were evaluated in a soil-plant experiment. The formulations SB-350 and SB-500 increased the growth and P uptake of common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) when compared with the non-treated RP. Furthermore, these two formulations had a yield relative to triple superphosphate of 60% (on a dry mass basis). Besides increasing P concentration, incineration improved the SSF product performance probably by decreasing microbial immobilization of nutrients during the decomposition of the remaining SSF substrate. The process proposed is a promising alternative for the management of P fertilization since it enables the utilization of low-solubility RPs and relies on the use of inexpensive materials.

  1. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia. The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c kg(-1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis. The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65% existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  2. Phosphorus Solubilization of Bacteria and Associated Heavy Metal Releasing from Phosphate Rock Powder%细菌溶磷作用与磷矿粉伴生性重金属元素的释放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易艳梅; 黄为一; 张春霞

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the dissolving phosphorus(P) and the releasing heavy metals from phosphate rock powder by phosphate solubilizing bacteria(PSB) was studied in this paper.The results showed that the associated heavy metals in phosphate rock powder could leach out with the P-solubilizing from phosphate rock powder by PSB.Among the 6 associated heavy metals(Zn,Pb,Cu,Ni,Cd and Co),Zn was the easiest to release from phosphate rock powder with the P solubilization by PSB,and the maximum amount of dissolved Zn reached 97.0% of the total Zn associated with P in the phosphate rock powder.On the contrary,Pb and Cd showed high stability,and the concentrations of Pb and Cd released from phosphate rock powder were both lower than 10%.The relationship between the phosphate solubilizing capacity and the amount of associated heavy metal released from phosphate rock powder varied with the characteristics of these phosphate rock powder and the kind of heavy metal.The phosphate solubilizing capacity of PSB in Hunan-shimen phosphate rock powder and Sichuang-mabian phosphate rock powder had an insignificantly positive correlation with the amount of Zn,Ni,Co and Cu releasing,respectively(r= 0.50-0.95,P 0.05).And the phosphate solubilizing capacity of PSB in Guizhou phosphate rock powder had a significantly positive correlation with the amount of Zn,Ni,and Co releasing,respectively(P 0.05).%以4株溶磷细菌和5种磷矿粉为材料,对细菌溶磷作用与磷矿粉伴生性重金属元素释放间的关系进行了研究。结果表明,溶磷细菌在促进磷矿粉中磷溶出的同时,还促进了磷矿粉中伴生性重金属的释放,在测定的6种伴生性金属元素(Zn、Pb、Cu、Co、Ni、Cd)中,Zn最容易随细菌溶磷作用而释放,最多可占该磷矿粉中总Zn量的97.0%,Pb和Cd随细菌溶磷释放率皆低于10%;细菌溶磷作用强度与磷矿粉中各伴生性重金属释放量间的关系因磷矿粉产地和伴生性重金属

  3. Effects of nitrogen forms on the phosphate-solubilizing activity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, growth and quality of pakchoi%氮素形态对解磷细菌发酵液解磷效果及小白菜生长和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫辉; 白冰; 刘明一; 李沁芸; 曹翠玲

    2016-01-01

    采用盆栽试验,研究了施用硝态氮、铵态氮对解磷细菌发酵液不同组分解磷活性及其对小白菜产量、品质的影响。结果表明,施用相同氮肥时,浇灌解磷细菌原发酵液处理 T3的作用效果明显优于菌体悬浮液T2及菌液上清T1;以硝态氮为底肥时,施用发酵原液的土壤有效态磷含量较高,小白菜产量最高,品质明显优化,即硝态氮含量下降, Vc、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、纤维素以及植株磷含量显著增加,且增加变幅均高于以铵态氮为底肥的效果。由此可知,硝态氮与解磷细菌发酵原液配施时, W1菌株解磷效果更好,可能是解磷菌株W1最适的氮源。因此,种植小白菜时直接向其根际施用解磷细菌发酵液并配施硝态氮肥,更有利于提高小白菜的品质及产量。%Pot experiments were conducted with pakchoi as test crops to study the effect of application ammonium and nitrate on the phosphate-solubilizing activity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria fermentation broth, growth and quality of pakchoi. Ob-tained results showed that application of single form of nitrogen fertilizer, the effect of fermentation broth (T3) was better than that of the bacteria suspension (T2) and the supernatant (T1). When combined application of fermentation broth and nitrate nitrogen, the efftct was better than that with ammonium nitrogen, which was reflected in the increase of soil available phosphor-us content, more crop yields and better nutritional quality. The better pakchoi nutritional quality included higher contents of Vc, solubilizing sugar, solubilizing protein, cellulose, phosphoruse and less nitrate content. Therefore, phosphate solubiliz-ing bacteria fermentation broth could be used instead of phosphatic fertilizer in pakchoi production, what’s more, nitrate was better nitrogen source for PSB strain W1. So it would have a great increase of pakchoi yield and nutritional quality when

  4. Mechanism of Solubilizing Phosphate by Bacillus megaterium%解磷巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium)的溶磷机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 金荣德; 范作伟; 胡会军; 孙甜田; 赵兰坡

    2014-01-01

    One strain of bacterium with strong phosphate solubilizing activity was isolated from phosphorus deficiency black soil samples in corn belt of the Songliao plain of Northeast China and identified as Bacil-lus megaterium by 1 6s rRNA gene sequencing .The soluble-P concentration continuously increased during the incubation periods and the total amount of soluble P released in culture filtrate was detected at 420 mg/kg after 4 days of inoculation .The particle size of calcium phosphorus surface was found to be destroyed and the size changed between 77.5-1 24.2 nm,while no changes in the surface and size were found in the control with the size of 1 32.7-1 81.7 nm .The metabolites of phosphate solubilizing bacteria fermentation broth were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)and Fourier trans-form infrared spectrometer (FTIR)to determine the final fermentation products of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria for gluconic acid .%从松辽平原玉米带中部的公主岭市贫磷黑土中分离筛选了1株具有较强溶磷能力的菌株,并通过16S rRNA基因测序鉴定为解磷巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium)。测定了溶磷圈和发酵液有效磷质量分数,探讨了菌株溶磷机理。结果表明:该菌株在以磷酸钙为唯一磷源的培养基上,能够形成明显的溶磷圈;发酵培养到第4天,发酵液的有效磷质量分数达到420 mg/kg。通过粒子大小分析仪,测定了溶磷菌发酵液中的磷酸钙颗粒大小,对照处理的磷酸钙粒径为132.7~181.7 nm,溶磷菌液处理的磷酸钙粒径为77.5~124.2 nm,磷酸钙颗粒明显变小;通过高效液相色谱法(HPLC)和傅里叶变换红外光谱分析仪(FTIR),对溶磷菌发酵液代谢产物进行分析,确定了溶磷菌最终的发酵产物为葡萄糖酸。

  5. Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity of Streptomyces spp. isolated from wheat roots and rhizosphere and their application in improving plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Rahul; Pandya, Maharshi; Nareshkumar, G; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2014-04-01

    The application of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) at field scale has been hindered by an inadequate understanding of the mechanisms that enhance plant growth, rhizosphere incompetence and the inability of bacterial strains to thrive in different soil types and environmental conditions. Actinobacteria with their sporulation, nutrient cycling, root colonization, bio-control and other plant-growth-promoting activities could be potential field bio-inoculants. We report the isolation of five rhizospheric and two root endophytic actinobacteria from Triticum aestivum (wheat) plants. The cultures exhibited plant-growth-promoting activities, namely phosphate solubilization (1916 mg l(-1)), phytase (0.68 U ml(-1)), chitinase (6.2 U ml(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (136.5 mg l(-1)) and siderophore (47.4 mg l(-1)) production, as well as utilizing all the rhizospheric sugars under test. Malate (50-55 mmol l(-1)) was estimated in the culture supernatant of the highest phosphate solublizer, Streptomyces mhcr0816. The mechanism of malate overproduction was studied by gene expression and assays of key glyoxalate cycle enzymes - isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS). The significant increase in gene expression (ICL fourfold, MS sixfold) and enzyme activity (ICL fourfold, MS tenfold) of ICL and MS during stationary phase resulted in malate production as indicated by lowered pH (2.9) and HPLC analysis (retention time 13.1 min). Similarly, the secondary metabolites for chitinase-independent biocontrol activity of Streptomyces mhcr0817, as identified by GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectra, were isoforms of pyrrole derivatives. The inoculation of actinobacterial isolate mhce0811 in T. aestivum (wheat) significantly improved plant growth, biomass (33%) and mineral (Fe, Mn, P) content in non-axenic conditions. Thus the actinobacterial isolates reported here were efficient PGPR possessing significant antifungal activity and may have potential field

  6. Survival of introduced phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and their impact on microbial community structure during the phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seulki; Moon, Hee Sun; Shin, Doyun; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2013-12-15

    This study was conducted to investigate whether or not phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as a kind of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance the uptake of Cd by plants. In addition, the effect of PSB augmentation during phytoextraction on the microbial community of indigenous soil bacteria was also studied. In the initial Cd-contaminated soil, the major phyla were Proteobacteria (35%), Actinobacteria (38%) and Firmicutes (8%). While Proteobacteria were dominant at the second and sixth week (41 and 54%, respectively) in inoculated soil, Firmicutes (mainly belonging to the Bacilli class-61%), dramatically increased in the eight-week soil. For the uninoculated soil, the proportion of α-Proteobacteria increased after eight weeks (32%). Interestingly, Actinobacteria class, which was originally present in the soil (37%), seemed to disappear during phytoremediation, irrespective of whether PSB was inoculated or not. Cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that the microbial community of eight-week inoculated soil was completely separated from the other soil samples, due to the dramatic increase of Bacillus aryabhattai. These findings revealed that it took at least eight weeks for the inoculated Bacillus sp. to functionally adapt to the introduced soil, against competition with indigenous microorganisms in soil. An ecological understanding of interaction among augmented bacteria, plant and indigenous soil bacteria is needed, for proper management of phytoextraction.

  7. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedling production with different sources of phosphate and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms / Produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em presença de diferentes fontes fosfatadas e microrganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Nunes Silva Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the behaviour of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (fungus: 310A, 061, 062 e 251, bacterias 163, 160 e 161 in promoting nutrition and growth of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L. seedlings cultivated in trays with sterilized substrate fertilized and phosphates source. A randomized completely design was used, with a factorial 4x8 scheme (four treatments with phosphate nutrition and inoculated with eight phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and four replications. Each replication was made of 10 cells. The experiment was evaluated 35 days after planting for dry matter, P percentage and total phosphorus of above ground parts. The triple super phosphate (SFT had better results than the others, including the control treatment, in all analyzed parameters. On the dry matter production, it was observed negative effect from inoculation in five treatments fertilized with SFT. There was no effect of isolates on the phosphorus content values. In the values of total phosphorus, the isolates 061, 062 e 163 increased the parameter values on the fertilized treatment with SFT. The natural phosphates presented low efficiency when compared to dissolvable fertilizer on the availability of phosphorus to the plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos (fungos: 310A, 061, 062 e 251; bactérias: 163, 160 e 161 na promoção da nutrição e crescimento de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L., cultivadas em bandejas com substrato esterilizado e adubadas com fontes fosfatadas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjo fatorial 4 x 8 (quatro tratamentos de adubação fosfatada e oito tratamentos de inoculação microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos com quatro repetições por isolado. Cada repetição foi constituída de 10 células. Aos 35 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram colhidas avaliando-se a matéria seca, porcentagem de P e P total da parte a

  8. Effect of phosphate - solubilizing bacteria and compost on the nutritional characteristics of the oil palm crop (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaría García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with interest to include biological practices in fertilization programs for commercially important crops, the effect of a bioinoculant application based on phosphate solubilizing bacteria along with compost was evaluated on oil palm cultivation in the nursery stage and in a definitive area. The five treatments that were evaluated included: (C compost, (CQ compost and chemical fertilizers 50/50, (IC compost and inoculant, (IQ chemical fertilizers and inoculant and (ICQ inoculant, compost and chemical fertilizers 50/50; as a positive control it was used a plant group fertilized with traditional chemical compounds. Organic matter was added at 2% (w/w at nursery stage and 15 kg/plant in the definitive area. Response variables includedagronomic variables were evaluated (total height, height to bifurcation, bulb diameter and number of leaves and soil physicochemical variables (pH, oxidizable organic carbon (OOC, extractable phosphorus and total boron, measured during 8 months in the nursery area and 6 months in the definitive area. The results showed that the evaluated compost constitutes an alternative for palm fertilization in the definitive area, as source of nutrients that meet crop demand at this stage of the crop, matching the nutritional levels of the control plants (P≥0.005. Meanwhile, in the nursery area, chemical fertilization is essential to ensure the quality of the plants during the first stage of growth, since, at this stage, plants require high amount of N, which is not supplied by the compost. Finally, it was not possible to demonstrate the promoting effect of the microbial inoculant on plant growth, so it is necessary to complement this research in regard to this product

  9. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  10. Atividade de isolados bacterianos solubilizadores de fosfato na presença de formulações comerciais de Glyphosate Activity of phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates in the presence of commercial glyphosate formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Massenssini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Roundup Transorb®, Zapp QI®, Roundup NA® e Scout® na capacidade de dois isolados bacterianos (To 11 e To 66 em solubilizar diferentes fontes inorgânicas de fosfato. A atividade de solubilização de fosfato inorgânico dos isolados bacterianos foi avaliada em três fontes de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato de cálcio, de alumínio e de ferro, na presença de diferentes formulações de glyphosate na concentração de 60 mg L-1 do equivalente ácido e tratamento controle sem adição dos herbicidas. Os efeitos das formulações de glyphosate foram diferentes para cada isolado. As formulações Roundup Transorb® e Zapp QI® provocaram redução na capacidade de solubilização do isolado To 66, enquanto a formulação Scout® aumentou essa capacidade. Por sua vez, o isolado To 11 não teve sua capacidade de solubilização afetada na presença das formulações avaliadas. Em média, as formulações Roundup NA® e Scout® não alteraram a capacidade de solubilização dos isolados, ao passo que os herbicidas Roundup Transorb® e Zapp QI® reduziram essa capacidade de solubilização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of applying different commercial formulations of glyphosate (Roundup Transorb®, Zapp QI®, Roundup NA® e Scout® on the ability of two bacterial isolates (To 11 and To 66 to solubilize different inorganic phosphates. The ability to solubilize bacterial isolate phosphate was evaluated in relation to three inorganic phosphate sources (calcium, aluminum, and iron phosphates in the presence of different commercial formulations of glyphosate, at the concentration of 60 mg L-1 acid equivalent, and control treatment without the addition of the herbicides. The effects of the commercial formulations of glyphosate on each bacterial isolate were distinct. Roundup Transorb and Zapp QI led to a significant decrease in

  11. Characterization of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from Maize Roots and Rhizosphere Soil%玉米根内和根际土壤溶磷细菌生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨存斌; 何琳燕; 黄智; 盛下放

    2013-01-01

    从玉米根内和根际土壤中分离筛选到22株溶磷细菌.根据16S rRNA基因序列分析,2株溶磷效果最好的菌株分别被鉴定为伯克霍尔德氏菌(Burkholderia sp.SY9)和泛菌(Pantoea sp.Gym7c).同时对菌株SY9和Gym7c的溶磷能力和植物促生特性进行了进一步研究.利用磷酸钙和开阳磷矿矿粉研究了菌株释放P、Ca和Fe的效能.液体培养条件下,菌株在在磷酸钙培养基中的生长好于在开阳磷矿粉培养基中的生长,同时菌株能够合成铁载体.菌株SY9从开阳磷矿粉中释放P、Ca,和Fe的能力比菌株Gym7c强.然而菌株Gym7c从磷酸钙中释放P和Ca的能力比菌株SY9强.菌株Gym7c主要是通过合成的有机酸溶解磷酸钙并释放其中的P和Ca,而菌株SY9是通过合成的有机酸和铁载体溶解开阳磷矿粉并释放出其中的P、Ca,和Fe.溶解开阳磷矿粉的有机酸主要是葡萄糖酸而溶解磷酸钙的有机酸主要包括丁二酸、丙酸、苹果酸和酒石酸等.菌株Gym7c能够合成生长素、铁载体和1-氨基环丙浣-1-羧酸脱氨酶.菌株SY9和Gym7c对酸碱、盐和温度均表现出一定的抗性.%Twenty-two phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from the roots and rhizosphere soil of maize plants.Two best phosphate solubilizers (strain SY9 from rhizosphere soil and strain Gym7c from the root interior) were identified as Burkholderia sp.SY9 and Pantoea sp.Gym7c based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis,respectively.The two isolates were further characterized phenotypically by their phosphate solubilization and plant growth-promoting characteristics.Tricalcium phosphate and Kaiyang rock phosphate were used to investigate P,Ca and Fe mobilization by the isolates.In liquid cultures,the strains showed better growth on the tricalcium phosphate than on Kaiyang rock phosphate.CAS assay solution analysis showed the siderophores were produced by the two isolates in the presence of the two rock phosphates.Strain SY9

  12. Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction of Co, Pb and Zn: an assessment with a phosphate-solubilizing bacterium isolated from metal-contaminated mines of Boryeong Area in South Korea

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    Arunakumara, KKIU.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Make use of microbes having remarkable metal tolerance and plant growth-promoting abilities to remediate metal-contaminated soils. Objectives. The objectives were to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain, assess metal (Co, Pb and Zn mobilization potential of the strain and to evaluate the effects of the strain on growth and uptake of metals by Helianthus annuus. Method. A phosphate solubilizing bacterium was isolated from metal-contaminated soils. Heavy metal (Co, Pb and Zn tolerance of the strain was assessed using the agar dilution method. Bacterial-assisted growth promotion and metal uptake by H. annuus was evaluated in a pot experiment. The impact of bacterial inoculation on the mobility of metals in soil was investigated in a batch experiment. Results. The strain showed close proximity with Klebsiella oxytoca JCM1665, according to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The strain was efficient in solubilizing phosphate, both in the presence and absence of metals. Inoculation of the strain enhanced the growth of H. annuus (49, 22 and 39% respectively in Co, Pb and Zn contaminated soils compared to non-inoculated plants. Accumulation and translocation of Co, Pb and Zn from roots to shoots were also enhanced by the strain. Water soluble fraction of Co, Pb and Zn in soil was increased by 51, 24 and 76% respectively in inoculated soils with regard to those of non-inoculated soils. Conclusions. Taking the plant growth promotion and metal mobilizing potential of the strain into account, practical application of the strain in enhancing phytoextraction of Co, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils could be recommended.

  13. 一株红壤溶磷菌的分离、鉴定及溶磷特性%Isolation, identification and characterization of a strain of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from red soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文干; 何园球; 张坤; 樊建波; 曹慧

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To improve use efficiency of phosphorus in latosolic red soil and to explore mechanism of phosphate solubilization. [ Methods] Pikovskaya and National Botanical Research Institute' s Phosphate broth were used to isolate a phosphate-solubilizing bacterium coded as C5-A from the rhizosphere soil of peanut. According to its morphological, physiological, biochemical properties and its 16S rRNA sequence, its position in phylogenetic development tree was defined. By measuring changes in pH of the National Botanical Research Institute' s Phosphate solution in which CS-A was incubated, phosphate solubilizing capacity was determined. Through fermentation, effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the capacity of strain CS-A were investigated. Kinds and concentrations of organic acids in the cultures different in N sources were also determined by HPLC. [Results] The strain was identified as Burkholderia cepacia, which is stable in hereditary. In aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate solutions, its P solubilizing capacity was negatively related to pH. It solubilized tricalium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphates powder, and could dissolve as much as 125.79 mg/L, 227.34 mg/L, 60.02 mg/L and 321. 15mg/L P, respectively. For RPP, P solubilizing capacity of the strain was related to type and concentration of the powder. When using maltose and ammonium oxalate as C and N sources, the strain displayed its highest P solubilizing capacity. HPLC analysis detected 10 organic acids in the culture, namely: oxalic acid, acetic acid, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, cuccinc acid and 5 unknown organic acids. Interestingly, it is acetic acid rather than gluconic acid being the most important organic acid affecting P solubilization. [ Conclusion ] The strain isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peanut plants growing in a red soil field can dissolve hard-to-solve inorganic salts, and is a promising microbial resource for development of high

  14. Respostas da cultura do rabanete à inoculação de fungos solubilizadores de fosfatos Responses of radish culture to phosphate-solubilizing fungi

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    Charles Narloch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito dos fungos solubilizadores de fosfatos MSF-044, MSF-062 (Penicillium sp. e MSF-087 (Aspergillus sp. e da aplicação de fosfato solúvel [Ca(H2PO42.2H 2O], nas doses de 0,0 , 4,5 , 9,0 , 17,5 , 35,0 , 70,0 e 140,0 mg kg-1 de P, na produção de matéria seca e na absorção de fósforo pela cultura do rabanete. O experimento foi realizado em solo não-estéril, em casa de vegetação. Os isolados diferiram quanto à capacidade de promover a produção de matéria seca, dependendo da dose de P aplicada. Os isolados MSF-044 e MSF-062 foram mais eficientes sob baixas doses (4,5 a 17,5 mg kg-1 de P, enquanto o isolado MSF-087 proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca somente na dose mais alta (140,0 mg kg-1 de P. Plantas submetidas à inoculação do isolado MSF-062 (Penicillium sp. e com 17,5 mg kg-1 de P apresentaram produção de matéria seca equivalente às obtidas por plantas com até 70,0 mg de P por kg de solo, sem inoculação. A quantidade total de P absorvida pelas plantas não foi influenciada pela inoculação, no solo, dos isolados testados.The objective of this work was to study the effect of phosphate-solubilizing fungi MSF044, MSF-062 (Penicillium sp. and MSF-087 (Aspergillus sp. and soluble phosphate [Ca(H2PO42.2H 2O] at 0.0 , 4.5 , 9.0, 17.5 , 35.0 , 70.0 and 140.0 mg kg-1 P on dry matter production and P uptake of radish, in non-sterilized soil, under green house conditions. Isolates differed in their capacity to stimulate dry matter production of plants, depending upon the P level. Isolates MSF-044 and MSF-062 were more efficient under low P (4.5 to 17.5 mg kg-1 P, while the isolate MSF-087 only stimulated dry matter production in the highest P level (140.0 mg kg-1 P. Plants inoculated with the isolate MSF-062, at 17.5 mg kg-1 P, presented no differences in dry matter compared to non-inoculated plants, with 70.0 mg kg-1 P. Phosphorus uptake by inoculated plants did not differ

  15. 杉木根系细胞壁活化铁磷能力及其影响因子分析%Mobilization of Insoluble Iron Bound Phosphate and Effective Factors by Root Cell Walls of Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪攀; 吴鹏飞; 马祥庆; 陈奶莲; 张云鹏

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]Aims: The insoluble iron bound phosphate in red soil of southern China was used to study the capacity of cell wall of Chinese fir roots in mobilizing insoluble iron bound phosphate and the impact factors,including forest age,root diameter and tissue structure of Chinese fir root cell wall. This study aims at providing a theoretical basis for fully using potentially available phosphorus content in the forest red soil of southern China.[Method]Methods: In Xinkou Forest Station of Sanming in Fujian,we chose 3 average trees from different aged forests,the 10-year-old as the young forest,22-year-old as middle-aged forest and 34-year-old as old forest of Chinese fir plantations,and classified the roots into 6 classes according to the root diameter,less than 2 mm,2-5 mm,5-10 mm,10-20 mm,20-30 mm,and more than 30 mm. The cell wall was extracted from xylem and phloem of different root classes,respectively. The phosphorus content mobilized by cell-wall from insoluble iron bound phosphate was determined by using the molybdenum antimony colorimetric method,to analyze and compare the ability of cell wall of Chinese fir root in mobilization of insoluble iron bound phosphate,and the influence factors,such as root diameter,tissue structures and forest age.[Result]The mobilizing phosphorus content by Chinese fir root cell wall from insoluble iron bound phosphate was from 17 . 67 mg kg-1 to 497 . 50 mg kg-1 . The xylem and phloem cell wall of less than 10 mm diameter roots had greater ability of activating insoluble iron bound phosphate than that of the more than 10 mm diameter roots. Compared with xylem in each forest age, the phloem cell wall of the same diameter root activated more insoluble iron bound phosphate. There was difference in activating ability of insoluble iron bound phosphate among the different forest ages with the same root diameter,and the ability of cell wall in activating insoluble iron bound phosphate was as follows: old forest > middle-aged forest

  16. Isolation,Screening and Identification of a Phosphate-solubilizing Bacterium Acidovorax delafieldii Strain D86%解磷细菌德氏嗜酸菌D86菌株的分离、筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马焕; 解复红; 权淑静; 刘金娥; 陈国参

    2015-01-01

    Eight bacteria strains with the phosphorus⁃solubilizing ability were isolated from phosphate rock soil in Kunming,and 3 strains with better solubilizing ability were further screened from them on preliminary screening plate. Then,the strain D86 which has the highest inorganic phosphorus⁃solubilizing ability was screened by liquid fermentation. To identify this strain,its colonical morphology,physiological⁃biochamical characteristic and 16S rDNA were analyzed, and the results suggested it was Acidovorax delafieldii.%从昆明磷矿土壤中分离筛选出降解无机磷的8株解磷细菌,通过平板初筛得到3株降解无机磷能力较强的菌株.进一步液体摇瓶复筛,得到1株降解无机磷能力最强的菌株D86.通过菌落形态、生理生化特性和16S rDNA序列比对,初步鉴定该菌株为德氏嗜酸菌(Acidovorax delafieldii).

  17. População microbiana total e solubilizadora de fosfato em solo submetido a diferentes sistemas de cultivo Total microbial and phosphate-solubilizing population in soil submitted to different cultivation systems

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    GIOVANE BARROTI

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espécies de plantas, fontes de fósforo e calagem sobre a população microbiana total e solubilizadora de fosfato. Foram isolados fungos e bactérias capazes de solubilizar hidroxiapatita, proporcionando P solúvel. O experimento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso com fatorial 3x3x2. E os fatores avaliados foram espécies de plantas (controle, braquiária e guandu, fertilizantes (controle, superfosfato simples e fosfato de rocha, ambos na dose de 400 kg ha-1 de P(20(5 e calagem (com e sem calcário. A população bacteriana cresceu pelo efeito da calagem, e a de fungos aumentou, independentemente da calagem, nas parcelas cultivadas com braquiária e fertilizadas com superfosfato. Foi constatado incremento de biomassa-P microbiana sobre o controle por influência da braquiária (23,9%, do superfosfato (30,9% e da calagem (46,9%. O número de bactérias solubilizadoras foi favorecido pela calagem ou pelo plantio de guandu adubado com fosfato natural ou com braquiária sem adubação. Os fungos solubilizadores aumentaram na ausência de planta ou de adubação e na presença de guandu com fosfato natural. Finalmente, a calagem favoreceumais o crescimento dos fungos solubilizadores, em comparação com o controle, nos tratamentos fosfato natural, braquiária ou guandu.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different plant species, phosphorus sources, and liming on the total microbial and phosphate-solubilizing population. In order to achieve that, bacteria and fungi capable of solubilizing hydroxyapatite providing available P were isolated. An experiment was carried out in a randomized factorial block design 3x3x2. The factors evaluated were plant species (control, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Cajanus cajan, fertilizers (control, simple superphosphate and rock phosphate, both at the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of P(20(5 and liming (with and without lime. While the bacterial

  18. 一株高效解磷细菌的筛选及其在红壤性水稻土中的施用效果%Screening of Efficient Phosphate-solubilizing Bacterial Strain and Its Application in Red Paddy Soil to Rice Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴沈艳; 申卫收; 贺云举; 陈雯雯; 钟文辉

    2011-01-01

    Available phosphorous in phosphate fertilizers can be transformed to unavailable phosphorous by iron or aluminum in red soil, thus reducing the fertilizer utilization efficiency. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria can convert sparingly insoluble phosphate fixed by iron or aluminum into available phosphorus which can be easily utilized by crops, thus improve the fertilizer utilization efficiency. T4, an efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain, was isolated from the red soil in Yingtan, Jiangxi, China and identified as Burkholderia sp. Strain T4. It dissolved 334.2 mg L-1 and 193.1 mg L-1 phosphorous from A1PO4 and phosphate rock (P.R) in a flask with shaking respectively. The physical-chemical factors of the growth of T4 were used to optimize the culture conditions. Under the optimal conditions which were lactose 15 g L-1, K.NO31.0 g L-1, pH 7.0 and 30 ℃, T4 dissolved 806.3 mg L-1 phosphorous from AlPO4. Strain T4 was made into the living bacteria agent and then applied into rice field in Yingtan. The results suggested that the living bacteria agent containing strain T4 could maintain the rice growth and production with reducing chemical fertilizer. Fig 6, Tab 2, Ref 28%解磷菌能使土壤中被活性铁、铝等吸附固定的难溶性或不溶性的非有效态磷转化为易于被植物吸收利用的有效态磷,从而大大提高磷肥的利用率.通过对江西鹰潭红壤分离筛选,获得一株性状稳定的高效解磷细菌T4.经鉴定,菌株T4为伯克霍尔德菌属(Burkholderia sp.);T4溶解AlPO4、磷矿粉的能力均比较高,分别为334.2 mg L-1、193.1 mg L-1;研究了各种理化因子对T4解磷能力的影响,确定了T4的最佳培养条件为乳糖15g L-1,KNO3 1.0g L-1,pH为7.0,温度为30℃,在该条件下T4溶解AlPO4的量为806.3 rng L-1.在江西鹰潭红壤性水稻土的施用试验表明,将菌株T4制成微生物菌剂施用于水稻田可起到减施化肥的作用.图6表2参28

  19. Purification of RNA by SDS solubilization and phenol extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C; Ares, Manuel; Hannon, Gregory J; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for RNA purification by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solubilization and phenol extraction. It is of wide utility and is used routinely to deproteinize RNAs in biological material that has been solubilized in SDS, an ionic detergent that dissolves membranes, disrupts protein-nucleic acid interactions, and inactivates ribonucleases. Once solubilized, addition of phenol or phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (PCA) completely denatures the protein, and it becomes insoluble in aqueous solution. PCA extraction is the method of choice for preparing cytoplasmic RNA from tissue culture cells or in any other situation (e.g., enzyme reactions) where solubilization in SDS is easily achievable.

  20. Phosphate-solubilizing fungi isolated from a semiarid area cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. gold mine Fungos solubilizadores de fosfato isolados de área semiárida cultivada com melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. gold mine

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    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that little is known about the occurrence of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from areas cultivated with melon, the phosphate solubilization ability of filamentous fungi isolated in these areas was evaluated. Three hundred and eighteen filamentous fungal isolates belonging to 23 genera were evaluated, besides Aphyllophorales and Mycelia sterilia. From those, 52 were able to solubilize P: Aphyllophorales (2, Aspergillus (34, Penicillium (10 and Rhizopus (6. These results will contribute to subsidizing further research regarding the capacity of these fungi to solubilize other sources of phosphate applied to the melon crop, as well as indicate the need for a screening program to select those with higher capacity and potential for solubilization.Considerando que pouco se conhece sobre a ocorrência de fungos solubilizadores de fosfato de áreas cultivadas com melão, foi avaliada a habilidade de solubilização desse nutriente por fungos filamentosos isolados dessas áreas. Foram avaliadas 318 amostras de fungos filamentosos pertencentes a 23 gêneros, além de Aphyllophorales e Mycelia sterilia. Dessas amostras, 52 apresentaram habilidade para solubilizar o fosfato: Aphyllophorales (2, Aspergillus (34, Penicillium (10 e Rhizopus (6. Esses resultados contribuem para subsidiar pesquisas que testem a capacidade desses fungos em solubilizar outras fontes fosfatadas aplicadas na cultura do melão, assim como indicam a necessidade de selecionar isolados com maior capacidade e potencial para solubilização.

  1. 酸性条件下Al3+对苜蓿根瘤菌溶磷和分泌生长素能力的影响%Influences of Al3+ on Phosphate Solubilization and Auxin Secretion Abilities of Sinorhizobium meliloti under Acidic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媚佳; 欧冰雷; 徐苏凌; 方勇; 徐根娣

    2011-01-01

    采用溶磷圈和Salkowski比色法,对酸性条件下铝对耐酸性能极优的两种根瘤菌溶磷和分泌生长素能力的影响进行了研究.结果表明,两种根瘤菌都具有较强的溶磷和分泌生长素的能力,且溶解无机磷的能力更强.在铝毒胁迫下,两菌株均表现出了一定的耐受性,随着铝离子浓度的增加,铝对溶磷和分泌生长素的能力抑制作用增强,相同条件下,菌株S1007较S1002具有更好的溶磷和分泌生长素的性能.%By means of phosphate solubilization ring and Salkowski colorimetry to study the influences of AP3+ on the phosphate solubilization and auxin secretion ability of two acid resistant varieties of rhizobium under acidic conditions. The results showed that the two varieties of rhizobium all have strong ability of phosphate solubilization and auxin secretion, and more apparent ability to dissolve inorganic phosphorus. The two strains all showed certain Al3+ tolerance under stress of Al3+ toxicity; the inhibitory effects of Al3+ on ability of phosphate solubilization and auxin secretion increases with increasing concentration of Al3+. Under the same conditions, strain SI007 showed a stronger ability of phosphate solubilization and auxin secretion in comparison with strain S1002.

  2. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by penicillium oxalicum P4 and aspergillus niger P85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  3. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

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    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  4. Relaciones entre los hongos filamentosos y solubilizadores de fosfatos con algunas variables edáficas y el manejo de cafetales Filamentous and phosphate solubilizing fungi relationships with some edaphic parameters and coffee plantations management

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    Raúl Hernando Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El suelo y sus propiedades tienen múltiples relaciones con las comunidades fúngicas. El efecto conjunto de la intensidad de manejo y las variables edáficas, incluida la estabilidad de agregados sobre las comunidades de hongos microscópicos filamentosos (HMF, solubilizadores de fosfato de hierro (HSP-Fe y solubilizadores tanto de fosfato de hierro como de calcio (HSP-(Fe+Ca no han sido evaluadas en campo. A partir de 40 muestras edáficas de ocho plantaciones de café de Colombia y México, con diferentes intensidades de manejo (IMPC y con diferencias en sus variables edáficas, se aislaron y evaluaron las comunidades de HMF, HSP-Fe y HSP-(Fe+Ca durante 2008-2009. Empleando modelos basados en ecuaciones estructurales se encontró que el carbono orgánico se relacionó positivamente con la riqueza y abundancia de HMF (λ>0.58 y fue variable en su relación con HSP-Fe y HSP-(Fe+Ca. Las relaciones del fósforo disponible, pH y las fracciones de macro-agregados fueron altamente variables. El IMPC se relacionó negativamente con HSP-Fe (λ≤-0.21 en cafetales colombianos. Se discuten las interacciones para cada conjunto de variables (químicas, estabilidad de macro-agregados y de manejo de plantación y se explican las relaciones resultantes. Las relaciones de cada variable son inseparables del contexto edáfico y geográfico, los cuales imprimen marcadas diferencias.Soil properties and the environment have multiple outcomes on fungal communities. Although, the interaction effects between management intensity, pH, available phosphorus, organic carbon, soil texture and different fractions of water stable macro-aggregates on the communities of microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF, iron phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-Fe, and iron and calcium phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-(Fe+Ca, have been previously evaluated in field conditions, this has never been performed in terms of their combined effects, neither with phosphate solubilizing fungi. To

  5. Solubilization of the chromatin-bound estrogen receptor from chicken liver and fractionation on hydroxylapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendt, M

    1976-08-16

    1. High-affinity estrogen-binding sites can be solubilized from the liver chromatin of estrogenized chickens by treatment of the chromatin with 2 M KCL/5 M urea and fractionation on hydroxylapatite. Two estrogen-binding proteins are eluted from hydroxylapatite columns by 20mM phosphate (binding protein I) and 200mMphosphate (binding protein II), respectively. 2. The binding protein I is part of a non-histone protein fraction containing acid-soluble and insoluble proteins, whereas the binding protein II elutes together with high molecular weight nonhistone proteins containing acid insoluble proteins only. Both binding proteins exhibit the smae affinity for estradiol (Kd approximately 10(-9) M). 3. From chromatin of untreated chickens very small amounts of binding protein I (0.1 pmol/mg protein compared to 1.9 pmol/mg protein from estrogenized chickens) with the smae affinity for estradiol as that from estrogenized animals can be solubilized. Binding protein II is not detectable. 4. The "soluble nuclear estrogen receptor" extracted from crude liver nucleir of estrogenized chickens by 0.5 M KCL behaves on hydroxylapatite very similarly to salt/urea-dissociated chromatin with respect to the binding protein I. No binding protein II, however, can be demonstrated. 5. Chromatography of various preparations on Bio-Gel A-1.5 m indicates that the binding protein II is a residual chromatin fragment containing an unseparated binding protein-DNA complex, whereas the binding protein I represents the solubilized nucleic-acid-free chromosomal estrogen receptor. The "soluble nuclear receptor" and the binding protein I, however, are not identical with respect to their chromatographic behaviour on Bio-Gel A-1.5m, even though their estrogen binding entity remaining after trypsin treatment seems to be very similar.

  6. Screening and identification of several phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from the interfacial sediment of Xiliu Lake%西流湖界面沉积物中溶磷细菌筛选及其溶磷能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈建航; 王福芳; 晏加照; 胡元森; 赵江

    2012-01-01

    以无机磷酸钙为磷源,对河南省郑州市西流湖界面沉积物中溶磷细菌进行了分离和鉴定.筛选出4株高效溶磷细菌PS-1,PS-4,PS-11和PS-13,在无机磷培养基中28 ℃培养96 h溶出的上清液可溶性磷含量分别为580.00,437.98,417.40和283.60mg· L-1,溶磷率分别为28.71%,21.61%,20.58%和13.89%,溶磷能力与pH之间呈现一定的负相关.根据16S rDNA序列的系统发育分析,PS-1,PS-4和PS-11属于Pseudomonas sp.,PS-13为Aeromonas sp.%Using Ca3(PO4)2 as the P source, several phosphate solubilizing bacteria, as PS-1 , PS-4, PS-11 and PS-13 , were isolated and identified from the interfacial sediment of Xiliu Lake in Zhengzhou, Henan Province. The results showed that the 4 strains had high ability of solubilizing Ca3 (PO4)2 in liquid medium, and the P concentration in the solution increased to 580. 00,437. 98, 417.40 and 283.60 μg · mL-1 at 96 h, with yield percentage of soluble P as 28. 71% , 21. 61% , 20. 58% and 13. 89% respectively. The capacity to dissolve the inorganic phosphate was closely negatively correlated to pH value of the medium. Based on 16S rDNA gene analysis, strains PS-1 , PS-4 and PS-11 were identified as Pseudomonas sp. , most closely related to P. fluorescens, P. mandelii and P. putida respectively. PS-13 was identified as Aeromonas sp.

  7. Co-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and rhizobia in the presence of L-tryptophan for the promotion of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Qureshi, Arshad Iqbal, Naseem Akhtar, Masood Ahmad Shakir and Ajmal Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and leguminous plants results in active nitrogen fixation and plays a marvelous role in agriculture systems. L-tryptophan (L-TRP is an amino acid that acts as physiological precursor of auxins and is responsible for biosynthesis of auxins in the rhizosphere. Pot experiment was conducted at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad to assess the co-inoculation effect of N2-fixing (Rhizobium and P-solubilizing (Bacillus sp in the presence of L-TRP. Results revealed that co-inoculation improved the pod and straw yield considerably but the effect was more pronounced with L-TRP. Co-inoculation increased the root length, root mass, number of nodule and mass as compared to control with L-TRP. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced 30.87 pod and 32.73 g pot-1 straw yield followed by 30.47 and 31.10 g pot-1 with rhizobial inoculation, respectively. Co-inoculation produced higher root mass (33.5 g, root length (36.0 cm, nodule number (34, nodule mass (0.131 g and these values were further enhanced with L-TRP (40.5 g, 49 cm, 48 and 0.145 g. Co-inoculation enhanced the nutrient concentration in mash plant, grains and improved the nodulation as compared to the separate bacterial inoculations. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced higher soil N and available P in post harvest soil samples as compared to control. Study demonstrated that co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus species influenced the yield components positively than their separate inoculation and this effect could be more assenting with L-TRP. However, the approach of precursor-inocula interaction should be studied more comprehensively in different ecological zones to sustain the crop yield.

  8. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  9. Haloarchaea Endowed with Phosphorus Solubilization Attribute Implicated in Phosphorus Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sharma, Divya; Gulati, Sneha; Singh, Surender; Dey, Rinku; Pal, Kamal Krishna; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-07-28

    Archaea are unique microorganisms that are present in ecological niches of high temperature, pH and salinity. A total of 157 archaea were obtained from thirteen sediment, water and rhizospheric soil samples collected from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. With an aim to screen phosphate solubilizing archaea, a new medium was designed as Haloarchaea P Solubilization (HPS) medium. The medium supported the growth and P solubilization activity of archaea. Employing the HPS medium, twenty isolates showed the P-solubilization. Phosphate solubilizing archaea were identified as seventeen distinct species of eleven genera namely Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halolamina, Halosarcina, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, Natrinema and Natronoarchaeum. Natrinema sp. strain IARI-WRAB2 was identified as the most efficient P-solubilizer (134.61 mg/L) followed by Halococcus hamelinensis strain IARI-SNS2 (112.56 mg/L). HPLC analysis detected seven different kinds of organic acids, namely: gluconic acid, citric acid, formic acid, fumaric acid succinic acid, propionic acid and tartaric acid from the cultures of these isolates. These phosphate solubilizing halophilic archaea may play a role in P nutrition to vegetation growing in these hypersaline soils. This is the first report for these haloarchaea to solubilize considerable amount of P by production of organic acids and lowering of pH.

  10. Effect of Applying Phosphate-solubilizing Bacteria to Acid Purple Soil on Yield-increasing of Soybean%酸性紫色土施用溶磷菌对大豆的增产效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 谢庭生

    2012-01-01

    酸性紫色土大豆施用溶磷菌(水剂)的试验结果表明:与常规施肥比较,土壤中有效磷含量提高16.04%;大豆植株分枝数、株高、每株有效结荚数明显增加;最低结荚位明显降低,百粒鲜豆重明显增加;大豆单产提高7.87%,纯收入显著增加,产量增加达极显著水平;对土壤无污染,生态效益好.%Applying phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (water) to acid purple soil where planted soybean to conduct experiment. The results showed that the content of available phosphor in soil increased by 16.04%; the branch number, the plant height, the effective pot-setting number per plant and the fresh weight of bean increased obviously; the lowest pod position reduced obviously, but the fresh weight of 100 beans increased significantly; unit yield of soybean increased by 7.87%, the pure income increased significantly, and the yield-increasing reached significant level; this treatment had no pollution on soil and has good ecological benefit.

  11. Phosphate-solubility and phosphatase activity in Gangetic alluvial soil as influenced by organophosphate insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shyam Prasad; Das, Amal Chandra

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of four organophosphate insecticides, viz. monocrotophos, profenophos, quinalphos and triazophos at their field application rates (0.75, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.6 kg a.i.ha(-1), respectively), on the growth and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of insoluble phosphates in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal, India. The proliferation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms was highly induced with profenophos (38.3%), while monocrotophos exerted maximum stimulation (20.8%) towards the solubility of insoluble phosphates in soil. The phosphatase activities of the soil (both acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) were significantly increased due to the incorporation of the insecticides in general, and the augmentation was more pronounced with quinalphos (43.1%) followed by profenophos (27.6%) for acid phosphatase, and with monocrotophos (25.2%) followed by profenophos (16.1%) for alkaline phosphatase activity in soil. The total phosphorus was highly retained by triazophos (19.9%) followed by monocrotophos (16.5%), while incorporation of triazophos and quinalphos manifested greater availability of water soluble phosphorus in soil.

  12. Preparation of liquid bacterial fertilizer of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from food waste-recycling wastewater%餐厨垃圾废水制备液态解磷菌剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新愿; 祁光霞; 王永京; 李雨桥; 张希; 李冬; 任连海

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using food waste-recycling wastewater as fermentation substrate for producing liquid phosphate-solubilizing bacillus megaterium fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that bacillus megaterium cultured in the food waste-recycling wastewater reached logarithmic growth stage in as short as 3~4 days of adaptation period, and the number of strains reached the maxima on the 6~7th day. The wastewater II generated from hydrothermal pre-treatment was more suitable to be the fermentation substrate than wastewater I. The strain numbers cultured in wastewater II was 5times of what was cultured in wastewater I (4.8×1015CFU/mL). Salt concentration in the wastewater had great influence on the growth and metabolism of Bacillus megaterium: the strain numbers first increased and then steeply decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration, indicating that the optimal NaCl concentration for bacterial culture was 10g/L. The variation of pH and temperature affected the growth of bacillus megaterium significantly, while shaking speed and strain inoculation volume were not key influencing factors. The optimal culture conditions were pH 8, T=35℃, shaking speed 80r/min, and inoculums of 2%(V/V) as determined by orthogonal experiment. Phosphate-solubilizing fertilizer prepared by food waste-recycling wastewater was able to achieve effective phosphating of immobilized phosphorus: the dry weight of soy beans grown in soils amended with 0.025‰~2.5‰ of phosphate-solubilizing fertilizer was 70.7%~84.5%of that grown in the soil amended with 5%of inorganic fertilizer on weight basis. Moreover, the optimal amended ratio of the microbial fertilizer was 0.25‰.%本研究探讨了餐厨垃圾废水用作发酵基质生产液态解磷巨大芽孢杆菌菌肥的可行性.结果表明,餐厨垃圾废水培养的巨大芽孢杆菌经过3~4d的调整期即进入对数生长期,第6~7d活菌数达到最大,而经过湿热预处理得到的II类废水较I类废水

  13. Capacidade de solubilização de fosfatos e eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios isolados de solos da Amazônia = Phosphate solubilizing ability and symbiotic efficiency of isolated rhizobia from Amazonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Em solos com baixa disponibilidade de fósforo, como os de terra firme da Amazônia, a habilidade de estirpes de rizóbio de solubilizar compostos de fosfato inorgânico é extremamente importante. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a capacidade de solubilização de fosfato de cálcio (P-Ca e fosfato de alumínio (P-Al de isolados de rizóbio de solos na Amazônia em laboratório e a eficiência simbiótica dos isolados em aumentar os conteúdos de N e P em caupi. Os isolados de rizóbio foram avaliados em meios específicos para solubilização desses fosfatos por um período de 15 dias, obtendo-se os seus índices de solubilização (I.S.. Dos 205 isolados avaliados, 68 solubilizaram P-Ca, 47 solubilizaram P-Al e 32 solubilizaram tanto P–Ca quanto P–Al. Entre 14 isolados solubilizadores testados, 8 (INPA R820, INPA R825, INPA R843, INPA R894, INPA R914, INPA R917, INPAR969 e INPA R982 proporcionaram maiores teores de P na parte a��rea, consequentemente melhor eficiência na utilização de P e N pelas plantas assim como maior matéria seca da parte aérea.On soils with low available phosphorus, such as the Amazonian upland, the ability of rhizobium strains to solubilize inorganic phosphates is of extreme importance. The objective of this work was to determine the ability of rhizobium isolates from Amazonian soil to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphate in laboratory, and their symbiotic efficiency to increase N and P contents in cowpea. The rhizobiumisolates were evaluated on specific growth media during a period of 15 days, when solubilizing indexes (S.I. were obtained. From the 205 isolates, 68 solubilized P-Ca and 47 solubilized P-Al, and 32 solubilized P-Ca as well as P-Al. Among the 14 isolates with highest solubilizing activities, eight isolates (INPA R820, INPA R825, INPA R843, INPA R894, INPA R914, INPA R917, INPA R969 and INPA R982 provided higher shoot P and N contents and dry matter.

  14. Cloning of an Erwinia herbicola gene necessary for gluconic acid production and enhanced mineral phosphate solubilization in Escherichia coli HB101: nucleotide sequence and probable involvement in biosynthesis of the coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S T; Lee, L Y; Tai, C Y; Hung, C H; Chang, Y S; Wolfram, J H; Rogers, R; Goldstein, A H

    1992-09-01

    Escherichia coli is capable of synthesizing the apo-glucose dehydrogenase enzyme (GDH) but not the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), which is essential for formation of the holoenzyme. Therefore, in the absence of exogenous PQQ, E. coli does not produce gluconic acid. Evidence is presented to show that the expression of an Erwinia herbicola gene in E. coli HB101(pMCG898) resulted in the production of gluconic acid, which, in turn, implied PQQ biosynthesis. Transposon mutagenesis showed that the essential gene or locus was within a 1.8-kb region of a 4.5-kb insert of the plasmid pMCG898. This 1.8-kb region contained only one apparent open reading frame. In this paper, we present the nucleotide sequence of this open reading frame, a 1,134-bp DNA fragment coding for a protein with an M(r) of 42,160. The deduced sequence of this protein had a high degree of homology with that of gene III (M(r), 43,600) of a PQQ synthase gene complex from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus previously identified by Goosen et al. (J. Bacteriol. 171:447-455, 1989). In minicell analysis, pMCG898 encoded a protein with an M(r) of 41,000. These data indicate that E. coli HB101(pMCG898) produced the GDH-PQQ holoenzyme, which, in turn, catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid in the periplasmic space. As a result of the gluconic acid production, E. coli HB101(pMCG898) showed an enhanced mineral phosphate-solubilizing phenotype due to acid dissolution of the hydroxyapatite substrate.

  15. Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to Cymbopogon martinii var. motia by rhizobacteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, N; Kumar, S; Verma, H N; Gautam, S P

    2001-01-01

    The interactive effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, N2 fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were studied in a low phosphate alkaline soil amended with tricalcium insoluble source of inorganic phosphate on the growth of an aromatic grass palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii). The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus aggregatum, phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria Bacillus polymyxa and N2 fixing bacteria Azospirillum brasilense. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper" and enhanced root colonization by G. aggregatum in presence of tricalcium phosphate at the rate of 200 mg kg(-1) soil (P1 level). Dual inoculation of G. aggregatum and B. polymyxa yielded 21.5 g plant dry weight (biomass), while it was 21.7 g in B. polymyxa and A. brasilense inoculated plants as compared to 14.9 g of control at the same level. Phosphate content was maximum (0.167%) in the combined treatment of G. aggregatum, B. polymyxa and A. brasilense at P1 level, however acid phosphatase activity was recorded to be 4.75 pmol mg(-1) min(-1) in G. aggregatum, B. polymyxa and A. brasilense treatment at P0 level. This study indicates that all microbes inoculated together help in the uptake of tricalcium phosphate which is otherwise not used by the plants and their addition at 200 mg kg(-1) of soil gave higher productivity to palmarosa plants.

  16. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  17. Solubilizing excipients in oral and injectable formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickley, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    A review of commercially available oral and injectable solution formulations reveals that the solubilizing excipients include water-soluble organic solvents (polyethylene glycol 300, polyethylene glycol 400, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide), non-ionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH 40, Cremophor RH 60, d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, Solutol HS 15, sorbitan monooleate, poloxamer 407, Labrafil M-1944CS, Labrafil M-2125CS, Labrasol, Gellucire 44/14, Softigen 767, and mono- and di-fatty acid esters of PEG 300, 400, or 1750), water-insoluble lipids (castor oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, peppermint oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated vegetable oils, hydrogenated soybean oil, and medium-chain triglycerides of coconut oil and palm seed oil), organic liquids/semi-solids (beeswax, d-alpha-tocopherol, oleic acid, medium-chain mono- and diglycerides), various cyclodextrins (alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin), and phospholipids (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol). The chemical techniques to solubilize water-insoluble drugs for oral and injection administration include pH adjustment, cosolvents, complexation, microemulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, micelles, liposomes, and emulsions.

  18. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mulissa

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... demonstrated by the increase in the number of root nodules, shoot dry matter, nitrogen and ..... observed for the development of pink color and their absorbance ... negative rhizobacteria than Gram positive (Muleta et al.,.

  19. (VAM) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... These parameters were maximum with dual inoculation than individually. The results .... and after a week of germination time, they were thinned to one plant per ..... (Glycine max L. Merrill) and nutrient status of soil. Crop Res.

  20. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Despite this, a large proportion (75 to 90%) of fertilizer P .... nitrogen salts such as Urea, KNO3, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NaNO2 (Figure. 2). Phospholytic activity of fungus along with MHB strains without any carbon and nitrogen sources acted as control and .... complexity of CaP chemistry, release of microbial.

  1. Water-holding capacity of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides in pressed potato fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.; Gruppen, H.; Kabel, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressed potato fibres (PPF), a by-product of starch production, has a high water-holding capacity (WHC).In this study, it is shown that the WHC is caused by a network of mainly insoluble, non-cellulosic cellwall polysaccharides (CWPs). Despite the solubilization of one-fourth of the CWPs from PPF, r

  2. Distribution of phosphate solubilizer fungi on soil microhabitats in two landscapes from Guaviare, Colombia Distribución de hongos solubilizadores de fosfatos en dos microhábitats de suelo de dos unidades fisiográficas de Guaviare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Hernando

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the phosphate solubilizer mycobiota in two different soil microhabitats present in Guaviare, Colombia, were studied. Twelve samples from Arazá rhizosphere (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh and from soil without roots were processed using the soil wahing method (Domsch  et al., 1980. The percentage of colonization of soil particles by fungi was 69 %, with a higher intensity of colonization coming from the rhizospheric microhabitat. The high percentage of potential solubilizer colonies may point to this type of soil as reserve pf solubilizer fungi. The rhizospheric effect has been the main factor involved in the composition of the solubilizer fungi community.Se investigó la distribución de la micobiota solubilizadora de fosfatos presente en dos microhábitats de suelo, de dos unidades fisiográficas (paisajes ubicadas en el Departamento del Guaviare, Colombia, siendo seleccionada una parcela por unidad fisiográfica. Con el fin de obtener los aislamientos, se procesaron un total de cada12 muestras de suelo por parcela, tomadas de la rizosfera del arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh y de suelo libre de raíces a través del método de "Lavado de Suelo" de Domsch et al., (1980. El porcentaje de colonización de los hongos sobre las partículas del suelo fue de 69%
    y existió una mayor intensidad en la colonización de partículas provenientes del microhábitat rizosférico. Un total de 21% de colonias con potencial solubilizador es indicativo de la eventual reserva de hongos solubilizadores presente en estos suelos. El efecto rizosfera fue el principal factor determinante de la composición de la comunidad fúngica solubilizadora.

  3. Isolation and Screening, Identification of Phosphorus-solubilizing Bacteria in Rhizosphere Soil of Pinus massonuana and Its Phosphate-degradation Capacity%马尾松根际土壤溶磷菌分离筛选、鉴定及其溶磷效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏飞; 刘君昂; 靳爱仙; 谭益民; 李蓉

    2012-01-01

    为了筛选出优良的溶磷菌株,为进一步研制生物复合肥提供基础资料和理论、实践依据,采用NBRIP培养基从马尾松不同林龄根际土壤中分离出具有溶磷能力的菌株431株,不同林龄溶磷菌数量分布有差异,其数量为15年> 20年>25年>10年>2年.用溶磷圈法初筛出11株D/d比值较大的菌株,经钼锑抗比色法测定其溶磷量,最后复筛出1株解有机磷能力较强的菌株yL14.结合形态特征、生理生化特性及16S rDNA序列分析表明,yL14菌株属于黄褐假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fulva),该菌溶磷能力达65.14 mg/L.试验表明,相对于对照试验培养液的pH值,溶磷菌培养液pH值均略有下降,但是pH值与溶磷量之间无线性关系.该试验获得了溶磷能力较强的菌株,可作为下一步研制生物复合肥的优良菌种.%In order to filter out the fine phosphate-solubilizing strains, for the further development of bio-fertilizer to provide basic information and theoretical and practical basis, 431 phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil in differrent stand ages of Pinus massonuana sand-fixation forest by NBRIP solid medium. There was different amount of phosphate-solubilizing microorganism in different stand ages of Pinus massonuana sand-fixation forest rhizosphere, the amount in different stand age was in the order: 15 years>20 years>25 years>10 years>2 years. 11 stains were selected by means of phosphorus hole, their D/d ratio was higher. Phosphorus solubilizing capability of the strains with the molybdenum blue spectrophotometry indicated that yL14 showed stronger ability of dissolving phosphorus, based on the physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences, isolate yL14 belonged to the genus Pseudomonas fulva. Its phosphate solubilization capacity was 65.14 mg/L. According to the experiments, there was not directly relationship between the phosphate-dissolving capacity of phosphorus-solubilizing

  4. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren-kou; ZHU Yong-guan; David Chittleborough

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by Iow-molecular-weight organic acids.Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was not correlated with PKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearrly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  5. Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the Zn compounds tested. G. diazotrophicus PAl5 efficiently solubilized the Zn compounds tested and ZnO was effectively solubilized than ZnCO(3) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2). The soluble Zn concentration was determined in the culture supernatant through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 5-ketogluconic acid, a derivative of gluconic acid as the major organic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus PAl5 cultured with glucose as carbon source. This organic anion may be an important agent that helped in the solubilization of insoluble Zn compounds.

  6. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  7. Isolation and Identification of Alicyclobacillus A1 and Its Bio-solubilization of Middle- and Low-grade Rock Phosphates%脂环酸芽孢杆菌 A1的分离鉴定及其对中低品位磷矿的溶磷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌凌; 吕早生; 杨忠华; 左振宇; 李尧益

    2016-01-01

    Bio-solubilization of phosphorous has pioneered a novel approach to make full use of rich but refractory middle- and low-grade phosphate ores in China,and this work aims to screen high-efficiency phosphorous-solubilizing bacteria for utilization of middle- and low-grade phosphate ores. A facultative heterotrophic strain A1 was isolated from the acid mine drainage of Yichang phosphate mines of Hubei province, and was identified as Alicyclobacillus aeris according to its morphological,physiological and biochemical characteristics,and 16S rDNA sequence. For strain A1,YSG medium was optimal among four media regarding bacterial growth and its bio-solubilization of phosphorous from phosphate ores ;the fraction of phosphorous leached by strain A1 reached 77.22%,which increased about 62% compared to chemical leaching of abiotic control. According to X-ray diffraction(XRD)analyses of raw phosphate ores and bioleached residues in YSG medium as well as high performance liquid chromatography of the leachate,soluble phosphates were released by dissolving fluorapatite and carbonate-fluorapatite in phosphate ores via organic acid mixture(mainly oxilic acid and citric acid)generated during the fermentation of strain A1 with organic carbon sources,and simultaneously gypsum was formed.%微生物溶磷技术为充分利用我国丰富但难选的中低品位磷矿开辟了一条新的途径。旨在筛选出针对中低品位磷矿的高效溶磷菌,从湖北宜昌磷矿的酸性矿坑水中分离出一株兼性嗜酸异养菌 A1。经菌株形态特征、生理生化指标和16S rDNA 序列分析,鉴定属于 Alicyclobacillus aeris。分析 A1菌在4种不同培养基的生长及浸磷情况,结果显示,菌株 A1在 YSG 培养基中生长及溶解中低品位磷矿的情况最佳,其中磷的浸出率高达77.22%,与无菌对照的化学浸出相比约提高了62%。根据原始磷矿和A1菌在 YSG 培养基中溶解的磷矿矿渣的物相分析及相应浸矿液的

  8. Biosolubilization of poorly soluble rock phosphates by Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Sudhakara; Kumar, Surender; Babita, K; Reddy, M S

    2002-09-01

    Three isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and two isolates of Aspergillus niger isolated from rhizospheric soils were tested on solubilization of different rock phosphates. All the isolates of Aspergillus were capable of solubilizing all the natural rock phosphates. A. tubingensis (AT1) showed maximum percent solubilization in all the rock phosphates tested in this study when compared to other isolates. This isolate also showed highest phosphorus (P) solubilization when grown in the presence of 2% of rock phosphate. A. tubingensis (AT1) seems to be more efficient in solubilization of rock phosphates compared to other isolates reported elsewhere. This is the first report of rock phosphate solubilization by A. tubingensis and might provide an efficient large scale biosolubilization of rock phosphates intended for P fertilizer.

  9. Alkaline phosphatase of Physarum polycephalum is insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    The plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum grow as multinucleated cells in the presence of sufficient humidity and nutriment. Under non-illuminating conditions, stresses such as low temperature or high concentrations of salts transform the plasmodia into spherules whereas dehydration induces sclerotization. Some phosphatases including protein phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been purified from the plasmodia, but alkaline phosphatase remains to be elucidated. Phosphatase of the plasmodia, spherules and sclerotia was visualized by electrophoresis gel-staining assay using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Insoluble fractions of the sclerotia were abundant in phosphatase activity. The phosphatase which was extracted by nonionic detergent was subjected to column chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Purified phosphatase showed the highest activity at pH 8.8, indicating that this enzyme belongs to alkaline phosphatase. The apparent molecular mass from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing condition was estimated to be 100 kDa whereas that under reducing was 105 kDa. An amount of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.5 M NaCl had no effects on the activity although the phosphatase showed heat instability, Mg(2+)-dependency and sensitivity to 2-glycerophosphate or NaF. The extracting conditions and enzymatic properties suggest that this alkaline phosphatase which is in a membrane-bound form plays important roles in phosphate metabolism.

  10. Empigen BB: a useful detergent for solubilization and biochemical analysis of keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowthert, L A; Ku, N O; Liao, J; Coulombe, P A; Omary, M B

    1995-01-05

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins make up some of the most insoluble proteins known, and within the IF protein family, keratins are the least soluble. We compared the efficiency of nonionic, cationic, mixed nonionic and anionic, and zwitterionic detergents in solubilizing keratins from insect cells that express recombinant human keratins and from human colonic cell lines and normal keratinocytes. The cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was similar to the zwitterionic detergent Empigen BB in its ability to efficiently solubilize keratins, but the latter detergent was superior in that it maintained antibody reactivity and allowed for immunoprecipitation of the keratins. Although Nonidet-P40 partially solubilizes keratins, Empigen BB solubilizes a significant amount of keratins not solubilized by Nonidet-P40. In the case of vimentin, differences in solubilization efficiency among the detergents was not as dramatic as with keratins. Our results show that Empigen BB solubilizes a significant amount of epidermal and glandular keratins while preserving antigenicity. This detergent should prove useful for carrying out biochemical and molecular studies on these proteins and may be similarly beneficial for other IF proteins.

  11. Comparative value of phosphate sources on the immobilization of lead, and leaching of lead and phosphorus in lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-01-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of lead (Pb) in soils can be mitigated by its immobilization using both soluble and insoluble phosphate (P) compounds. The effectiveness of insoluble P sources on Pb immobilization depends on their rate of dissolution which can be enhanced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). In this study, the effect of soluble (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) and insoluble (rock phosphate in the presence and absence of PSB) P compounds on the immobilization of Pb, and leaching of Pb and P was examined using both naturally contaminated (SR soil: NH₄NO₃ extractable Pb: 28.7 mg/kg, pH: 5.88, organic matter: 0.7%) and Pb spiked (AH soil: NH(4)NO(3) extractable Pb: 42.7 mg/kg, pH: 5.23, organic matter: 10.9%) soils. Phosphate compounds were added at the rate of 200 mg P/kg and 800 mg P/kg for SR and AH soils, respectively. Soluble P treatment immobilized 80% and 57% of Pb in SR and AH soils, respectively. Insoluble rock phosphate immobilized 40% and 9% of Pb without PSB, and 60% and 17% with PSB in SR and AH soils, respectively. Lead leaching was the lowest when soils were amended with rock phosphate in the presence of PSB, which reduced Pb leaching by 36% for SR soil and 18% for AH soil compared to the control. The leaching of Pb increased when the soils were amended with soluble P because soluble P treatment increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of soil, thereby increasing Pb mobility. Soluble P treatment significantly increased P leaching and 9% of total added P was leached from low P retaining AH soil. The optimum level of P amendment is a critical issue when soluble P is used as a Pb immobilizing agent because of eutrophication resulting from excessive P leaching to surface and ground water. While the soluble P compound was effective in the immobilization of Pb, it resulted in P leaching which increased with increasing levels of P addition. However, rock phosphate amendment with PSB achieved the immobilization of Pb with

  12. Polymeric Nanosuspensions for Enhanced Dissolution of Water Insoluble Drugs

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    Roya Yadollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate polymeric nanosuspensions containing three model water insoluble drugs, nifedipine (NIF, carbamazepine (CBZ, and ibuprofen (IBU with various physicochemical properties. The nanosuspensions were prepared from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP by a cosolvent technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG-300 and water as the cosolvents. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the nanosuspensions (particle size, polydispersity index, and crystallinity have been correlated with the drug release behaviour. The effects of polymer, drug ratio on the physical, morphological, and dissolution characteristics of the drugs are reported. Drug release is significantly enhanced from the nanosuspensions; for example, the maximum NIF, IBU, and CBZ concentrations after 8-hour dissolution are increased approximately 37, 2, and 1.2 times, respectively, in comparison with the pure powdered drugs. Based on this solubilization enhancement performance, the nanosuspensions have potential for increasing the orally dosed bioavailability of NIF, IBU, and CBZ.

  13. Isolation of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from the Rhizosphere of Mangrove Plants and Their Enhancement to the Growth of Kandelia candel Seedlings%红树林固氮菌和解磷菌的分离及对秋茄苗的促生效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪香; 李玫; 廖宝文

    2012-01-01

    Fifty nine isolates of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated based on the characteristics of morphology and growth of the bacteria on the selective growth media from the rhizosphere of mangrove plants including Bruguiera gymnorhiza, B. Sexangula, Kandelia candel, Rhizophora stylosa, Sonneratia apetala and S. Caseolaris in Zhanjiang and Zhuhai, Guangdong Province and Dongzhai harbor, Hainan Island. Among them 7 isolates of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and 8 isolates of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were screened as propagule inoculants of K. Candel in a series of potted experiments to examine their capability to promote the growth of plants. The results showed that the inoculation with a single isolate of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria He4# resulted in a significant increase in plant height, root mass and total biomass at the rate of 58.4% , 132. 1% and 133. 2% , respectively. The enhancement of isolate He4# on the plant growth is more significant than that of an alien isolate (Bacillus lichenciformis). The root biomass and total biomass of K. Candel inoculated He4# increased by 72. 7% and 90. 2% than those inoculated B. Lichenciformis. All pure inoculations with 7 different isolates of nitrogen-fixing bacteria showed positive response to the plant growth, and the inoculation with isolateNgqq-R14 resulted in the maximum increase in plant height, stem diameter, stem dry mass, root dry mass and total biomass at the rate of 38. 36% , 16. 19% , 75. 46% , 51. 55% and 59. 31% , respectively. Dual inoculations with 7 mixtures of one isolate of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and one isolate of phos-phate-solubilizing bacteria could result in synergistic effect on the growth of the seedlings of K. Candel, and the increase of plant height, stem dry mass, root dry mass and total biomass were 21. 1% -69. 4% , 70. 7% -271. 3% , 27. 1% - 111. 3% and 66. 9% - 123. 8% respectively. It can be concluded that u-sing mixed cultures of microorganisms is

  14. Solubilization and Humanization of Paraoxonase-1

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    Mohosin Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a serum protein, the activity of which is related to susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and intoxication by organophosphorus (OP compounds. It may also be involved in innate immunity, and it is a possible lead molecule in the development of a catalytic bioscavenger of OP pesticides and nerve agents. Human PON1 expressed in E. coli is mostly found in the insoluble fraction, which motivated the engineering of soluble variants, such as G2E6, with more than 50 mutations from huPON1. We examined the effect on the solubility, activity, and stability of three sets of mutations designed to solubilize huPON1 with fewer overall changes: deletion of the N-terminal leader, polar mutations in the putative HDL binding site, and selection of the subset of residues that became more polar in going from huPON1 to G2E6. All three sets of mutations increase the solubility of huPON1; the HDL-binding mutant has the largest effect on solubility, but it also decreases the activity and stability the most. Based on the G2E6 polar mutations, we “humanized” an engineered variant of PON1 with high activity against cyclosarin (GF and found that it was still very active against GF with much greater similarity to the human sequence.

  15. Behavior of inorganic elements during sludge ozonation and their effects on sludge solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Nishimura, Fumitake; Nagare, Hideaki; Hidaka, Taira; Nakagawa, Yuko; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of inorganic elements (including phosphorus, nitrogen, and metals) during sludge ozonation was investigated using batch tests and the effects of metals on sludge solubilization were elucidated. A decrease of ∼ 50% in the ratio of sludge solubilization was found to relate to a high iron content 80-120 mgFe/gSS than that of 4.7-7.4 mgFe/gSS. During sludge ozonation, the pH decreased from 7 to 5, which resulted in the dissolution of chemically precipitated metals and phosphorus. Based on experimental results and thermodynamic calculation, phosphate precipitated by iron and aluminum was more difficult to release while that by calcium released with decrease in pH. The release of barium, manganese, and chrome did not exceed 10% and was much lower than COD solubilization; however, that of nickel, copper, and zinc was similar to COD solubilization. The ratio of nitrogen solubilization was 1.2 times higher than that of COD solubilization (R(2)=0.85). Of the total nitrogen solubilized, 80% was organic nitrogen. Because of their high accumulation potential and negative effect on sludge solubilization, high levels of iron and aluminum in both sewage and sludge should be considered carefully for the application of the advanced sewage treatment process with sludge ozonation and phosphorus crystallization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extractant efficiency in the solubilization of alternative sources of potassium

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    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a rock’s composition allows for inferences regarding several properties, ranging from its physical characteristics to its solubility. This study aimed to evaluate the use of different extractants to solubilize the K present in rocks as a potential source of nutrients and the effects of extractant contact time and temperature on rock solubilization. Samples of two rocks and a mineral concentrated from a granitic rock were treated with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4(H2PO4, calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO42, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and water (control. Sample-extractant treatments were performed using a water bath shaker at temperatures of 25 and 50°C for periods of 3, 7, 10, 20, and 30 days. The amounts of K extracted from rocks using the extractants were in the following order: NH4H2PO4>Ca(HPO42>NaOH>water. The sequence of K release (ppm based on the rocks studied was as follows: nepheline syenite>green banded argillite>concentrated biotite. Increasing the extractant contact time and temperature enhanced the solubilized K content.

  17. Assessing the Zinc solubilization ability of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in maize rhizosphere using labelled (65)Zn compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathambal, C; Thangaraju, M; Paulraj, C; Gomathy, M

    2010-10-01

    Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds like ZnCO(3) and ZnO by G. diazotrophicus was confirmed using radiotracers. The zinc compounds (ZnCO(3) and ZnO) were tagged with (65)Zn. (65)ZnCO(3) and (65)ZnO was effectively solubilized and the uptake of zn by the plants also more in G. diazotrophicus inoculated treatments compared to the uninoculated treatments. Three types of soils (Zn deficientsterile, Zn deficient-unsterile, and Zn sufficient-sterile) were used in experiment. Among the three soils, Zn deficient-unsterile soil registered maximum zinc solubilization compared to other two soils. This may be due to other soil microorganisms in unsterile soil. Application of ZnO with G. diazotrophicus showed better uptake of the nutrient.

  18. Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Jamil, Moazzam; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-09-01

    Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis. All the selected isolates were also positive for oxidase activity (except ZM22), HCN production (except ZM27) and utilization of citrate. More than 70% of isolates produces ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, exopolysaccharides and cellulase. More than half of isolates also showed potential for urease activity and production of lipase. The ZM31 and S10 were the only isolates which showed the chitinase activity. All these isolates were evaluated in a jar trial for their ability to promote growth of maize under axenic conditions. Results revealed that inoculation of selected zinc solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates improved the growth of maize. In comparison, isolates ZM20, ZM31, ZM63 and S10 were best compared to other tested isolates in stimulating the growth attributes of maize like shoot length, root length, plant fresh and dry biomass. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. (ZM20), Bacillus aryabhattai (ZM31 and S10) and Bacillus subtilis (ZM63) through 16S rRNA sequencing. This study indicated that inoculation of Zn solubilizing strains have potential to promote growth and can be the potential bio-inoculants for biofortification of maize to overcome the problems of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Solubilization and fractionation of paired helical filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P J; Correas, I; Avila, J

    1992-09-01

    Paired helical filaments isolated from brains of two different patients with Alzheimer's disease were extensively treated with the ionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulphate. Filaments were solubilized at different extents, depending on the brain examined, thus suggesting the existence of two types of paired helical filaments: sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble and insoluble filaments. In the first case, the number of structures resembling paired helical filaments greatly decreased after the detergent treatment, as observed by electron microscopy. Simultaneously, a decrease in the amount of sedimentable protein was also observed upon centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-treated paired helical filaments. A sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was isolated as a supernatant after low-speed centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulphate-treated paired helical filaments. The addition of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 to this fraction resulted in the formation of paired helical filament-like structures. When the sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was further fractionated by high-speed centrifugation, three subfractions were observed: a supernatant, a pellet and a thin layer between these two subfractions. No paired helical filaments were observed in any of these subfractions, even after addition of Nonidet P-40. However, when they were mixed back together, the treatment with Nonidet P-40 resulted in the visualization of paired helical filament-like structures. These results suggest that at least two different components are needed for the reconstitution of paired helical filaments as determined by electron microscopy. The method described here may allow the study of the components involved in the formation of paired helical filaments and the identification of possible factors capable of blocking this process.

  20. RAPID ASSOCIATION OF UNCONJUGATED BILIRUBIN WITH AMORPHOUS CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEERE, CN; SHOEMAKER, B; VANDERMEER, R; GROEN, AK; JANSEN, PLM; ELFERINK, RPJO

    1995-01-01

    The association of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) with amorphous calcium phosphate was studied in vitro. To this end UCB, solubilized in different micellar bile salt solutions, was incubated with freshly prepared calcium phosphate precipitate. It was demonstrated that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)

  1. 山西矿区复垦土壤中解磷细菌的筛选及鉴定%Screening and identification of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from reclaimed soil in Shanxi mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩; 刘善江; 白杨; 李亚星; 郜春花; 张强; 李建华

    2014-01-01

    Objectives]The rec1aimed soi1s are inferti1e and 1ack of avai1ab1e PhosPhate. PhosPhate so1ubi1izing bacteria are caPab1e of transfering inso1ub1e organic PhosPhorus and inorganic PhosPhorus into the avai1ab1e form for the uti1ization of P1ants. With the PurPose of eco1ogica1y recover the rec1aimed soi1s,PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing bacteria strains were screened and investigated for microbia1 ferti1izer Production.[Methods]Strains which had D/d va1ue ≥1. 5 were Pre-screened using P1ate screening methods,then the strains disP1aying PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing efficiency higher than Bacillus megaterium As1. 223 were Picked out with hydroPonics. The PhosPhate so1ubi1izing abi1ity and PhosPhatase activity of the iso1ated strains were assessed in 1iquid cu1ture with so1ubi1izing rock PhosPhate and 1ecithin as P sources . The growth abi1ity of strains assessed through their resistance to temPerature, sa1t and PH variations. Strains were identified by the methods of morPho1ogy,gene sequencing and ce11u1ar fatty acid comPositions ana1ysis,co1ony morPho1ogy was observed on nutrient agar,microbia1 morPho1ogy was observed by scanning e1ectron microscoPe,gene sequencing was Performed by 16S rDNA sequence ana1ysis and a1igned in EzTaxon,and ce11u1ar fatty acid comPositions ana1ysis was carried out by the Sher1ock Microbia1 Identification System( MIDI).[Results]About nineteen PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing bacteria strains are screened from the rec1aimed soi1s in Shanxi mining area with inorganic and organic PhosPhorus P1ate medium. The D/d va1ues of seven strains are ≥1. 5. In medium using Ca3( PO4 )2 as the PhosPhorus source,the PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing efficiencies of four strains are higher than that of Bacillus megaterium As1. 223 ,and the efficiencies are about 7. 89% -12. 61%. Among the four strains,Y14 has the highest efficiency. In the medium containing 1ecithin,the PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing efficiency and acid PhosPhatase activity of four strains are about 1. 79% -3. 07% and 24. 3

  2. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphat

  3. Impacto do glyphosate associado a inseticida e fungicida na atividade microbiana e no potencial de solubilização de fosfato em solo cultivado com soja Roundup Ready® Impact of glyphosate associated with insecticide and fungicide application on the microbial activity and potential phosphate solubilization in soil cultivated with Roundup Ready® soybean

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    M.R. Reis

    2009-01-01

    and phosphate solubilization potential of a soil cultivated with soybean under different phytosanitary management strategies. The experiment was conducted in the field in a Cambic red-yellow Argisol. Ten treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The effect of fungicide + herbicide application (endosulphan + tebuconazole was evaluated in the plots, while weed control management was studied in the subplots (hoed or unhoed control; single-dose or sequential glyphosate application; single-dose fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil application. Soil samples from the inter-row were collected when plants reached the R2 stage and were used to measure soil respiratory rate, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, metabolic quotient (qCO2, phosphate solubilization potential, and pH. The phyto-sanitary management strategies evaluated did not affect soil respiratory rates. The herbicides tested influenced soil MBC and qCO2, variables directly related to soil quality. Glyphosate applied in a single dose or sequentially, either in combination with endosulphan + tebuconazole or not, led to lower qCO2 values (0.075-0.079 mg μg-1 d-1 and higher MBC (239.64 - 312.82 μg g-1, indicating less soil disturbance. Higher phosphate solubilizing activity, 425 and 472 mg L-1 , were observed for the treatments with single-dose or sequential application of glyphosate, respectively, in the absence of endosulfan + tebuconazole. Agrochemical application on soybean shoots affects the activity of soil microorganisms in the plant rhizosphere.

  4. Nonionic Microemulsions as Solubilizers of Hydrophobic Drugs: Solubilization of Paclitaxel

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    Jen-Ting Lo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategy using nonionic microemulsion as a solubilizer for hydrophobic drugs was studied and is demonstrated in this work. The aqueous phase behaviors of mixed nonionic surfactants with various oils at 37 °C are firstly constructed to give the optimal formulations of nonionic microemulsions with applications in the enhanced solubilization of the model hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, at 37 °C. Briefly, the suitable oil phase with paclitaxel significantly dissolved is microemulsified with appropriate surfactants. Surfactants utilized include Tween 80, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (4.3 cocoyl ether, while various kinds of edible oils and fatty esters are used as the oil phase. On average, the apparent solubility of paclitaxel is increased to ca. 70–100 ppm in the prepared microemulsions at 37 °C using tributyrin or ethyl caproate as the oil phases. The sizes of the microemulsions attained are mostly from ca. 60 nm to ca. 200 nm. The cytotoxicity of the microemulsion formulations is assessed with the cellular viability of 3T3 cells. In general, the cell viability is above 55% after 24 h of cultivation in media containing these microemulsion formulations diluted to a concentration of total surfactants equal to 50 ppm and 200 ppm.

  5. AISLAMIENTO E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS, HABITANTES DE LA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DA FOSFATO, HABITANTES DA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA INHABITING THE RIZHOSPHERE OF PEACH PALM (B. gassipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS PATIÑO TORRES

    2012-12-01

    populações dominante foram: Burkholderia ambifaria e B. sp. 383, seguido por Pseudomonas putida, espécies reconhecidas mundialmente para suaatividade solubilizadora, e como rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas (RPCP.The chontaduro or pejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, is a species native of rainforest of Colombian's Pacific Coast, adapted to soils with high acidity and depleted in nutrients, especially phosphorus.The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, including bacteria (BSP, improve the availability of this nutrient, therefore, the need to isolate, recognize and identify those in the rhizosphere, as one of the mechanisms of adaptation of this species. Once isolated and purified in medium free of sources of soluble phosphorus, bacterial populations were identified using sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and molecular genotyping by BOX-PCR, stating that in the study site, the dominant populations were Burkholderia ambifaria and B. sp. 383, followed by Pseudomonas putida, species recognized globally for its solubilizing activity, and as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR.

  6. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

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    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  7. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  8. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... root-rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition ... Rhizobium sp. compared to plants without Rhizobium sp. Inoculation of P. putida .... 42%, electrical conductivity 0.67, available N 95.90 mg/kg soil, available P 11.4 ...

  9. PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILISING RHIZOBACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH PHASEOLUS COCCINEUS L. RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Native phosphate solubilizing bacteria were isolated from runner bean rhizosphere in order to study their effect on releases of soluble phosphorus from inorganic P sources. 34.37% of the rhizobacteria isolates solubilized CaHPO4 in the qualitative P-solubilization plate method after seven days of incubation. The best PSB isolates were selected for further study concerning P-solubilization in liquid culture. All these isolates showed higher potential for solubilization of inorganic P as indicated by the increase of P amount in the RPAM medium. Our results showed that PSB strains play a significant role in the acidification of the medium facilitating the P solubilization probably due to organic acid production.

  10. 不同解磷菌剂对美国山核桃根际微生物和酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria on Rhizosphere Microorganism and Enzyme Activities of Pecan Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旋; 朱天辉; 刘旭

    2012-01-01

    A potting experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of three phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ( PSB) (Pseudomonas chlororaphis, P. Fluorescens, Bacillus cereus) and their mixture on rhizosphere soil microorganism and enzyme activities at three growth stages of pecan ( Carya illinoensis) seedlings subjected to three application levels of calcium-superphosphate. Results showed that; Inoculation of the three PSB and their mixture increased the amounts of rhizosphere bacteria and actinomyces, reduced the amounts of rhizosphere fungi, and enhanced activities of phosphatase and urease. However, the effects on rhizosphere microorganism and enzyme activities decreased progressively with increase of calcium-superphosphate content. The bacteria mixture was stronger effects than that of any single bacterium, and brought about the most rhizosphere bacteria and actinomyces, the lest rhizosphere fungi, and the highest activities of phosphatase and urease in all three application levels of calcium-superphosphate compared to inoculation with any single bacteria.%通过盆栽试验研究3种施P水平下绿针假单胞菌、荧光假单胞菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌3种细菌及其混合菌群对美国山核桃苗3个生长时期根际微生物数量和酶活性的影响.结果表明:施加4种细菌菌剂后山核桃根际土壤中的细菌和放线菌数量增加,真菌数量减少,土壤磷酸酶和脲酶活性上升;3种施P水平下,随着施P水平的提高,各种菌剂对根际微生物数量和酶活性的影响逐渐降低,且3种细菌的混合菌剂较单一菌种对根际微生物数量及土壤磷酸酶和脲酶活性的影响更大.

  11. 南方红豆杉根际溶无机磷细菌的筛选、鉴定及其促生效果%Screening, identification, and promoting effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in rhizosphere of Taxus chinensis var.mairei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任嘉红; 刘辉; 吴晓蕙; 王青; 任英瑜; 刘亚静; 冯玉龙

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对南方红豆杉(Taxus chinensis var.mairei)根际溶无机磷细菌进行了分离、筛选与鉴定,并对获得的高效溶磷菌株进行了温室盆栽试验.本研究为通过生物途径改善南方红豆杉磷素供应,促进其生长提供了优良的菌株资源.[方法]利用选择培养基从南方红豆杉根际土壤中共分离出具溶磷能力的细菌;采用NBRI-BPB培养基进行复筛获得溶磷能力较强的溶无机磷细菌;并采用钼锑抗比色法测量其在NBRIP培养基中经4d发酵后的可溶性磷含量;通过形态指标、生理生化测定、Biolog系统和16S rDNA序列分析鉴定细菌种类;并进行了溶磷菌株的室内盆栽实生苗接种试验.[结论]从南方红豆杉根际共分离出4株高效溶磷细菌,分别鉴定为荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)、蜡状芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、草木樨中华根瘤菌(Sinorhizobium meliloti)和地衣芽胞杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis);4株细菌对南方红豆杉苗期的生长有明显的促进作用.%[ Objective] Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were isolated, screened and identified from the rhizosphere of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei, and growth-promoting effects on T. Chinensis var. Mairei by high effective PSB were determined. [Methods] By using selective culture media, PSB were isolated from rhizospheric soil, the high effective PSB was further screened using NBRI-BPB medium, and the molybdenum-antimony anti-spectrophotometric method was applied to determine the phosphate-dissolving ability of the high effective PSB after four days fermentation in NBRIP medium. Bacteria were identified by the Biolog system combined with 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The inoculation test in potted seedlings was carried out under the greenhouse. [ Conclusion ] Four strains of high effective PSB were screened and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescent, Bacillus cereus

  12. Optimized lysis buffer reagents for solubilization and preservation of proteins from cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byeong Hee; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Reagents that facilitate solubilization of cells and tissues while preserving the biological activity of their constituents play a major role in various applications including drug delivery. Such reagents are necessary for the accurate determination of cellular and tissue concentrations of proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, and to measure therapeutic efficacy of drug delivery technologies. Surfactant-based reagents are commonly used for this purpose; however, their utility is marred either by limited ability to solubilize or tendency to denature the proteins during solubilization. Here, we report on the screening and identification of combinations of nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants that possess excellent ability to solubilize mechanically strong and elastic tissues such as skin, while preserving its protein constituents. The leading combination, comprising an equi-mass mixture of 3-(N,N-dimethyl myristyl ammonio) propanesulfonate (TPS, CAS number:14933-09-6) and polyoxyethylene(10) cetyl ether (Brij® C10, CAS number: 9004-95-9) with a total surfactant concentration 0.5 % w/v, solubilized keratinocytes and preserved the activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) enzyme in its extracts at room temperature for 7 days. The ability of this mixture to preserve GAPDH activity far exceeded that of a commonly used reagent, Triton-X100. The same mixture also helped solubilize mouse skin to extract proteins and maintain detectable activity of GAPDH in the extract for 1 day. Several other mixtures of nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants were studied. These mixtures provide new reagents for solubilization of cells and tissues for research as well as technological applications.

  13. Phosphorus solubilization and plant growth enhancement by arsenic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient, which is limited in most soils. The P solubilization and growth enhancement ability of seven arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB), which were isolated from arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata, was investigated. Siderophore-producing ARB (PG4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12 and 16) were effective in solubilizing P from inorganic minerals FePO4 and phosphate rock, and organic phytate. To reduce bacterial P uptake we used filter-sterilized Hoagland medium containing siderophores or phytase produced by PG12 or PG6 to grow tomato plants supplied with FePO4 or phytate. To confirm that siderophores were responsible for P release, we compared the mutants of siderophore-producing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf5 (PchA) impaired in siderophore production with the wild type and test strains. After 7d of growth, mutant PchA solubilized 10-times less P than strain PG12, which increased tomato root biomass by 1.7 times. For phytate solubilization by PG6, tomato shoot biomass increased by 44% than control bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis. P solubilization by ARB from P. vittata may be useful in enhancing plant growth and nutrition in other crop plants.

  14. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria growth and effects on soil phosphorus adsorption-desorption characteristics in reclaimed soils%磷细菌在复垦土壤上生长规律及对磷解析特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 乔志伟; 洪坚平; 谢英荷; 张铁全

    2015-01-01

    ecological environment in subsidence areas. Phosphorus (P) solubilizing bacteria in soil, an important role in P cycling, can convert insoluble phosphate into available P. Application of P solubilizing bacteria is an effective bio-measure in improvement of reclaimed soil. However, the effects of P solubilizing bacteria on P adsorption-desorption in reclaimed soil have been less concerned. In this study, reclamation soil samples were collected in mining-driven subsidence areas and laboratory incubation experiments conducted via application of P solubilizing bacteria and other different fertilizers (glucose, G; urine, U; organic fertilizer, M) on reclaimed soils. The soil available P, organic P contents and P adsorption-desorption characteristics were investigated after different times of incubation. The objectives of the study were to determine the P solubilizing bacteria effects on soil P nutrient and provide reference for rapid fertility of reclaimed soils. Seven treatments were conducted — control (no bacteria and fertilizers, CK); P solubilizing bacteria only (B); organic fertilizer only (M); P solubilizing bacteria and glucose (BG); P solubilizing bacteria and urine (BU); P solubilizing bacteria, glucose and urine (BGU); and P solubilizing bacteria, glucose, urine and organic fertilizer (BGUM). The amount of P solubilizing bacteria in one pot with 500 g soil was 5 mL P solubilizing bacteria fermented liquid (with P·solubilizing bacteria 1.2×108 CFU·mL-1). The results showed that the amount of P solubilizing bacteria in soil initially increased and then decreased during the incubation period. Under BGUM treatment, the amount of P solubilizing bacteria decreased from 1.0×106 CFU·g-1 at the start of the experiment to 3.3×104 CFU·g-1 after 60 days of cultivation, which was 300, 367, 1 650 and 3 300 times of those of BGU, BG, BU and B treatments, respectively. Soil available P contents of M, B and BGUM treatments were 172.27 mg·kg-1, 3.00 mg·kg-1 and188.9 mg·kg-1

  15. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes. Solubilization inhibition and complement factor levels in SLE patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, Ivan; Kappelgaard, E;

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two of 36 serum samples from 19 SLE patients showed reduced capacity to mediate complement-dependent solubilization of immune complexes (IC). SLE patients with nephritis exerted the lowest complement-mediated solubilization capacity (CMSC) whereas sera from patients with inactive disease g...

  16. New competition assay for the solubilized hepatic galactosyl receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.A.; Weigel, P.H.

    1985-02-15

    The present method of quantitating soluble asialoglycoprotein (galactosyl) receptor activity relies on the selective precipitation of receptor-ligand complexes to allow separation from free ligand. To provide an alternative to selective precipitation procedures, a simple and rapid method to assay for detergent-solubilized galactosyl receptor activity has been developed which uses permeabilized, fixed cells as a source of immobilized solid-phase receptors. Isolated rat hepatocytes were treated with digitonin to make available the internal as well as the external receptors. The permeable cells were also treated with glutaraldehyde to prevent further protein loss during subsequent exposure to detergents such as Triton X-100. The permeable/fixed cells, which retained about 70% of their total /sup 125/I-asialo-orosomucoid (/sup 125/I-ASOR)-binding activity, with 89% specific binding, were insoluble even in 0.5% Triton X-100 and were easily pelleted. The permeable/fixed cells can be prepared in advance and stored frozen for months. A detergent extract of receptor is mixed with a constant amount of both /sup 125/I-ASOR and permeable/fixed cells. Soluble active receptors compete with immobilized receptors on the treated cell for binding of the /sup 125/I-ASOR. The assay is reproducible, linear over a broad range of soluble receptor concentration, and can quantitate receptor activity from as few as 10(5) hepatocytes. A modified purification procedure for the rat hepatic galactosyl receptor using this competition assay is also described.

  17. Nonidet P-40 extraction of lymphocyte plasma membrane. Characterization of the insoluble residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A A; Wigglesworth, N M; Allan, D; Owens, R J; Crumpton, M J

    1984-04-01

    Purified preparations of lymphocyte plasma membrane were extracted exhaustively with Nonidet P-40 in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline medium. The insoluble fraction, as defined by sedimentation at 10(6) g-min, contained about 10% of the membrane protein as well as cholesterol and phospholipid. The lipid/protein ratio, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and sphingomyelin content were increased in the residue. Density-gradient centrifugation suggested that the lipid and protein form a common entity. As judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the Nonidet P-40-insoluble fractions of the plasma membranes of human B lymphoblastoid cells and pig mesenteric lymph-node lymphocytes possessed similar qualitative polypeptide compositions but differed quantitatively. Both residues comprised major polypeptides of Mr 28 000, 33 000, 45 000 and 68 000, together with a prominent band of Mr 120 000 in the human and of Mr 200 000 in the pig. The polypeptides of Mr 28 000, 33 000, 68 000 and 120 000 were probably located exclusively in the Nonidet P-40-insoluble residue, which also possessed a 4-fold increase in 5'-nucleotidase specific activity. The results indicate that a reproducible fraction of lymphocyte plasma membrane is insoluble in non-ionic detergents and that this fraction possesses a unique polypeptide composition. By analogy with similar studies with erythrocyte ghosts, it appears likely that the polypeptides are located on the plasma membrane's cytoplasmic face.

  18. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  19. In vitro selection of rock phosphate solubility by microorganism from Ultisols in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jayadi, Muh.; Baharuddin, Baharuddin; Ibrahim, Bachrul

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the second most required nutrient of plants, but its availability in ultisols is relatively low. Source of P can be found from rock phosphate (RP) which has low solubility level. Use of microbial solubilizing phosphate such as bacteria, fungi or combination of both is potential to increase availability of P. This research was aimed to find bacterial or fungal isolates that are high potential in solubilizing of RP. In vitro selection was conducted to obtain indigenou...

  20. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of insoluble membrane and scaffold proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geumann, Constanze; Grønborg, Mads; Hellwig, Michaela; Martens, Henrik; Jahn, Reinhard

    2010-07-15

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are applied for the quantification of a vast diversity of small molecules. However, ELISAs require that the antigen is present in a soluble form in the sample. Accordingly, the few ELISAs described so far targeting insoluble proteins such as integral membrane and scaffold proteins have been restricted by limited extraction efficiencies and the need to establish an individual solubilization protocol for each protein. Here we describe a sandwich ELISA that allows the quantification of a diverse array of synaptic membrane and scaffold proteins such as munc13-1, gephyrin, NMDA R1 (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1), synaptic vesicle membrane proteins, and SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). The assay is based on initial solubilization by the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), followed by partial SDS removal using the detergent Triton X-100, which restores antigenicity while keeping the proteins in solution. Using recombinant standard proteins, we determined assay sensitivities of 78ng/ml to 77pg/ml (or 74-0.1fmol). Calibration of the assay using both immunoblotting and mass spectroscopy revealed that in some cases correction factors need to be included for absolute quantification. The assay is versatile, allows parallel processing and automation, and should be applicable to a wide range of hitherto inaccessible proteins.

  1. Computer Simulation of Insoluble Pr(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Interstitial Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiYuanZHANG; XingLU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A multi-phase model of Pr(Ⅲ) speciation in human interstitial fluid was constructed and insoluble Pr(Ⅲ)speciation was studied. When the total concentration of Pr(Ⅲ)is below 8.401E-10 mol/L, soluble Pr(Ⅲ) species are main species. With rising the total concentration of Pr(Ⅲ), Pr(Ⅲ) is firstly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of PrPO4,then bound to carbonate and another precipitate of Pr2(CO3)3 was obtained. When the total concentration is between 1.583E-9 mol/L and 4.000E-3 mol/L, the insoluble species are predominant Pr(Ⅲ) species.

  2. Computer Simulation of Insoluble Pr(III) Speciation in Human Interstitial Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-phase model of Pr(III) speciation in human interstitial fluid was constructed and insoluble Pr(III) speciation was studied. When the total concentration of Pr(III) is below 8.401E-10 mol/L, soluble Pr(III) species are main species. With rising the total concentration of Pr(III), Pr(III) is firstly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of PrPO4, then bound to carbonate and another precipitate of Pr2(CO3)3 was obtained. When the total concentration is between 1.583E-9 mol/L and 4.000E-3 mol/L, the insoluble species are predominant Pr(III) species.

  3. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  4. Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral profiles of materials recovered from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) processing by-products using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Tou, J C; Jaczynski, J

    2007-11-01

    Protein, lipid, and insolubles (bones, skin, scales, fins, insoluble protein, and more) were recovered from rainbow trout processing by-products by means of isoelectric solubilization/precipitation at basic pH and acidic pH. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation of the trout processing by-products resulted in the recovery of protein that was higher (P processing by-products. Basic pH treatments yielded a higher (P processing by-products, indicating that the pH treatments had no effect on these FAs. Ca and P contents of the processing by-products exceeded the recommended dietary allowances (RDA), but Fe and Mg did not. Basic pH treatments yielded protein with the lowest (P minerals and the highest (P processing by-products effectively removed minerals from the recovered protein without removal of the bones, skin, scales, fins, and so on, prior to processing. The results indicated that isoelectric solubilization/precipitation, particularly at basic pH, permitted recovery of high-quality protein and lipids from fish processing by-products for human food uses; also, the recovered insolubles may be used in animal feeds as a source of minerals.

  5. Solubilization of paraffinic deposits for microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Erika A.S.; Soares, Ranieri G.F.; Nascimento, Roseane E.S.; Dantas Neto, Afonso A.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil company has been intensifying its efforts to find more efficient solutions for the problems related to the paraffin in wells and transport lines. When applied in the flow lines, the solvents dissolve the paraffin and they must be used hot, since the temperature increases the solubility of the wax and, consequently, its removal rate. The microemulsions appear as an alternative capable of acting in the solubilization and in the inhibition of the formation of deposits due to its great interfacial area, low superficial tension and high capacity of solubilization. They present some advantages in relation to the methods of use of chemical products due to its flexibility of composition in which they can be used, presenting low toxicity and inflammability, without any loss of its capacity of solubilization. The use of oil-in-water microemulsion aims to solubilized paraffin in the disperse phase, where one can find the apolar part of the molecule of the surfactant and the also apolar chain of paraffin, occurring, therefore the 'encapsulation' of the crystal, prohibiting the growth of the chain due to the affinity of paraffin and oil. In this in case, it is possible to transport the inserted paraffin in direct micelles, reducing the precipitation and optimizing the transport. (author)

  6. Computational prediction of solubilizers' effect on partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoest, Jan; Christensen, Inge T; Jørgensen, Flemming S; Hovgaard, Lars; Frokjaer, Sven

    2007-02-01

    A computational model for the prediction of solubilizers' effect on drug partitioning has been developed. Membrane/water partitioning was evaluated by means of immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography. Four solubilizers were used to alter the partitioning in the IAM column. Two types of molecular descriptors were calculated: 2D descriptors using the MOE software and 3D descriptors using the Volsurf software. Structure-property relationships between each of the two types of descriptors and partitioning were established using partial least squares, projection to latent structures (PLS) statistics. Statistically significant relationships between the molecular descriptors and the IAM data were identified. Based on the 2D descriptors structure-property relationships R(2)Y=0. 99 and Q(2)=0.82-0.83 were obtained for some of the solubilizers. The most important descriptor was related to logP. For the Volsurf 3D descriptors models with R(2)Y=0.53-0.64 and Q(2)=0.40-0.54 were obtained using five descriptors. The present study showed that it is possible to predict partitioning of substances in an artificial phospholipid membrane, with or without the use of solubilizers.

  7. Multicomponent mixtures for cryoprotection and ligand solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ciccone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed cryoprotectants have been developed for the solubilization of ligands for crystallization of protein–ligand complexes and for crystal soaking. Low affinity lead compounds with poor solubility are problematic for structural studies. Complete ligand solubilization is required for co-crystallization and crystal soaking experiments to obtain interpretable electron density maps for the ligand. Mixed cryo-preserving compounds are needed prior to X-ray data collection to reduce radiation damage at synchrotron sources. Here we present dual-use mixes that act as cryoprotectants and also promote the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic ligands. Unlike glycerol that increases protein solubility and can cause crystal melting the mixed solutions of cryo-preserving compounds that include precipitants and solubilizers, allow for worry-free crystal preservation while simultaneously solubilizing relatively hydrophobic ligands, typical of ligands obtained in high-throughput screening. The effectiveness of these mixture has been confirmed on a human transthyretin crystals both during crystallization and in flash freezing of crystals.

  8. Solubilization of coal in organic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, P.; Decroocq, D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of solvent extraction to solubilize coal is discussed. Simple extractions are described which are conducted at moderate temperatures to exclude extraneous chemical reactions which would lead to uncontrolled changes in the components of the treated coal. Sample preparation, extraction apparatus, and the determination of extract yield for different experiments are also described.

  9. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  10. Solubilization isotherms of aromatic solutes in surfactant aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadelle, F.; Koros, W.J.; Schechter, R.S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    Several factors affecting solubilization of aromatic solutes in surfactant micelles have been investigated. Solubilization isotherms of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene in various aqueous micellar solutions were determined using head space gas chromatography. Cationic surfactants such as cetylpyridinium chloride or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide present high solubilization capacities. Comparable anionic surfactants exhibit lower solubilization and a greater tendency to precipitate. It was observed that nonionic surfactants show high solubilization on a molar basis. Solubilization in mixed cationic-anionic micelles was also investigated. It also appears that the molecular size of the solute determines the extent of the solubilization. Finally, the shape of the different isotherms indicates that knowing the amount solubilized at saturation of the micellar solution is not sufficient to estimate solubilization at solute concentrations lower than the solute aqueous solubility. Solubilization of organics in surfactant micelles is of major importance in many applications. One new application is micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. Another application of interest is the surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation, a process in which a micellar aqueous solution is flushed into contaminated groundwaters to enhance recovery of pollutants by micellar solubilization.

  11. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  12. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  13. Electron microscopy of some rock phosphate dissolving bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A C; Arora, D; Prakash, N

    1979-01-01

    Bacteria Pseudomonas striata, Bacillus polymyxa, B. megaterium and B. pulvifaciens, and fungi Aspergillus awamori, A. niger and Penicillium digitatum dissolve tricalcium phosphate and, much less, Mussorie and Udaipur rock phosphate. The solubilizing power of fungi was higher than that of bacteria, the highest being with A. awamori and A. niger, and with P. striata. Electron microscopy of the various cultures showed an electron-dense layer on the bacterial surface after negative staining. The size of phosphate particles decreased by the microbial action, with tricalcium phosphate from 140--250 to 30--90 nm after three weeks of incubation.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  15. Insoluble and flexible silk films containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shenzhou; Wang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Kluge, Jonathan A; Uppal, Neha; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L

    2010-01-11

    We directly prepared insoluble silk films by blending with glycerol and avoiding the use of organic solvents. The ability to blend a plasticizer like glycerol with a hydrophobic protein like silk and achieve stable material systems above a critical threshold of glycerol is an important new finding with importance for green chemistry approaches to new and more flexible silk-based biomaterials. The aqueous solubility, biocompatibility, and well-documented use of glycerol as a plasticizer with other biopolymers prompted its inclusion in silk fibroin solutions to assess impact on silk film behavior. Processing was performed in water rather than organic solvents to enhance the potential biocompatibility of these biomaterials. The films exhibited modified morphologies that could be controlled on the basis of the blend composition and also exhibited altered mechanical properties, such as improved elongation at break, when compared with pure silk fibroin films. Mechanistically, glycerol appears to replace water in silk fibroin chain hydration, resulting in the initial stabilization of helical structures in the films, as opposed to random coil or beta-sheet structures. The use of glycerol in combination with silk fibroin in materials processing expands the functional features attainable with this fibrous protein, and in particular, in the formation of more flexible films with potential utility in a range of biomaterial and device applications.

  16. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkova, T. V.; Minkov, I. L.; Tsekov, R.; Slavchov, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3–30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na+ is specifically adsorbed, while Cl– remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na+ seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer.

  17. Effects of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria and Nitrogen on the Qualitative and Quantitative Properties of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran, tuberose is ranked the forth after gladiolus, rose and carnation. These flowers are known as high quality products among which maximum exportation belongs to tuberose and gladiolus. In plant cultivation and development, adequate provision of nutrients is of crucial importance. Tuberose needs plenty of nutrients to obtain the desirable quality and flowering. Hence, tuberose balanced nutrition can play an important role in increasing the yield and quality of its flowers. Nitrogen is a deciding factor for the plant growth and physiology. This nutritional element contributes to the formation of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and other cellular components that are required for the construction of new cells. Bio fertilizers containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria (bacillus and pseudomonas have microorganisms which are beneficial to the soil; these bacteria are conducive to the production of biological materials and as a consequence to plant development. According to a report by Rawia Eid et al., (2009 the application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria increased the growth rate of matthiola cut flower and improved its quality. In another study on soybean, it was observed that the application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria led to a rise in the plant dry matter content. Considering the contributory role of nitrogen and phosphorous in increasing the yield and quality of ornamental plants, the aim of this research was to examine the impact of different nitrogen levels and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the yield and qualitative properties of tuberose cut flower. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in a greenhouse in the city of Zanjan in Iran in 2011 through a factorial-form experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments performed on tuberose double cultivar. The treatments included bio fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria at

  18. Macrophage solubilization and cytotoxicity of indium-containing particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, William M; Qu, Wei; Shines, Cassandra J; Bousquet, Ronald W; Taylor, Genie J; Waalkes, Michael P; Morgan, Daniel L

    2013-10-01

    Indium-containing particles (ICPs) are used extensively in the microelectronics industry. Pulmonary toxicity is observed after inhalation exposure to ICPs; however, the mechanism(s) of pathogenesis is unclear. ICPs are insoluble at physiological pH and are initially engulfed by alveolar macrophages (and likely airway epithelial cells). We hypothesized that uptake of ICPs by macrophages followed by phagolysosomal acidification results in the solubilization of ICPs into cytotoxic indium ions. To address this, we characterized the in vitro cytotoxicity of indium phosphide (InP) or indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with macrophages (RAW cells) and lung-derived epithelial (LA-4) cells at 24h using metabolic (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. InP and ITO were readily phagocytosed by RAW and LA-4 cells; however, the particles were much more cytotoxic to RAW cells and cytotoxicity was dose dependent. Treatment of RAW cells with cytochalasin D (CytoD) blocked particle phagocytosis and reduced cytotoxicity. Treatment of RAW cells with bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of phagolysosomal acidification, also reduced cytotoxicity but did not block particle uptake. Based on direct indium measurements, the concentration of ionic indium was increased in culture medium from RAW but not LA-4 cells following 24-h treatment with particles. Ionic indium derived from RAW cells was significantly reduced by treatment with CytoD. These data implicate macrophage uptake and solubilization of InP and ITO via phagolysosomal acidification as requisite for particle-induced cytotoxicity and the release of indium ions. This may apply to other ICPs and strongly supports the notion that ICPs require solubilization in order to be toxic.

  19. Solubilization, Activation and Partial Purification of a Sialidase from Horse Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISHNA PURNAWAN CANDRA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Using sialyl-methylumbelliferyl -glycoside as substrate, sialidase in horse liver was detected as a membrane-bound enzyme. A yield of about 50% of sialidase activity was found in supernatant when solubilized in 0.1 M sodium-phosphate buffer pH 5.5, containing 0.15 M NaCl, 0.25 M sucrose, and 0.5% Triton X-100. Sialidase in the solubilisate could be activated by incubating in acidic pH at 37 oC. Incubation of this solubilized enzyme at 37 oC for 1.5 h at pH 5.0 led to 10% increase of activity and to the precipitation of about 50% of contaminating protein. Using cation-exchange chromatography on S-Sepharose FF and affinity chromatography on p-aminophenyl oxamic acid-agarose following solubilization and activation, about 6% of total sialidase activity was recovered with the purification factor of about 500. The pH and temperature optimum were measured at pH 4.3 and between 37-45 oC, respectively. Neu5Ac2en was a strong inhibitor, while p-aminophenyl oxamic acid had only a weak inhibitory effect.

  20. Characterization of the mechanisms for coal solubilization by filamentous fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M.; Luna, N.; Monistrol, I.F.; Laborda, F. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    The mechanisms implicated on coal solubilization have been studied in this work. Two fungal strains (Trichoderma and Penicillium) has been isolated which were able to solubilize different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) when growing in liquid media in the presence of coal. Extracellular peroxidase, esterase and some times phenol oxidase enzymes were present in the culture supernatant when a high degree of coal solubilization was attained. Those enzymes could be involved in the coal attack. (orig.)

  1. Solubilization of microsomal-associated phosphatidylinositol synthase from germinating soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M L; Carman, G M

    1982-01-01

    CDP-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-diacylglycerol):myo-inositol phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.11, phosphatidylinositol synthase) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction of germinating soybeans (Glycine max L. var Cutler 71). A variety of solubilization agents were examined for their ability to release phosphatidylinositol synthase activity from the microsome fraction. The most effective agent to solubilize the enzyme was the nonionic detergent Brij W-1. A 2.1-fold increase in specific activity was achieved using 1% Brij W-1 with 69% activity solubilized.Maximal solubilization of phosphatidylinositol synthase was completely dependent on Brij W-1 (1%), potassium ions (0.3 m), and manganese ions (0.5 mm). Solubilization of the enzyme was not affected by the protein concentration of microsomes between 3 to 20 milligrams per milliliter. Solubilization was not affected by the pH of solubilization buffer between 6.5 to 8.5. To our knowledge, this is the first phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme solubilized from plant membranes. The Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase remained at the top of a glycerol gradient, whereas the membrane-associated enzyme sedimented to the bottom of the gradient. Maximal activity of the Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase was dependent on manganese (5 mm) or magnesium (30 mm) ions, and Triton X-100 (3.6 mm) at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCl buffer. The apparent K(m) values for CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol for the solubilized enzyme was 0.1 mm and 46 mum, respectively. Solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was thermally inactivated at temperatures above 30 degrees C.

  2. Liquefaction/solubilization processes of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization have been studied in this work. The first one is the mechanisms implicated on coal transformation. During coal solubilization, fungal cells produced extracellular peroxidase, esterase and some times phenol oxidase enzymes which appear to be involved in solubilization. Moreover, the analysis of liquefaction/solubilization products was done. In this regard, a reduction on the average size of humic acids derived from lignite was observed, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. Finally, microorganisms showed a specific adherence to the coal surface, that seems to promote the microbial attack to coal. (orig.)

  3. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  4. Effect of heavy metal-solubilizing microorganisms on zinc and cadmium extractions from heavy metal contaminated soil with Tricholoma lobynsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling-yun; Zhang, Wei-wei; Yu, Dong; Cao, Yan-ru; Xu, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The macrofungus, Tricholoma lobynsis, was chosen to remedy Zn-Cd-Pb contaminated soil. To enhance its metal-extracting efficiency, two heavy metal resistant microbes M6 and K1 were applied owing to their excellent abilities to solubilize heavy metal salts. The two isolated microbial strains could also produce indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and solubilize inorganic phosphate, but neither of them showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. The strains M6 and K1 were identified as Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa based on 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively. Pot experiment showed that spraying to T. lobynsis-inoculated soil with M6 and K1 respectively could increase total Cd accumulations of this mushroom by 216 and 61%, and Zn by 153 and 49% compared to the uninoculated control. Pb accumulation however, was too low (metal-accumulating abilities of macrofungi and IAA-siderophore production, phosphate solubilization abilities of the assisted-microbes. This kind of macrofungi-microbe interaction can be developed into a novel bioremediation strategy.

  5. Association of endogenous substrate with solubilized bovine brain sialidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schengrund, C L; Repman, M A

    1986-01-01

    Nonidet P40 solubilized up to 90% of the sialidase, active towards added ganglioside substrate, that was associated with the total membrane fraction prepared from gray matter of bovine brains. Solubilized sialidase acted upon endogenous substrate (sialic acid containing compounds solubilized with the enzyme), hydrolyzing approximately 50% of the readily available sialosyl residues within 20 min. During a 2-hr reaction time 80% of the polysialylated gangliosides solubilized with the enzyme were acted upon. A 20-min lag was observed before sialidase acted upon added ganglioside substrate. The lag could be reduced to less than 2 min when the enzyme was allowed to act on endogenous substrate prior to exposure to exogenous substrate, suggesting that the solubilized enzyme acted preferentially on endogenous substrate. A protease inhibitor prevented much of the 86% loss of activity towards added substrate that was seen when the enzyme was stored at 4 degrees C for 6 days; activity towards endogenous substrate decreased only 34%.

  6. Reduced complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity and the presence of incompletely solubilized immune complexes in SLE sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, I; Jensenius, J C

    1983-01-01

    Reduced complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of pre-formed immune complexes (IC) was demonstrated in sera from 11 out of 12 SLE patients. The presence of incompletely solubilized endogeneous IC in SLE sera was indicated by the following findings: (1) When IC positive SLE sera with reduced CMS...

  7. Characterisation of phosphate solubilising bacteria in sandy loam soil under chickpea cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Machiavelli; Tejo Prakash, N

    2012-06-01

    With the aim to explore the possible role of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in phosphorus (P) cycling in agricultural soils, we isolated PSB inhabiting naturally in the sandy loam soils under chickpea cropping of Patiala (Punjab State). A total of 31 bacterial isolates showing solubilizing activities were isolated on Pikovskaya agar plates. The potent phosphate solubilizers were selected for further characterization. These isolates were shown to belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Serratia by partial sequencing analysis of their respective 16S rDNA genes. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting was done for tracking the survival of introduced populations of the PSB during mass inoculation of these strains under chickpea plots. The results showed positive correlation (r(2) = 0.853) among soil phosphatase activity and phosphate solubilizers population, which was also positively correlated (r(2) = 0.730) to available phosphorus. Identification and characterization of soil PSB for the effective plant growth-promotion broadens the spectrum of phosphate solubilizers available for field application.

  8. Sulfated modification, characterization and property of a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Yuan-Xing; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Sulfated modification was carried out to modify a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum (AGAP). The effects of sulfation on structure, physicochemical and functional properties of AGAP were investigated. Three sulfated derivatives were prepared, designated as S-1, S-2 and S-3 with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.35, 0.74 and 1.14, respectively. AGAP was elucidated as an α-(1→3)-glucan with few branches terminated by single mannose or xylose residues. The molecular weight (Mw) and radius of gyration (Rg) were estimated to be 1665 kDa and 65.49 nm, respectively. After sulfated modification, non-selective sulfation occurred preferably at O-6, partially at O-2 and O-4 positions of the glucosyl residues. The water-solubility of the derivatives was significantly improved in a DS-dependent manner. Mw of the derivatives showed a sharp decrease, and the chain conformation was estimated to be expanded stiff in phosphate buffer. In vitro tests showed that sulfated modification improved its antioxidant activities and anti-proliferative ability against S-180 tumor cells. This study suggested that sulfated modification was an effective approach to improve the water-solubility and functional properties of insoluble polysaccharides.

  9. The expression of a xylanase targeted to ER-protein bodies provides a simple strategy to produce active insoluble enzyme polymers in tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Llop-Tous

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xylanases deserve particular attention due to their potential application in the feed, pulp bleaching and paper industries. We have developed here an efficient system for the production of an active xylanase in tobacco plants fused to a proline-rich domain (Zera of the maize storage protein γ-zein. Zera is a self-assembling domain able to form protein aggregates in vivo packed in newly formed endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles known as protein bodies (PBs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tobacco leaves were transiently transformed with a binary vector containing the Zera-xylanase coding region, which was optimized for plant expression, under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter. The fusion protein was efficiently expressed and stored in dense PBs, resulting in yields of up to 9% of total protein. Zera-xylanase was post-translationally modified with high-mannose-type glycans. Xylanase fused to Zera was biologically active not only when solubilized from PBs but also in its insoluble form. The resistance of insoluble Zera-xylanase to trypsin digestion demonstrated that the correct folding of xylanase in PBs was not impaired by Zera oligomerization. The activity of insoluble Zera-xylanase was enhanced when substrate accessibility was facilitated by physical treatments such as ultrasound. Moreover, we found that the thermostability of the enzyme was improved when Zera was fused to the C-terminus of xylanase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In the present work we have successfully produced an active insoluble aggregate of xylanase fused to Zera in plants. Zera-xylanase chimeric protein accumulates within ER-derived protein bodies as active aggregates that can easily be recovered by a simple density-based downstream process. The production of insoluble active Zera-xylanase protein in tobacco outlines the potential of Zera as a fusion partner for producing enzymes of biotechnological relevance. Zera-PBs could thus become efficient and low

  10. Optimization of culture conditions for poplar phosphate solubilizing bacteria Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens%杨树解磷细菌蜡状芽孢杆菌和荧光假单胞菌发酵罐扩繁条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚如斌; 吴小芹

    2012-01-01

    对杨树高效解磷细菌蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)JYZ-SD1和荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)JW-JS1在3L发酵罐里发酵条件进行优化.结果显示这两株解磷细菌在72h内都是接种量20%、转速400 r/min、通气量l001n/h条件下菌体生长量最大.为将这两株杨树根际解磷细菌更高效、更大量的扩繁提供参考依据.%The fermentation conditions of Bacillus cereus JYZ-SD1 and Pseudomonas fluorescens JW-JS1 in a 3L fermentor were optimized. The results indicated that the growth of Bacillus cereus JYZ-SD1 and Pseudomonas fluorescens JW-JS1 during 72h were greatest in the condition of inoculation quantity of 20% , speed of 400 r/min and ventilation of 100 ln/h. This study is for the development and application of effective phosphate dissolving bacteria on the production of poplars.

  11. Processes of liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1999-07-01

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization were studied. The liquefied/solubilized products from coal by microorganisms were analysed. The liquid products analysed by IR titration and UV/visible spectrometry showed some alterations with regard to the original coal. Humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite showed a reduction in the average molecular weight and a increase in the condensation index, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. The mechanisms implicated in coal biosolubilization by two fungal strains, M2 (Trichoderma sp.) and M4 (Penicillium sp.) were also studied. Extracellular peroxidase, esterase and phenoloxidase enzymes appear to be involved in coal solubilization. (orig.)

  12. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  13. Solubilization of benzene and cyclohexane by sodium deoxycholate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Smith, L.S.; Bushong, D.S.; Tucker, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Vapor pressure-solubility data were obtained for the aqueous systems benzene-sodium deoxycholate and cyclohexane- sodium deoxycholate at 25/sup 0/C. The results are consistent with a mass action model similar to the BET equation. Equilibrium constants are inferred to characterize interactions of hydrocarbons with solubilization sites assumed to consist of units of four deoxycholate anions. Although addition of sodium chloride increases the middle aggregation number, solubilization results are affected very little by variation in salt concentration. When pure liquid hydrocarbon standard states are employed, solubilization results for benzene and cyclohexane (at varying salt concentrations) are quite similar. 26 references.

  14. Disponibilização de fósforo, correção do solo, teores foliares e rendimento de milho após a incorporação de fosfatos e lodo de curtume natural e compostado = Solubilization of phosphorus, soil correction and corn yield after addition of phosphates and natural and composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araujo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do lodo de curtume associado à fosforita (fosfato natural sobre a disponibilização de fósforo e correção do solo, teores foliares e rendimento de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em campo durante 12 meses (outubro de 2005 a outubro de 2006 com a incorporação de 2,5 e 5,0 Mg ha-1 de lodo decurtume (natural e compostado e 100 kg de P2O5 ha-1 na forma de fosfato solúvel e natural (fosforita no início do experimento. Durante a safra de verão (2005/2006 foi cultivado milho na área experimental. O tratamento com lodo de curtume natural, na dose de5,0 Mg ha-1 associado à fosforita, elevou os teores de fósforo, cálcio e saturação por bases no solo avaliados aos 360 dias da sua aplicação. Este tratamento proporcionou incrementos nos teores de fósforo nas folhas de milho. O lodo de curtume compostado, comparado ao natural, foi inferior nas avaliações de absorção de fósforo pelo milho e correção do solo. Verificou-se maior rendimento do milho pela incorporação da fosforita associada ao lodo de curtume natural e compostado na dose de 5,0 Mg ha-1.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge associated with fosforita (rock phosphate on the availability of phosphorus and correction of soil, leaf levels and maize yield. The experiment was conducted on the field during twelve months (October 2005 to October 2006 with the incorporation of 2.5 and 5.0 Mg ha-1 of tannery sludge (natural and composted and 100 kg of P2O5 ha-1 in the form of soluble and natural phosphate (fosforita. During the months of November 2005 to April 2006, maize was grown in the experimental area. Treatment with tannery sludge naturally, at a dose of 5.0 Mg ha-1 associated with fosforita, incremented the levels of phosphorus, calcium and base saturation in the soil for 360 days after implementation. This treatment provided increases in levels ofphosphorus in the leaves of maize. The

  15. Solubilization of silk protein by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudatis, Boonya; Pongpat, Suchada [Office of Atomic Energy of Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-03-01

    Gamma irradiated silk fibroin at doses of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 kGy were soaked in water for 1 hr. Silk fibroin solubilized percentage was investigated from lost weight of sample (dried at 105{sup 0}C), they were 0, 0, 0.7, 0, 0.11, 0.11, 0, 0.73, 0.77, 4.38, 8.32, 10.22 and 18.52 respectively. It showed that at the higher dose up to 250 kGy had direct effect to solubility, and increased with increasing dose. In addition, silk sericin dissolved 77.76, 82.22, 83.55, 84.31, 86.04, 86.67 and 87.37% after gamma irradiation at the doses of 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 1000 kGy respectively. It presents that radiation can cause silk protein, fibroin and sericin dissolve because of their degradation. (author)

  16. [Isolation and identification of a novel phosphate-dissolving strain P21].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Fan, Bingquan; Gong, Mingbo; Li, Quanxia

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate-dissolving microorganisms can be applied for better use of insoluble phosphorus as fertilizer., A phosphate-dissolving strain P21 was isolated from soil samples in China. The isolate was identified as Erwinia herbicola var. ananas, based on its 16Sr DNA sequence and physiological characteristics. Its activity was measured in solid media as well as liquid media using different phosphate sources including tricalium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, ferric phosphate, aluminium phosphate, zinc phosphate, and rock phosphates. E. herbicola could strongly dissolve 1206.20 mg tricalium phosphate and 529.67 mg hydroxyapatite in per liter liquid media. The strain showed high phosphate-dissolving ability for rock phosphates from Jinning and Kunyang in Yunnan province, Yaan in Sichuan province and Jinping in Jiangsu province with the capacity of 6.64 mg, 78.46 mg, 67.07 mg and 65.24 mg soluble phosphate respectively per liter medium, whereas the phosphate-dissolving ability to the rest of the eight rock phosphates was weak. According to the experiments, the phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was specific to different rock phosphates, and phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was not directly related to pH reduction of liquid media.

  17. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby;

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme...

  18. Preparation of insoluble fibroin films and its tensile property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Qiang; CAO Chuanbao; ZHAI Huazhang; ZHU Hesun

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin is becoming a promising biomaterial because of its excellent biocompatibility. However, the regenerated fibroin is usually soluble in water and its mechanical properties should be improved. Although many methods, such as adding other polymers or treating with methanol, can ameliorate the mechanical properties and insolubility, the biocompatibility of fibroin is usually damaged in these processes. In this article, it is first reported that the insoluble fibroin films are directly prepared without methanol treatment. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the amount of β-sheet conformation increased with the increasing of concentration. When fibroin films are dried from 15 wt% at 60℃, the films become insoluble in water. More importantly, The tensile strength and elongation of the insoluble fibroin films dried from 15% solution at 60℃ reached 15.9 MPa and 49.4% respectively in the wet state, which is distinctly superior to the fibroin films treated with methanol.

  19. Improved production of protease-resistant phytase by Aspergillus oryzae and its applicability in the hydrolysis of insoluble phytates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapna; Singh, Bijender

    2013-08-01

    Among three hundred isolates of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 secreted higher phytase activity at pH 5.0, 35 °C and 200 rpm after 96 h of fermentation. Starch and beef extract supported the highest phytase production than other carbon and nitrogen sources. A nine-fold improvement in phytase production was achieved due to optimization. Supplementation of the medium with inorganic phosphate repressed the enzyme synthesis. Among surfactants tested, Tween 80 increased fungal growth and phytase production, which further resulted in 5.4-fold enhancement in phytase production. The phytase activity was not much affected by proteases treatment. The enzyme resulted in the efficient hydrolysis of insoluble phytate complexes (metal- and protein-phytates) in a time dependent manner. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of insoluble phytates was also supported by scanning electron microscopy. The enzyme, being resistant to trypsin and pepsin, and able to hydrolyze insoluble phytates, can find an application in the animal food/feed industry for improving nutritional quality and also in combating environmental phosphorus pollution and plant growth promotion.

  20. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  1. Atuação de Acidithiobacillus na solubilização de fosfato natural em solo de tabuleiro cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus Effect of Acidithiobacillus on solubilization of natural phosphate in a coastal tableland soil under yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Stamford

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar a atuação do enxofre (S inoculado com Acidithiobacillus na disponibilidade de fósforo (P de fosfato natural (FN, em diferentes modos de aplicação do fertilizante, em um Espodossolo Ferrocárbico Órtico, do tabuleiro costeiro da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus. As plantas foram inoculadas com rizóbio (NFB 747 e NFB 748 e adicionado tratamento-controle sem inoculação com rizóbio. Os tratamentos com P foram: (1 FN revestindo o enxofre inoculado com Acidithiobacillus (FN S*, (2 FN revestido com S e com Acidithiobacillus (S* FN, (3 mistura FN com S e com Acidithiobacillus (FN + S*, (4 mistura FN com S e sem Acidithiobacillus (FN + S, (5 superfosfato triplo (ST e (6 sem aplicação de fósforo (P0. Os tratamentos foram aplicados: (a na superfície, (b em sulco 10 cm abaixo da semente, e (c em sulco 10 cm abaixo e ao lado da semente. A biomassa nodular foi maior no tratamento (FN + S* com melhor efeito quando aplicado ao lado e abaixo das sementes. O (FN + S* também aumentou a altura das plantas, a biomassa da parte aérea e das túberas e o N total da parte aérea, especialmente quando aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. O P total da parte aérea foi mais elevado com (S* FN aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. Os melhores teores de P no solo foram obtidos com (FN + S* e (S* FN, com efeito mais evidente quando aplicados 10 cm abaixo das sementes.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of sulphur (S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus on phosphorus (P availability from natural phosphate (NP using different fertilizer application methods on yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus grown in a "Tableland Forest" soil (Podzol Hydromorphic dystrophic of the "Zona da Mata" in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plants were inoculated with rhizobia strains (NFN 747 and NFB 748 and control treatments added without rhizobia inoculation. The P

  2. Utilization of Sparingly Soluble Phosphate by Red Clover in Association with Glomus mosseae and Bacillus megaterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of sparingly soluble inorganic and organic sources of phosphorus (P) by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) whose roots were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae and in association with the phosphate-solubilizing (PS) bacterium Bacillus megaterium ACCC10010. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate had a synergistic effect on the colonization of plant roots by the AM fungus. There was a positive interaction between the PS bacterium and the AM fungus in mobilization of rock phosphate, leading to improved plant P nutrition. In dual inoculation with the AM fungus and the PS bacterium, the main contribution to plant P nutrition was made by the AM fungus. Application of P to the low P soil increased phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly promoted by inoculation with either the PS bacterium or the AM fungus.

  3. Screening of Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria in Rhizosphere of Cunninghaimia Lanceolata and Investigation on Their Properties of Phosphate-solubilizing and IAA-producing%杉木根际固氮菌筛选及其溶磷性与分泌IAA特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德明; 李蓉

    2012-01-01

    Chinese fir ( Cunninghaimia Lanceolata) is a main tree species of planted fast-growing forest in China. The problem on rapid reduction of soil fertility resulted from nutrient consumption of Chinese fir plantation still remains to be solved since the studies on screening and application of rhizosphere bacteria of Chinese fir with growth-promoting effect are rarely reported. In our study, 16 strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese fir by measurement of nitrogenase activities using acetylene reduction assay after culturing in Ashby medium. Their abilities of dissolving inorganic and organic phosphorus are evaluated by dissolving phosphate zone on Menkina media and molybdenum blue spectrophotometry. IAA-producing abilities of the strains are measurated by the Salkowski colorimetry. The results indicate that 5 strains show high potential of nitrogen fixing with nitrogenase activity of over 150 nmol · mL-1 · h-1. NGJ-4 has the highest nitrogenase activity (264.7 nmol · mL-1 · h-1) and NCX-5 takes the second place (237.4 nmol · mL-1 · h-1'). There are 8 strains with abilitiy of dissolving inorganic phosphorus. The available phosphorus increments of NGJ-8, NGJ-4 and NGX-3 are 182.7, 158.4 and 133.9 mg · L-1, respectively, which can't dissolve organic phosphorus. There are 5 strains with low dissolving organic phosphorus abilitiy. The highest available phosphorus increments derived from organic phosphorus is only 46.1 mg · L-1 of NGX-5. Most of the strains can secrete IAA. The first 5 strains have a high IAA concentration of more than 20 mg · L-1 in supernatant of bacteria solution. The IAA concentration levels of NGX-5, NGJ-3, NGJ-4 and NCX-3 are 35.8, 32.1, 27.8 and 27. 7 mg · L-1, respectively. Consequently, NGJ-4, NGX-5 and NGJ-8 integrated prominent nitrogen-fixing, phosphorus-dissolving and IAA-producing can be utilized in developing multiple-effective microbial fertilizer.%我国特有速生用材林主要造林

  4. Initial growth of maize in response to application of rock phosphate, vermicompost and endophytic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Luiz Gonzaga Jr. Santos Silva; Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high energy requirement and demand for non-renewable resources for the production of chemical fertilizers, added also to the environmental impact caused by the use of such products, it is important to intensify research on bio-based agricultural inputs. The use of nitrogen-fixing endophytic and phosphate solubilizing bacteria can provide these nutrients to the plants from the air and poorly soluble phosphorus sources, such as phosphate rock. The objective of this study was to evalu...

  5. Fluorescence quenching of uric acid solubilized in bicontinuous microemulsion by nitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Iwunze

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Uric Acid is known to be practically insoluble in aqueous and alcoholic media. However, it exhibits a reasonable solubility in a Bicontinuous Microemulsion system – a 15-fold or more increase in solubility in this system compared to its solubility in water. The bicontinuous microemulsion is made up of three components –Dodecane-Surfactant-water. Uric acid solubilized in this system is quenched by nitrobenzene. The obtained fluorescence data do not obey the Stern-Volmer equation when plotted accordingly. Therefore, the modified Stern-Volmer equation was used to analyze the data. It was observed that only one third (1/3 of uric acid is accessible to quenching in this medium and the reaction is diffusion-limited. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV, was calculated to be 130 M-1 and the fluorescence lifetime, 0, the quantum yield,, and the bimolecular quenching rate constant, kq, were calculated as 10.6 nanoseconds, 0.06 and 1.231010 M-1s-1, respectively.

  6. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SULPHASALAZINE INJECTION MADE BY MIXED SOLVENCY SOLUBILIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalariya Nikunj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfasalazine, a sulfonamide derivative, is used as an antimicrobial agent by inhibiting bacterial growth and activity mainly in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is practically insoluble in water. The aim of study was to prepare aqueous injection of sulphasalazine, using the mixed solvency solubilization technique. Several blends were prepared by co-solvents such as polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200, PEG 400, PEG 600, PEG 4000, propylene glycol (PG, polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP K 30, ethanol, glycerin, tween20, tween80, niacenamide, lignocain hydrochloride and sodium benzoate. The enhancement in the solubility of sulphasalazine in a mixed solvency was more than 50 folds (compared to its solubility in distilled water. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water soluble drug due to mixed solvency. Synergistic combination of mixed-solvency can minimize the amount of co-solvents employed, minimizing the chances of their toxicities. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability.

  7. Method for Producing Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics and for Stabilizing Contaminants Encapsulated therein Utilizing Reducing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    1999-05-05

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions is stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  8. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  9. Dynamics and diversity of phosphate mineralizing bacteria in the coral reefs of Gulf of Mannar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.

    of the Bacillus species varied with reference to different pH. The species Bacillus megaterium (573) showed highest phosphate solubilizing activity (0.906 mmol/l P) by producing 2-ketogluconic acid. The production of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes...

  10. Water-insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q.; Hu, X; Wang, X; Kluge, J; Lu, S; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the {beta}-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and {alpha}-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 C, without crystallization above the T{sub g}, but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low {beta}-sheet content.

  11. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  12. A phosphate-starvation-inducible outermembrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1 as an immunological phosphate-starvation marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Kristine; Jacobsen, Susanne; Nybroe, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A phosphate-starvation-inducible outer-membrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1, expressed at phosphate concentrations below0.08-0.13 mM, was purified and characterized. The purification method involved separation of outer-membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE andextraction of the protein from...... by solubilization temperature. An antiserum against Psi1 recognized a protein of M,55,000 in four other P. fluorescens strains among 24 tested strains representing Pseudomonas rRNA homology group I, showing antigenicheterogeneity within this group. A method for immunofluorescence microscopy involving cell...

  13. Solubilization of trichloroethylene by polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1994-12-01

    An automated vapor pressure method is used to obtain solubilization isotherms for trichloroethylene (TCE) in polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes throughout a wide range of solute activities at 20 and 25 C. The polyelectrolyte chosen is sodium poly(styrenesulfonate), PSS< and the surfactant is cetylpyridinium chloride or N-hexadecylpyridinium chloride, CPC. Data are fitted to the quadratic equation K = K[sub 0](1[minus][alpha]X + [beta]X[sup 2]), which correlates the solubilization equilibrium constant (K) with the mole fraction of TCE (X) in the micelles or complexes at each temperature. Activity coefficients are also obtained for TCE in the PSS/CPC complexes as a function of X. The general solubilization of TCE in PSS/CPC complexes resembles that of TCE in CPC micelles, as well as that of benzene or toluene in CPC micelles, suggesting that TCE solubilizes in ionic micelles both within the hydrocarbon micellar interior and near the micellar surface. The presence of the polyelectrolyte causes a small decrease in the ability of the cationic surfactant to solubilize TCE, while greatly reducing the concentration of the surfactant present in monomeric form. PSS/CPC complexes may be useful in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration processes to purify organic-contaminated water.

  14. Expression, Solubilization, and Purification of Bacterial Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Constance J

    2016-02-02

    Bacterial integral membrane proteins play many important roles, including sensing changes in the environment, transporting molecules into and out of the cell, and in the case of commensal or pathogenic bacteria, interacting with the host organism. Working with membrane proteins in the lab can be more challenging than working with soluble proteins because of difficulties in their recombinant expression and purification. This protocol describes a standard method to express, solubilize, and purify bacterial integral membrane proteins. The recombinant protein of interest with a 6His affinity tag is expressed in E. coli. After harvesting the cultures and isolating cellular membranes, mild detergents are used to solubilize the membrane proteins. Protein-detergent complexes are then purified using IMAC column chromatography. Support protocols are included to help select a detergent for protein solubilization and for use of gel filtration chromatography for further purification.

  15. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  16. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  17. Micelle-induced curvature in a water-insoluble HIV-1 Env peptide revealed by NMR dipolar coupling measurement in stretched polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, James J; Kaufman, Joshua D; Stahl, Stephen J; Wingfield, Paul T; Bax, Ad

    2002-03-20

    The structure of a water-insoluble fragment encompassing residues 282-304 of the HIV envelope protein gp41 is studied when solubilized by dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and by small bicelles, consisting of a 4:1 molar ratio of DHPC and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Weak alignment with the magnetic field was accomplished in a stretched polyacrylamide gel, permitting measurement of one-bond (1)H-(15)N, (13)Ca-(13)C', and (13)C'-(15)N dipolar couplings, which formed the basis for determining the peptide structure. In both detergent systems, the peptide adopts an alpha-helical conformation from residue 4 through 18. In the presence of the DHPC micelles the helix is strongly curved towards the hydrophobic surface, whereas in the presence of bicelles a much weaker curvature in the opposite direction is observed.

  18. [Solubilization Specificities Interferon beta-1b from Inclusion Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravko, A S; Kononova, N V; Bobruskin, A I

    2015-01-01

    A new solubilization method of recombinant interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) from the inclusion bodies was developed. This method allows to extract the target protein selectively in the solutions of different alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol and isopropanol. It was shown that the more effective IFNβ-1b solubilization was achieved in the 55% propanol solution. This method allowed to extract the target protein from inclusion bodies around 85-90%, and significantly reduced Escherichia coli content in the solubilizate, in comparison with standard methods.

  19. Water-solubilization and functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrakowski, Christina M; Isovic, Adela; Snee, Preston T

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are highly fluorescent nanocrystals that have abundant potential for uses in biological imaging and sensing. However, the best materials are synthesized in hydrophobic surfactants that prevent direct aqueous solubilization. While several methods have been developed to impart water-solubility, an aqueous QD dispersion has no inherent useful purpose and must be functionalized further. Due to the colloidal nature of QD dispersions, traditional methods of chemical conjugation in water either have low yields or cause irreversible precipitation of the sample. Here, we describe several methods to water-solubilize QDs and further functionalize the materials with chemical and/or biological vectors.

  20. First continuous phosphate record from Greenland ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Kjær

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A continuous and highly sensitive absorption method for detection of soluble phosphate in ice cores has been developed using a molybdate reagent and a 2 m liquid waveguide (LWCC. The method is optimized to meet the low concentrations of phosphate in Greenland ice, it has a detection limit of around 0.1 ppb and a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm. The new method has been applied to obtain phosphate concentrations from segments of two Northern Greenland ice cores: from a shallow firn core covering the most recent 120 yr and from the recently obtained deep NEEM ice core in which sections from the late glacial period have been analysed. Phosphate concentrations in 20th century ice are around 0.32 ppb with no indication of anthropogenic influence in the most recent ice. In the glacial part of the NEEM ice core concentrations in the cold stadial periods are significantly higher, in the range of 6–24 ppb, while interstadial ice concentrations are around 2 ppb. In the shallow firn core, a strong correlation between concentrations of phosphate and insoluble dust suggests a similar deposition pattern for phosphate and dust. In the glacial ice, phosphate and dust also correlate quite strongly, however it is most likely that this correlation originates from the phosphate binding to dust during transport, with only a fraction coming directly from dust. Additionally a constant ratio between phosphate and potassium concentrations shows evidence of a possible biogenic land source.

  1. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Lise V; Larsen, Dorte M; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-08-10

    Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study was to characterize and compare four homogalacturonan degrading enzymes capable of catalyzing the required solubilization of these pectinaceous polysaccharides from potato pulp in a 1 min reaction. An additional purpose was to assess the influence of the pH and the potential buffer chelating effects on the release of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100 °C within 1 min of reaction. The optima for the two selected polygalacturonases from E. nidulans and Aspergillus aculeatus were determined to pH 4.4 and 46 °C, and pH 3.7 and ≥80 °C, respectively. The polygalacturonase from A. aculeatus was 4-42 times more heat-resistant at 50 °C than the other enzymes. The difference in pH optima of the pectin lyases and the exceptional thermal stabilities of some of the enzymes are proposed to be related to specific amino acid substitutions, stabilizing hydrogen bonding and structural traits of the enzymes. The K(M) and V(max) values ranged from 0.3-0.6g/L and 0.5-250.5 U/mg protein, respectively. Phosphate buffer induced release of a higher amount of dry matter than Tris-acetate buffer at pH 6, indicating a chelating effect of the phosphate. Moreover, the phosphate had a higher chelating effect at pH 6 than at pH 4. The optimal conditions for a high yield of polysaccharides from potato pulp were therefore: 1% (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1% (w/w) enzyme/substrate (E/S) pectin lyase from E. nidulans and 1% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from A. aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C for

  2. Expression of zinc transporter genes in rice as influenced by zinc-solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj eKrithika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulphate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that zinc solubilizing bacteria could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  3. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  4. Resposta à inoculação de fungo solubilizador de fósforo em milho Maize response to inoculation with P-solubilizing fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nahas

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou verificar o efeito da adição de duas fontes de fosfato prontamente disponíveis, superfosfato triplo e fosfato solubilizado obtido por via microbiológica e uma fonte não prontamente disponível, apatita de Araxá, na cultura do milho. Em adição, foi verificado o efeito da inoculação do fungo Aspergillus niger, solubilizador de fosfato de rocha e da adição de matéria orgânica. Nos tratamentos em que se usou matéria orgânica, houve um aumento de população microbiana total do solo, mas nenhum efeito foi observado na produção e absorção de fósforo pela cultura do milho. Tanto o superfosfato triplo como a apatita de Araxá permitiram resultados mais favoráveis em termos de produção de massa seca e absorção de fósforo pelo milho em relação ao controle (sem fósforo e à utilização de fosfato solubilizado. Também não se constatou efeito da inoculação de A. niger sobre a solubilização do fosfato de rocha, possivelmente devido à interferência dos microrganismos naturais do solo. O numero de microrganismos e a atividade da fosfatase ácida foram menores no solo fertilizado com superfosfato triplo que com apatita de Araxá.This paper examined the effect of the addition of two sources of readily available phosphate, triple superphosphate and microbiologically solubilized phosphate, and of a not readily available source, Araxá apatite, on maize crop. In addition, the effects of inoculation of Aspergillus niger, a fungus that solubilizes rock phosphate, and of the addition of organic matter were examined. When organic matter was used, the total microbial population increased, but no effect was observed on phosphorus production or uptake by the maize crop. Both the triple superphosphate and Araxá apatite enhanced the production of dry matter and phosphorus uptake by maize as compared to the control (no phosphorus and to microbiologically solubilized phosphate. Also, inoculation of A. niger had no

  5. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  6. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru [UNION SHOWA K.K. 17-20, Mita 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  7. Preparation of soluble and insoluble polymer supported IBX reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Neal N; Delgado, Mercedes; Hereford, Kristina; Clapham, Bruce; Janda, Kim D

    2002-08-05

    A series of soluble and insoluble polymer supported versions of the versatile oxidizing reagent IBX has been prepared. Each of the reagents were evaluated for their efficiency in the conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Results from this study were that the soluble, non-crosslinked polystyrene supported IBX reagent gave the best rate of conversion to benzaldehyde, while the macroporous polymer supported IBX resin provided a superior rate of conversion to benzaldehyde when compared with a gel type resin. The macroporous IBX reagent was also shown to convert a series of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones.

  8. Amphiphilic biopolymers (amphibiopols) as new surfactants for membrane protein solubilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-Terrié, Caroline; Cosette, Pascal; Molle, Gérard; Muller, Guy; Dé, Emmanuelle

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new surfactants for membrane protein solubilization, from a natural, biodegradable polymer: the polysaccharide pullulan. A set of amphiphilic pullulans (HMCMPs), differing in hydrophobic modification ratio, charge ratio, and the nature of the hydrophobic chains introduced, were synthesized and tested in solubilization experiments with outer membranes of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The membrane proteins were precipitated, and then resolubilized with various HMCMPs. The decyl alkyl chain (C10) was the hydrophobic graft that gave the highest level of solubilization. Decyl alkyl chain-bearing HMCMPs were also able to extract integral membrane proteins from their lipid environment. The best results were obtained with an amphiphilic pullulan bearing 18% decyl groups (18C10). Circular dichroism spectroscopy and membrane reconstitution experiments were used to test the structural and functional integrity of 18C10-solubilized proteins (OmpF from Escherichia coli and bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium halobium). Whatever their structure type (α or β), 18C10 did not alter either the structure or the function of the proteins analyzed. Thus, HMCMPs appear to constitute a promising new class of polymeric surfactants for membrane protein studies. PMID:12649425

  9. Influence of glyphosate on the copper dissolution in phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, C. F. B.; Silva, M. O.; Machado, S. A. S.; Mazo, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper microelectrode in phosphate buffer in the presence of glyphosate was investigated by electrochemical techniques. It was observed that the additions of glyphosate in the phosphate buffer increased the anodic current of copper microelectrode and the electrochemical dissolution was observed. This phenomenon could be associated with the Cu(II) complexation by glyphosate forming a soluble complex. Physical characterization of the surface showed that, in absence of glyphosate, an insoluble layer covered the copper surface; on the other hand, in presence of glyphosate, it was observed a corroded copper surface with the formation of glyphosate complex in solution.

  10. Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunqiang; Wang Chunfeng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Wu Yue; Chen Jing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China)

    2012-06-15

    Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

  11. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  12. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-03

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Role of Automobile Exhaust on the Photoreductive Solubilization of Atmospheric Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Majestic, B. J.; Cutler, E.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric iron (Fe) plays an essential role in the carbon cycle, affecting the Earth's energy balance and human health. Fe catalyzes oxidations of organic carbon species and serves as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in about half of the world's oceans. Wind-blown dust is the major source of atmospheric insoluble Fe while urban areas are correlated with relatively high percentages of soluble Fe. The occurrence of elevated levels of soluble Fe near urban and industrial regions suggests a correlation between Fe solubilization and organic combustion products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Fossil fuel consumption for internal combustion engines produce atmospheric PAH as a major component of automobile exhaust. Under light, PAH transform into oxidized components such as ketones and carboxylic acids. For example, phthalic acid (formed from naphthalene) inhibits Fe oxidation reactions and therefore may contribute to Fe reduction and increased solubility. The wind-blown dust and PAH-containing combustion products undergo long-range atmospheric transport leading to mixing and metal-organic interactions. The current study focuses on how a saturated PAH suspension affects the production of soluble Fe. Reactions of soil-based Fe and saturated solutions of PAH are performed under controlled conditions simulating natural sunlight. Samples are analyzed by ICPMS for soluble Fe before and after solar exposure reactions; soluble Fe is separated from total Fe by filtration and total Fe by acid-assisted microwave digestion. Data indicate an increase in Fe solubility (1.2% to 4.2%) in the presence of PAH, as compared to soil in water alone, and an even greater increase in Fe solubility (4.2% to 8.4%) when exposed to solar radiation. Research is ongoing to determine the dependence of oxidized PAH on kinetic and overall Fe solubility.

  14. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  15. Solvent vapor annealing of an insoluble molecular semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram

    2010-01-01

    Solvent vapor annealing has been proposed as a low-cost, highly versatile, and room-temperature alternative to thermal annealing of organic semiconductors and devices. In this article, we investigate the solvent vapor annealing process of a model insoluble molecular semiconductor thin film - pentacene on SiO 2 exposed to acetone vapor - using a combination of optical reflectance and two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements performed in situ, during processing. These measurements provide valuable and new insight into the solvent vapor annealing process; they demonstrate that solvent molecules interact mainly with the surface of the film to induce a solid-solid transition without noticeable swelling, dissolving or melting of the molecular material. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Insoluble glycogen, a metabolizable internal adsorbent, decreases the lethality of endotoxin shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble glycogen is an enzymatically modified form of naturally occurring soluble glycogen with a great adsorbing capacity. It can be metabolized by phagocytes to glucose. In this study we used insoluble glycogen intravenously in the experimental endotoxin shock of rats. Wistar male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by Pb acetate. The survival of rats were compared in groups of animals endotoxin shock treated and non-treated with insoluble glycogen. Furthermore, we have determined in vitro the binding capacity of insoluble glycogen for endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and secretable phospholipase A2. Use of 10 mg/kg dose of insoluble glycogen could completely prevent the lethality of shock induced by LD50 quantity of endotoxin in rats. All animals treated survived. Insoluble glycogen is a form of ‘metabolizable internal adsorbents’. It can potentially be used for treatment of septic shock.

  17. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Recovery Act - Large Scale SWNT Purification and Solubilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gemano; Dr. Linda B. McGown

    2010-10-07

    The goal of this Phase I project was to establish a quantitative foundation for development of binary G-gels for large-scale, commercial processing of SWNTs and to develop scientific insight into the underlying mechanisms of solubilization, selectivity and alignment. In order to accomplish this, we performed systematic studies to determine the effects of G-gel composition and experimental conditions that will enable us to achieve our goals that include (1) preparation of ultra-high purity SWNTs from low-quality, commercial SWNT starting materials, (2) separation of MWNTs from SWNTs, (3) bulk, non-destructive solubilization of individual SWNTs in aqueous solution at high concentrations (10-100 mg/mL) without sonication or centrifugation, (4) tunable enrichment of subpopulations of the SWNTs based on metallic vs. semiconductor properties, diameter, or chirality and (5) alignment of individual SWNTs.

  19. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9 wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6 wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3 days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface.

  20. Hydrotropic Solubilization by Urea Derivatives: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotropy is a phenomenon where the presence of a large quantity of one solute enhances the solubility of another solute. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains a topic of debate. This study employed molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the hydrotropic mechanism of a series of urea derivatives, that is, urea (UR, methylurea (MU, ethylurea (EU, and butylurea (BU. A poorly water-soluble compound, nifedipine (NF, was used as the model solute that was solubilized. Structural, dynamic, and energetic changes upon equilibration were analyzed to supply insights to the solubilization mechanism. The study demonstrated that NF and urea derivatives underwent significant nonstoichiometric molecular aggregation in the aqueous solution, a result consistent with the self-aggregation of urea derivatives under the same conditions. The analysis of hydrogen bonding and energy changes revealed that the aggregation was driven by the partial restoration of normal water structure. The energetic data also suggested that the promoted solubilization of NF is favored in the presence of urea derivatives. While the solutes aggregated to a varying degree, the systems were still in single-phase liquid state as attested by their active dynamics.

  1. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  2. Initial growth of maize in response to application of rock phosphate, vermicompost and endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high energy requirement and demand for non-renewable resources for the production of chemical fertilizers, added also to the environmental impact caused by the use of such products, it is important to intensify research on bio-based agricultural inputs. The use of nitrogen-fixing endophytic and phosphate solubilizing bacteria can provide these nutrients to the plants from the air and poorly soluble phosphorus sources, such as phosphate rock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition and initial growth of maize (Zea mays L. in response to the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and rock phosphate solubilizing endophytic bacteria, in single or mixed formulation, applied with vermicompost. The treatments containing bacteria, both diazotrophic and phosphate solubilizing, when compared to controls, showed higher levels of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus in maize, as well as higher growth characteristics. The application of vermicompost showed synergistic effect when combined with endophytic bacteria. Thus, the innovation of the combination of the studied factors may contribute to the early development of maize.

  3. 2472-IJBCS-Article-Henri Fankem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The plant rhizosphere microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble soil organic .... allowed highlighting the similarities and the differences between ... Bacterial cells ...... The Journal of Animal &. Plant ...

  4. Liposomal solubilization of new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity: a screening method to identify maximum incorporation capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic...... drugs within liposomes was successfully applied. The compounds and lipid(s) were dissolved in methanol, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. The film was resuspended with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the dispersion was sonicated to reduce vesicle size. Ultracentrifugation was used...

  5. Fe and P solubilization under limiting conditions by bacteria isolated from Carex kobomugi roots at the Hasaki coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Masaru; Kobayashi, Katsuichiro; Yamaji, Keiko

    2013-03-01

    Our objective was simply to report a sedge species, Carex kobomugi Ohwi that has beneficial bacterial associations under low Fe and P conditions of the Hasaki coast, Japan. C. kobomugi is the dominant species in our study area and grows closest to the sea. C. kobomugi showed higher Fe and P content, while these nutrients were less available under alkaline root-zone soil. Within the roots, mycorrhizal fungal colonization was absent, and endophytic fungal colonization was low. On the contrary, endophytic bacteria (e.g. Bacillus sp., Streptomyces luteogriseus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were isolated, which exhibited both siderophore production and inorganic phosphate solubilization under Fe or P limited conditions. Our results suggest that colonization of root tissue by these bacteria contribute to the Fe and P uptakes by C. kobomugi by increasing availability in the soil.

  6. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    values of gels (indicating greater mobility), probably due to the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within micelles, which was significantly negatively correlated (r≥0.81) with the rate constant for endogenous syneresis. In the EDTA trial, with an increase in the EDTA concentration no maximum was observed in the rate constants related to proteolysis of κ-casein hairs or crosslinking of these activated sites. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis decreased at higher EDTA levels. The different rheological/modeling behavior in the EDTA trials was likely due to the very significant inhibition of rennet gelation induced by the use of EDTA, which also resulted in extremely long reaction times. Our modified Carlson model fit our experimental pH trial data very well, which indicates that the rennet gel system has the potential to synerese from the start; indeed this ability is an innate property of the casein micelle. Endogenous syneresis was enhanced by the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within casein micelles as this increased bond mobility within rennet gels.

  7. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  8. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  9. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  10. Soluble and insoluble signals sculpt osteogenesis in angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ugo; Ripamonti

    2010-01-01

    The basic tissue engineering paradigm is tissue induction and morphogenesis by combinatorial molecular protocols whereby soluble molecular signals are combined with insoluble signals or substrata.The insoluble signal acts as a three-dimensional scaffold for the initiation of de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. The osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) supergene family,the bone morphogenetic/osteogenic proteins(BMPs/OPs) and,uniquely in the non-human primate Papio ursinus(P.ursinus),the three mammalian TGF-βisoforms induce bone formation as a recapitulation of embryonic development.In this paper,I discuss the pleiotropic activity of the BMPs/OPs in the non-human primate P. ursinus,the induction of bone by transitional uroepithelium,and the apparent redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation by induction including the three mammalian TGF-βisoforms.Amongst all mammals tested so far,the three mammalian TGF-βisoforms induce endochondral bone formation in the non-human primate P.ursinus only.Bone tissue engineering starts by erect-ing scaffolds of biomimetic biomaterial matrices that mimic the supramolecular assembly of the extracellular matrix of bone.The molecular scaffolding lies at the hearth of all tissue engineering strategies including the induction of bone formation.The novel concept of tissue engineering is the generation of newly formed bone by the implantation of"smart"intelligent biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the ripple-like cascade of bone differentiation by induction without exogenously applied BMPs/OPs of the TGF-βsupergene family.A comprehensive digital iconographic material presents the modified tissue engineering paradigm whereby the induction of bone formation is initiated by intelligent smart biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the induction of bone formation without the exogenous application of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals. The driving force of the

  11. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of soluble and insoluble ceramic cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ilsoo; López, Alejandro; Pinar, Ana B; Helgason, Benedikt; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Ceramic cements are good candidates for the stabilization of fractured bone due to their potential ease of application and biological advantages. New formulations of ceramic cements have been tested for their mechanical properties, including strength, stiffness, toughness and durability. The changes in the mechanical properties of a soluble cement (calcium sulfate) upon water-saturation (saturation) was reported in our previous study, highlighting the need to test ceramic cements using saturated samples. It is not clear if the changes in the mechanical properties of ceramic cements are exclusive to soluble cements. Therefore the aim of the present study was to observe the changes in the mechanical properties of soluble and insoluble ceramic cements upon saturation. A cement with high solubility (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CSD) and a cement with low solubility (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were tested. Three-point bending tests were performed on four different groups of: saturated CSD, non-saturated CSD, saturated DCPD, and non-saturated DCPD samples. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were also performed on a sample from each group. Flexural strength, effective flexural modulus and flexural strain at maximum stress, lattice volume, and crystal sizes and shape were compared, independently, between saturated and non-saturated groups of CSD and DCPD. Although material dissolution did not occur in all cases, all calculated mechanical properties decreased significantly in both CSD and DCPD upon saturation. The results indicate that the reductions in the mechanical properties of saturated ceramic cements are not dependent on the solubility of a ceramic cement. The outcome raised the importance of testing any implantable ceramic cements in saturated condition to estimate its in vivo mechanical properties.

  12. General introduction: recombinant protein production and purification of insoluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Saccardo, Paolo; Corchero, José Luis; Xu, Zhikun; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized in heterologous systems because of the impossibility to obtain satisfactory yields from natural sources. The production of soluble and functional recombinant proteins is among the main goals in the biotechnological field. In this context, it is important to point out that under stress conditions, protein folding machinery is saturated and this promotes protein misfolding and, consequently, protein aggregation. Thus, the selection of the optimal expression organism and the most appropriate growth conditions to minimize the formation of insoluble proteins should be done according to the protein characteristics and downstream requirements. Escherichia coli is the most popular recombinant protein expression system despite the great development achieved so far by eukaryotic expression systems. Besides, other prokaryotic expression systems, such as lactic acid bacteria and psychrophilic bacteria, are gaining interest in this field. However, it is worth mentioning that prokaryotic expression system poses, in many cases, severe restrictions for a successful heterologous protein production. Thus, eukaryotic systems such as mammalian cells, insect cells, yeast, filamentous fungus, and microalgae are an interesting alternative for the production of these difficult-to-express proteins.

  13. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  14. A conservative interface-interaction model with insoluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranner, Felix S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we extend the conservative interface-interaction method of Hu et al. (2006) [34], adapted for weakly-compressible flows by Luo et al. (2015) [37], to include the effects of viscous, capillary, and Marangoni stresses consistently as momentum-exchange terms at the sharp interface. The interface-interaction method is coupled with insoluble surfactant transport which employs the underlying sharp-interface representation. Unlike previous methods, we thus achieve discrete global conservation in terms of interface interactions and a consistently sharp interface representation. The interface is reconstructed locally, and a sub-cell correction of the interface curvature improves the evaluation of capillary stresses and surfactant diffusion in particular for marginal mesh resolutions. For a range of numerical test cases we demonstrate accuracy and robustness of the method. In particular, we show that the method is at least as accurate as previous diffuse-interface models while exhibiting throughout the considered test cases improved computational efficiency. We believe that the method is attractive for high-resolution level-set interface-tracking simulations as it straightforwardly incorporates the effects of variable surface tension into the underlying conservative interface-interaction approach.

  15. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It is used to prevent and treat ... Chloroquine phosphate comes as a tablet to take by mouth. For prevention of malaria in adults, one dose is ...

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps red ...

  17. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  18. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  20. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer. METHODOLOGY: We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein. CONCLUSION: A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  1. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite Ⅱ: protein adsorption onto the lignite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Su-dong; TAO Xiu-xiang; SHI Kai-yi

    2009-01-01

    Lignite bio-solubilization is a promising technology for converting solid lignite into oil. This study concerns the adsorption of lignite-solubilizing enzymes onto the lignite surface. Adsorption capacity, infrared spectral analysis and driving forces analysis are studied as a way to help understand the bio-solubilization mechanism. The results show that the amount of lignite bio-solubilization is proportional to the amount of adsorbed lignite-solubilizing enzymes. An increase in lignite-solubilizing enzyme adsorption of 10% leads to a 7% increase in lignite bio-solubilization. However, limited amounts of enzymes can be adsorbed by the lignite, thus resulting in low percentages of bio-solubilization. Infrared spectral analysis shows that side chains, such as hydroxyl and carbonyl, of the lignite structure are the main, and necessary, structures where lignite-solubilizing enzymes attachto the lignite. Furthermore, driving force analysis indicates that the electrostatic force between lignite and enzymes is the main adsorption mechanism. The forces are influenced by solution pH levels, the zeta potential of the lignite and the isoelectric points of the enzymes.

  2. A standardized method for quantitating the complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Peterson, I; Svehag, S E;

    1983-01-01

    A standardized radioassay for measuring the complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity (CMSC) and the initial kinetics of the solubilization (IKS) reaction is described. The total complement (C)-mediated solubilizing capacity was determined after incubation of diluted serum and 125I......-BSA-anti-BSA. Percentage C-mediated solubilization (CMS) was measured after centrifugation by determining the distribution of radioactivity. The dependency of CMSC upon factors such as serum dilution and buffer system used, amount of IC added to serum, serum storage conditions and centrifugation conditions...

  3. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes and their interaction with complement C3 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ivan; Baatrup, Gunnar; Jepsen, H H;

    1985-01-01

    Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components of the me......Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components...

  4. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  5. Evaporation of Sessile Droplets Laden with Particles and Insoluble Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetsas, George; Chandra Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar K

    2016-07-12

    We consider the flow dynamics of a thin evaporating droplet in the presence of an insoluble surfactant and noninteracting particles in the bulk. On the basis of lubrication theory, we derive a set of evolution equations for the film height, the interfacial surfactant, and bulk particle concentrations, taking into account the dependence of liquid viscosity on the local particle concentration. An important ingredient of our model is that it takes into account the fact that the surfactant adsorbed at the interface hinders evaporation. We perform a parametric study to investigate how the presence of surfactants affects the evaporation process as well as the flow dynamics with and without the presence of particles in the bulk. Our numerical calculations show that the droplet lifetime is affected significantly by the balance between the ability of the surfactant to enhance spreading, suppressing the effect of thermal Marangoni stresses-induced motion, and to hinder the evaporation flux through the reduction of the effective interfacial area of evaporation, which tend to accelerate and decelerate the evaporation process, respectively. For particle-laden droplets and in the case of dilute solutions, the droplet lifetime is found to be weakly dependent on the initial particle concentration. We also show that the particle deposition patterns are influenced strongly by the direct effect of the surfactant on the evaporative flux; in certain cases, the "coffee-stain" effect is enhanced significantly. A discussion of the delicate interplay between the effects of capillary pressure and solutal and thermal Marangoni stresses, which drive the liquid flow inside of the evaporating droplet giving rise to the observed results, is provided herein.

  6. Co-precipitation of phosphate and iron limits mitochondrial phosphate availability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the yeast frataxin homologue (YFH1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Alexandra; Santos, Renata; Pain, Debkumar; Dancis, Andrew; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Lesuisse, Emmanuel

    2011-02-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the yeast frataxin homologue (Δyfh1) accumulate iron in the mitochondria in the form of nanoparticles of ferric phosphate. The phosphate content of Δyfh1 mitochondria was higher than that of wild-type mitochondria, but the proportion of mitochondrial phosphate that was soluble was much lower in Δyfh1 cells. The rates of phosphate and iron uptake in vitro by isolated mitochondria were higher for Δyfh1 than wild-type mitochondria, and a significant proportion of the phosphate and iron rapidly became insoluble in the mitochondrial matrix, suggesting co-precipitation of these species after oxidation of iron by oxygen. Increasing the amount of phosphate in the medium decreased the amount of iron accumulated by Δyfh1 cells and improved their growth in an iron-dependent manner, and this effect was mostly transcriptional. Overexpressing the major mitochondrial phosphate carrier, MIR1, slightly increased the concentration of soluble mitochondrial phosphate and significantly improved various mitochondrial functions (cytochromes, [Fe-S] clusters, and respiration) in Δyfh1 cells. We conclude that in Δyfh1 cells, soluble phosphate is limiting, due to its co-precipitation with iron.

  7. Isolation and identification of a phosphate solubilising fungus from soil of a phosphate mine in Chaluse, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Jamshidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of phosphorus from insoluble phosphates is an environmental friendly and cost effective approach in sustainable soil management. Introducing the indigenous microorganisms to soil requires shorter adaptation period and causes fewer ecological distortions than exogenous microorganisms. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the indigenous fungi for phosphate solubilisation in Mazandaran, Iran. A potent phosphate solubilising fungus was isolated from an Iranian phosphate mine and selected for solubilisation of rock phosphate (RP. The identified fungus was characterised by calmodulin-based polymerase chain reaction method as Aspergillus tubingensis SANRU (Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. The phosphate solubilisation ability of the fungal strain was carried out in shake-flask leaching experiments containing various concentrations of RP (1%, 2%, 4%, or 8% w/v. The maximum P solubilisation rate of 347 mg/l was achieved at 1% of RP concentration on day 9. The regression analysis indicated that the P solubilised mainly through acidification. This study shows the possibility of using A. tubingensis SANRU for application in the management of P fertilisation.

  8. Lung protection by inhalation of exogenous solubilized extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglei; Ravikumar, Priya; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hsia, Connie C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) contains complex tissue-specific components that work in concert to promote tissue repair and constructive remodeling and has been used experimentally and clinically to accelerate epithelial wound repair, leading us to hypothesize that lung-derived ECM could mitigate acute lung injury. To explore the therapeutic potential of ECM for noninvasive delivery to the lung, we decellularized and solubilized porcine lung ECM, then characterized the composition, concentration, particle size and stability of the preparation. The ECM preparation at 3.2 mg/mL with average particle size <3 μm was tested in vitro on human A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to 95% O2 for 24 hours, and in vivo by tracheal instillation or nebulization into the lungs of rats exposed intermittently or continuously to 90% O2 for a cumulative 72 hours. Our results showed that the preparation was enriched in collagen, reduced in glycosaminoglycans, and contained various bioactive molecules. Particle size was concentration-dependent. Compared to the respective controls treated with cell culture medium in vitro or saline in vivo, ECM inhalation normalized cell survival and alveolar morphology, and reduced hyperoxia-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage. This proof-of-concept study established the methodology, feasibility and therapeutic potential of exogenous solubilized ECM for pulmonary cytoprotection, possibly as an adjunct or potentiator of conventional therapy. PMID:28151947

  9. Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, J. (Grahamhaus Stadt kg, Bad Kreuznach (Germany))

    1992-09-01

    The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from Germany was tested in surface cultures. The intensity of bioliquefaction was determined by estimating the rate of droplet formation and by measuring the loss of weight of the coal granules gravimetrically. The bituminous coals with a relative high degree of coalification were only moderately converted by Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju. The three species of Pleurotus caused the greatest rate of biosolubilization of lignite, yielding a loss of weight of the coal granules of more than 5.8% with a maximum of 7.6% with P. florida. The non-basidiomycetes proved to be less active with a liquefaction rate of up to 3.5% with Trichoderma viride. In general, the geologically younger lignite coals were more effectively solubilized than the older hard coals. The volatile matter and the oxygen content proved to be the principal factors influencing the intensity of bioconversion.

  10. Solubilization and electrophoretic characterization of select edible nut seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sharma, Girdhari M; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-09-09

    The solubility of almond, Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, walnut, and peanut proteins in several aqueous solvents was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, the effects of extraction time and ionic strength on protein solubility were also investigated. Electrophoresis and protein determination (Lowry, Bradford, and micro-Kjeldahl) methods were used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins, respectively. Depending on the seed, buffer type and ionic strength significantly affected protein solubility. The results suggest that buffered sodium borate (BSB; 0.1 M H(3)BO(3), 0.025 M Na(2)B(4)O(7), 0.075 M NaCl, pH 8.45) optimally solubilizes nut seed proteins. Qualitative differences in seed protein electrophoretic profiles were revealed. For a specific seed type, these differences were dependent on the solvent(s) used to solubilize the seed proteins. SDS-PAGE results suggest the polypeptide molecular mass range for the tree nut seed proteins to be 3-100 kDa. The results of native IEF suggested that the proteins were mainly acidic, with a pI range from >4.5 to <7.0. Western immunoblotting experiments indicated that rabbit polyclonal antibodies recognized substantially the same polypeptides as those recognized by the corresponding pooled patient sera IgE.

  11. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo.

  12. Why nature chose phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, F H

    1987-03-06

    Phosphate esters and anhydrides dominate the living world but are seldom used as intermediates by organic chemists. Phosphoric acid is specially adapted for its role in nucleic acids because it can link two nucleotides and still ionize; the resulting negative charge serves both to stabilize the diesters against hydrolysis and to retain the molecules within a lipid membrane. A similar explanation for stability and retention also holds for phosphates that are intermediary metabolites and for phosphates that serve as energy sources. Phosphates with multiple negative charges can react by way of the monomeric metaphosphate ion PO3- as an intermediate. No other residue appears to fulfill the multiple roles of phosphate in biochemistry. Stable, negatively charged phosphates react under catalysis by enzymes; organic chemists, who can only rarely use enzymatic catalysis for their reactions, need more highly reactive intermediates than phosphates.

  13. Soluble antioxidant compounds regenerate the antioxidants bound to insoluble parts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal.

  14. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  15. On the Stable Numerical Approximation of Two-Phase Flow with Insoluble Surfactant

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, John W; Nürnberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present a parametric finite element approximation of two-phase flow with insoluble surfactant. This free boundary problem is given by the Navier--Stokes equations for the two-phase flow in the bulk, which are coupled to the transport equation for the insoluble surfactant on the interface that separates the two phases. We combine the evolving surface finite element method with an approach previously introduced by the authors for two-phase Navier--Stokes flow, which maintains good mesh properties. The derived finite element approximation of two-phase flow with insoluble surfactant can be shown to be stable. Several numerical simulations demonstrate the practicality of our numerical method.

  16. Phosphate-solubilising rhizobacteria associated with Coffea arabica L. in natural coffee forests of southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diriba Muleta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilising rhizobacteria associated with Coffea arabica L. in natural coffee forests of southwestern Ethiopia were investigated. The main purpose was to screen for potential microbial biofertilisers by assessing isolated strains for phosphate solubilisation efficiency and organic acid production in different media. Initial screening was performed on Pikovskaya’s agar (PA. Quantitative colorimetric estimations of mobilised phosphate were made in different broth media in the presence of two phosphate sources. HPLC was employed for the detection of organic acids. From a total of 395 rhizobacterial isolates tested for P solubilisation, over 72% (mostly Pseudomonas spp. formed visible dissolution haloes on PA. Two Erwinia species and a P. chlororaphis strain produced the largest solubilisation indices and also solubilised hydroxyapatite strongly in broth medium. Solubilisation of hydroxyapatite (HAP/tricalcium phosphate (TCP by all isolates coincided with a decrease in medium pH. HPLC analyses of culture supernatants confirmed the presence of several organic acids, with 2-ketogluconic acid dominating. The production of organic acids by these coffee-associated phosphobacteria could be considered the major mechanism involved in the solubilisation of insoluble HAP/TCP. Certain isolates deserve particular attention for bioinoculant development due to their remarkable efficiency of insoluble phosphate solubilisation. The present study could therefore be important with respect to screening of Coffea arabica-associated rhizobacteria that possess direct plant growth-promoting traits for extending the use of indigenous microbes as microbial biofertilisers.

  17. Isolation and functional characterization of hydrocarbon emulsifying and solubilizing factors produced by a Pseudomonas species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, P.G.; Banuah, J.N.; Bhagat, S.D.; Pathak, M.G.; Singh, H.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pseudomonas PG-1 cultivated on pristane produced in good amount a heat-stable polymeric substance which showed strong hydrocarbon emulsifying and solubilizing properties. The substance was isolated in crude form and was found to contain 34% protein, 16% carbohydrate, and 40% lipid. The hydrocarbon solubilizing activity of the isolate was strongly inhibited by EDTA but the chelating agent had no effect on the hydrocarbon emulsifying activity. Both activities of the isolate were strongly inhibited by chymotrypsin treatment indicating the importance of the protein moiety for its activity. Hydrocarbon solubilization by the isolate showed a certain degree of specificity to pristane in modest agitation generally used in microbial cultivation, but this specificity was lost by vigorous agitation in a Waring blender. It was proposed that in the first case, solubilization was effected by a solubilizing factor specific to pristane, whereas in the latter ease, nonspecific solubilization occurred due to the action of the emulsifying factor. The rate of pristane solubilization by heat-treated culture broth under the conditions of agitation used in cultivation (rotary shaker, 120 rpm) was found to be ca. 750 mg L/sup -1/h/sup -1/ which was much larger than the maximal pristane uptake rate of 170 mg L/sup -1/h/sup -1/ observed during microbial growth on the substrate. It was concluded that hydrocarbon solubilization could satisfactorily account for the substrate uptake and growth.

  18. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of liposomes and protein-containing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Hansen, U; le Maire, M; Møller, J V

    1998-12-01

    The present study explores intermediate stages in detergent solubilization of liposomes and Ca2+-ATPase membranes by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and medium-sized ( approximately C12) nonionic detergents. In all cases detergent partitioning in the membranes precedes cooperative binding and solubilization, which is facilitated by exposure to detergent micelles. Nonionic detergents predominantly interact with the lipid component of Ca2+-ATPase membranes below the CMC (critical micellar concentration), whereas SDS extracts Ca2+-ATPase before solubilization of lipid. At the transition to cooperative binding, n-dodecyl octaethylene glycol monoether (C12E8), Triton X-100, and dodecyldimethylamine oxide induce fusion of small unilamellar liposomes to larger vesicles before solubilization. Solubilization of Ca2+-ATPase membranes is accompanied by membrane fragmentation and aggregation rather than vesicle fusion. Detergents with strongly hydrophilic heads (SDS and beta-D-dodecylmaltoside) only very slowly solubilize liposomal membranes and do not cause liposome fusion. These properties are correlated with a slow bilayer flip-flop. Our data suggest that detergent solubilization proceeds by a combination of 1) a transbilayer attack, following flip-flop of detergent molecules across the lipid bilayer, and 2) extraction of membrane components directly by detergent micelles. The present study should help in the design of efficient solubilization protocols, accomplishing the often delicate balance between preserving functional properties of detergent sensitive membrane proteins and minimizing secondary aggregation and lipid content.

  19. Chelating agents improve enzymatic solubilization of pectinaceous co-processing streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    /substrate] at 60 °C, pH 6.0 for 1 min. Characterization of the released fractions demonstrated a significantly improved effect of chelating agents for polysaccharide solubilization from FiberBind 400, PUF, and citrus peel, whereas only low amounts of polysaccharides were solubilized from the sugar beet pulp...

  20. Zinc metal solubilization by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and induction of pleomorphic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Osborne, Jabez; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Mathew, Lazar; Chung, Jongbae; Ahn, Kisup; Sa, Tongmin

    2007-09-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAl5 exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 11 mM in an LGI medium amended with ZnCl2. When an LGI medium was amended with Zn metal, solubilization halos were observed in a plate assay, and further solubilization was confirmed in a broth assay. The maximum solubilization was recorded after 120 h with a 0.1% Zn metal amendment. During solubilization, the culture growth and pH of the broth were indirectly correlated. Using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, one of the agents solubilizing the Zn metal was identified as gluconic acid. When the Zn-amended broth was observed under a bright field microscope, long involution cells were observed, and further analysis with Atomic Force Microscopy revealed highly deformed, pleomorphic, aggregate-like cells.

  1. Visualization of surfactant enhanced NAPL mobilization and solubilization in a two-dimensional micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHONG,LIRONG; MAYER,ALEX; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.

    2000-03-08

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is an emerging technology for aquifers contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). A two-dimensional micromodel and image capture system were applied to observe NAPL mobilization and solubilization phenomena. In each experiment, a common residual NAPL field was established, followed by a series of mobilization and solubilization experiments. Mobilization floods included pure water floods with variable flow rates and surfactant floods with variations in surfactant formulations. At relatively low capillary numbers (N{sub ca}<10{sup {minus}3}), the surfactant mobilization floods resulted in higher NAPL saturations than for the pure water flood, for similar N{sub ca}.These differences in macroscopic saturations are explained by differences in micro-scale mobilization processes. Solubilization of the residual NAPL remaining after the mobilization stage was dominated by the formation of dissolution fingers, which produced nonequilibrium NAPL solubilization. A macroemulsion phase also as observed to form spontaneously and persist during the solubilization stage of the experiments.

  2. Natural sedimentation of insoluble particles during directional solidification of upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, C. H.; Xiong, H. P.; Fang, M.; Qiu, S.; Xing, P. F.; Luo, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon is used to cast an ingot by directional solidification. Black shadows are randomly distributed in the ingot, and the shadows are caused by natural sedimentation of insoluble particles. The insoluble particles mainly consist of SiC and Si3N4. SiC and Si3N4 exist as foreign particles and mainly sedimentate at the bottom of the ingot, not generating during directional solidification. Melt convection performs an important role in the sedimentation, resulting in the insoluble particles in the ingot center more than the nearby. Interestingly, since SiC and Si3N4 will not be the recombination center of the minority carrier, the insoluble particles do not have a significant influence on the minority carrier lifetime. In particular, the sedimentation is discussed according to the thermodynamics and kinetics in detail.

  3. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  4. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible.

  5. Comparisons of methods to obtain insoluble particles in snow for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Zhang, Xiongfei; Wei, Hailun; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Li, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    Most studies of insoluble particles in snow have been focused on their mass concentration. Little is understood about the physicochemical properties of individual insoluble particles in snow. However, the information is essential to trace sources of the particles, to understand ice nuclei, and to quantify critical aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) in snow analyzed by bulk methods. The lack of individual particle analyses of snow meltwater stems from the difficulty of producing feasible samples of the snow-borne insoluble particles. In this study, we examined six sample preparation methods and compared their results using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results are the following: (1) Drop-by-drop method (DDM) is the easiest method to make TEM samples but cannot remove the influence of the dissolved substances in snow meltwater. (2) Direct filtration method (DFM) was infeasible because the water penetration of carbon film on copper TEM grids is low. (3) Filtration and transfer method (FTM) is through using ultrasonication to transfer insoluble particles on the nuclepore polycarbonate membranes to TEM grids. The drawback of this method is that ultrasonication breaks individual particles into fragments. (4) Freeze-drying method (FDM) can result in new particles from the drying dissolved substances, which interferes with the identification of insoluble particles. (5) Dilution-gravity separation method (DGM) can obtain different substances based on their specific gravity in long standing water. The method can effectively reduce soluble substances but lose insoluble carbonaceous particles (e.g., soot and organic particles). (6) Tangential flow filtration and dilution (TFF-D) through concentrating and desalting dissolved substances is to remove the dissolved substances but keep insoluble particles in snow meltwater. The TFF-D method not only can be suitable for electron microscopy to study individual insoluble particles in snow meltwater but also for any

  6. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed wi...

  7. High-throughput screening of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes using novel insoluble chromogenic substrate assay kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    of CAZymes exist in nature (especially in microorganisms) and hundreds of thousands have been cataloged and described in the carbohydrate active enzyme database (CAZy). However, the rate of discovery of putative enzymes has outstripped our ability to biochemically characterize their activities. One reason...... kit based on insoluble chromogenic substrates is described here. Two distinct substrate types were produced: Chromogenic Polymer Hydrogel (CPH) substrates (made from purified polysaccharides and proteins) and Insoluble Chromogenic Biomass (ICB) substrates (made from complex biomass materials). Both...

  8. Combination of surfactant solubilization with permanganate oxidation for DNAPL remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Hanlie, Hong

    2008-02-01

    A combination of surfactant solubilization with permanganate oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied in batch, flow-through column, and three-dimensional (3-D) tank tests. Batch results showed that chloride production, an indication of TCE degradation, followed a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics with respect to KMnO4 in the presence of free-phase TCE. A higher chloride production rate was achieved when anionic surfactants were present. The observed pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant increased as the concentrations of anionic surfactants Ninate 411 and Calfax increased from 0% to 0.1%, 0.3%, and 1.0%. Column experiments on TCE reduction by permanganate in the presence and absence of surfactants were carried out using well-sorted coarse Ottawa sand. The peak effluent TCE concentration reached 1700 mg/L due to enhanced solubilization when both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and permanganate were used, in contrast to less than 300 mg/L when only permanganate solution was used. In addition, the effluent TCE concentration decreased much faster when SDS was present in the permanganate solution, compared with the case when SDS was absent. With an initial 1 mL of TCE emplaced in the columns, the effluent TCE concentration dropped to breakthrough occurred after 21-25 h of injection when SDS was present compared with 45-70 h later when SDS was absent. A slightly higher chloride concentration was observed in the earlier stage of the column experiment and the chloride concentration decreased quickly once KMnO4 was seen in the effluent. The 3-D tank test showed that the MnO2 precipitation front formed more quickly when 1% SDS was present, which further confirmed the observation from the column study.

  9. Improved solubilization of curcumin with a microemulsification formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMICĂ CREŢU

    Full Text Available Due to the large number of bioactive substances, with low and very low solubility in water, new and improved investigation methods were developed. Researches in this area have shown that lipid systems in lipophilic substances formulation increase their bioavailability and prevent or reduce the toxicological risk because most of the components involved in the formulation are of natural origin, with a structure compatible with biological membranes components. Among the lipid systems used in the leaching, transport and release of lipophilic substances there are: liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, double and single emulsions, autoemulsionante and auto-microemulsionante lipid systems. The last are the subject of the present research and meet specialists in concern for the harmonization of cost-benefit-risk in order to improve population health. Curcumin [(1E, 6E-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] is a yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma Longa with phenol groups and conjugated double bounds which is unstable at light and basic pH, degrading within 30 minutes. The aim of this study is curcumin solubilization used as alimentary dye in automicroemulsionante systems. Dye/oil/surfactant/cosurfactant mixing ratio was made, based on quaternary phase diagrams. Mesofazice structures were revealed by conductivity and viscosimetric analysis. A curcumin solubilization system in aqueous medium was obtained. On the other hand, this paper studies the colour evolution of these automicroemulsionante systems comparing with hexane dye solution. The use of the chromatic attributes L*, a* and b* and L*, C* and hab, suggested by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE (i.e., the CIELAB system, obtained from direct transmitance measurements, which made it possible to follow the evolution of colour.

  10. Geochemical hosts of solubilized radionuclides in uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.; Bush, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilization and subsequent resorption of radionuclides by ore components or by reaction products during the milling of uranium ores may have both economic and environmental consequences. Particle-size redistribution of radium during milling has been demonstrated by previous investigators; however, the identification of sorbing components in the tailings has received little experimental attention. In this study, uranium-bearing sandstone ore was milled, on a laboratory scale, with sulfuric acid. At regular intervals, filtrate from this suspension was placed in contact with mixtures of quartz sand and various potential sorbents which occur as gangue in uranium ores; the potential sorbents included clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides, feldspar, fluorspar, barite, jarosite, coal, and volcanic glass. After equilibration, the quartz sand-sorbent mixtures were separated from the filtrate and radioassayed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the quantities of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb sorbed, and the radon emanation coefficients. Sorption of 238U was low in all cases, with maximal sorptions of 1-2% by the bentonite- and coal-bearing samples. 230Th sorption also was generally less than 1%; maximal sorption here was observed in the fluorspar-bearing sample and appears to be associated with the formation of gypsum during milling. 226Ra and 210 Pb generally showed higher sorption than the other nuclides - more than 60% of the 26Ra solubilized from the ore was sorbed on the barite-bearing sample. The mechanism (s) for this sorption by a wide variety of substrates is not yet understood. Radon emanation coefficients of the samples ranged from about 5 to 30%, with the coal-bearing samples clearly demonstrating an emanating power higher than any of the other materials. ?? 1990.

  11. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  12. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  13. Interactions among phosphate amendments, microbes and uranium mobility in contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)], E-mail: anna.knox@srnl.doe.gov; Brigmon, R.L.; Kaplan, D.I.; Paller, M.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of three types of phosphate (rock phosphate, biological phosphate, and calcium phytate) and two microbial amendments (Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida) on U mobility. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentrations more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31%, respectively. Uranium removal in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of the two microbes. Two sediments were evaluated in experiments on the effects of phosphate amendments on U mobility, one from a stream on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC and the other from the Hanford Site, a Department of Energy facility in Washington state. Increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to a reduction in phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U contaminated sediment was 437 {mu}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {mu}g/kg. The U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx} 0 {mu}g/kg in autoclaved amended sediment treated with autoclaved biological apatite. These results suggest that microbes may reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  14. 黑曲霉H1的cDNA文库构建及其溶磷相关基因的筛选%Construction of cDNA library of Aspergillus niger H1 and screening of phosphate-dissolving related gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐超西; 龚明波; 李顺鹏; 朱昌雄

    2012-01-01

    showed that the content of constructed A. Niger HI cDNA library reached 5. 65 x 106 cfu/mL, in which the percentage of recombinant clones was 99. 15%. We screened 61 clones with phosphate-dissolving activities on the solid medium with insoluble phosphate. The corresponding gene in one of these clones was identified. The full length cDNA of clone H-54 was 839 bp, encoding a predicted protein with 180 amino acid residues. The expression of phosphate-dissolving gene in E. Coli enhanced organic acids secretion and improved the phosphate solubilizing activity. Formic acid and acetic acid were found in 12 h, and malic acid and phosphate up to 0. 105 mg/mL in 36 h. [ Conclusion] We had obtained a phosphate-dissolving gene designated psgA from Aspergillus niger HI.

  15. Solubilization and degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) in cationic and nonionic surfactant solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan

    2011-01-01

    Solubilization of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a nonionic (Triton X-100) and a cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)) surfactant solutions and the degradation of surfactant solubilized PCE using fine to nanosize Fe and bi-metallic Fe-Ni particles were investigated.Micelle partition coefficients (Km) and molar solubility ratio (MSR) for PCE in 10 g/L of surfactant solutions have been quantified and the solubility of PCE (100 mg/L in water) in the surfactant solutions increased by about ten fold.Of the two surfactants studied,Triton X-100 solubilized the higher amount of PCE per gram of surfactant.To degrade solubilized PCE,both iron and bimetallic Fe-Ni particles were used in continuously stirred batch reactors.The iron and bi-metallic particles were synthesized using the solution method and the particles were characterized using the SEM,EDS,TEM and XRD.The PCE solubilized up to 500 mg/L in both surfactant solutions were totally degraded at various rates by 200 g/L of bi-metallic Fe-Ni particles in less than 20 hr,which is the highest concentration of PCE degraded in the shortest time compared to data in the literature.The degradations of PCE solubilized in surfactant solutions were represented by nonlinear kinetic relationships which depended on the type of surfactant used for solubilizing the PCE.

  16. Rock inhabiting potassium solubilizing bacteria from Kerala, India: characterization and possibility in chemical K fertilizer substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanadevi, Indira Parameswaran; John, Neetha Soma; John, Kuzhivilayil Susan; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi Lajapathy; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The role of rock inhabiting bacteria in potassium (K) solubilization from feldspar and their application in crop nutrition through substitution of fertilizer K was explored through the isolation of 36 different bacteria from rocks of a major hill station at Ponmudi in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. A comprehensive characterization of K solubilization from feldspar was achieved with these isolates which indicated that the K solubilizing efficiency increases with decrease in pH and increase in viscosity and viable cell count. Based on the level of K solubilization, two potent isolates were selected and identified as Bacillus subtilis ANctcri3 and Bacillus megaterium ANctcri7. Exopolysaccharide production, scanning electron microscopic and fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies with these efficient strains conclusively depicted the role of low pH, increase in viscosity, and bacterial attachment in K solubilization. They were also found to be efficient in phosphorus (P) solubilization, indole acetic acid production as well as tolerant to wide range of physiological conditions. Moreover, the applicability of K containing rock powder as a carrier for K solubilizing bacteria was demonstrated. A field level evaluation on the yield of a high K demanding tuberous vegetable crop, elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (dennst.) nicolson) established the possibility of substituting chemical K fertilizer with these biofertilizer candidates successfully.

  17. Solubilization of octane in cationic surfactant-anionic polymer complexes: effect of polymer concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Deng, Lingli; Zeeb, Benjamin; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-07-15

    Polymers may alter the ability of oppositely charged surfactant micelles to solubilize hydrophobic molecules depending on surfactant-polymer interactions. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the solubilization thermodynamics of an octane oil-in-water emulsion in mixtures of an anionic polymer (carboxymethyl cellulose) and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant micelles using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results showed that the CTAB binding capacity of carboxymethyl cellulose increased with increasing temperature from 301 to 323 K, and correspondingly the thermodynamic behavior of octane solubilization in CTAB micelles, either in the absence or presence of polymer, was found to depend on temperature. The addition of carboxymethyl cellulose caused the solubilization in CTAB micelles to be less endothermic, and increased the solubilization capacity. Based on the phase separation model, the solubilization was suggested to be mainly driven by enthalpy gains. Results suggest that increasing concentrations of the anionic polymer gave rise to a larger Gibbs energy decrease and a larger unfavorable entropy increase for octane solubilization in cationic surfactant micelles.

  18. Physical characterization and antioxidant activity of thymol solubilized Tween 80 micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ling-Li; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Attempts were made to solubilize thymol in Tween 80 micelle to study the solubilization mechanism of thymol and the effect of solubilization on its antioxidant activity. The maximum solubilized concentration of thymol in a 2.0% (w/v) Tween 80 micelle solution is 0.2 wt%. There was no significant difference in Z-average diameter between the empty micelles and thymol solubilized micelles. 1H NMR spectra indicated that 3-H and 4-H on the benzene ring of thymol interacted with the ester group between the hydrophilic head group and the hydrophobic tail group of Tween 80 by Van der Waals’ force. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays showed that the reducing antioxidant activity of free thymol did not change after solubilized in Tween 80 micelles. Compared to free thymol, the solubilized thymol showed higher activities to scavenge DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. The present study suggested a possible preparation of thymol-carrying micelles with enhanced antioxidant activities that could be applied in food beverages.

  19. Amending soils with phosphate as means to mitigate soil lead hazard: a critical review of the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, Kirk G; Diamond, Gary L; Burgess, Michele F; Klotzbach, Julie M; Maddaloni, Mark; Miller, Bradley W; Partridge, Charles R; Serda, Sophia M

    2013-01-01

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils conducted in humans and animal models. Practical implementation issues, such as criteria and methods for evaluating efficacy, and potential effects of phosphate on mobility and bioavailability of co-contaminants in soil are also discussed.

  20. Mechanism of enhancement of prochymosin renaturation by solubilization of inclusion bodies at alkaline pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治洲; 张渝英; 杨开宇

    1997-01-01

    The renaturation efficiency of recombinant prochymosin depends on not only the renaturation condi-tions but also the solubilization (denaturation) conditions. Compared with pH 8, solubilization of prochymosin-contain-ing inclusion bodies at pH 11 (8 mol/L urea) results in onefold increase of renaturation efficiency ( ~ 40% vs. ~ 20 % ). Alkaline pH facilitates the solubilization of inclusion bodies via the breakage of intermolecular disulfide bonds. Moreover, alkaline pH renders prochymosin molecules to be in a more reduced and more unfolded state which undergoes refolding readily.

  1. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    CERN Document Server

    Hobai, S

    2001-01-01

    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu-sion (per mmol surfactant), DDif%/mmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL-Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration curves can reveal the contribution of cholesterol to the stability of phospholipid bilayer membranes. The solubilization of the lecithin-cholesterol mixtures, with a high cholesterol content, much more bile salt requires.

  2. EDTA-type Polymer Based on Diazacrown Ether as the Solubilizer of Barium Sulfate to Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHOU; Jian Zhang LI; Chun Hong HE; Sheng Ying QIN

    2005-01-01

    The EDTA dianhydride reacted with diazacrown ethers to obtain the water-soluble EDTA-diazacrown ether polymers 1~3. The effects of crown ether ring in the polymer chains including its cavity size on the solubilization of barium sulfate to water were investigated by comparison with the crown ring-free analogue 4. The result shows that the polymer 2 is the efficient solubilizer of BaSO4 and the highest solubilization efficiency of the BaSO4 to water is up to 72.5%.

  3. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  4. [Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry analysis of insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bo; Liu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Yao-Chi; Yang, Zhao-Guang; Li, Hai-Pu

    2014-11-01

    A ultraviolet-visible spectrometry method of determining insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes in flotation wastewater was the first time to be put forward. In this work, the changes of ultraviolet-visible spectra of xanthate solution after the addition of various heavy metal ions were investigated firstly. It was found that Pb2+ and Cu2+ can form insoluble complexes with xanthate, while Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ have little effect on the ultraviolet absorption of xanthate solution. Then the removal efficiencies of filter membrane with different pore sizes were compared, and the 0.22 μm membrane was found to be effective to separate copper xanthate or lead xanthate from the filtrate. Furthermore, the results of the study on the reaction of sodium sulfide and insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes showed that S(2-) can release the xanthate ion quantitatively from insoluble complexes to solution. Based on the above research, it was concluded that the amount of insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes in water samples can be obtained through the increase of free xanthate in the filtrate after the addition of sodium sulfide. Finally, the feasibility of this method was verified by the application to the analysis of flotation wastewater from three ore-dressing plants in the Thirty-six Coves in Chenzhou.

  5. Production and cytotoxicity of extracellular insoluble and droplets of soluble melanin by Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, D N; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Dastager, Syed G; Agsar, Dayanand

    2014-01-01

    A Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 strain with potential to synthesize both insoluble and soluble melanins was detected. Melanins are quite distinguished based on their solubility for varied biotechnological applications. The present investigation reveals the enhanced production of insoluble and soluble melanins in tyrosine medium by a single culture. Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An enhanced production of 5.29 g/L insoluble melanin was achieved in a submerged bioprocess following response surface methodology. Combined interactive effect of temperature (50°C), pH (8.5), tyrosine (2.0 g/L), and beef extract (0.5 g/L) were found to be critical variables for enhanced production in central composite design analysis. An optimized indigenous slant culture system was an innovative approach for the successful production (264 mg/L) of pure soluble melanin from the droplets formed on the surface of the culture. Both insoluble and soluble melanins were confirmed and characterized by Chemical, reactions, UV, FTIR, and TLC analysis. First time, cytotoxic study of melanin using brine shrimps was reported. Maximum cytotoxic activity of soluble melanin was Lc50-0.40 µg/mL and insoluble melanin was Lc50-0.80 µg/mL.

  6. Immobilization of lead in anthropogenic contaminated soils using phosphates with/without oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling; Zuo, Jichao; Liu, Yonghong; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on the immobilization of Pb(II) in contaminated soils by phosphate materials, has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for the soil. A series of phosphate amendments with/without oxalic acid were applied to two anthropogenic contaminated soils. We investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) by KH2PO4, phosphate rock (PR), activated phosphate rock (APR) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) at different phosphate:Pb (P:Pb) molar ratios (0, 0.6, 2.0 and 4.0) in the presence/absence of 50 mmol oxalic acid/kg soil, respectively. The effects of treatments were evaluated using single extraction with deionized water or CaCl2, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) methods. Our results showed that the concentration of water extractable, exchangeable and TCLP-Pb all decreased with incubation time. The concentration of water-extractable Pb after 120 days was reduced by 100% when soils were amended with APR, HAP and HAP+OA, and the TCLP-Pb was phosphate was detected at the P:Pb molar ratio 4.0 at the beginning of incubation. Oxalic acid activated phosphates, and so mixing insoluble phosphates with oxalic acid may be a useful strategy to improve their effectiveness in reducing Pb bioavailability.

  7. Microstructure and property of zinc phosphate coating on die-casting magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; LIAN Jian-she; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao

    2006-01-01

    A surface treatment method was described, which can form a uniform and dense phosphate conversion coating on the die -casting magnesium alloy AZ91D in a non-chromate and non-nitrite bath. The coating consists of Zn3(PO4)2-4H2O, Zn, AlPO4 and MgZn2(PO4)2 analyzed by XRD. The SEM results show that the microstructure of the zinc phosphate coating transfers from flower-like to slab-like crystals with the increase of immersion time of magnesium alloy samples in the phosphating bath. The zinc phosphate coating formed in the bath with immersion time of 1 min is denser because metallic Zn and insoluble phosphate crystals co-deposit on the magnesium alloy surface and the growth of the crystals are restricted by each others. The zinc phosphate coating on the magnesium alloy is used as the base layer for further cataphoric and powder paintings. The cataphoric painting on AZ91D alloy based on phosphate coating has similar adhesion and corrosion-resistance to that based on the chromate conversion coating. But for powder painting, the former exhibits better adhesion property than the latter, due to the uneven microstructure and the enough thickness of the phosphate coating.

  8. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Valero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O, IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L-1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils.

  9. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nelson; Gómez, Liliana; Pantoja, Manuel; Ramírez, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L−1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils. PMID:25477925

  10. Interactions between solubilized polymer molecules and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zonghua; Jiao, Yanpeng; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Xue, Wei

    2012-05-30

    In biomedical field, a variety of natural or synthetic polymers are being exponentially developed and used in vivo to improve human health. In practical applications, these biopolymers would enter blood circulation directly or indirectly, positively or passively, rapidly or slowly. Blood is a special tissue of human body, which fulfills many important missions to sustain normal metabolism. The contact with blood of the biopolymers, which are seen as foreign substances by the body, would be harmful or even instantaneously lethal, depending on the nature and the dose of the biopolymers administered. Therefore, it is critical to clearly understand the potential influences of the foreign polymers on blood before the polymers are applied from the lab to bedside. In this review, we discuss the recent studies on the interactions of foreign, solubilized polymer molecules (excluding formed polymer materials) with blood constituents (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma proteins, etc.), to gain insight into the potential in vivo applications of the biopolymers in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus mutants defective in the solubilization of phosphorus and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorne, Aline C; de Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Lima, Mariana L; da Silva, Juliana F; Olivares, Fábio L; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário

    2009-05-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a plant-growth-promoting bacterium, which is able to colonize sugarcane and other plant species of economic importance. The potentially beneficial effects promoted by this bacterium on plants are nitrogen-fixation, production of phythormones, action against pathogens and mineral nutrient solubilization. In this study, the molecular mechanisms associated with phosphorus and zinc solubilization were analyzed. A transposon mutant library was constructed and screened to select for mutants defective for phosphorous [Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH] and zinc (ZnO) solubilization. A total of five mutants were identified in each screen. Both screenings, performed independently, allowed to select the same mutants. The interrupted gene in each mutant was identified by sequencing and the results demonstrate that the production of gluconic acid is a required pathway for solubilization of such nutrients in G. diazotrophicus.

  12. SOLUBILIZATION OF DODECANE, TETRACHLOROETHYLENE, AND 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE IN MICELLAR SOLUTIONS OF ETHOXYLATED NONIONIC SURFACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although surfactants have received considerable attention as a potential means for enhancing the recovery of organic compounds from the subsurface, only limited information is available regarding the micellar solubilization of common groundwater contaminants by nonionic surfactan...

  13. Mechanisms of coal solubilization by the deuteromycetes Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Ludwig, S.; Scheel, T.; Hoefer, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst. und Botanischer Garten

    1999-07-01

    Three different mechanisms can be envisaged that are used by fungi to solubilize coal: the production of alkaline substances, the extrusion of chelators and, of special interest in the scope of biotechnology, the action of enzymes. Whether these mechanisms are operating separately or in various combinations has not yet been finally assessed. The two deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma atroviride solubilize coal by synergistic effects of various different mechanisms depending on the cell metabolism. F. oxysporum seems to solubilize coal by increasing the pH of the mycelial surroundings and by the action of chelators induced during growth in glutamate-containing media (without involvement of enzymes). T. atroviride, on the other hand, appears to use, in addition to an alkaline pH and a high chelator activity, at least two classes of enzyme activity to attack coal: hydrolytic activity for coal solubilization and ligninolytic activity for degradation of humic acids. (orig.)

  14. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  15. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of liposomes and protein-containing membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kragh-Hansen, U; le Maire, M; Møller, J V

    1998-01-01

    The present study explores intermediate stages in detergent solubilization of liposomes and Ca2+-ATPase membranes by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and medium-sized ( approximately C12) nonionic detergents. In all cases detergent partitioning in the membranes precedes cooperative binding and solubilization, which is facilitated by exposure to detergent micelles. Nonionic detergents predominantly interact with the lipid component of Ca2+-ATPase membranes below the CMC (critical micellar concentr...

  16. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation and Other Aqueous Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axson, Jessica L; Creamean, Jessie M; Bondy, Amy L; Capracotta, Sonja S; Warner, Katy Y; Ault, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Particles are frequently incorporated into clouds or precipitation, influencing climate by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, taking up coatings during cloud processing, and removing species through wet deposition. Many of these particles, particularly ice nuclei, can remain suspended within cloud droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While previous studies have measured the soluble or bulk mass of species within clouds and precipitation, no studies to date have determined the number concentration and size distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation or cloud water using in situ methods. Herein, for the first time we demonstrate that Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is a powerful in situ method for determining the total number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation, both of rain and melted snow. The method uses 500 μL or less of liquid sample and does not require sample modification. Number concentrations for the insoluble residues in aqueous precipitation samples ranged from 2.0-3.0(±0.3)×10(8) particles cm(-3), while surface area ranged from 1.8(±0.7)-3.2(±1.0)×10(7) μm(2) cm(-3). Number size distributions peaked between 133-150 nm, with both single and multi-modal character, while surface area distributions peaked between 173-270 nm. Comparison with electron microscopy of particles up to 10 μm show that, by number, > 97% residues are <1 μm in diameter, the upper limit of the NTA. The range of concentration and distribution properties indicates that insoluble residue properties vary with ambient aerosol concentrations, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. NTA has great potential for studying the role that insoluble residues play in critical atmospheric processes.

  17. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  18. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  19. Phosphate control in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-10-04

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.

  20. Biochemical analysis and solubilization of central alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guicheney, P.; Rappaport, A.; Meyer, P.

    1983-02-01

    To study the structure and the molecular mechanisms of action of brain alpha-adrenoceptors, their solubilization was undertaken. alpha 1-Adrenoceptors were first successfully solubilized from fresh rat brain membranes by treatment with 0.3 percent deoxycholate, after prelabeling of the binding site by the highly specific tritiated antagonist /sup 3/H-prazosin. The complex thus solubilized underwent a rapid loss of activity at 25 degrees C. Direct solubilization of brain alpha 1-adrenoceptors was obtained by treatment with a new zwitterionic derivative of cholic acid (CHAPS) at a concentration of 5 to 10 mM. The soluble complex was detected by precipitation by polyethylene glycol 6,000 with gamma globulin as a carrier. Binding of /sup 3/H-prazosin at 25 degrees C was rapid; at 4 degrees C the steady state was obtained within two hours and remained unchanged for at least six hours. The affinity of the soluble binding site, determined by Scatchard analysis (congruent to 0.6 nM), varied with the concentration of detergent. Specificity of the membrane-bound receptor was preserved as demonstrated by incubation in the presence of alpha 1- and alpha 2-antagonists at various concentrations (by order of potency: prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than yohimbine). Stereoselectivity was also retained in the solubilized binding protein. The solubilization of an active brain alpha 1-adrenoceptor will allow further investigation at the molecular level.

  1. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Zhong, Yisi; Jiang, Xianjun; Hu Deyu; Mateo, Luis R; Morrison, Boyce M; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2015-01-01

    A double blind, randomized, unsupervised, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted on over 5,500 children in Sichuan Province, China. This clinical trial compared the anti-caries efficacy of two test dentifrices to that of a control dentifrice. The test dentifrices contained 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and an insoluble calcium compound (either dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate). The positive control dentifrice contained 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF), in a silica base. The children were randomly assigned one of the toothpastes, and children residing in the same household were assigned the same dentifrice to use at home, twice a day. Three calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline, as well as after one and two years of product use. After one year of product use, there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups with respect to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) or to decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS). After two years of product use, subjects in the two test groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound had a statistically significant reduction in DMFT increments of 20.5% and in DMFS increments of 19.6% when compared to subjects in the group using the positive control dentifrice. After two years, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to DMFT or DMFS between the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound. The use of the two test dentifrices demonstrated significant reductions in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and surfaces, however there was no statistically significant different between the two test dentifrices clinically after two years of using the toothpastes. The results of this two-year clinical investigation support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine

  2. Solubilization of Waste Activated Sludge and Nitrogenous Compounds Transformation During Solubilization by Thermophilic Enzyme (S-TE) Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun; Li, Xiao-ming; Zhong, Yu; Chen, Hong-bo; Yang, Guo-jing; Shi, Yan-wei; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2015-06-01

    A representative thermophilic bacterial strain (AT06-1) capable of secreting protease was isolated from thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor, and 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that it was Bacillus sp. The isolated strain was inoculated in waste activated sludge (WAS) to evaluate the performance of solubilization by thermophilic enzyme (S-TE) process under aerobic or microaerobic conditions at different temperatures (55-70 °C). Results showed that the inoculation of specific thermophilic strain significantly affected the volatile suspended solids (VSS) removal. At the optimal temperature of 65 °C, the maximum VSS removal of 43.6 % and highest SCOD of 4475 mg/L was achieved during microaerobic S-TE process. Compared to the noninoculation, more soluble protein was released during S-TE process due to the higher protease activity associated with the protein hydrolysis originated from cell lysis. The protease activity at aerobic and microaerobic S-TE process was respectively 1.73 and 1.88 times that of the noninoculation. Ammonia was the end nitrogenous compound of protein hydrolysis during S-TE process, which was stripped from the digestion system through continuous aeration.

  3. 溶磷菌和固氮菌溶解磷矿粉时的互作效应%Studies on the interactions between phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in rock phosphate solubilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞章; 姚拓; 周万海; 龙瑞军; 齐文娟

    2006-01-01

    采用4株溶磷菌(Lx81、Dm84、 Jm92、Lx191)、和3株固氮菌(ChW5、ChW6、ChO6)单独和混合接种后测定培养液有效磷含量、pH值及总有机酸含量的方法,研究溶磷菌和固氮菌溶解磷矿粉时的互作效应.结果表明,相对于单独接种溶磷菌:Lx81与3株固氮菌分别混合培养能提高磷矿粉的溶解能力,4株溶磷菌与 ChW6,Lx81、Dm84、Lx191与ChO6分别混合培养及Jm92+ChW5组合溶磷量极显著增加(p<0.01);Dm84+ChW5、Lx191+ChW5、Jm92+ChO6组合的溶磷量下降(p<0.01).除Lx81+ChW6、Lx81+ChO6培养液pH值降低外,混合培养的其它组合培养液pH值均较单独接种溶磷菌时升高.有机酸测定结果表明, Lx81、Jm92与ChW5、ChO6分别混合培养、ChW6+Lx81组合有机酸含量升高(p<0.01),其它7种组合的有机酸含量均较单独接种溶磷菌的值下降(p<0.01).溶磷菌和固氮菌单菌培养时溶磷量与pH值、溶磷量与总有机酸含量及pH值与总有机酸含量之间呈现线性相关;Dm84、Lx191与3株固氮菌分别混合培养溶磷量与pH值之间、Lx81与3株固氮菌分别混合培养溶磷量与总有机酸含量之间呈现线性相关,其它组合的溶磷量与pH值、总有机酸含量间没有相关性.溶磷菌和固氮菌混合培养对溶解磷矿粉既有协同作用也有拮抗作用.

  4. Nickel solubilizing capacity and characterization of rhizobacteria isolated from hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating subspecies of Alyssum serpyllifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Castro, C; Prieto-Fernández, A; Alvarez-Lopez, V; Monterroso, C; Cabello-Conejo, M I; Acea, M J; Kidd, P S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of three populations of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum (A. pintodasilvae; M, S, and L), one population of Ni-hyperaccumulator A. serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum (A. malacitanum; SB), and one population of the non-hyperaccumulator A. serpyllifolium subsp. serpyllifolium (A. serpyllifolium; SN). Isolates were characterized genotypically by BOX-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting and comparative sequence analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene, and phenotypically by their Ni tolerance (0-10 mM), presence of plant growth promoting traits (indoleacetic acid (IAA)-, siderophore-, or organic acid-production, and phosphate solubilization) or capacity to produce biosurfactants. Among the collection of rhizobacteria, 84 strains were selected (according to their BOX-PCR profiles and phenotypic characteristics) to assess their ability to modify Ni extractability from Ni-rich (serpentine) soils. Metabolites produced by 13 of the isolates mobilized soil Ni (originating from the rhizosphere of both Ni-hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulator). In contrast, Ni extraction using culture medium filtrates which had supported the growth of 29 strains was significantly reduced. The remaining strains had no effect on Ni mobility. Bacterial induced Ni mobilization was not related to Ni resistance or the phenotypic traits tested. Isolates with potential use in phytoremediation techniques will be further studied in a plant-microorganism-soil system.

  5. Impact of Micellar Surfactant on Supersaturation and Insight into Solubilization Mechanisms in Supersaturated Solutions of Atazanavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulkar, Anura S; Mo, Huaping; Gao, Yi; Raina, Shweta A; Zhang, Geoff G Z; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-06-01

    The goals of this study were to determine: 1) the impact of surfactants on the "amorphous solubility"; 2) the thermodynamic supersaturation in the presence of surfactant micelles; 3) the mechanism of solute solubilization by surfactant micelles in supersaturated solutions. The crystalline and amorphous solubility of atazanavir was determined in the presence of varying concentrations of micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Flux measurements, using a side-by-side diffusion cell, were employed to determine the free and micellar-bound drug concentrations. The solubilization mechanism as a function of atazanavir concentration was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Pulsed gradient spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE-NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the change in micelle size with a change in drug concentration. Changes in the micelle/water partition coefficient, K m/w , as a function of atazanavir concentration led to erroneous estimates of the supersaturation when using concentration ratios. In contrast, determining the free drug concentration using flux measurements enabled improved determination of the thermodynamic supersaturation in the presence of micelles. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies suggested that K m/w changed based on the location of atazanavir solubilization which in turn changed with concentration. Thus, at a concentration equivalent to the crystalline solubility, atazanavir is solubilized by adsorption at the micelle corona, whereas in highly supersaturated solutions it is also solubilized in the micellar core. This difference in solubilization mechanism can lead to a breakdown in the prediction of amorphous solubility in the presence of SDS as well as challenges with determining supersaturation. PGSE-NMR suggested that the size of the SDS micelle is not impacted at the crystalline solubility of the drug but increases when the drug concentration reaches the amorphous solubility, in agreement with the proposed changes in

  6. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  7. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  8. Sonochemical precipitation of amorphous uranium phosphates from trialkyl phosphate solutions and their thermal conversion to UP2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, Iaroslav; Zurkova, Jana; Moravec, Zdenek; Bezdicka, Petr; Pinkas, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    Insoluble amorphous precipitates containing uranyl and phosphate ions are obtained by sonication of solutions of three uranyl precursors, UO2(X)2, X=NO3, CH3COO, CH3C(O)CHC(O)CH3 (acetylacetonate, acac), in triesters of phosphoric acid, OP(OR)3, R=Me (trimethyl phosphate, TMP), Et (triethyl phosphate, TEP). TMP and TEP are used as high-boiling solvents and they serve also as a source of phosphate anions. Sonolysis experiments were carried out under flow of Ar at 40°C on a Sonics and Materials VXC 500W system (f=20 kHz, Pac=0.49 W cm(-3)). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) reveals amorphous character of all obtained precipitates. The presence of uranyl and phosphate is evidenced by IR spectroscopy and ICP-OES analysis reveals the content of both U (38.6-43.4 wt%) and P (11.0-13.6 wt%). The thermal behavior of the substances was studied by TG/DSC analysis, which shows weight losses in the range of 19.21-24.08%. On heating the amorphous precipitates to 1000°C, crystalline uranium diphosphate UP2O7 is obtained in all cases as the only crystalline phase. Uranyl(VI) is reduced during thermolysis to U(IV) as there is no characteristic vibration of UO2(2+) in the IR spectra of solid UP2O7 products. The ICP-OES analysis of U and P content in precipitates allowed us to calculate the efficiency of precipitation of uranium from mother liquor and to compare it with the efficiency calculated from the data received by the PXRD and TG/DSC analyses. The efficiency of the uranium removal attained by our sonoprecipitation procedure was typically 30-35%. These sonochemical precipitation reactions providing insoluble uranium phosphates may be potentially interesting models for the description of behavior of uranium-containing waste or reprocessing streams.

  9. Liposomes as vehicles for water insoluble platinum-based potential drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaluđerović, Goran N; Dietrich, Andrea; Kommera, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Formulation of liposome delivery system loaded with water insoluble 2-(4-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-undecyl)-propane-1,3-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), LipoTHP-C11 was carried out. The particle size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering and asymmetrical flow field-flow fract...

  10. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Quintela, José C; de la Fuente, Ester; Haya, Javier; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes

    2010-03-01

    Recently, polyphenols have been found to affect blood lipids in animals in a similar manner as soluble dietary fibre. The aim was to assess whether an insoluble dietary fiber very rich in polyphenols has a beneficial effect on serum lipids in humans. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study with parallel arms, 88 volunteers with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to consume daily either, fiber with insoluble 84% polyphenols 4 g twice a day (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. The insoluble polyphenols consumption reduced the total cholesterol by 17.8 +/- 6.1% (p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol by 22.5 +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001), LDL: HDL cholesterol ratio by 26.2 +/- 14.3% (p < 0.001) and triglycerides by 16.3 +/- 23.4% (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared with baseline. No significant differences were found during the study time in the placebo group for the lipid profile. The consumption of fiber very rich in insoluble polyphenols shows beneficial effects on human blood lipid profile and may be effective in prevention and treatment of hyperlipemia.

  11. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    %), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was essentially fully soluble in detergent. In radioactively labeled, mucosal explants, the newly synthesized brush border enzymes began to associate with detergent-insoluble complexes while still in their transient, high mannose-glycosylated form...

  12. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted

  13. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  14. Preparation of titania particles utilizing the insoluble phase interface in a microchannel reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Masato; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2002-07-21

    A stable interface between two insoluble currents in a microchannel reactor has been obtained by selecting the solvents and adjusting the flow rate; titania particles with a size of less than 10 nm could be prepared continuously on this interface; this new method shows great advantage for the control and measurement of particle sizes.

  15. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  16. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted wi

  17. the role of soluble and insoluble fibers during fermentation of Chicory root pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

     

    This thesis was aimed at understanding the in vitro fermentability of soluble and insoluble fibers in chicory root pulp (CRP). First, CRP and ensiled chicory root pulp (ECRP) were characterized for cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs). Both CRP and ECRP were rich

  18. Cost containment using cysteine HCl acidification to increase calcium/phosphate solubility in hyperalimentation solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G L; Baumgartner, T G; Fischlschweiger, W; Sitren, H S; Thakker, K M; Cerda, J J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) the calcium/phosphate insoluble product was inversely related to pH [when cysteine HC1 (CH) was added as neonatal supplementation at 0.5 mM/kg/day to hyperalimentation (HAL) solutions] and (2) the potential cost savings to the hospital. The pH of the HAL solutions was adjusted by adding various amounts of CH to the HAL solution. HAL solutions containing 27 mEq of calcium/liter and 30 mEq (15 mM) of phosphate/liter were compounded. Ten-milliliter aliquots were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hr. All samples (n = 56) were filtered (0.22 mu), viewed with 7-10,000 X magnification scanning electron microscopy, and qualitatively analyzed with a Philips Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis System equipped with a SW9100 Microprocessor. Calcium/phosphate insoluble product was present in the 0-, 12-, 24-, and 48-hr samples from the CH-free solutions. The solutions containing 759 mg (4.17 mM)/liter of CH however, remained free of precipitant. This investigation demonstrated that addition of CH to HAL can foster significant cost containment (projected $82,000/yr tangible hospital savings) by the elimination of current calcium/phosphate separation procedures for neonates on parenteral nutrition.

  19. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  20. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid-Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Liang, Shengkang; Yan, Lele; Shang, Yujun; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (). Rughbin's model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL-SL micelles. The solubility of the PAHs increased linearly with the glycolipid concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in both single and mixed systems. Binary RL-SL mixtures exhibited greater solubilization than individual glycolipids. At a SL molar fraction of 0.7 to 0.8, the solubilization capacity was the greatest, and the MSR and reached their maximum values, and β values became positive. These results suggest that the two biosurfactants act synergistically to increase the solubility of the PAHs. The solubilization capacity of the RL-SL mixtures increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing salinity. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene reached a maximum value at pH of 5.5. Moreover, the mixed RL-SL systems exhibited a strong ability to solubilize PAHs, even in the presence of heavy metal ions. These mixed biosurfactant systems have the potential to improve the performance of SER technologies using biosurfactants to solubilize hydrophobic organic contaminants by decreasing the applied biosurfactant concentration, which reduces the costs of remediation.

  1. A simplified method for the measurement of insoluble solids in pretreated biomass slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Noah D; Stickel, Jonathan J; Wolfe, Jeffrey L; Nguyen, Quang A

    2010-10-01

    The biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels includes the breakdown of biomass into its soluble, fermentable components. Pretreatment, the initial step in the conversion process, results in heterogeneous slurry comprised of both soluble and insoluble biomass components. For the purpose of tracking the progress of the conversion process, it is important to be able to accurately measure the fraction of insoluble biomass solids in the slurry. The current standard method involves separating the solids from the free liquor and then repeatedly washing the solids to remove the soluble fraction, a laborious and tedious process susceptible to operator variations. In this paper, we propose an alternative method for calculating the fraction of insoluble solids which does not require a washing step. The proposed method involves measuring the dry matter content of the whole slurry as well as the dry matter content in the isolated liquor fraction. We compared the two methods using three different pretreated biomass slurry samples and two oven-drying techniques for determining dry matter content, an important measurement for both methods. We also evaluated a large set of fraction insoluble solids data collected from previously analyzed pretreated samples. The proposed new method provided statistically equivalent results to the standard washing method when an infrared balance was used for determining dry matter content in the controlled measurement experiment. Similarly, in the large historical data set, there was no statistical difference shown between the wash and no-wash methods. The new method is offered as an alternative method for determining the fraction of insoluble solids.

  2. Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Pawolski, Damian; Milentyev, Alexander; Shevchenko, Anna; Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kröger, Nils

    2016-03-04

    The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis.

  3. Potency of Agroindustrial Wastewaters to Increase the Dissolution of Phosphate Rock Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainin Niswati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The used of agroindustrial wastewaters are not maximum yet in Lampung Province, althought it can be used as an acid solvent because of its acidic properties. This study was aimed to explore the most potential agroindustrial wastewaters in dissolving phosphate rock through acidulation in the laboratory scale. The experiment was arranged in a factorial. The first factor was origined of phosphate rock (Sukabumi, west Java and Selagailingga, central Lampung and the second factor was solvent types (agroindustrial wastewaters which were pineapple, tapioca, tofu industry, and palm oil as well as conventional acid solvents which were HCl, H2SO4, and CH3COOH. The incubation processes were 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. The results showed that agroindustrial wastewaters that have the highest potency to solubize phosphate rock was industrial tofu wastewaters and followed by industrial wastewaters of tapioca, palm oil, and pineapple. Both the conventional acid and agroindustrial wastewaters solvent had a big potency to solubilize phosphate rock, however, its highest soluble P-value did not match with the ISO criteria for phosphate fertilizers Quality I (SNI because it did not reach the solubility of 80% of its total P2O5, but it has been qualified as a fertilizer both the quality phosphate A, B, and C (SNI.

  4. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; van Ruijven, M.W.M.; Velikov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Few fully natural and biocompatible materials are available for the effective particle-stabilization of emulsions since strict requirements, such as insolubility in both fluid phases and intermediate wettability, need to be met. In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of water-insoluble proteins

  6. Enhancing solubility of deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway enzymes for microbial isoprenoid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant proteins are routinely overexpressed in metabolic engineering. It is well known that some over-expressed heterologous recombinant enzymes are insoluble with little or no enzymatic activity. This study examined the solubility of over-expressed homologous enzymes of the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway (DXP and the impact of inclusion body formation on metabolic engineering of microbes. Results Four enzymes of this pathway (DXS, ISPG, ISPH and ISPA, but not all, were highly insoluble, regardless of the expression systems used. Insoluble dxs (the committed enzyme of DXP pathway was found to be inactive. Expressions of fusion tags did not significantly improve the solubility of dxs. However, hypertonic media containing sorbitol, an osmolyte, successfully doubled the solubility of dxs, with the concomitant improvement in microbial production of the metabolite, DXP. Similarly, sorbitol significantly improved the production of soluble and functional ERG12, the committed enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Conclusion This study demonstrated the unanticipated findings that some over-expressed homologous enzymes of the DXP pathway were highly insoluble, forming inclusion bodies, which affected metabolite formation. Sorbitol was found to increase both the solubility and function of some of these over-expressed enzymes, a strategy to increase the production of secondary metabolites.

  7. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish lignites and characterization of the products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesim Basaran; Adil Denizli; Billur Sakintuna; Alpay Taralp; Yuda Yurum [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2003-08-01

    The effect of some white-rot fungi on the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of two low-rank Turkish coals and the chemical composition of the liquid products and the microbial mechanisms of coal conversion were investigated. Turkish Elbistan and Beypazari lignites were used in this study. The white-rot fungi received from various laboratories used in the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of the lignites were Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Coriolus versicolor. FT-IR spectra of raw and treated coal samples were measured, and bio-liquefied/solubilized coal samples were investigated by FT-IR and LC-MS techniques. The Coriolus versicolor fungus was determined to be most effective in bio-liquefying/solubilizing nitric acid-treated Elbistan lignite. In contrast, raw and nitric acid-treated Beypazari lignite seemed to be unaffected by the action of any kind of white-rot fungi. The liquid chromatogram of the water-soluble bio-liquefied/solubilized product contained four major peaks. Corresponding mass spectra of each peak indicated the presence of very complicated structures. 17 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Solubilization of thiamine triphosphatase from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorff, L; Longrée, I; Wins, P; Schoffeniels, E

    1991-01-23

    The membrane-associated, anion-regulated thiamine triphosphatase from Electrophorus electricus electric organ can be solubilized by various neutral detergents. Polyoxyethylene ethers are the most effective. Anionic detergents readily inactivate the enzyme. A 6.4-fold increase in specific activity is obtained by successive treatment of crude membranes with octanoyl-N-methylglucamide, which solubilized other proteins, and Lubrol-PX with releases 60% of the thiamine triphosphatase (TTPase) activity. Solubilization by Lubrol-PX rapidly modifies kinetic parameters. The Km, Vmax and pH optimum are decreased. However, the solubilized TTPase may be kept at 0 degrees C for many hours without further change in specific activity. At 35 degrees C, the half-life is still 83 min at pH 5.0, but denaturation becomes rapid at pH greater than or equal to 7. Solubilization modifies anion effects on TTPase activity. The activating effect of nitrate is nearly lost, while inhibition by sulfate is no longer time-dependent.

  9. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Yang, Juanjuan; Lou, Linjie; Zhu, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd2+ or Zn2+. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils.

  10. Enhancing uranium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera; Calvo, C Prieto

    2011-12-30

    A systematic study was made of the effects of three soil amendments on the solubilization of uranium from a granitic soil. The aim was to optimize solubilization so as to enhance bioavailability for the purposes of remediation. The three amendments tested were with citrate, EDTA, and EDDS as chelating agents. The effects of pH, chelator concentration, and leaching time were studied. The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. In the absence of chelating agents, the greatest solubilization was obtained for alkaline conditions, with values representing about 15% of the total uranium activity in the bulk soil. There were major differences in uranium solubilization between the different amendments. The citrate treatment was the most efficient at acidic pH, particularly with the greatest concentration of citrate tested (50 mmol kg(-1)) after 6 days of treatment. Under these conditions, the uranium concentration in solution was greater by a factor of 356 than in the control suspension, and represented some 63% of the uranium concentration in the bulk soil. Under alkaline conditions, the EDTA and EDDS treatments gave the greatest uranium activity concentrations in solution, but these concentrations were much lower than those with the citrate amendment, and were not very different from the control results. The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA.

  11. Effect of acid and alkaline solubilization on the properties of surimi based film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummanoon Prodpran

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acid and alkaline solubilizing processes on the properties of the protein based film from threadfin bream surimi was investigated. Surimi films prepared from both processes had the similar light transmission, tensile strength (TS and elongation at break (EAB (P<0.05. However, film with alkaline process had slightly lower water vapor permeability (WVP, compared to that prepared by acid solubilizing process. The protein concentration in the film-forming solution directly affected the properties of the film. Increase in protein concentration resulted in an increase in TS, EAB as well as WVP. The film prepared by acid solubilizing process had an increase in yellowish color as evidenced by the continuous increase in b* and E* values during the storage at r oom temperature. The acid and alkali solubilizing processes caused the degradation of muscle protein in surimi, especially with increasing exposure time. Therefore, solubilizing process had the influence on the properties of the protein film from threadfin bream surimi.

  12. Solubilization of octane in electrostatically-formed surfactant-polymer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zeeb, Benjamin; Salminen, Hanna; Feng, Fengqin; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-03-01

    Polymers can be used to modulate the stability and functionality of surfactant micelles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the solubilization of an octane oil-in-water emulsion in mixtures of an anionic polymer (carboxymethyl cellulose) and anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), nonionic polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant micelles using dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and turbidity measurements. The results showed that the addition of anionic carboxymethyl cellulose accelerated octane solubilization in cationic CTAB and CTAB-Tween 80 micelles, but did not affect the solubilization behaviors of micelles that were nonionic and anionic. The surfactant-polymer interactions were also studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to characterize different physiochemical interaction regions depending on surfactant concentration in surfactant-polymer systems. Upon octane solubilization in CTAB-carboxymethyl cellulose mixtures, shape transitions of polymer-micelle complexes may have taken place that altered light scattering behavior. Based on these results, we suggest a mechanism for oil solubilization in electrostatically-formed surfactant-polymer complexes.

  13. Phosphate ceramic solidification and stabilization of cesium-containing crystalline silicotitanate resins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.

    1999-05-11

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP)-bonded cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resins. Typical waste loading of CST resins in the final waste forms was 50 wt.%. Physical and chemical characterization of the MKP materials has shown them to be physically, chemically, and mineralogically stable. Long-term durability studies (using the AN 16.1 standard test) showed a leachability index of {approx}18 for cesium in the phosphate matrix when exposed to deionized water under ambient and