WorldWideScience

Sample records for insight scale bcis

  1. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chien-Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be

  2. Toward Ubiquitous BCIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brendan Z.

    The preceding chapters in this book described modern BCI systems. This concluding chapter instead discusses future directions. While there are some specific predictions, I mainly analyze key factors and trends relating to practical mainstream BCI development. While I note some disruptive technologies that could dramatically change BCIs, this chapter focuses mainly on realistic, incremental progress and how progress could affect user groups and ethical issues.

  3. Measuring cognitive insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Engh, John A; Friis, Svein; Birkenaes, Astrid B; Jónsdóttir, Halldóra; Ringen, Petter A; Ruud, Torleif; Sundet, Kjetil S; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2007-01-01

    Background Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) has been designed for assessment of self-reflection on patients' anomalous experiences and interpretations of own beliefs. The scale has been developed and validated for patients with schizophrenia. We wanted to study the utility of the scale for patients with bipolar disorder. The relationship between the BCIS as a measure of cognitive insight and established methods for assessment of insight of illness was explored in both di...

  4. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  5. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Blankertz, B.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain

  6. Measuring cognitive insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónsdóttir Halldóra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS has been designed for assessment of self-reflection on patients' anomalous experiences and interpretations of own beliefs. The scale has been developed and validated for patients with schizophrenia. We wanted to study the utility of the scale for patients with bipolar disorder. The relationship between the BCIS as a measure of cognitive insight and established methods for assessment of insight of illness was explored in both diagnostic groups. Methods The BCIS self-report inventory was administered to patients with schizophrenia (n = 143, bipolar disorder (n = 92 and controls (n = 64. The 15 items of the inventory form two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Results The internal consistency of the subscales was good for the patient groups and the controls. The mean subscale scores were not significantly different for the three groups. Four items in subscale self-reflectiveness referring to psychotic experiences gave, however, different results in the control subjects. Self-certainty and scores on insight item PANSS correlated significantly in the schizophrenia, but not in the bipolar group. Conclusion BCIS with its two subscales seems applicable for patients with bipolar disorder as well as for patients with schizophrenia. The self-report inventory can also be applied to control subjects if the items referring to psychotic experiences are omitted. In schizophrenia high scores on self-certainty is possibly associated with poor insight of illness. For the bipolar group the subscales are largely independent of traditional insight measures.

  7. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Werkhoven, Peter J.

    2012-08-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain activity due to multisensory integration which may be of use in BCIs. We investigated the effect of visual-tactile stimulus presentation on the chain of ERP components, BCI performance (classification accuracies and bitrates) and participants’ task performance (counting of targets). Ten participants were instructed to navigate a visual display by attending (spatially) to targets in sequences of either visual, tactile or visual-tactile stimuli. We observe that attending to visual-tactile (compared to either visual or tactile) stimuli results in an enhanced early ERP component (N1). This bimodal N1 may enhance BCI performance, as suggested by a nonsignificant positive trend in offline classification accuracies. A late ERP component (P300) is reduced when attending to visual-tactile compared to visual stimuli, which is consistent with the nonsignificant negative trend of participants’ task performance. We discuss these findings in the light of affected spatial attention at high-level compared to low-level stimulus processing. Furthermore, we evaluate bimodal BCIs from a practical perspective and for future applications.

  8. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  9. INSIGHTS INTO THE CEPHEID DISTANCE SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, G.; Caputo, F.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the Cepheid distance scale by using both theory and observations. Through the use of pulsation models for fundamental mode Cepheids, we found that the slope of the period-luminosity (P-L) relation covering the entire period range (0.40 ≤ log P ≤ 2.0) becomes steeper when moving from optical to near-infrared (NIR) bands, and that the metallicity dependence of the slope decreases from the B- to the K band. The sign of the metallicity dependence for the slopes of the P-L V and P-L I relation is at odds with some recent empirical estimates. We determined new homogeneous estimates of V- and I-band slopes for 87 independent Cepheid data sets belonging to 48 external galaxies with nebular oxygen abundance 7.5 ≤ 12 + log (O/H) ≤ 8.9. By using Cepheid samples including more than 20 Cepheids, the χ 2 test indicates that the hypothesis of a steepening of the P-L V,I relations with increased metal content can be discarded at the 99% level. On the contrary, the observed slopes agree with the metallicity trend predicted by pulsation models, i.e., the slope is roughly constant for galaxies with 12+log (O/H) 2 test concerning the hypothesis that the slope does not depend on metallicity gives confidence levels either similar (PL V , 62%) or smaller (PL I , 67%). We investigated the dependence of the period-Wesenheit (P-W) relations on the metal content and we found that the slopes of optical and NIR P-W relations in external galaxies are similar to the slopes of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids. They also agree with the theoretical predictions suggesting that the slopes of the P-W relations are independent of the metal content. On this ground, the P-W relations provide a robust method to determine distance moduli relative to the LMC, but theory and observations indicate that the metallicity dependence of the zero point in the different passbands has to be taken into account. To constrain this effect, we compared the independent

  10. Relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Seul; Han, Ah-Young; Kim, Kyungwook; Lee, Jinyoung

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cognitive insight refers to the cognitive processes involved in patients' re-evaluation of their anomalous experiences and of their misinterpretations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia to further shed light on the nature of cognitive insight and its functional correlates in schizophrenia. Seventy-one stable outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated for cognitive insight and subjective quality of life using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4). The symptoms of schizophrenia were also assessed. Pearson's correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis that controlled for the severity of symptoms were performed to adjust for the possible effects of symptoms. The self-reflectiveness subscale score of the BCIS had significant positive correlations with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain and total SQLS-R4 scores, indicating that the higher the level of cognitive insight, the lower the subjective quality of life. In partial correlation analysis controlling for symptoms, the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale score still had a significant correlation with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain score. The correlation coefficient between the BCIS self-reflectiveness and total SQLS-R4 scores was reduced to a nonsignificant statistical tendency. The results of our study suggest that cognitive insight, particularly the level of self-reflectiveness, is negatively associated with the level of subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia and that this relationship is not wholly due to the confounding effect of symptoms. Future studies are necessary to explore possible mediating and moderating factors and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions on the relationship.

  11. Towards a holistic assessment of the user experience with hybrid BCIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Romy; Pascual, Javier; Blankertz, Benjamin; Vidaurre, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    obtained for the conventional approach and it was most preferred by the subjects, the ERP-ERP GUI seems more suitable for its deployment in actual end-users. Nevertheless, for individuals with stable MI patterns, the hybrid interface can be provided as an additional option of choice within the MUNDUS framework. Although the paramount goal in BCI research still remains the improvement of classification accuracy and communication speed, it is of significance to note that it is equally important for end-users to keep up their motivation and prevent frustration. By including pragmatic as well as hedonic quality aspects, this study is the first effort to gain a holistic perspective of the UX while interacting with BCI-driven assistive technology aimed at actual end-users. The broad-scale methodology provided valuable insights into the underlying dynamics causing the users' experience to differ across the GUIs. The results will be used to refine a BCI-driven neuroprosthesis and test it with end-users.

  12. Towards a holistic assessment of the user experience with hybrid BCIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Romy; Pascual, Javier; Blankertz, Benjamin; Vidaurre, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    . Since throughout better results were obtained for the conventional approach and it was most preferred by the subjects, the ERP-ERP GUI seems more suitable for its deployment in actual end-users. Nevertheless, for individuals with stable MI patterns, the hybrid interface can be provided as an additional option of choice within the MUNDUS framework. Significance. Although the paramount goal in BCI research still remains the improvement of classification accuracy and communication speed, it is of significance to note that it is equally important for end-users to keep up their motivation and prevent frustration. By including pragmatic as well as hedonic quality aspects, this study is the first effort to gain a holistic perspective of the UX while interacting with BCI-driven assistive technology aimed at actual end-users. The broad-scale methodology provided valuable insights into the underlying dynamics causing the users’ experience to differ across the GUIs. The results will be used to refine a BCI-driven neuroprosthesis and test it with end-users.

  13. The relationship between clinical characteristics, metacognitive appraisals, and cognitive insight in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ekinci, Asli

    2016-11-01

    Cognitive insight, a recently developed insight measure, refers to metacognitive processes of the re-evaluation and correction of distorted beliefs and misinterpretations. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no study has specifically examined cognitive insight, demographics, psychopathological variables, and distorted beliefs in OCD. The aim of this research was to examine links between cognitive insight and demographics, clinical factors, and distorted beliefs among patients with OCD. Eighty-four consecutive outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD underwent a detailed clinical assessment for OCD, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory, Metacognition Questioniarre-30 (MCQ-30), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. In addition, 82 control subjects matched for age, education, and gender were tested. BCIS-self-certainty scores were all substantially higher in subjects with remitted and unremitted OCD than in healthy comparison subjects, while BCIS-composite scores were significantly lower in both patient groups than controls. Obsession and compulsion severity had significant effects on BCIS scores. In addition, it was found that the specific symptoms were linked to self-certainty scores. Self-reflectiveness and composite scores had positive correlations with the sub-scale scores of the MCQ-30, while the TAF-morality score was positively correlated with self-certainty scores. The results demonstrated poor cognitive insight among remitted and unremitted OCD patients. In addition, the present study suggested significant associations between sociodemographic and clinical features and dysfunctional appraisals. Cognitive-behavioural techniques aimed at enhancing cognitive insight may be beneficial for patients with OCD, particularly patients who have prominent dysfunctional beliefs.

  14. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components’ tAUCs and subsequent classification accuracies are increased for (1) bimodal vs. unimodal stimuli; (2) location-congruent vs. location-incongruent bimodal stimuli; and (3) attending to both modalities vs. to either one modality. We observed an enhanced bimodal (compared to unimodal) P300 tAUC, which appeared to be positively affected by location-congruency (p = 0.056) and resulted in higher classification accuracies. Attending either to one or to both modalities of the bimodal location-congruent stimuli resulted in differences between ERP components, but not in classification performance. We conclude that location-congruent bimodal stimuli improve ERP-BCIs, and offer the user the possibility to switch the attended modality without losing performance. PMID:25249947

  16. The relationship between cognitive insight and depression in psychosis and schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emma C; Gilleen, James; David, Anthony S

    2015-08-01

    Lack of insight is a commonly observed problem in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Clinical insight in patients has been associated with low mood. Cognitive insight is a recently defined concept, relating to the ability to self-reflect and the degree to which patients are over-confident regarding their interpretations of illness-related experiences, and is related to clinical insight. We therefore sought to investigate whether there is a positive relationship between cognitive insight and mood. A literature search identified 17 relevant papers published between 2004 and 2014. Our analysis indicated that there was a small but significant positive correlation between the composite index (CI) of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and depression scores, but this was driven by a significant positive relationship between depression and the BCIS self-reflection (SR) sub-scale, where low mood was related to higher SR scores. There was no significant relationship between the self-certainty sub-scale and depression. Post-hoc analysis indicated that different depression scales did not significantly affect the relationship with SR. Our results support the idea that cognitive insight is significantly related to mood in schizophrenia, and the effect size is similar to that between clinical insight and mood. Potential applications of this knowledge into treatment and rehabilitation are discussed and a model of cognitive insight is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  18. Dispositional Insight Scale: Development and Validation of a Tool That Measures Propensity toward Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovington, Linda A.; Saliba, Anthony J.; Goldring, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the development of a brief self-report measure of dispositional insight problem solving, the Dispositional Insight Scale (DIS). From a representative Australian database, 1,069 adults (536 women and 533 men) completed an online questionnaire. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 5-item scale, with all…

  19. Relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Hoon Kim,1 Seul Lee,1 Ah-Young Han,1 Kyungwook Kim,2 Jinyoung Lee1 1Neuroscience Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Medicine, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: The concept of cognitive insight refers to the cognitive processes involved in patients’ re-evaluation of their anomalous experiences and of their misinterpretations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia to further shed light on the nature of cognitive insight and its functional correlates in schizophrenia.Methods: Seventy-one stable outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated for cognitive insight and subjective quality of life using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4. The symptoms of schizophrenia were also assessed. Pearson’s correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis that controlled for the severity of symptoms were performed to adjust for the possible effects of symptoms.Results: The self-reflectiveness subscale score of the BCIS had significant positive correlations with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain and total SQLS-R4 scores, indicating that the higher the level of cognitive insight, the lower the subjective quality of life. In partial correlation analysis controlling for symptoms, the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale score still had a significant correlation with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain score. The correlation coefficient between the BCIS self-reflectiveness and total SQLS-R4 scores was reduced to a nonsignificant statistical tendency.Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that cognitive insight, particularly the level of self-reflectiveness, is negatively associated with

  20. How self-reflection and self-certainty are related to neurocognitive functioning: an examination of cognitive insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Oldenburg, J F E; Sabbe, B G C

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of associations between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and neurocognitive functioning was assessed in bipolar disorder patients. Data from 42 bipolar disorder patients were examined. Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). The BCIS is a 15-item self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Clinical insight was measured by the use of the item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the International Society for Bipolar Disorders-Battery for Assessment of Neurocognition. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive associations between self-reflectiveness and speed of processing, attention, working memory, visual learning, and reasoning and problem solving. The subscale self-certainty was negatively correlated to working memory, however, this correlation disappeared when we controlled for confounding variables. No correlations between clinical insight and neurocognition were found. In addition, there was no association between cognitive insight and clinical insight. Better neurocognitive functioning was more related to higher levels of self-reflectiveness than to diminished self-certainty.

  1. Right Frontotemporal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Cognitive Insight and Subjective Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Ohtachi, Hiroaki; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Although prior studies identified a relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia, the brain regions mediating this relationship remain unknown. Recent studies have shown that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex may be particularly important for cognitive insight in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we examined whether frontotemporal function mediates the relationship between cognitive insight and QOL in 64 participants, including 32 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls. Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), while participants' subjective QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey. Frontotemporal function was evaluated during a verbal fluency task using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. Consistent with previous findings, we found that frontotemporal function was impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, our data also revealed that the right ventrolateral PFC and the right anterior part of the temporal cortex significantly mediated the relationship between the self-reflectiveness (SR) subscale of the BCIS and subjective QOL. These findings suggest that cognitive insight, particularly SR, is associated with subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia via right frontotemporal function. The findings of this study provide important insight into a QOL model of schizophrenia, which may guide the development of cost-effective interventions that target frontotemporal function in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Scaling up complex interventions: insights from a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron D; Riley, Barbara L; Stockton, Lisa; Abramowicz, Aneta; Zummach, Dana; Wong, Geoff; Robinson, Kerry L; Best, Allan

    2016-12-19

    Preventing chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, requires complex interventions, involving multi-component and multi-level efforts that are tailored to the contexts in which they are delivered. Despite an increasing number of complex interventions in public health, many fail to be 'scaled up'. This study aimed to increase understanding of how and under what conditions complex public health interventions may be scaled up to benefit more people and populations.A realist synthesis was conducted and discussed at an in-person workshop involving practitioners responsible for scaling up activities. Realist approaches view causality through the linkages between changes in contexts (C) that activate mechanisms (M), leading to specific outcomes (O) (CMO configurations). To focus this review, three cases of complex interventions that had been successfully scaled up were included: Vibrant Communities, Youth Build USA and Pathways to Education. A search strategy of published and grey literature related to each case was developed, involving searches of relevant databases and nominations from experts. Data extracted from included documents were classified according to CMO configurations within strategic themes. Findings were compared and contrasted with guidance from diffusion theory, and interpreted with knowledge users to identify practical implications and potential directions for future research.Four core mechanisms were identified, namely awareness, commitment, confidence and trust. These mechanisms were activated within two broad scaling up strategies, those of renewing and regenerating, and documenting success. Within each strategy, specific actions to change contexts included building partnerships, conducting evaluations, engaging political support and adapting funding models. These modified contexts triggered the identified mechanisms, leading to a range of scaling up outcomes, such as commitment of new communities, changes in relevant

  3. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60......This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance......-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output...

  4. Exploring combinations of different color and facial expression stimuli for gaze-independent BCIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention had been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression change had been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn’t tell them apart. Especially they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm. Consequently, the performance of BCIs is reduced.New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help subjects to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs. In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s: The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems were whether dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than grey faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy subjects (7 male, aged 21-26 years, mean 24.5±1.25 participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed.Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed

  5. Cross-cultural psychometric assessment of the VAGUS insight into psychosis scale - Spanish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Gerretsen, Philip; Shah, Parita; Saracco-Alvarez, Ricardo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Fresán, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Impaired insight into illness, a core feature of schizophrenia with negative clinical implications, is a multidimensional phenomenon existing on a continuum. However, the degree to which illness perception in distinct cultures influences the appraisal of insight into illness in schizophrenia remains unclear. As such, we aimed to determine if the psychometric properties of the VAGUS insight into psychosis scale (www.vagusonline.com), which was originally assessed in English speaking Canadians, were similar in a sample of Latino Mexican Spanish speaking patients with schizophrenia. To accomplish this, the VAGUS - Self-Report (SR) version was translated from English to Spanish and psychometrically evaluated in 95 participants. The Spanish version of the VAGUS-SR was internally consistent (ᾳ = 0.713), and demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with the subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Factor analysis identified two components of insight, congruent with two of the components of the English version of the VAGUS-SR. In conclusion, the VAGUS-SR is a brief, novel, and valid measure of insight into illness in schizophrenia, which demonstrated similar psychometric properties in two culturally and linguistically distinct samples with schizophrenia. Future studies should assess whether the VAGUS demonstrates similar psychometric properties in non-Western cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Importance of Visual Feedback Design in BCIs; from Embodiment to Motor Imagery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we further discovered that the positive bias of subjects' performance both increased their sensation of embodiment and improved their motor imagery skills in a short period. In this work, we studied the shared mechanism between the experience of embodiment and motor imagery. We compared the trend of motor imagery learning when two groups of subjects BCI-operated different looking robots, a very humanlike android's hands and a pair of metallic gripper. Although our experiments did not show a significant change of learning between the two groups immediately during one session, the android group revealed better motor imagery skills in the follow up session when both groups repeated the task using the non-humanlike gripper. This result shows that motor imagery skills learnt during the BCI-operation of humanlike hands are more robust to time and visual feedback changes. We discuss the role of embodiment and mirror neuron system in such outcome and propose the application of androids for efficient BCI training.

  7. The Importance of Visual Feedback Design in BCIs; from Embodiment to Motor Imagery Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alimardani

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces (BCIs have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we further discovered that the positive bias of subjects' performance both increased their sensation of embodiment and improved their motor imagery skills in a short period. In this work, we studied the shared mechanism between the experience of embodiment and motor imagery. We compared the trend of motor imagery learning when two groups of subjects BCI-operated different looking robots, a very humanlike android's hands and a pair of metallic gripper. Although our experiments did not show a significant change of learning between the two groups immediately during one session, the android group revealed better motor imagery skills in the follow up session when both groups repeated the task using the non-humanlike gripper. This result shows that motor imagery skills learnt during the BCI-operation of humanlike hands are more robust to time and visual feedback changes. We discuss the role of embodiment and mirror neuron system in such outcome and propose the application of androids for efficient BCI training.

  8. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identi...

  9. A practical view of the insights from scaling thermal-hydraulic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.E.; McPherson, G.D.

    1995-09-01

    The authors review the broad concept of scaling of thermal-hydraulic test facilities designed to acquire data for application to modeling the behavior of nuclear power plants, especially as applied to the design certification of passive advanced light water reactors. Distortions and uncertainties in the scaling process are described, and the possible impact of these effects on the test data are discussed. A practical approach to the use of data from the facilities is proposed, with emphasis on the insights to be gained from the test results rather than direct application of test results to behavior of a large plant.

  10. Insight in schizophrenia: involvement of self-reflection networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Lisette; de Vos, Annerieke E; Stiekema, Annemarie P M; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; van Tol, Marie-José; Nolen, Willem A; David, Anthony S; Aleman, André

    2013-11-01

    Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one's traits and characteristics. The current study aims to investigate the neural correlates of self-reflective processing and its relationship with insight in schizophrenia. Forty-seven schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls performed a self-reflection task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. The tasks comprised a self-reflection, close other-reflection, and a semantic (baseline) condition. Insight scores were obtained with the Schedule of Assessment of Insight Expanded. In addition, cognitive insight scores were obtained (Beck Cognitive Insight Scale [BCIS]). Schizophrenia patients demonstrated less activation in the posterior cingulate cortex in the self- and other-reflection conditions and less activation in the precuneus in the other-reflection condition compared with healthy controls. Better insight was associated with greater response in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, and inferior parietal lobule during self-reflection. In addition, better cognitive insight was associated with higher activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-reflection. In the current study, evidence for a relationship between self-reflection and insight in patients with schizophrenia was found in brain areas related to self-reflection, self/other distinction and source attribution. The findings support the rationale for a treatment that is currently under evaluation, which attempts to increase insight by enhancing self-reflection.

  11. Insight in Schizophrenia: Involvement of Self-Reflection Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Annerieke E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one’s traits and characteristics. The current study aims to investigate the neural correlates of self-reflective processing and its relationship with insight in schizophrenia. Methods: Forty-seven schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls performed a self-reflection task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. The tasks comprised a self-reflection, close other-reflection, and a semantic (baseline) condition. Insight scores were obtained with the Schedule of Assessment of Insight Expanded. In addition, cognitive insight scores were obtained (Beck Cognitive Insight Scale [BCIS]). Results: Schizophrenia patients demonstrated less activation in the posterior cingulate cortex in the self- and other-reflection conditions and less activation in the precuneus in the other-reflection condition compared with healthy controls. Better insight was associated with greater response in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, and inferior parietal lobule during self-reflection. In addition, better cognitive insight was associated with higher activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-reflection. Conclusion: In the current study, evidence for a relationship between self-reflection and insight in patients with schizophrenia was found in brain areas related to self-reflection, self/other distinction and source attribution. The findings support the rationale for a treatment that is currently under evaluation, which attempts to increase insight by enhancing self-reflection. PMID:23104865

  12. A pilot study of cognitive insight and structural covariance in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Corin; Buchy, Lisa; Barbato, Mariapaola; Makowski, Carolina; MacMaster, Frank P; Bray, Signe; Deighton, Stephanie; Addington, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive insight is described as a balance between one's self-reflectiveness (recognition and correction of dysfunctional reasoning), and self-certainty (overconfidence). Neuroimaging studies have linked the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to cognitive insight in people with psychosis. However, the relationship between cognitive insight and structural connectivity between the VLPFC and other brain areas is unknown. Here, we investigated the modulation of cognitive insight on structural covariance networks involving the VLPFC in a first-episode psychosis sample. Fifteen patients with a first-episode psychosis provided magnetic resonance (MR) scans and completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). MR scans were also available for 15 historical controls. Seed-based analysis of structural covariance was conducted using the Mapping Anatomical Correlations Across the Cerebral Cortex (MACACC) methodology, whereby Pearson correlation coefficients were extracted between seed regions in left and right VLPFC and cortical thickness across the brain. Structural covariance maps between groups were compared at each vertex. In first-episode subjects, we evaluated the modulation of BCIS scores on cortical covariance between VLPFC and every other vertex. Findings showed no significant group difference between first-episode psychosis subjects and controls in thickness covariance seeded from left or right VLPFC. However, in first-episode psychosis subjects, a positive association with self-certainty was found in networks seeded from both left and right VLPFC with thickness in medial frontal cortex and right pars triangularis. No significant associations were found for self-reflectiveness. These results suggest that self-certainty, but not self-reflectiveness, positively modulated cortical covariance in a frontal network in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large Scale eHealth Deployment in Europe: Insights from Concurrent Use of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberg, Marco; Chronaki, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale eHealth deployment projects face a major challenge when called to select the right set of standards and tools to achieve sustainable interoperability in an ecosystem including both legacy systems and new systems reflecting technological trends and progress. There is not a single standard that would cover all needs of an eHealth project, and there is a multitude of overlapping and perhaps competing standards that can be employed to define document formats, terminology, communication protocols mirroring alternative technical approaches and schools of thought. eHealth projects need to respond to the important question of how alternative or inconsistently implemented standards and specifications can be used to ensure practical interoperability and long-term sustainability in large scale eHealth deployment. In the eStandards project, 19 European case studies reporting from R&D and large-scale eHealth deployment and policy projects were analyzed. Although this study is not exhaustive, reflecting on the concepts, standards, and tools for concurrent use and the successes, failures, and lessons learned, this paper offers practical insights on how eHealth deployment projects can make the most of the available eHealth standards and tools and how standards and profile developing organizations can serve the users embracing sustainability and technical innovation.

  14. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (Pshort and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  15. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  16. Nonuniversal scaling of the magnetocaloric effect as an insight into spin-lattice interactions in manganites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    is not given uniquely by the critical exponents of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition, i.e., the scaling is nonuniversal. A theoretical description based on the Bean-Rodbell model and taking into account compositional inhomogeneities is shown to be able to account for the observed field dependence....... In this way the determination of the nonuniversal field dependence of the magnetocaloric effect close to a phase transition can be used as a method to gain insight into the strength of the spin-lattice interactions of magnetic materials. The approach is shown also to be applicable to first-order transitions.......We measure the magnetocaloric effect of the manganite series La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMnO3 by determining the isothermal entropy change upon magnetization, using variable-field calorimetry. The results demonstrate that the field dependence of the magnetocaloric effect close to the critical temperature...

  17. Chinese Version of Psychometric Evaluation of Self-Reflection and Insight Scale on Taiwanese Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Yueh; Lai, Chen-Chun; Chang, Hui-Mei; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2016-12-01

    Self-reflection (also known as reflection) is an internal process that is difficult to perceive or assess. An instrument that is able to measure self-reflection may serve as a resource for educators to assess the learning process of students and to tailor education approaches to student needs. The aim of this study was to translate the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) into Chinese and evaluate its psychometric properties for use with Taiwanese nursing students. For this cross-sectional study, nursing students were recruited from two nursing schools in southern Taiwan in two phases: Phase 1, which included 361 fourth-year students, and Phase 2, which included 703 fifth-year students. Data were collected in December 2012 and May 2013 using the Chinese version of the SRIS (SRIS-C), Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Perceived Identity as a Nurse Questionnaire, which was developed by the author. In Phase 1, exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the SRIS-C in the fourth-year student participants. In Phase 2, confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the fitness of the model for the fifth-year student participants. Eight items were deleted from the original SRIS to create the SRIS-C. Thus, the Chinese-version measure had 12 items and two factors (self-reflection and insight) that fit the data well. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total scale and its two subscales were .79, .87, and .83, respectively. The 3-week test-retest reliability was .74. SRIS-C scores correlated significantly with scores on the Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the Perceived Identity as a Nurse Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity for the SRIS-C. The current study showed that the SRIS-C has sound psychometric properties. This instrument provides nurse educators with information that may be used to evaluate the self-reflection and insight of students and to develop interventions to

  18. Complex dynamics of our economic life on different scales: insights from search engine query data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Reith, Daniel; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-12-28

    Search engine query data deliver insight into the behaviour of individuals who are the smallest possible scale of our economic life. Individuals are submitting several hundred million search engine queries around the world each day. We study weekly search volume data for various search terms from 2004 to 2010 that are offered by the search engine Google for scientific use, providing information about our economic life on an aggregated collective level. We ask the question whether there is a link between search volume data and financial market fluctuations on a weekly time scale. Both collective 'swarm intelligence' of Internet users and the group of financial market participants can be regarded as a complex system of many interacting subunits that react quickly to external changes. We find clear evidence that weekly transaction volumes of S&P 500 companies are correlated with weekly search volume of corresponding company names. Furthermore, we apply a recently introduced method for quantifying complex correlations in time series with which we find a clear tendency that search volume time series and transaction volume time series show recurring patterns.

  19. Computational biology in the cloud: methods and new insights from computing at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasson, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The past few years have seen both explosions in the size of biological data sets and the proliferation of new, highly flexible on-demand computing capabilities. The sheer amount of information available from genomic and metagenomic sequencing, high-throughput proteomics, experimental and simulation datasets on molecular structure and dynamics affords an opportunity for greatly expanded insight, but it creates new challenges of scale for computation, storage, and interpretation of petascale data. Cloud computing resources have the potential to help solve these problems by offering a utility model of computing and storage: near-unlimited capacity, the ability to burst usage, and cheap and flexible payment models. Effective use of cloud computing on large biological datasets requires dealing with non-trivial problems of scale and robustness, since performance-limiting factors can change substantially when a dataset grows by a factor of 10,000 or more. New computing paradigms are thus often needed. The use of cloud platforms also creates new opportunities to share data, reduce duplication, and to provide easy reproducibility by making the datasets and computational methods easily available.

  20. Cognitive insight and objective quality of life in people with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Ruchika; Luhrmann, Tanya M; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N

    2018-01-01

    Poor cognitive insight in schizophrenia has been linked to delusions, hallucinations, and negative symptoms as well as to depressive/anxiety symptoms. Its impact on quality of life has been less studied, especially in schizophrenia subjects with ongoing auditory hallucinations. The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) were administered to subjects who met DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia after due translation and validation. All subjects reported ongoing auditory hallucinations at recruitment. Mean composite cognitive insight scores from participants (N = 60) (2.97 ± 2.649) were in the lower range as compared to published literature. Cognitive insight scores as well as self-reflectiveness subscale scores, but not self-certainty scores, correlated significantly with the QLS scores p insight, especially self-reflectiveness, may be linked to better quality of life. Self-reflectiveness could be a useful construct to address in psychotherapy to improve rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford C. Dickerson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other regions of the large-scale episodic memory network are affected early in the disease as well, and fMRI has begun to illuminate functional abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well in MCI and AD. Besides predictable hypoactivation of brain regions as they accrue pathology and undergo atrophy, there are also areas of hyperactivation in brain memory and cognitive circuits, possibly representing attempted compensatory activity. Recent fMRI data in MCI and AD are beginning to reveal relationships between abnormalities of functional activity in the MTL memory system and in functionally connected brain regions, such as the precuneus. Additional work with “resting state” fMRI data is illuminating functional-anatomic brain circuits and their disruption by disease. As this work continues to mature, it will likely contribute to our understanding of fundamental memory processes in the human brain and how these are perturbed in memory disorders. We hope these insights will translate into the incorporation of measures of task-related brain function into diagnostic assessment or therapeutic monitoring, which will hopefully one day be useful for demonstrating beneficial effects of treatments being tested in clinical trials.

  2. Readiness for self-directed change in professional behaviours: factorial validation of the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Chris; Stark, Patsy

    2008-11-01

    Self-reflection, the practice of inspecting and evaluating one's own thoughts, feelings and behaviour, and insight, the ability to understand one's own thoughts, feelings and behaviour, are central to the self-regulation of behaviours. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) measures three factors in the self-regulation cycle: need for reflection; engagement in reflection, and insight. We used structural equation modelling to undertake a confirmatory factor analysis of the SRIS. We re-specified our model to analyse all of the data to explain relationships between the SRIS, medical student characteristics, and responses to issues of teaching and learning in professionalism. The factorial validity of a modified SRIS showed all items loading significantly on their expected factors, with a good fit to the data. Each subscale had good internal reliability (> 0.8). There was a strong relationship between the need for reflection and engagement in reflection (r = 0.77). Insight was related to need for reflection (0.22) and age (0.21), but not to the process of engaging in reflection (0.06). Validation of the SRIS provides researchers with a new instrument with which to measure and investigate the processes of self-reflection and insight in the context of students' self-regulation of their professionalism. Insight is related to the motive or need for reflection, but the process of reflection does not lead to insight. Attending to feelings is an important and integral aspect of self-reflection and insight. Effective strategies are needed to develop students' insight as they reflect on their professionalism.

  3. Management of carbon across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land

  4. New insights into chromatin folding and dynamics from multi-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Wilma

    The dynamic organization of chromatin plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression and in other fundamental cellular processes. The underlying physical basis of these activities lies in the sequential positioning, chemical composition, and intermolecular interactions of the nucleosomes-the familiar assemblies of roughly 150 DNA base pairs and eight histone proteins-found on chromatin fibers. We have developed a mesoscale model of short nucleosomal arrays and a computational framework that make it possible to incorporate detailed structural features of DNA and histones in simulations of short chromatin constructs with 3-25 evenly spaced nucleosomes. The correspondence between the predicted and observed effects of nucleosome composition, spacing, and numbers on long-range communication between regulatory proteins bound to the ends of designed nucleosome arrays lends credence to the model and to the molecular insights gleaned from the simulated structures. We have extracted effective nucleosome-nucleosome potentials from the mesoscale simulations and introduced the potentials in a larger scale computational treatment of regularly repeating chromatin fibers. Our results reveal a remarkable influence of nucleosome spacing on chromatin flexibility. Small changes in the length of the DNA fragments linking successive nucleosomes introduce marked changes in the local interactions of the nucleosomes and in the spatial configurations of the fiber as a whole. The changes in nucleosome positioning influence the statistical properties of longer chromatin constructs with 100-10,000 nucleosomes. We are investigating the extent to which the `local' interactions of regularly spaced nucleosomes contribute to the corresponding interactions in chains with mixed spacings as a step toward the treatment of fibers with nucleosomes positioned at the sites mapped at base-pair resolution on genomic sequences. Support of the work by USPHS R01 GM 34809 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Structure and functioning of a multidisciplinary 'Heart Team' for patients with coronary artery disease: rationale and recommendations from a joint BCS/BCIS/SCTS working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckraz, Heyman; Norell, Michael; Buch, Mamta; James, Rachael; Cooper, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The decision-making process in the management of patients with ischaemic heart disease has historically been the responsibility of the cardiologist and encompasses medical management, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Currently, there is significant geographical variability in the PCI:CABG ratio. There are now emerging recommendations that this decision-making process should be carried out through a multidisciplinary approach, namely the Heart Team. This work was carried out on behalf of The British Cardiovascular Society (BCS), Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Great Britain and Ireland (SCTS) and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS). This manuscript sets out the principles for the functioning of the Heart Team. This work has been approved by the Executive Committees of BCS/BCIS/SCTS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. A Genomic Survey of SCPP Family Genes in Fishes Provides Novel Insights into the Evolution of Fish Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yunyun; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Li, Jia; Li, Yanping; Bian, Chao; Huang, Yu; You, Xinxin; Shi, Qiong

    2017-11-16

    The family of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) have been considered vital to skeletal tissue mineralization. However, most previous SCPP studies focused on phylogenetically distant animals but not on those closely related species. Here we provide novel insights into the coevolution of SCPP genes and fish scales in 10 species from Otophysi . According to their scale phenotypes, these fishes can be divided into three groups, i.e., scaled, sparsely scaled, and scaleless. We identified homologous SCPP genes in the genomes of these species and revealed an absence of some SCPP members in some genomes, suggesting an uneven evolutionary history of SCPP genes in fishes. In addition, most of these SCPP genes, with the exception of SPP1 , individually form one or two gene cluster(s) on each corresponding genome. Furthermore, we constructed phylogenetic trees using maximum likelihood method to estimate their evolution. The phylogenetic topology mostly supports two subclasses in some species, such as Cyprinus carpio , Sinocyclocheilus anshuiensis , S. grahamin , and S. rhinocerous , but not in the other examined fishes. By comparing the gene structures of recently reported candidate genes, SCPP1 and SCPP5 , for determining scale phenotypes, we found that the hypothesis is suitable for Astyanax mexicanus , but denied by S. anshuiensis , even though they are both sparsely scaled for cave adaptation. Thus, we conclude that, although different fish species display similar scale phenotypes, the underlying genetic changes however might be diverse. In summary, this paper accelerates the recognition of the SCPP family in teleosts for potential scale evolution.

  7. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Wilgen, BW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of approaches and philosophies underpin national-level strategies for managing invasive alien plants. This study presents a strategy for the management of taxa that both have value and do harm. Insights were derived from examining Australian...

  8. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae: insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörken, Veit Martin; Rudall, Paula J

    2018-01-01

    Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales). The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

  9. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae: insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Martin Dörken

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales. The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

  10. Atomic-scale insight into the origin of pyridine inhibition of MoS2-based hydrotreating catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temel, Burcin; Tuxen, Anders K.; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    in earlier IR experiments on high surface alumina-supported MoS2 catalyst. The adsorption sites appear to be very similar to the brim sites involved in hydrogenation reactions in HDS. Thus, the combined STM and DFT results provide new atomic-scale insight into the inhibition effect of basic N......-compounds in HDS and the first direct observation of the adsorption mode of basic N-compounds on the catalytically active MoS2 edges. Our results lend further support to previously reported correlations between inhibiting strength and proton affinity for the N-containing compounds....

  11. New Insights about Enzyme Evolution from Large Scale Studies of Sequence and Structure Relationships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies, each representing a large set of sequences that evolved from a common ancestor and that retain conserved features of their structures and active sites. Using several examples, we describe the different structural strategies nature has used to evolve new reaction and substrate specificities in each unique superfamily. The results provide insight about enzyme evolution that is not easily obtained from studies of one or only a few enzymes. PMID:25210038

  12. New insights about enzyme evolution from large scale studies of sequence and structure relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2014-10-31

    Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies, each representing a large set of sequences that evolved from a common ancestor and that retain conserved features of their structures and active sites. Using several examples, we describe the different structural strategies nature has used to evolve new reaction and substrate specificities in each unique superfamily. The results provide insight about enzyme evolution that is not easily obtained from studies of one or only a few enzymes. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography.

  14. Climatic and physiographic controls on catchment-scale nitrate loss at different spatial scales: insights from a top-down model development approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafii, Mahyar; Basu, Nandita; Schiff, Sherry; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Dramatic increase in nitrogen circulating in the biosphere due to anthropogenic activities has resulted in impairment of water quality in groundwater and surface water causing eutrophication in coastal regions. Understanding the fate and transport of nitrogen from landscape to coastal areas requires exploring the drivers of nitrogen processes in both time and space, as well as the identification of appropriate flow pathways. Conceptual models can be used as diagnostic tools to provide insights into such controls. However, diagnostic evaluation of coupled hydrological-biogeochemical models is challenging. This research proposes a top-down methodology utilizing hydrochemical signatures to develop conceptual models for simulating the integrated streamflow and nitrate responses while taking into account dominant controls on nitrate variability (e.g., climate, soil water content, etc.). Our main objective is to seek appropriate model complexity that sufficiently reproduces multiple hydrological and nitrate signatures. Having developed a suitable conceptual model for a given watershed, we employ it in sensitivity studies to demonstrate the dominant process controls that contribute to the nitrate response at scales of interest. We apply the proposed approach to nitrate simulation in a range of small to large sub-watersheds in the Grand River Watershed (GRW) located in Ontario. Such multi-basin modeling experiment will enable us to address process scaling and investigate the consequences of lumping processes in terms of models' predictive capability. The proposed methodology can be applied to the development of large-scale models that can help decision-making associated with nutrients management at regional scale.

  15. The institutionalization of River Basin Management as politics of scale - Insights from Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena

    2014-11-01

    River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.

  16. Solving Large-Scale Computational Problems Using Insights from Statistical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, Bart [Cornell University

    2012-02-29

    Many challenging problems in computer science and related fields can be formulated as constraint satisfaction problems. Such problems consist of a set of discrete variables and a set of constraints between those variables, and represent a general class of so-called NP-complete problems. The goal is to find a value assignment to the variables that satisfies all constraints, generally requiring a search through and exponentially large space of variable-value assignments. Models for disordered systems, as studied in statistical physics, can provide important new insights into the nature of constraint satisfaction problems. Recently, work in this area has resulted in the discovery of a new method for solving such problems, called the survey propagation (SP) method. With SP, we can solve problems with millions of variables and constraints, an improvement of two orders of magnitude over previous methods.

  17. Insights into a spatially embedded social network from a large-scale snowball sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J.; Kowald, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Nagel, K.

    2011-12-01

    Much research has been conducted to obtain insights into the basic laws governing human travel behaviour. While the traditional travel survey has been for a long time the main source of travel data, recent approaches to use GPS data, mobile phone data, or the circulation of bank notes as a proxy for human travel behaviour are promising. The present study proposes a further source of such proxy-data: the social network. We collect data using an innovative snowball sampling technique to obtain details on the structure of a leisure-contacts network. We analyse the network with respect to its topology, the individuals' characteristics, and its spatial structure. We further show that a multiplication of the functions describing the spatial distribution of leisure contacts and the frequency of physical contacts results in a trip distribution that is consistent with data from the Swiss travel survey.

  18. Role of cardiolipins in the inner mitochondrial membrane: insight gained through atom-scale simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Munck, Nana

    2009-01-01

    , the exceptional nature of cardiolipins is characterized by their small charged head group connected to typically four hydrocarbon chains. In this work, we present atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the inner mitochondrial membrane modeled as a mixture of cardiolipins (CLs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs...

  19. Insight on invasions and resilience derived from spatiotemporal discontinuities of biomass at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Criag R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the social and ecological consequences of species invasions is complicated by nonlinearities in processes, and differences in process and structure as scale is changed. Here we use discontinuity analyses to investigate nonlinear patterns in the distribution of biomass of an invasive nuisance species that could indicate scale-specific organization. We analyze biomass patterns in the flagellate Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) in 75 boreal lakes during an 11-year period (1997-2007). With simulations using a unimodal null model and cluster analysis, we identified regional groupings of lakes based on their biomass patterns. We evaluated the variability of membership of individual lakes in regional biomass groups. Temporal trends in local and regional discontinuity patterns were analyzed using regressions and correlations with environmental variables that characterize nutrient conditions, acidity status, temperature variability, and water clarity. Regionally, there was a significant increase in the number of biomass groups over time, indicative of an increased number of scales at which algal biomass organizes across lakes. This increased complexity correlated with the invasion history of G. semen and broad-scale environmental change (recovery from acidification). Locally, no consistent patterns of lake membership to regional biomass groups were observed, and correlations with environmental variables were lake specific. The increased complexity of regional biomass patterns suggests that processes that act within or between scales reinforce the presence of G. semen and its potential to develop high-biomass blooms in boreal lakes. Emergent regional patterns combined with locally stochastic dynamics suggest a bleak future for managing G. semen, and more generally why invasive species can be ecologically successful.

  20. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  1. Small-scale sediment transport patterns and bedform morphodynamics: New insights from high resolution multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Rubin, David M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2011-01-01

    New multibeam echosounder and processing technologies yield sub-meter-scale bathymetric resolution, revealing striking details of bedform morphology that are shaped by complex boundary-layer flow dynamics at a range of spatial and temporal scales. An inertially aided post processed kinematic (IAPPK) technique generates a smoothed best estimate trajectory (SBET) solution to tie the vessel motion-related effects of each sounding directly to the ellipsoid, significantly reducing artifacts commonly found in multibeam data, increasing point density, and sharpening seafloor features. The new technique was applied to a large bedform field in 20–30 m water depths in central San Francisco Bay, California (USA), revealing bedforms that suggest boundary-layer flow deflection by the crests where 12-m-wavelength, 0.2-m-amplitude bedforms are superimposed on 60-m-wavelength, 1-m-amplitude bedforms, with crests that often were strongly oblique (approaching 90°) to the larger features on the lee side, and near-parallel on the stoss side. During one survey in April 2008, superimposed bedform crests were continuous between the crests of the larger features, indicating that flow detachment in the lee of the larger bedforms is not always a dominant process. Assessment of bedform crest peakedness, asymmetry, and small-scale bedform evolution between surveys indicates the impact of different flow regimes on the entire bedform field. This paper presents unique fine-scale imagery of compound and superimposed bedforms, which is used to (1) assess the physical forcing and evolution of a bedform field in San Francisco Bay, and (2) in conjunction with numerical modeling, gain a better fundamental understanding of boundary-layer flow dynamics that result in the observed superimposed bedform orientation.

  2. Time scales of foam stability in shallow conduits: Insights from analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Cimarelli, C.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    Volcanic systems can exhibit periodical trends in degassing activity, characterized by a wide range of time scales. Understanding the dynamics that control such periodic behavior can provide a picture of the processes occurring in the feeding system. Toward this end, we analyzed the periodicity of outgassing in a series of decompression experiments performed on analogue material (argon-saturated silicone oil plus glass beads/fibers) scaled to serve as models of basaltic magma. To define the effects of liquid viscosity and crystal content on the time scale of outgassing, we investigated both: (1) pure liquid systems, at differing viscosities (100 and 1000 Pa s), and (2) particle-bearing suspensions (diluted and semidiluted). The results indicate that under dynamic conditions (e.g., decompressive bubble growth and fluid ascent within the conduit), the periodicity of foam disruption may be up to several orders of magnitude less than estimates based on the analysis of static conditions. This difference in foam disruption time scale is inferred to result from the contribution of bubble shear and bubble growth to inter-bubble film thinning. The presence of particles in the semidiluted regime is further linked to shorter bubble bursting times, likely resulting from contributions of the presence of a solid network and coalescence processes to the relative increase in bubble breakup rates. Finally, it is argued that these experiments represent a good analogue of gas-piston activity (i.e., the periodical rise-and-fall of a basaltic lava lake surface), implying a dominant role for shallow foam accumulation as a source process for these phenomena.

  3. Use of a large-scale rainfall simulator reveals novel insights into stemflow generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F., Jr.; Iida, S. I.; Nanko, K.; Sun, X.; Shinohara, Y.; Sakai, N.

    2017-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of stemflow generation and its effects on both hydrological and biogoechemical cycling is important to achieve a holistic understanding of forest ecosystems. Field studies and a smaller set of experiments performed under laboratory conditions have increased our process-based knowledge of stemflow production. Building upon these earlier works, a large-scale rainfall simulator was employed to deepen our understanding of stemflow generation processes. The use of the large-scale rainfall simulator provides a unique opportunity to examine a range of rainfall intensities under constant conditions that are difficult under natural conditions due to the variable nature of rainfall intensities in the field. Stemflow generation and production was examined for three species- Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (Japanese cedar), Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (Japanese cypress), Zelkova serrata Thunb. (Japanese zelkova)- under both leafed and leafless conditions at several different rainfall intensities (15, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mm h-1) using a large-scale rainfall simulator in National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (Tsukuba, Japan). Stemflow production and rates and funneling ratios were examined in relation to both rainfall intensity and canopy structure. Preliminary results indicate a dynamic and complex response of the funneling ratios of individual trees to different rainfall intensities among the species examined. This is partly the result of different canopy structures, hydrophobicity of vegetative surfaces, and differential wet-up processes across species and rainfall intensities. This presentation delves into these differences and attempts to distill them into generalizable patterns, which can advance our theories of stemflow generation processes and ultimately permit better stewardship of forest resources. ________________ Funding note: This research was supported by JSPS Invitation Fellowship for Research in

  4. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Factors Influencing the Sahelian Paradox at the Local Watershed Scale: Causal Inference Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, M.; Groenke, A.; Larsen, L.

    2017-12-01

    While the existence of paradoxical rainfall-runoff and rainfall-groundwater correlations are well established in the West African Sahel, the hydrologic mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In pursuit of mechanistic explanations, we perform a causal inference analysis on hydrologic variables in three watersheds in Benin and Niger. Using an ensemble of techniques, we compute the strength of relationships between observational soil moisture, runoff, precipitation, and temperature data at seasonal and event timescales. Performing analysis over a range of time lags allows dominant time scales to emerge from the relationships between variables. By determining the time scales of hydrologic connectivity over vertical and lateral space, we show differences in the importance of overland and subsurface flow over the course of the rainy season and between watersheds. While previous work on the paradoxical hydrologic behavior in the Sahel focuses on surface processes and infiltration, our results point toward the importance of subsurface flow to rainfall-runoff relationships in these watersheds. The hypotheses generated from our ensemble approach suggest that subsequent explorations of mechanistic hydrologic processes in the region include subsurface flow. Further, this work highlights how an ensemble approach to causal analysis can reveal nuanced relationships between variables even in poorly understood hydrologic systems.

  6. Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Ninon; Foldi, Imre; Godinot, Marc; Petit, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites. Identified as Coccidae, these larvae are the earliest stage of the scale insect development ever reported as fossil, revealing the specific environment of preservation that fossilized scats may provide. These observations, combined to the coprolites morphotype, enable to ascribe the fossil scats producer to a small herbivorous mammal present in the deposit (early perissodactyls or Plesiadapidae). Regarding the ecology of extant representatives of Coccidae, this mammal was a likely foliage consumer, and the abundant Juglandaceae and/or Tiliaceae from Le Quesnoy might have lived parasitized by scale insects. These Early Eocene parasites had an already well-established dissemination strategy, with prevalent minute first-instar larvae. The herein performed extraction technique appears well-suited for the study of carbonate coprolites and could certainly be useful for evidencing other kind of microorganisms (including internal parasites).

  7. Insight into Evolution, Processing and Performance of Multi-length-scale Structures in Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cho, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Wen; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-09-04

    The structural characterization correlated to the processing control of hierarchical structure of planar heterojunction perovskite layer is still incomplete due to the limitations of conventional microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This present study performed the simultaneously grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and wide-angle scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively probe the hierarchical structure of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The result is complementary to the currently microscopic study. Correlation between the crystallization behavior, crystal orientation, nano- and meso-scale internal structure and surface morphology of perovskite film as functions of various processing control parameters is reported for the first time. The structural transition from the fractal pore network to the surface fractal can be tuned by the chloride percentage. The GISAXS/GIWAXS measurement provides the comprehensive understanding of concurrent evolution of the film morphology and crystallization correlated to the high performance. The result can provide the insight into formation mechanism and rational synthesis design.

  8. Insight into Evolution, Processing and Performance of Multi-length-scale Structures in Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cho, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Wen; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U.-Ser; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-09-01

    The structural characterization correlated to the processing control of hierarchical structure of planar heterojunction perovskite layer is still incomplete due to the limitations of conventional microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This present study performed the simultaneously grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and wide-angle scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively probe the hierarchical structure of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The result is complementary to the currently microscopic study. Correlation between the crystallization behavior, crystal orientation, nano- and meso-scale internal structure and surface morphology of perovskite film as functions of various processing control parameters is reported for the first time. The structural transition from the fractal pore network to the surface fractal can be tuned by the chloride percentage. The GISAXS/GIWAXS measurement provides the comprehensive understanding of concurrent evolution of the film morphology and crystallization correlated to the high performance. The result can provide the insight into formation mechanism and rational synthesis design.

  9. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems: recent insights, new techniques and an ecosystem-scale threshold response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamus, D.; Zolfaghar, S.; Villalobos-Vega, R.; Cleverly, J.; Huete, A.

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are at risk globally due to unsustainable levels of groundwater extraction, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this review, we examine recent developments in the ecohydrology of GDEs with a focus on three knowledge gaps: (1) how do we locate GDEs, (2) how much water is transpired from shallow aquifers by GDEs; and (3) what are the responses of GDEs to excessive groundwater extraction? The answers to these questions will determine water allocations that are required to sustain functioning of GDEs and to guide regulations on groundwater extraction to avoid negative impacts on GDEs. We discuss three methods for identifying GDEs: (1) fluctuations in depth-to-groundwater that are associated with diurnal variations in transpiration, (2) stable isotope analysis of water sources in the transpiration stream; and (3) remote sensing methods. We then discuss several methods for estimating rates of GW use, including direct measurement using sapflux or eddy covariance technologies, estimation of a climate wetness index within a Budyko framework, spatial distribution of ET using remote sensing, groundwater modelling and stable isotopes. Remote sensing methods often rely on direct measurements to calibrate the relationship between vegetation indices and ET. ET from GDEs is also determined using hydrologic models of varying complexity, from the "White method" to fully coupled, variable saturation models. Combinations of methods are typically employed to obtain clearer insight into the components of groundwater discharge in GDEs, such as the proportional importance of transpiration vs. evaporation (e.g., using stable isotopes) or from groundwater vs. rainwater sources. Groundwater extraction can have severe consequences on structure and function of GDEs. In the most extreme cases, phreatophytes experience crown dieback and death following groundwater drawdown. We provide a brief review of two case studies of the impacts of GW

  10. New insights into sub-ion scale turbulence in Earth's magnetosheath using MMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuillard, Hugo; Andriopoulou, Maria; Graham, Daniel; Le Contel, Olivier; Huang, Shiyong; Hadid, Lina; Sahraoui, Fouad; Alexandrova, Olga; Berthomier, Matthieu; Retino, Alessandro; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    On January 22nd 2016, MMS was located in Earth's magnetosheath and detected intense lion roars showing a secondary bandwidth. Detailed polarization analysis, using burst data from SCM and EDP instruments, and numerical simulation, using WHAMP, are performed in this study. They show that these mainly perpendicular fluctuations are highly nonlinear whistler wave packets, and that a high sampling rate is needed to pick up the peaks of the signal. As a result, their amplitude might have been underestimated in previous missions such as Cluster, which can have a significant impact on electron dynamics. Using FPI burst data, we show that electron velocity distribution functions exhibit a gyrophase-bunched signature in the presence of these lion roars. The analysis of magnetic and density fluctuations, inferred from spacecraft potential, also show the highly-compressible nature of turbulence up to electron scales.

  11. Generation of pyroclastic density currents from pyroclastic fountaining or transient explosions: insights from large scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Mele, Daniela; La Volpe, Luigi [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy)], E-mail: r.sulpizio@geomin.uniba.it

    2008-10-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are among the most amazing, complex and dangerous volcanic phenomena. They are moving mixtures of particles and gas that flow across the ground, and originate in different ways and from various sources, during explosive eruptions or gravity-driven collapse of domes. We present results from experimental work to investigate the generation of large-scale, multiphase, gravity-driven currents. The experiments described here are particularly devoted to understanding the inception and development of PDCs under impulsive injection conditions by means of the fast application of a finite stress to a finite mass of pyroclastic particles via expansion of compressed gas. We find that, in summary, PDC generation from collapse of pressure-adjusted or overpressurised pyroclastic jets critically depends on behaviour of injection into the atmosphere, which controls the collapsing mechanisms and then the physical parameters of the initiating current.

  12. Multidecadal persistence of organic matter in soils: insights from spatially resolved investigations at the submicrometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Barré, Pierre; Bernard, Sylvain; Le Guillou, Corentin; Alléon, Julien; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms responsible for the pluri-decadal persistence of carbon in soils requires well constraining the dynamics, the distribution and the chemical nature of both the soil organic carbon (SOC) and the associated mineral phases. The question we address in this work is whether different mineral species lead to different organo-mineral interactions and stabilize different quantities of SOM and different types of SOC. Here, benefiting from the unique opportunity offered by an INRA long term bare fallow (LTBF) experiment having started in 1928 in Versailles (France), we report the in-situ characterization of SOC dynamics in four clay fractions of this silty loam soil (total clays [TC, clays [CC, 0.2-2μm], intermediate clays [IC, 0.05-0.2μm] and fine clays [FC, 0-0.05μm]). The IC and FC fractions only contain smectite and illite/smectite mixed-layered clay minerals while the CC fraction also contains illite and kaolinite. In the absence of any carbon input, the plant-free LTBF clay fractions from Versailles progressively lost SOC during the first 50 years of the experiment, until they reached a seemingly stable concentration. Of note, the investigated clay fractions did not lose the same amount of SOC and do not exhibit the same final carbon concentrations. The decrease of the organic C:N ratios with LTBF duration corresponds to a progressive enrichment in N-rich SOC for all fractions which can be attributed to microbial material. Even though the speciation of SOC appears to only slightly evolve with LTBF duration, an enrichment in carboxyl and carbonyl groups is revealed by bulk-scale C-NEXAFS data for SOC from all clay fractions. In addition, STXM-based NEXAFS investigations at the submicrometer scale reveal three types of SOC-clay assemblages in addition to clay-free SOC and organic-free clays. While SOC appears mostly adsorbed onto clay surfaces within the IC and FC fractions, other protection mechanisms occur within the CC fraction

  13. Collaborative mining and interpretation of large-scale data for biomedical research insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Tsiliki

    Full Text Available Biomedical research becomes increasingly interdisciplinary and collaborative in nature. Researchers need to efficiently and effectively collaborate and make decisions by meaningfully assembling, mining and analyzing available large-scale volumes of complex multi-faceted data residing in different sources. In line with related research directives revealing that, in spite of the recent advances in data mining and computational analysis, humans can easily detect patterns which computer algorithms may have difficulty in finding, this paper reports on the practical use of an innovative web-based collaboration support platform in a biomedical research context. Arguing that dealing with data-intensive and cognitively complex settings is not a technical problem alone, the proposed platform adopts a hybrid approach that builds on the synergy between machine and human intelligence to facilitate the underlying sense-making and decision making processes. User experience shows that the platform enables more informed and quicker decisions, by displaying the aggregated information according to their needs, while also exploiting the associated human intelligence.

  14. Novel insights into obesity and diabetes through genome-scale metabolic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eVäremo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, are putting a high strain on global healthcare systems as well as increasing the demand for efficient treatment strategies. More than 360 million people worldwide are suffering from type 2 diabetes and, with the current trends, the projection is that 10% of the global adult population will be affected by 2030. In light of the systemic properties of metabolic diseases as well as the interconnected nature of metabolism, it is necessary to begin taking a holistic approach to study these diseases. Human genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs are topological and mathematical representations of cell metabolism and have proven to be valuable tools in the area of systems biology. Successful applications of GEMs include the process of gaining further biological and mechanistic understanding of diseases, finding potential biomarkers and identifying new drug targets. This review will focus on the modeling of human metabolism in the field of obesity and diabetes, showing its vast range of applications of clinical importance as well as point out future challenges.

  15. Insights into the photochemical disproportionation of transition metal dimers on the picosecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomont, Justin P; Nguyen, Son C; Harris, Charles B

    2013-05-09

    The reactivity of five transition metal dimers toward photochemical, in-solvent-cage disproportionation has been investigated using picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Previous ultrafast studies on [CpW(CO)3]2 established the role of an in-cage disproportionation mechanism involving electron transfer between 17- and 19-electron radicals prior to diffusion out of the solvent cage. New results from time-resolved infrared studies reveal that the identity of the transition metal complex dictates whether the in-cage disproportionation mechanism can take place, as well as the more fundamental issue of whether 19-electron intermediates are able to form on the picosecond time scale. Significantly, the in-cage disproportionation mechanism observed previously for the tungsten dimer does not characterize the reactivity of four out of the five transition metal dimers in this study. The differences in the ability to form 19-electron intermediates are interpreted either in terms of differences in the 17/19-electron equilibrium or of differences in an energetic barrier to associative coordination of a Lewis base, whereas the case for the in-cage vs diffusive disproportionation mechanisms depends on whether the 19-electron reducing agent is genuinely characterized by 19-electron configuration at the metal center or if it is better described as an 18 + δ complex. These results help to better understand the factors that dictate mechanisms of radical disproportionation and carry implications for radical chain mechanisms.

  16. New insights into the atmospheric mercury cycling in central Antarctica and implications on a continental scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the framework of the GMOS project (Global Mercury Observation System atmospheric mercury monitoring has been implemented at Concordia Station on the high-altitude Antarctic plateau (75°06′ S, 123°20′ E, 3220 m above sea level. We report here the first year-round measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 in the atmosphere and in snowpack interstitial air on the East Antarctic ice sheet. This unique data set shows evidence of an intense oxidation of atmospheric Hg(0 in summer (24-hour daylight due to the high oxidative capacity of the Antarctic plateau atmosphere in this period of the year. Summertime Hg(0 concentrations exhibited a pronounced daily cycle in ambient air with maximal concentrations around midday. Photochemical reactions and chemical exchange at the air–snow interface were prominent, highlighting the role of the snowpack on the atmospheric mercury cycle. Our observations reveal a 20 to 30 % decrease of atmospheric Hg(0 concentrations from May to mid-August (winter, 24 h darkness. This phenomenon has not been reported elsewhere and possibly results from the dry deposition of Hg(0 onto the snowpack. We also reveal the occurrence of multi-day to weeklong atmospheric Hg(0 depletion events in summer, not associated with depletions of ozone, and likely due to a stagnation of air masses above the plateau triggering an accumulation of oxidants within the shallow boundary layer. Our observations suggest that the inland atmospheric reservoir is depleted in Hg(0 in summer. Due to katabatic winds flowing out from the Antarctic plateau down the steep vertical drops along the coast and according to observations at coastal Antarctic stations, the striking reactivity observed on the plateau most likely influences the cycle of atmospheric mercury on a continental scale.

  17. Keeping the secret: Insights from repeated catchment-scale tracer experiments under transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Christina; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Catchment-level tracer experiments are generally performed to identify site-specific hydrological response functions of the catchment. The existence and uniqueness of these response functions are hardly ever questioned. Here, we report on a series of replicated tracer experiments in two small first-order catchments, G1 (0.6 ha, roofed) and F4 (2.3 ha, without roof) at Gårdsjön in SW Sweden. The soils in both catchments are shallow (500 m2) the experiments were done without a roof mostly at transient conditions. The catchment F4 was equipped with a sprinkler system with a watering capacity of around 38-45 m3 day-1. Natural rainfall comes in addition. A bromide tracer solution was injected to groundwater at a single location about 40 m upstream the weir over a period of less than an hour, and was monitored using a set of groundwater tubes and the weir at the outlet over the following 4 days. In addition, discharge was measured. The experiments were repeated each summer from 2007 to 2015. While steady state conditions were guaranteed in G1, steady runoff has been achieved only four times in F4. We investigated tracer recovery rates against cumulated runoff since tracer application. Substantially different transit times and qualitatively different behaviour of the breakthrough curves were observed, even under steady state conditions. In G1, no single system response function could be identified in 5 replicates. Similarly, the catchment response functions in F4 under steady state differed between experiments. However, they remained in a similar range as in G1. Based on these results, we question the identifiability of flow paths and system properties, such as saturated water content or hydrologic transmissivity, at the catchment scale using tracer experiments. Rather, the series demonstrate the utter importance of the initial and boundary conditions which largely determine the response of the system to inert tracer pulses.

  18. Large-scale brain network associated with creative insight: combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Aihara, Takatsugu; Shimokawa, Takeaki; Yamashita, Okito

    2018-04-24

    Creative insight occurs with an "Aha!" experience when solving a difficult problem. Here, we investigated large-scale networks associated with insight problem solving. We recruited 232 healthy participants aged 21-69 years old. Participants completed a magnetic resonance imaging study (MRI; structural imaging and a 10 min resting-state functional MRI) and an insight test battery (ITB) consisting of written questionnaires (matchstick arithmetic task, remote associates test, and insight problem solving task). To identify the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) associated with individual creative insight, we conducted an exploratory voxel-based morphometry (VBM)-constrained RSFC analysis. We identified positive correlations between ITB score and grey matter volume (GMV) in the right insula and middle cingulate cortex/precuneus, and a negative correlation between ITB score and GMV in the left cerebellum crus 1 and right supplementary motor area. We applied seed-based RSFC analysis to whole brain voxels using the seeds obtained from the VBM and identified insight-positive/negative connections, i.e. a positive/negative correlation between the ITB score and individual RSFCs between two brain regions. Insight-specific connections included motor-related regions whereas creative-common connections included a default mode network. Our results indicate that creative insight requires a coupling of multiple networks, such as the default mode, semantic and cerebral-cerebellum networks.

  19. Effects on cognitive and clinical insight with the use of Guided Self-Determination in outpatients with schizophrenia: A randomized open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, R; Licht, R W; Lysaker, P H; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Buck, K D; Jensen, S O W; Hansson, L; Zoffmann, V

    2015-07-01

    Poor insight has a negative impact on the outcome in schizophrenia; consequently, poor insight is a logical target for treatment. However, neither medication nor psychosocial interventions have been demonstrated to improve poor insight. A method originally designed for diabetes patients to improve their illness management, Guided Self-Determination (GSD), has been adapted for use in patients with schizophrenia (GSD-SZ). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on insight of GSD-SZ as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) as compared to TAU alone in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The design was an open randomized trial. The primary hypothesis was cognitive insight would improve in those patients who received GSD-SZ+TAU as assessed by the BCIS. We additionally explored whether the intervention led to changes in clinical insight, self-perceived recovery, self-esteem, social functioning and symptom severity. Assessments were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Analysis was based on the principles of intention to treat and potential confounders were taken into account through applying a multivariate approach. A total of 101 participants were randomized to GSD-SZ+TAU (n=50) or to TAU alone (n=51). No statistically significant differences were found on the cognitive insight. However, at 12-month follow-up, clinical insight (measured by G12 from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), symptom severity, and social functioning had statistically significantly improved in the intervention group as compared to the control group. "Improving insight in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia", NCT01282307, http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. River Metabolism and Nutrient Cycling at the Point Scale: Insights from In Situ Sensors in Benthic Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. J.; Reijo, C. J.; Hensley, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    nutrient enrichment effects (i.e., zero-order kinetics imply nutrient saturation), and offers novel insights into the benthic conditions that control both rates and kinetics. The capacity to measure processes at the point scale, and effectively scale to the reach, opens new doors for understanding aquatic ecosystem biogeochemistry.

  1. Cooling and crystallization of rhyolite-obsidian lava: Insights from micron-scale projections on plagioclase microlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kyohei; Toramaru, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    To reveal the cooling process of a rhyolite-obsidian flow, we studied the morphology of plagioclase microlites in the Tokachi-Ishizawa lava of Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan, where the structure of the lava can be observed from obsidian at the base of the flow to the innermost rhyolite. Needle-like micron-scale textures, known as "projections", occur on the short side surfaces of the plagioclase microlites. Using FE-SEM we discovered a positive correlation between the lengths and spacings of these projections. On the basis of the instability theory of an interface between melt and crystal, and to understand the length and spacing data, we developed a model that explains the positive correlation and allows us to simultaneously estimate growth rates and growth times. Applying the model to our morphological data and the estimated growth rates and growth times, we suggest that the characteristics of the projections reflect the degree of undercooling, which in turn correlates with lava structure (the obsidian at the margin of the flow experienced a higher degree of undercooling than the interior rhyolite). The newly developed method provides insights into the degree of undercooling during the final stages of crystallization of a rhyolitic lava flow.

  2. Insights on fluid-rock interaction evolution during deformation from fracture network geochemistry at reservoir-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Koehn, Daniel; Lacombe, Olivier; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    . The lengthscale of the migration and the nature of invading fluids during these connections is different in every studied example, and can be related to the tectonic nature of the fold, along with the burial depth at the time of deformation. Thus, to decipher fluid-fracture relationships provides insights to better reconstruct the mechanisms of deformation at reservoir-scale.

  3. Assessing therapy-relevant cognitive capacities in young people: development and psychometric evaluation of the self-reflection and insight scale for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Floor M; Heyne, David; Blöte, Anke W; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2010-05-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy with young people may be influenced by a young person's capacity for self-reflection and insight. Clinicians who assess clients' proficiencies in these cognitive capacities can better tailor cognitive and behavioural techniques to the client, facilitating engagement and enhancing treatment outcome. It is therefore important that sound instruments for assessing self-reflection and insight in young people are available. The aim of the current study was to translate and adapt the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) for use with a child and adolescent population (Study 1), and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the resulting measure, the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale for Youth (SRIS-Y; Study 2). In Study 1 (n=145), the comprehensibility of the SRIS-Y was assessed in a community sample of children and adolescents. Study 2 (n=215) then explored the reliability and structural, convergent, and divergent validity of the SRIS-Y. The SRIS-Y was found to be comprehensible to young people, and had good reliability and structural validity. It appears that the SRIS-Y is a sound instrument for assessing therapy-relevant cognitive capacities in young people, of potential benefit in both research and clinical contexts. Future research foci include the predictive validity of the instrument.

  4. The adaptive value of habitat preferences from a multi-scale spatial perspective: insights from marsh-nesting avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jedlikowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Habitat selection and its adaptive outcomes are crucial features for animal life-history strategies. Nevertheless, congruence between habitat preferences and breeding success has been rarely demonstrated, which may result from the single-scale evaluation of animal choices. As habitat selection is a complex multi-scale process in many groups of animal species, investigating adaptiveness of habitat selection in a multi-scale framework is crucial. In this study, we explore whether habitat preferences acting at different spatial scales enhance the fitness of bird species, and check the appropriateness of single vs. multi-scale models. We expected that variables found to be more important for habitat selection at individual scale(s, would coherently play a major role in affecting nest survival at the same scale(s. Methods We considered habitat preferences of two Rallidae species, little crake (Zapornia parva and water rail (Rallus aquaticus, at three spatial scales (landscape, territory, and nest-site and related them to nest survival. Single-scale versus multi-scale models (GLS and glmmPQL were compared to check which model better described adaptiveness of habitat preferences. Consistency between the effect of variables on habitat selection and on nest survival was checked to investigate their adaptive value. Results In both species, multi-scale models for nest survival were more supported than single-scale ones. In little crake, the multi-scale model indicated vegetation density and water depth at the territory scale, as well as vegetation height at nest-site scale, as the most important variables. The first two variables were among the most important for nest survival and habitat selection, and the coherent effects suggested the adaptive value of habitat preferences. In water rail, the multi-scale model of nest survival showed vegetation density at territory scale and extent of emergent vegetation within landscape scale as the most

  5. Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Sara M; Wright, Daniel J.; Day, Felix R

    2017-01-01

    with involvement of psychomotor impairment (PEX14, LRPPRC and KANSL1). Mendelian randomization analyses are consistent with a causal effect of higher genetically predicted grip strength on lower fracture risk. In conclusion, our findings provide new biological insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of grip...... strength and the causal role of muscular strength in age-related morbidities and mortality....

  6. Effects on cognitive and clinical insight with the use of Guided Self-Determination in outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke; Licht, R W; Lysaker, P H

    2015-01-01

    with schizophrenia. The design was an open randomized trial. The primary hypothesis was cognitive insight would improve in those patients who received GSD-SZ+TAU as assessed by the BCIS. We additionally explored whether the intervention led to changes in clinical insight, self-perceived recovery, self-esteem, social...... their illness management, Guided Self-Determination (GSD), has been adapted for use in patients with schizophrenia (GSD-SZ). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on insight of GSD-SZ as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) as compared to TAU alone in outpatients diagnosed...

  7. Turbulent Convection Insights from Small-Scale Thermal Forcing with Zero Net Heat Flux at a Horizontal Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ross W; Gayen, Bishakhdatta

    2015-11-13

    A large-scale circulation, a turbulent boundary layer, and a turbulent plume are noted features of convection at large Rayleigh numbers under differential heating on a single horizontal boundary. These might be attributed to the forcing, which in all studies has been limited to a unidirectional gradient over the domain scale. We instead apply forcing on a length scale smaller than the domain, and with variation in both horizontal directions. Direct numerical simulations show turbulence throughout the domain, a regime transition to a dominant domain-scale circulation, and a region of logarithmic velocity in the boundary layer, despite zero net heat flux. The results show significant similarities to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, demonstrate the significance of plume merging, support the hypothesis that the key driver of convection is the production of available potential energy without necessarily supplying total potential energy, and imply that contributions to domain-scale circulation in the oceans need not be solely from the large-scale gradients of forcing.

  8. Understanding entrepreneurship at the base of the pyramid in developing countries : insights from small-scale vegetable farmers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yessoufou, Ahoudou Waliou

    2017-01-01

    Local small-scale entrepreneurship has recently become an important field of study and a tool for policymakers. However, there are some practical and theoretical issues regarding the promotion of local entrepreneurship. First, the dynamics of entrepreneurship are considered to be universal,

  9. Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Sara M.; Wright, D.J.; Day, Felix R.; Trajanoska, Katerina; Joshi, P.K.; Morris, John A.; Matteini, Amy M.; Garton, Fleur C.; Grarup, Niels; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mangino, Massimo; Liu, Jun; Demirkan, Ayse; Lek, Monkol; Xu, Liwen; Wang, Guan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Lotta, Luca A.; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Rivas, Manuel A.; White, Tom; Loh, Po Ru; Aadahl, Mette; Amin, Najaf; Attia, John R.; Austin, Krista; Benyamin, Beben; Brage, Søren; Cheng, Yu Ching; Ciȩszczyk, Paweł; Derave, Wim; Eriksson, Karl Fredrik; Eynon, Nir; Linneberg, Allan; Lucia, Alejandro; Massidda, Myosotis; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Miyachi, Motohiko; Murakami, Haruka; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pandey, Ashutosh; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Rajpal, Deepak K.; Sale, Craig; Schnurr, Theresia M.; Sessa, Francesco; Shrine, Nick; Tobin, Martin D.; Varley, Ian; Wain, Louise V.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Pedersen, Oluf; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kiel, Douglas P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Fuku, Noriyuki; Franks, Paul W.; North, Kathryn N.; Duijn, Van C.M.; Mather, Karen A.; Hansen, Torben; Hansson, Ola; Spector, Tim D.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Richards, J.B.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Langenberg, Claudia; Perry, John R.B.; Wareham, Nick J.; Scott, Robert A.; Oei, Ling; Zheng, Hou Feng; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Leong, Aaron; Ahmad, Omar S.; Laurin, Charles; Mokry, Lauren E.; Ross, Stephanie; Elks, Cathy E.; Bowden, Jack; Warrington, Nicole M.; Murray, Anna; Ruth, Katherine S.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Estrada, Karol; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Demissie, Serkalem; Enneman, Anke W.; Hsu, Yi Hsiang; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Kähönen, Mika; Kammerer, Candace; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Li, Guo; Liu, Ching Ti; Liu, Yongmei; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Nielson, Carrie M.; Sham, Pack Chung; Siggeirsdotir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Stefansson, Kari; Trompet, Stella; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Velde, Van Der Nathalie; Viikari, Jorma; Xiao, Su Mei; Zhao, Jing Hua; Evans, Daniel S.; Cummings, Steven R.; Cauley, Jane; Duncan, Emma L.; Groot, De Lisette C.P.G.M.; Esko, Tonu; Gudnason, Vilmundar; Harris, Tamara B.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jukema, J.W.; Ikram, Arfan M.A.; Karasik, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyytikäinen, Leo Pekka; Lips, Paul; Luben, Robert; Metspalu, Andres; Meurs, van Joyce B.; Minster, Ryan L.; Orwoll, Erick; Oei, Edwin; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ralston, Stuart W.; Ridker, Paul M.; Robbins, John A.; Smith, Albert V.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Tranah, Gregory J.; Thorstensdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Zmuda, Joseph; Zillikens, M.C.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Evans, David M.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2017-01-01

    Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of

  10. A Cultural Insight into the Development of Teacher Autonomy Support Scale: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang-Hashim, Rosna; Thaliah, Rajaletchumi; Kaur, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cross-cultural significance of autonomy within self-determination theory is divisive on universal significance. This paper aims to report a sequential exploratory mixed methods study conducted to construct and validate a scale to investigate how, in Malaysian context, the construct of autonomy is conceptualized in comparison with the…

  11. Batch top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up insight using dynamic heat- and mass-transfer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for batch top-spray fluid bed coating processes based on Ronsse et al. [2007a.b. Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part I-model development and validation. journal of Food Engineering 78......, 296-307; Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part II-model and process analysis. journal of Food Engineering 78, 308-322]. The model is based on one-dimensional discretisation of the fluid bed into a number of well-mixed control......-up principles by comparing simulation results with experimental temperature and humidity data obtained from inorganic salt coating of placebo cores in three pilot fluid bed scales being a 0.5kg small-scale (GEA Aeromatic-Fielder Strea-1), 4kg medium-scale (GEA Niro MP-1) and 24kg large-scale (GEA MP-2...

  12. Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Sara M.; Wright, Daniel J.; Day, Felix R.

    2017-01-01

    Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 1...

  13. Understanding the Spatial Scale of Genetic Connectivity at Sea: Unique Insights from a Land Fish and a Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina M Cooke

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial scale of population connectivity is important for understanding the evolutionary potential of ecologically divergent populations and for designing conservation strategies to preserve those populations. For marine organisms like fish, the spatial scale of connectivity is generally set by a pelagic larval phase. This has complicated past estimates of connectivity because detailed information on larval movements are difficult to obtain. Genetic approaches provide a tractable alternative and have the added benefit of estimating directly the reproductive isolation of populations. In this study, we leveraged empirical estimates of genetic differentiation among populations with simulations and a meta-analysis to provide a general estimate of the spatial scale of genetic connectivity in marine environments. We used neutral genetic markers to first quantify the genetic differentiation of ecologically-isolated adult populations of a land dwelling fish, the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum, where marine larval dispersal is the only probable means of connectivity among populations. We then compared these estimates to simulations of a range of marine dispersal scenarios and to collated FST and distance data from the literature for marine fish across diverse spatial scales. We found genetic connectivity at sea was extensive among marine populations and in the case of A. arnoldorum, apparently little affected by the presence of ecological barriers. We estimated that ~5000 km (with broad confidence intervals ranging from 810-11,692 km was the spatial scale at which evolutionarily meaningful barriers to gene flow start to occur at sea, although substantially shorter distances are also possible for some taxa. In general, however, such a large estimate of connectivity has important implications for the evolutionary and conservation potential of many marine fish communities.

  14. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  15. Small-scale sediment transport patterns and bedform morphodynamics: New insights from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Erikson, L.H.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    New multibeam echosounder and processing technologies yield sub-meter-scale bathymetric resolution, revealing striking details of bedform morphology that are shaped by complex boundary-layer flow dynamics at a range of spatial and temporal scales. An inertially aided post processed kinematic (IAPPK) technique generates a smoothed best estimate trajectory (SBET) solution to tie the vessel motion-related effects of each sounding directly to the ellipsoid, significantly reducing artifacts commonly found in multibeam data, increasing point density, and sharpening seafloor features. The new technique was applied to a large bedform field in 20-30 m water depths in central San Francisco Bay, California (USA), revealing bedforms that suggest boundary-layer flow deflection by the crests where 12-m-wavelength, 0.2-m-amplitude bedforms are superimposed on 60-m-wavelength, 1-m-amplitude bedforms, with crests that often were strongly oblique (approaching 90??) to the larger features on the lee side, and near-parallel on the stoss side. During one survey in April 2008, superimposed bedform crests were continuous between the crests of the larger features, indicating that flow detachment in the lee of the larger bedforms is not always a dominant process. Assessment of bedform crest peakedness, asymmetry, and small-scale bedform evolution between surveys indicates the impact of different flow regimes on the entire bedform field. This paper presents unique fine-scale imagery of compound and superimposed bedforms, which is used to (1) assess the physical forcing and evolution of a bedform field in San Francisco Bay, and (2) in conjunction with numerical modeling, gain a better fundamental understanding of boundary-layer flow dynamics that result in the observed superimposed bedform orientation. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  16. Influence of weathering and pre-existing large scale fractures on gravitational slope failure: insights from 3-D physical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bachmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a new 3-D physical modelling technique we investigated the initiation and evolution of large scale landslides in presence of pre-existing large scale fractures and taking into account the slope material weakening due to the alteration/weathering. The modelling technique is based on the specially developed properly scaled analogue materials, as well as on the original vertical accelerator device enabling increases in the 'gravity acceleration' up to a factor 50. The weathering primarily affects the uppermost layers through the water circulation. We simulated the effect of this process by making models of two parts. The shallower one represents the zone subject to homogeneous weathering and is made of low strength material of compressive strength σl. The deeper (core part of the model is stronger and simulates intact rocks. Deformation of such a model subjected to the gravity force occurred only in its upper (low strength layer. In another set of experiments, low strength (σw narrow planar zones sub-parallel to the slope surface (σwl were introduced into the model's superficial low strength layer to simulate localized highly weathered zones. In this configuration landslides were initiated much easier (at lower 'gravity force', were shallower and had smaller horizontal size largely defined by the weak zone size. Pre-existing fractures were introduced into the model by cutting it along a given plan. They have proved to be of small influence on the slope stability, except when they were associated to highly weathered zones. In this latter case the fractures laterally limited the slides. Deep seated rockslides initiation is thus directly defined by the mechanical structure of the hillslope's uppermost levels and especially by the presence of the weak zones due to the weathering. The large scale fractures play a more passive role and can only influence the shape and the volume of the sliding units.

  17. From Microhabitat of Floral Nectar Up to Biogeographic Scale: Novel Insights on Neutral and Niche Bacterial Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2017-07-01

    Microbial model systems are very useful in addressing macro-ecological questions. Two major theories exist to date, to explain the community structure of organisms: (1) the dispersal (neutral) assembly theory which predicts that community similarity decreases with increasing geographic distance, independent of any environmental variables, and (2) the niche assembly theory which predicts that the communities' compositions are more homogeneous among sites characterized by similar environmental conditions. Our study system offered a unique opportunity to investigate the relative role of environmental conditions and spatial factors in shaping community composition. We explored the bacterial community composition (BCC) of Nicotiana glauca floral nectar using the Illumina MiSeq technique at three spatial scales (plants, site, and region) and two taxonomic levels. Floral nectar samples were collected from 69 N. glauca plants at 11 different sites along a 200-km transect in Israel, along three biogeographic regions. A distance decay of BCC was found among all plants throughout Israel, but such pattern was not found among either sites or biogeographical regions. The BCC was also governed by environmental conditions in all examined scales (from the plant up to the biogeographical region). We also found that taxonomic resolution (89 and 97% sequence identity for clustering operational taxonomic units) affected the results of these BCC analyses. Hence, our study revealed that the BCC in N. glauca floral nectar is shaped by both the environmental conditions and the distance between plants, depending on the sampling scale under examination as well as by taxonomic resolution.

  18. The Climate Potentials and Side-Effects of Large-Scale terrestrial CO2 Removal - Insights from Quantitative Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, L.; Heck, V.; Lucht, W.; Gerten, D.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) through dedicated biomass plantations is considered as one climate engineering (CE) option if implemented at large-scale. While the risks and costs are supposed to be small, the effectiveness depends strongly on spatial and temporal scales of implementation. Based on simulations with a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJmL) we comprehensively assess the effectiveness, biogeochemical side-effects and tradeoffs from an earth system-analytic perspective. We analyzed systematic land-use scenarios in which all, 25%, or 10% of natural and/or agricultural areas are converted to tCDR plantations including the assumption that biomass plantations are established once the 2°C target is crossed in a business-as-usual climate change trajectory. The resulting tCDR potentials in year 2100 include the net accumulated annual biomass harvests and changes in all land carbon pools. We find that only the most spatially excessive, and thus undesirable, scenario would be capable to restore the 2° target by 2100 under continuing high emissions (with a cooling of 3.02°C). Large-scale biomass plantations covering areas between 1.1 - 4.2 Gha would produce a climate reduction potential of 0.8 - 1.4°C. tCDR plantations at smaller scales do not build up enough biomass over this considered period and the potentials to achieve global warming reductions are substantially lowered to no more than 0.5-0.6°C. Finally, we demonstrate that the (non-economic) costs for the Earth system include negative impacts on the water cycle and on ecosystems, which are already under pressure due to both land use change and climate change. Overall, tCDR may lead to a further transgression of land- and water-related planetary boundaries while not being able to set back the crossing of the planetary boundary for climate change. tCDR could still be considered in the near-future mitigation portfolio if implemented on small scales on wisely chosen areas.

  19. Estimating the cost of delivering direct nutrition interventions at scale: national and subnational level insights from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; McDonald, Christine M; Chakrabarti, Suman

    2016-05-01

    India's national nutrition and health programmes are largely designed to provide evidence-based nutrition-specific interventions, but intervention coverage is low due to a combination of implementation challenges, capacity and financing gaps. Global cost estimates for nutrition are available but national and subnational costs are not. We estimated national and subnational costs of delivering recommended nutrition-specific interventions using the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) costing approach. We compared costs of delivering the SUN interventions at 100% scale with those of nationally recommended interventions. Target populations (TP) for interventions were estimated using national population and nutrition data. Unit costs (UC) were derived from programmatic data. The cost of delivering an intervention at 100% coverage was calculated as (UC*projected TP). Cost estimates varied; estimates for SUN interventions were lower than estimates for nationally recommended interventions because of differences in choice of intervention, target group or unit cost. US$5.9bn/year are required to deliver a set of nationally recommended nutrition interventions at scale in India, while US$4.2bn are required for the SUN interventions. Cash transfers (49%) and food supplements (40%) contribute most to costs of nationally recommended interventions, while food supplements to prevent and treat malnutrition contribute most to the SUN costs. We conclude that although such costing is useful to generate broad estimates, there is an urgent need for further costing studies on the true unit costs of the delivery of nutrition-specific interventions in different local contexts to be able to project accurate national and subnational budgets for nutrition in India. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Large-Scale Controls of the Surface Water Balance Over Land: Insights From a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Ryan S.; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Greve, Peter; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-11-01

    The long-term surface water balance over land is described by the partitioning of precipitation (P) into runoff and evapotranspiration (ET), and is commonly characterized by the ratio ET/P. The ratio between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and P is explicitly considered to be the primary control of ET/P within the Budyko framework, whereas all other controls are often integrated into a single parameter, ω. Although the joint effect of these additional controlling factors of ET/P can be significant, a detailed understanding of them is yet to be achieved. This study therefore introduces a new global data set for the long-term mean partitioning of P into ET and runoff in 2,733 catchments, which is based on in situ observations and assembled from a systematic examination of peer-reviewed studies. A total of 26 controls of ET/P that are proposed in the literature are assessed using the new data set. Results reveal that: (i) factors controlling ET/P vary between regions with different climate types; (ii) controls other than PET/P explain at least 35% of the ET/P variance in all regions, and up to ˜90% in arid climates; (iii) among these, climate factors and catchment slope dominate over other landscape characteristics; and (iv) despite the high attention that vegetation-related indices receive as controls of ET/P, they are found to play a minor and often nonsignificant role. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive picture on factors controlling the partitioning of P, with valuable insights for model development, watershed management, and the assessment of water resources around the globe.

  1. Large-scale effects of migration and conflict in pre-agricultural groups: Insights from a dynamic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gargano

    Full Text Available The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice. The model outcomes under different conditions were compared with recently available demographic data for prehistoric South America. Only under conditions that include migration among cells and conflict was the model able to consistently reproduce the empirical data at a continental scale. We argue that the interplay between resource competition, migration, and conflict drove the population dynamics of South America after the colonization phase and before the introduction of agriculture. The relation between population and resources indeed emerged as a key factor leading to migration and conflict once the carrying capacity of the environment has been reached.

  2. Revisiting drought impact on tropical forest photosynthesis: a novel multi-scale integrated approach reveals new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detto, M.; Wu, J.; Xu, X.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.

    2017-12-01

    A fundamental unanswered question for global change ecology is to determine the vulnerability of tropical forests to climate change, particularly with increasing intensity and frequency of drought events. This question, despite its apparent simplicity, remains difficult for earth system models to answer, and is controversial in remote sensing literature. Here, we leverage unique multi-scale remote sensing measurements (from leaf to crown) in conjunction with four-continuous-year (2013-2017) eddy covariance measurements of ecosystem carbon fluxes in a tropical forest in Panama to revisit this question. We hypothesize that drought impacts tropical forest photosynthesis through variation in abiotic drivers (solar radiation, diffuse light fraction, and vapor pressure deficit) that interact with physiological traits that govern photosynthesis, and biotic variation in ecosystem photosynthetic capacity associated with changes in the traits themselves. Our study site, located in a seasonal tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, experienced a significant drought in 2015. Local eddy covariance derived photosynthesis shows an abrupt increase during the drought year. Our specific goal here is to assess the relative impact of abiotic and biotic drivers of such photosynthesis response to interannual drought. To this goal, we derived abiotic drivers from eddy tower-based meteorological measurements. We will derive the biotic drivers using a recently developed leaf demography-ontogeny model, where ecosystem photosynthetic capacity can be described as the product of field measured, age-dependent leaf photosynthetic capacity and local tower-camera derived ecosystem-scale inter-annual variability in leaf age demography of the same time period (2013-2017). Lastly, we will use a process-based model to assess the separate and joint effects of abiotic and biotic drivers on eddy covariance derive photosynthetic interannual variability. Collectively, this novel multi-scale

  3. Strain rate effect on fault slip and rupture evolution: Insight from meter-scale rock friction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Kawakata, Hironori

    2018-05-01

    We conduct meter-scale rock friction experiments to study strain rate effect on fault slip and rupture evolution. Two rock samples made of Indian metagabbro, with a nominal contact dimension of 1.5 m long and 0.1 m wide, are juxtaposed and loaded in a direct shear configuration to simulate the fault motion. A series of experimental tests, under constant loading rates ranging from 0.01 mm/s to 1 mm/s and under a fixed normal stress of 6.7 MPa, are performed to simulate conditions with changing strain rates. Load cells and displacement transducers are utilized to examine the macroscopic fault behavior, while high-density arrays of strain gauges close to the fault are used to investigate the local fault behavior. The observations show that the macroscopic peak strength, strength drop, and the rate of strength drop can increase with increasing loading rate. At the local scale, the observations reveal that slow loading rates favor generation of characteristic ruptures that always nucleate in the form of slow slip at about the same location. In contrast, fast loading rates can promote very abrupt rupture nucleation and along-strike scatter of hypocenter locations. At a given propagation distance, rupture speed tends to increase with increasing loading rate. We propose that a strain-rate-dependent fault fragmentation process can enhance the efficiency of fault healing during the stick period, which together with healing time controls the recovery of fault strength. In addition, a strain-rate-dependent weakening mechanism can be activated during the slip period, which together with strain energy selects the modes of fault slip and rupture propagation. The results help to understand the spectrum of fault slip and rock deformation modes in nature, and emphasize the role of heterogeneity in tuning fault behavior under different strain rates.

  4. Lithospheric structure of northwest Africa: Insights into the tectonic history and influence of mantle flow on large-scale deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Becker, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    Northwest Africa is affected by late stage convergence of Africa with Eurasia, the Canary Island hotspot, and bounded by the Proterozoic-age West African craton. We present seismological evidence from receiver functions and shear-wave splitting along with geodynamic modeling to show how the interactions of these tectonic features resulted in dramatic deformation of the lithosphere. We interpret seismic discontinuities from the receiver functions and find evidence for localized, near vertical-offset deformation of both crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere interfaces at the flanks of the High Atlas. These offsets coincide with the locations of Jurassic-aged normal faults that have been reactivated during the Cenozoic, further suggesting that inherited, lithospheric-scale zones of weakness were involved in the formation of the Atlas. Another significant step in lithospheric thickness is inferred within the Middle Atlas. Its location corresponds to the source of regional Quaternary alkali volcanism, where the influx of melt induced by the shallow asthenosphere appears restricted to a lithospheric-scale fault on the northern side of the mountain belt. Inferred stretching axes from shear-wave splitting are aligned with the topographic grain in the High Atlas, suggesting along-strike asthenospheric shearing in a mantle channel guided by the lithospheric topography. Isostatic modeling based on our improved lithospheric constraints indicates that lithospheric thinning alone does not explain the anomalous Atlas topography. Instead, an mantle upwelling induced by a hot asthenospheric anomaly appears required, likely guided by the West African craton and perhaps sucked northward by subducted lithosphere beneath the Alboran. This dynamic support scenario for the Atlas also suggests that the timing of uplift is contemporaneous with the recent volcanismin the Middle Atlas.

  5. Large-scale evolution of the central-east Greenland margin: New insights to the North Atlantic glaciation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Nielsen, Tove; Knutz, Paul C.; Kuijpers, Antoon; Damm, Volkmar

    2018-04-01

    The continental shelf of central-east Greenland is shaped by several glacially carved transverse troughs that form the oceanward extension of the major fjord systems. The evolution of these troughs through time, and their relation with the large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere, is poorly understood. In this study seismostratigraphic analyses have been carried out to determine the morphological and structural development of this important sector of the East Greenland glaciated margin. The age of major stratigraphic discontinuities has been constrained by a direct tie to ODP site 987 drilled in the Greenland Sea basin plain off Scoresby Sund fan system. The areal distribution and internal facies of the identified seismic units reveal the large-scale depositional pattern formed by ice-streams draining a major part of the central-east Greenland ice sheet. Initial sedimentation along the margin was, however, mainly controlled by tectonic processes related to the margin construction, continental uplift, and fluvial processes. From late Miocene to present, progradational and erosional patterns point to repeated glacial advances across the shelf. The evolution of depo-centres suggests that ice sheet advances over the continental shelf have occurred since late Miocene, about 2 Myr earlier than previously assumed. This cross-shelf glaciation is more pronounced during late Miocene and early Pliocene along Blosseville Kyst and around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary off Scoresby Sund; indicating a northward migration of the glacial advance. The two main periods of glaciation were separated by a major retreat of the ice sheet to an inland position during middle Pliocene. Mounded-wavy deposits interpreted as current-related deposits suggest the presence of changing along-slope current dynamics in concert with the development of the modern North Atlantic oceanographic pattern.

  6. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  7. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bactrocera cucurbitae Genome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis of white pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina B. Sim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic sexing strains (GSS used in sterile insect technique (SIT programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae, white pupae (wp, also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp. Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A–E in Drosophila melanogaster. This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp. Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera.

  8. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  9. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  10. Modeling energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Methodological challenges and insights from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshall, Lily; Gurney, Kevin; Hammer, Stephen A.; Mendoza, Daniel; Zhou, Yuyu; Geethakumar, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    Local policy makers could benefit from a national, high-resolution inventory of energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions based on the Vulcan data product, which plots emissions on a 100 km 2 grid. We evaluate the ability of Vulcan to measure energy consumption in urban areas, a scale of analysis required to support goals established as part of local energy, climate or sustainability initiatives. We highlight the methodological challenges of this type of analytical exercise and review alternative approaches. We find that between 37% and 86% of direct fuel consumption in buildings and industry and between 37% and 77% of on-road gasoline and diesel consumption occurs in urban areas, depending on how these areas are defined. We suggest that a county-based definition of urban is preferable to other common definitions since counties are the smallest political unit for which energy data are collected. Urban counties, account for 37% of direct energy consumption, or 50% if mixed urban counties are included. A county-based definition can also improve estimates of per-capita consumption.

  11. Large scale genotype comparison of human papillomavirus E2-host interaction networks provides new insights for e2 molecular functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Muller

    Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPV cause widespread infections in humans, resulting in latent infections or diseases ranging from benign hyperplasia to cancers. HPV-induced pathologies result from complex interplays between viral proteins and the host proteome. Given the major public health concern due to HPV-associated cancers, most studies have focused on the early proteins expressed by HPV genotypes with high oncogenic potential (designated high-risk HPV or HR-HPV. To advance the global understanding of HPV pathogenesis, we mapped the virus/host interaction networks of the E2 regulatory protein from 12 genotypes representative of the range of HPV pathogenicity. Large-scale identification of E2-interaction partners was performed by yeast two-hybrid screenings of a HaCaT cDNA library. Based on a high-confidence scoring scheme, a subset of these partners was then validated for pair-wise interaction in mammalian cells with the whole range of the 12 E2 proteins, allowing a comparative interaction analysis. Hierarchical clustering of E2-host interaction profiles mostly recapitulated HPV phylogeny and provides clues to the involvement of E2 in HPV infection. A set of cellular proteins could thus be identified discriminating, among the mucosal HPV, E2 proteins of HR-HPV 16 or 18 from the non-oncogenic genital HPV. The study of the interaction networks revealed a preferential hijacking of highly connected cellular proteins and the targeting of several functional families. These include transcription regulation, regulation of apoptosis, RNA processing, ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. The present work provides an overview of E2 biological functions across multiple HPV genotypes.

  12. Insights into SCP/TAPS proteins of liver flukes based on large-scale bioinformatic analyses of sequence datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic helminths have been proposed to play key roles in fundamental biological processes linked to the invasion of and establishment in their mammalian host animals, such as the transition from free-living to parasitic stages and the modulation of host immune responses. Despite the evidence that SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic nematodes are involved in host-parasite interactions, there is a paucity of information on this protein family for parasitic trematodes of socio-economic importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first large-scale study of SCP/TAPS proteins of a range of parasitic trematodes of both human and veterinary importance (including the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica as well as the blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium. We mined all current transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets from public databases, predicted secondary structures of full-length protein sequences, undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses and investigated the differential transcription of SCP/TAPS genes in O. viverrini and F. hepatica, with an emphasis on those that are up-regulated in the developmental stages infecting the mammalian host. CONCLUSIONS: This work, which sheds new light on SCP/TAPS proteins, guides future structural and functional explorations of key SCP/TAPS molecules associated with diseases caused by flatworms. Future fundamental investigations of these molecules in parasites and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases.

  13. Are characiform fishes Gondwanan in origin? Insights from a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of the Citharinoidei (Ostariophysi: Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Arroyave

    Full Text Available Fishes of the order Characiformes are a diverse and economically important teleost clade whose extant members are found exclusively in African and Neotropical freshwaters. Although their transatlantic distribution has been primarily attributed to the Early Cretaceous fragmentation of western Gondwana, vicariance has not been tested with temporal information beyond that contained in their fragmentary fossil record and a recent time-scaled phylogeny focused on the African family Alestidae. Because members of the suborder Citharinoidei constitute the sister lineage to the entire remaining Afro-Neotropical characiform radiation, we inferred a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of citharinoids using a popular Bayesian approach to molecular dating in order to assess the adequacy of current vicariance hypotheses and shed light on the early biogeographic history of characiform fishes. Given that the only comprehensive phylogenetic treatment of the Citharinoidei has been a morphology-based analysis published over three decades ago, the present study also provided an opportunity to further investigate citharinoid relationships and update the evolutionary framework that has laid the foundations for the current classification of the group. The inferred chronogram is robust to changes in calibration priors and suggests that the origins of citharinoids date back to the Turonian (ca 90 Ma of the Late Cretaceous. Most modern citharinoid genera, however, appear to have originated and diversified much more recently, mainly during the Miocene. By reconciling molecular-clock- with fossil-based estimates for the origins of the Characiformes, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that attributes the disjunct distribution of the order to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The striking overlap in tempo of diversification and biogeographic patterns between citharinoids and the African-endemic family Alestidae suggests that their evolutionary

  14. Large scale genotype comparison of human papillomavirus E2-host interaction networks provides new insights for e2 molecular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mandy; Jacob, Yves; Jones, Louis; Weiss, Amélie; Brino, Laurent; Chantier, Thibault; Lotteau, Vincent; Favre, Michel; Demeret, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) cause widespread infections in humans, resulting in latent infections or diseases ranging from benign hyperplasia to cancers. HPV-induced pathologies result from complex interplays between viral proteins and the host proteome. Given the major public health concern due to HPV-associated cancers, most studies have focused on the early proteins expressed by HPV genotypes with high oncogenic potential (designated high-risk HPV or HR-HPV). To advance the global understanding of HPV pathogenesis, we mapped the virus/host interaction networks of the E2 regulatory protein from 12 genotypes representative of the range of HPV pathogenicity. Large-scale identification of E2-interaction partners was performed by yeast two-hybrid screenings of a HaCaT cDNA library. Based on a high-confidence scoring scheme, a subset of these partners was then validated for pair-wise interaction in mammalian cells with the whole range of the 12 E2 proteins, allowing a comparative interaction analysis. Hierarchical clustering of E2-host interaction profiles mostly recapitulated HPV phylogeny and provides clues to the involvement of E2 in HPV infection. A set of cellular proteins could thus be identified discriminating, among the mucosal HPV, E2 proteins of HR-HPV 16 or 18 from the non-oncogenic genital HPV. The study of the interaction networks revealed a preferential hijacking of highly connected cellular proteins and the targeting of several functional families. These include transcription regulation, regulation of apoptosis, RNA processing, ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. The present work provides an overview of E2 biological functions across multiple HPV genotypes.

  15. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  17. Lithospheric scale conductivity anomalies at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition of Australia- Insights from AusLAMP MT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. E.; Thiel, S.; Heinson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The intraplate deformation of the north-south trending Neoproterozoic Ikara-Flinders Ranges in South Australia, Australia, draws interest due to its high heat flow, elevated seismicity and the presence of diamondiferous kimberlites and mineral deposits. To the west lies the highly prospective Archean-Paleoproterozoic Gawler Craton, boasting the world's largest IOCG-U deposit, Olympic Dam. The Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province lies to the east, thought to have once been connected to the Gawler Craton and host to the world-class Broken Hill Ag-Pb-Zn deposit. A total of 162 long-period (10 s - 10,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) stations from the Australia-wide AusLAMP (Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project) dataset were used to image the electrical resistivity beneath the Ikara-Flinders Ranges and adjacent Curnamona Province. The most recent acquisition extends this survey region northward to an area predominantly covered with Paleo-Mesozoic sedimentary basins including the most significant on-shore oil and gas region in Australia, the Cooper Basin. The resultant model from 3D inversions using ModEM software shows a relatively resistive Ikara-Flinders Ranges, with two parallel arcuate conductors (the WNAC and ENAC) at 20 to 80 km depth in the Nackara Arc. These conductors correlate well with locations of diamondiferous kimberlites which suggests that the conductors may have derived from the ascent of carbon-rich kimberlite-hosting magma and volatiles up large lithospheric scale structures. The conductors appear to have no correlation with regions of intraplate seismicity within the Ikara-Flinders Ranges which may mean that enhanced pore fluid pressure is not the main cause for the seismicity as was recently proposed. A large conductor covering most of the Curnamona Province (the CC) extends over depths of 10-40 km. The Curnamona Province's most recent tectonothermal activity is from Delamerian reworking during the Cambrian at its margins but

  18. Large scale deformation of the oceanic lithosphere: insights from numerical modeling of the Indo-Australian intraplate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J.; Brandon, V.

    2011-12-01

    The large-scale deformation observed in the Indo-Australian plate seems to challenge tenets of plate tectonics: plate rigidity and narrow oceanic plate boundaries. Its distribution along with kinematic data inversions however suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries either extensional or compressional. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995) where the Indo-Australian plate was meshed into 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Model boundary conditions are defined only by the plate velocities of the rigid parts of the Indo-Australian plate relative to their neighboring plates. Different plate velocity models were tested. From these boundary conditions, and taking into account the age of the lithosphere, seafloor topography, and assumptions on the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere, SHELLS predicts strain rates within the plate. We also tested the role of fossil fracture zones as potential lithospheric weaknesses. In a first step, we considered different component plate pairs (India/Capricorn, Capricorn/Australia, India/Australia). Since the limits of their respective diffuse boundary (i.e. the limits of the rigid component plates) are not known, we let the corresponding edge free. In a second step, we merged the previous meshes to consider the whole Indo-Australian plate. In this case, the velocities on the model boundaries are all fully defined and were set relative to the Capricorn plate. Our models predict deformation patterns very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Reactivation of fossil fracture zones may accommodate large part of the deformation both in extensional areas, off

  19. Centennial-scale vegetation and climate changes in the Middle Atlas, Morocco: new insights from multi-proxy investigations at Lake Sidi Ali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, William; Campbell, Jennifer; Joannin, Sebastien; Mischke, Steffen; Zielhofer, Christoph; de Batist, Marc; Mikdad, Abdes

    2016-04-01

    The karstic lakes of the Middle Atlas, Morocco, represent a valuable archive of environmental and climatic change for Northwest Africa. Here we present the results of centennial-scale palynological and charcoal analyses as part of a multiproxy palaeolimnological study of sediment cores from Lake Sidi Ali in the Middle Atlas, Morocco (33° 03 N, 05° 00 W; 2,080 m a.s.l.). Supported by absolute dating including 23 more than twenty AMS 14C dates on pollen concentrates, the record covers the entire Holocene and offers insights into vegetation and climate change at a regionally unprecedented centennial-scale. Pollen assemblages are dominated by steppic herbs, evergreen oaks (Quercus), junipers (Cupressaceae) and Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica). A long-term evolution of the montane vegetation is recorded, reflecting progressive changes in the dominant arboreal taxa and leading to the full establishment of the emblematic cedar forests of the area during the mid-Holocene by 6000 cal BP. Orbital-scale changes in seasonality and growing season moisture availability linked to declining summer insolation are implicated, with a transition from (a) warm, dry summers associated with summer drought tolerant taxa especially evergreen Quercus, high algal productivity in the lake, and high background levels of microcharcoal reflecting distant fire activity during the early Holocene, to (b) cool, relatively humid summers with dominance of montane conifers, declining algal productivity in the lake, and episodic local fire activity during the mid- to late Holocene. Superimposed on the long-term environmental changes are recurrent centennial-scale fluctuations in vegetation composition, reflecting competitive dynamics between the major taxa, initially between steppic and arboreal elements, and later between the major tree taxa. Parallels with hydrological proxies including stable O and C isotopes suggest common responses to climatic drivers (fluctuations in moisture sources and

  20. Deformation processes and weakening mechanisms within the frictional viscous transition zone of major crustal-scale faults: insights from the Great Glen Fault Zone, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Strachan, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    The Great Glen Fault Zone (GGFZ), Scotland, is a typical example of a crustal-scale, reactivated strike-slip fault within the continental crust. Analysis of intensely strained fault rocks from the core of the GGFZ near Fort William provides a unique insight into the nature of deformation associated with the main phase of (sinistral) movements along the fault zone. In this region, an exhumed sequence of complex mid-crustal deformation textures that developed in the region of the frictional-viscous transition (ca. 8-15 km depth) is preserved. Fault rock fabrics vary from mylonitic in quartzites to cataclastic in micaceous shear zones and feldspathic psammites. Protolith mineralogy exerted a strong control on the initial textural development and distribution of the fault rocks. At lower strains, crystal-plastic deformation occurred in quartz-dominated lithologies to produce mylonites simultaneously with widespread fracturing and cataclasis in feldspar- and mica-dominated rocks. At higher strains, shearing appears to increasingly localise into interconnected networks of cataclastic shear zones, many of which are strongly foliated. Textures indicative of fluid-assisted diffusive mass transfer mechanisms are widespread in such regions and suggest that a hydrous fluid-assisted, grainsize-controlled switch in deformation behaviour followed the brittle comminution of grains. The fault zone textural evolution implies that a strain-induced, fluid-assisted shallowing and narrowing of the frictional-viscous transition occurred with increasing strain. It is proposed that this led to an overall weakening of the fault zone and that equivalent processes may occur along many other long-lived, crustal-scale dislocations.

  1. Landscape-Scale Disturbance: Insights into the Complexity of Catchment Hydrology in the Mountaintop Removal Mining Region of the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Few land disturbances impact watersheds at the scale and extent of mountaintop removal mining (MTM. This practice removes forests, soils and bedrock to gain access to underground coal that results in likely permanent and wholesale changes that impact catchment hydrology, geochemistry and ecosystem health. MTM is the dominant driver of land cover changes in the central Appalachian Mountains region of the United States, converting forests to mine lands and burying headwater streams. Despite its dominance on the landscape, determining the hydrological impacts of MTM is complicated by underground coal mines that significantly alter groundwater hydrology. To provide insight into how coal mining impacts headwater catchments, we compared the hydrologic responses of an MTM and forested catchment using event rainfall-runoff analysis, modeling and isotopic approaches. Despite similar rainfall characteristics, hydrology in the two catchments differed in significant ways, but both catchments demonstrated threshold-mediated hydrologic behavior that was attributed to transient storage and the release of runoff from underground mines. Results suggest that underground mines are important controls for runoff generation in both obviously disturbed and seemingly undisturbed catchments and interact in uncertain ways with disturbance from MTM. This paper summarizes our results and demonstrates the complexity of catchment hydrology in the MTM region.

  2. Atomic scale insights into electrochemical versus gas phase oxidation of HCl over RuO2-based catalysts: A comparative review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article our current understanding of the electro-catalyzed chlorine evolution reaction (CER) in comparison with that of the heterogeneously-catalyzed gas phase oxidation of HCl (Deacon process: heterogeneous catalysis) over RuO 2 -based catalysts will be reviewed. Both types of harsh reactions are chemically similar: The main concern is catalyst stability, and in both cases the best catalyst contains RuO 2 as the catalytically active component so that a critical comparison may provide new insights into the underlying physicochemical processes. It is the primary scope of this review addresses atomic scale information on the RuO 2 -catalyzed HCl oxidation reaction either in electrochemical or in gas phase environment. In particular, the involved reaction mechanisms and the reason for the extraordinary stability of RuO 2 under such harsh reaction conditions will be discussed, emphasizing similarities and differences in the Deacon process and the CER and what can be learnt from this comparison. The distinct properties of RuO 2 , which are responsible for its extraordinary catalytic performance in both the CER and the Deacon process, are highlighted

  3. A General Procedure to Assess the Internal Structure of a Noncognitive Measure--The Student360 Insight Program (S360) Time Management Scale. Research Report. ETS RR-11-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming; Rijmen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The factorial structure of the Time Management (TM) scale of the Student 360: Insight Program (S360) was evaluated based on a national sample. A general procedure with a variety of methods was introduced and implemented, including the computation of descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).…

  4. Genome-scale metabolic modeling to provide insight into the production of storage compounds during feast-famine cycles of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajparast, Mohammad; Frigon, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Studying storage metabolism during feast-famine cycles of activated sludge treatment systems provides profound insight in terms of both operational issues (e.g., foaming and bulking) and process optimization for the production of value added by-products (e.g., bioplastics). We examined the storage metabolism (including poly-β-hydroxybutyrate [PHB], glycogen, and triacylglycerols [TAGs]) during feast-famine cycles using two genome-scale metabolic models: Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (iMT1174) and Escherichia coli K-12 (iAF1260) for growth on glucose, acetate, and succinate. The goal was to develop the proper objective function (OF) for the prediction of the main storage compound produced in activated sludge for given feast-famine cycle conditions. For the flux balance analysis, combinations of three OFs were tested. For all of them, the main OF was to maximize growth rates. Two additional sub-OFs were used: (1) minimization of biochemical fluxes, and (2) minimization of metabolic adjustments (MoMA) between the feast and famine periods. All (sub-)OFs predicted identical substrate-storage associations for the feast-famine growth of the above-mentioned metabolic models on a given substrate when glucose and acetate were set as sole carbon sources (i.e., glucose-glycogen and acetate-PHB), in agreement with experimental observations. However, in the case of succinate as substrate, the predictions depended on the network structure of the metabolic models such that the E. coli model predicted glycogen accumulation and the R. jostii model predicted PHB accumulation. While the accumulation of both PHB and glycogen was observed experimentally, PHB showed higher dynamics during an activated sludge feast-famine growth cycle with succinate as substrate. These results suggest that new modeling insights between metabolic predictions and population ecology will be necessary to properly predict metabolisms likely to emerge within the niches of activated sludge communities. Nonetheless

  5. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  6. Insight in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J

    1997-01-01

    Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.

  7. Penicillin-mediated changes in viable benthic diatom assemblages – insights about the relevance of bacteria across spatial and seasonal scales.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    environment) and seasonal (post-monsoon, pre-monsoon, monsoon) scales. Penicillin treatment resulted in bacterial suppression and a reduction in diatoms at the intertidal and mangrove sites having stable pennate-dominated assemblages. Diatom response...

  8. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  9. Meteorological and small scale internal ecosystem variability characterize the uncertainty of ecosystem level responses to elevated CO2. Insights from the Duke Forest FACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, A.; Katul, G. G.; Fatichi, S.; Palmroth, S.; Way, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the open questions in climate change research is the pathway by which elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration impacts the biogeochemical and hydrological cycles at the ecosystem scale. This impact leads to significant changes in long-term carbon stocks and the potential of ecosystems to sequester CO2, partially mitigating anthropogenic emissions. While the significance of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on instantaneous leaf-level processes such as photosynthesis and transpiration is rarely disputed, its integrated effect at the ecosystem level and at long-time scales remains a subject of debate. This debate has taken on some urgency as illustrated by differences arising between ecosystem modelling studies, and data-model comparisons using Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) sites around the world. Inherent leaf-to-leaf variability in gas exchange rates can generate such inconsistencies. This inherent variability arises from the combined effect of meteorological "temporal" variability and the "spatial" variability of the biochemical parameters regulating vegetation carbon uptake. This combined variability leads to a non-straightforward scaling of ecosystem fluxes from the leaf to ecosystems. To illustrate this scaling behaviour, we used 10 years of leaf gas exchange measurements collected at the Duke Forest FACE experiment. The internal variability of the ecosystem parameters are first quantified and then combined with three different leaf-scale stomatal conductance models and an ecosystem model. The main results are: (a) Variability of the leaf level fluxes is dependent on both the meteorological drivers and differences in leaf age, position within the canopy, nitrogen and CO2 fertilization, which can be accommodated in model parameters; (b) Meteorological variability plays the dominant role at short temporal scales while parameter variability is significant at longer temporal scales. (c) Leaf level results do not necessarily translate to similar ecosystem

  10. Large-Scale Assessment of a Fully Automatic Co-Adaptive Motor Imagery-Based Brain Computer Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acqualagna

    Full Text Available In the last years Brain Computer Interface (BCI technology has benefited from the development of sophisticated machine leaning methods that let the user operate the BCI after a few trials of calibration. One remarkable example is the recent development of co-adaptive techniques that proved to extend the use of BCIs also to people not able to achieve successful control with the standard BCI procedure. Especially for BCIs based on the modulation of the Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR these improvements are essential, since a not negligible percentage of users is unable to operate SMR-BCIs efficiently. In this study we evaluated for the first time a fully automatic co-adaptive BCI system on a large scale. A pool of 168 participants naive to BCIs operated the co-adaptive SMR-BCI in one single session. Different psychological interventions were performed prior the BCI session in order to investigate how motor coordination training and relaxation could influence BCI performance. A neurophysiological indicator based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD was extracted by the recording of few minutes of resting state brain activity and tested as predictor of BCI performances. Results show that high accuracies in operating the BCI could be reached by the majority of the participants before the end of the session. BCI performances could be significantly predicted by the neurophysiological indicator, consolidating the validity of the model previously developed. Anyway, we still found about 22% of users with performance significantly lower than the threshold of efficient BCI control at the end of the session. Being the inter-subject variability still the major problem of BCI technology, we pointed out crucial issues for those who did not achieve sufficient control. Finally, we propose valid developments to move a step forward to the applicability of the promising co-adaptive methods.

  11. Implications of meso- to micro-scale deformation for fault sealing capacity: Insights from the Lenghu5 fold-and-thrust belt, Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liujuan; Pei, Yangwen; Li, Anren; Wu, Kongyou

    2018-06-01

    As faults can be barriers to or conduits for fluid flow, it is critical to understand fault seal processes and their effects on the sealing capacity of a fault zone. Apart from the stratigraphic juxtaposition between the hanging wall and footwall, the development of fault rocks is of great importance in changing the sealing capacity of a fault zone. Therefore, field-based structural analysis has been employed to identify the meso-scale and micro-scale deformation features and to understand their effects on modifying the porosity of fault rocks. In this study, the Lenghu5 fold-and-thrust belt (northern Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau), with well-exposed outcrops, was selected as an example for meso-scale outcrop mapping and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) micro-scale structural analysis. The detailed outcrop maps enabled us to link the samples with meso-scale fault architecture. The representative rock samples, collected in both the fault zones and the undeformed hanging walls/footwalls, were studied by SEM micro-structural analysis to identify the deformation features at the micro-scale and evaluate their influences on the fluid flow properties of the fault rocks. Based on the multi-scale structural analyses, the deformation mechanisms accounting for porosity reduction in the fault rocks have been identified, which are clay smearing, phyllosilicate-framework networking and cataclasis. The sealing capacity is highly dependent on the clay content: high concentrations of clay minerals in fault rocks are likely to form continuous clay smears or micro- clay smears between framework silicates, which can significantly decrease the porosity of the fault rocks. However, there is no direct link between the fault rocks and host rocks. Similar stratigraphic juxtapositions can generate fault rocks with very different magnitudes of porosity reduction. The resultant fault rocks can only be predicted only when the fault throw is smaller than the thickness of a faulted bed, in

  12. How spatial and temporal rainfall variability affect runoff across basin scales: insights from field observations in the (semi-)urbanised Charlotte watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Smith, J. A.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of rainfall variability on runoff response are highly scale-dependent. Sensitivity analyses based on hydrological model simulations have shown that impacts are likely to depend on combinations of storm type, basin versus storm scale, temporal versus spatial rainfall variability. So far, few of these conclusions have been confirmed on observational grounds, since high quality datasets of spatially variable rainfall and runoff over prolonged periods are rare. Here we investigate relationships between rainfall variability and runoff response based on 30 years of radar-rainfall datasets and flow measurements for 16 hydrological basins ranging from 7 to 111 km2. Basins vary not only in scale, but also in their degree of urbanisation. We investigated temporal and spatial variability characteristics of rainfall fields across a range of spatial and temporal scales to identify main drivers for variability in runoff response. We identified 3 ranges of basin size with different temporal versus spatial rainfall variability characteristics. Total rainfall volume proved to be the dominant agent determining runoff response at all basin scales, independent of their degree of urbanisation. Peak rainfall intensity and storm core volume are of secondary importance. This applies to all runoff parameters, including runoff volume, runoff peak, volume-to-peak and lag time. Position and movement of the storm with respect to the basin have a negligible influence on runoff response, with the exception of lag times in some of the larger basins. This highlights the importance of accuracy in rainfall estimation: getting the position right but the volume wrong will inevitably lead to large errors in runoff prediction. Our study helps to identify conditions where rainfall variability matters for correct estimation of the rainfall volume as well as the associated runoff response.

  13. Impact of small-scale saline tracer heterogeneity on electrical resistivity monitoring in fully and partially saturated porous media: Insights from geoelectrical milli-fluidic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougnot, Damien; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Legendre, Raphaël; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Méheust, Yves; Linde, Niklas

    2018-03-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a geophysical method widely used to remotely monitor the migration of electrically-conductive tracers and contaminant plumes in the subsurface. Interpretations of time-lapse ERT inversion results are generally based on the assumption of a homogeneous solute concentration below the resolution limits of the tomogram depicting inferred electrical conductivity variations. We suggest that ignoring small-scale solute concentration variability (i.e., at the sub-resolution scale) is a major reason for the often-observed apparent loss of solute mass in ERT tracer studies. To demonstrate this, we developed a geoelectrical milli-fluidic setup where the bulk electric conductivity of a 2D analogous porous medium, consisting of cylindrical grains positioned randomly inside a Hele-Shaw cell, is monitored continuously in time while saline tracer tests are performed through the medium under fully and partially saturated conditions. High resolution images of the porous medium are recorded with a camera at regular time intervals, and provide both the spatial distribution of the fluid phases (aqueous solution and air), and the saline solute concentration field (where the solute consists of a mixture of salt and fluorescein, the latter being used as a proxy for the salt concentration). Effective bulk electrical conductivities computed numerically from the measured solute concentration field and the spatial distributions of fluid phases agree well with the measured bulk conductivities. We find that the effective bulk electrical conductivity is highly influenced by the connectivity of high electrical conductivity regions. The spatial distribution of air, saline tracer fingering, and mixing phenomena drive temporal changes in the effective bulk electrical conductivity by creating preferential paths or barriers for electrical current at the pore-scale. The resulting heterogeneities in the solute concentrations lead to strong anisotropy

  14. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  15. Insight in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The issue of insight in schizophrenia must be assumed to be one of the most important aspects of the clinical examination. Comprehensive studies have shown that between 50% and 80% of all patients suffering from schizophrenia do not believe that they have a disorder. In recent years, poor insight in schizophrenia has been the subject of increasing interest, as manifested in a number of studies discussed in the present review. Some of these studies focus on insight correlated to various parameters such as psychopathology, neuropsychology, clinical relevance and compliance. Other studies refer to more theoretical implications, among these the issue of defining the concept of insight: whether insight can be seen as a "primary" phenomenon in schizophrenia, and whether insight may be graduated, dimensioned or increased. Several authors have developed rating scales in an attempt to obtain a measure for the degree or dimension of insight. Here, the range of parameters employed gives an excellent impression of the complexity of the concept of insight. In the concluding discussion, a phenomenological aspect is brought in, in an attempt to place the concept of insight in relation to disturbances of the self in schizophrenia and to primary symptoms in schizophrenia, amongst these autism.

  16. Using pore-scale imaging and modeling to provide new insights in multi-phase flow, transport and reaction phenomena in porous media (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead

  17. New insights in symptom assessment: the Chinese Versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) and the Condensed MSAS (CMSAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Law, Chi Ching; Fu, Yiu Tung; Wong, Kam Hung; Chang, Victor T; Fielding, Richard

    2008-12-01

    There are very few symptom assessment instruments in Chinese. We present the validity and reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) and the Condensed Form MSAS (CMSAS) in Chinese cancer patients. The Chinese version of the 32-item MSAS-SF, a self-report measure for assessing symptom distress and frequency in cancer patients, was administered to 256 Chinese patients with colorectal cancer at a clinical oncology outpatient unit. Highly prevalent symptoms included worrying (59%), dry mouth (54%), lack of energy (54%), feeling sad (48%), feeling irritable (48%), and pain (41%). Both the MSAS-SF and CMSAS demonstrated good validity and reliability. For the MSAS-SF subscales, Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.84 to 0.91, and for CMSAS subscales, from 0.79 to 0.87. Moderate-to-high correlations of MSAS-SF and CMSAS subscales with appropriate European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 subscales (0.42-0.71, PsRosenberg Self-Esteem and Optimism Scale (0.22, Pscales--the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the Life Orientation Scale. Construct validity of both MSAS versions was demonstrated by effective differentiation between clinically distinct patient groups (Karnofsky scores or =80% [P4 [Pscales (0.31-0.64, P<0.001). The average time to complete the MSAS-SF was six minutes. The Chinese versions of the MSAS-SF and CMSAS are valid and practical measures. Further validation is needed for Chinese patients with other cancer types and with other symptom instruments.

  18. Simulating the effects of climate change on the distribution of an invasive plant, using a high resolution, local scale, mechanistic approach: challenges and insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Mark; Murphy, James E; Gallagher, Tommy; Osborne, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The growing economic and ecological damage associated with biological invasions, which will likely be exacerbated by climate change, necessitates improved projections of invasive spread. Generally, potential changes in species distribution are investigated using climate envelope models; however, the reliability of such models has been questioned and they are not suitable for use at local scales. At this scale, mechanistic models are more appropriate. This paper discusses some key requirements for mechanistic models and utilises a newly developed model (PSS[gt]) that incorporates the influence of habitat type and related features (e.g., roads and rivers), as well as demographic processes and propagule dispersal dynamics, to model climate induced changes in the distribution of an invasive plant (Gunnera tinctoria) at a local scale. A new methodology is introduced, dynamic baseline benchmarking, which distinguishes climate-induced alterations in species distributions from other potential drivers of change. Using this approach, it was concluded that climate change, based on IPCC and C4i projections, has the potential to increase the spread-rate and intensity of G. tinctoria invasions. Increases in the number of individuals were primarily due to intensification of invasion in areas already invaded or in areas projected to be invaded in the dynamic baseline scenario. Temperature had the largest influence on changes in plant distributions. Water availability also had a large influence and introduced the most uncertainty in the projections. Additionally, due to the difficulties of parameterising models such as this, the process has been streamlined by utilising methods for estimating unknown variables and selecting only essential parameters. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Centennial-scale links between Atlantic Ocean dynamics and hydroclimate over the last 4400 years: Insights from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, K.; Quinn, T. M.; Okumura, Y.; Richey, J. N.; Partin, J. W.; Poore, R. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Surface circulation in the Atlantic Ocean is an important mediator of global climate and yet its variability is poorly constrained on centennial timescales. Changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) have been implicated in late Holocene climate variability in the Western Hemisphere, although the relationship between AMOC variability and hydroclimate is uncertain due to the lack of sufficiently highly resolved proxy records. Here we present a replicated reconstruction of sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) from the Garrison Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) spanning the last 4,400 years to better constrain past sea-surface conditions. We generated time series of paired Mg/Ca (SST proxy) and δ18O (SST and SSS proxy) variations in planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (white variety) from three multi-cores collected in 2010. Using a Monte Carlo-based technique we produce a stacked record from the three multi-cores and constrain analytical, calibration, chronological, and sampling uncertainties. We apply this technique to existing paired Mg/Ca- δ18O studies in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean to facilitate comparison between time-uncertain proxy reconstructions. The Garrison Basin stack exhibits large centennial-scale variability (σSST~0.6°C; δ18Osw~0.17‰) and indicates a substantially cool (0.9±0.5°C) and fresh (0.26±0.1‰) Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450-1850 A.D.), corroborating extant records from the Gulf of Mexico. Focusing on the last millennium, we analyze a suite of oceanic and terrestrial proxy records to demonstrate a centennial-scale link between salt advection in the Atlantic Ocean, a diagnostic parameter of ocean circulation, and hydroclimate in the adjacent continents. The ensuing multiproxy relationships seem to be consistent with spatial field correlations of limited salinity and rainfall instrumental/reanalysis data, which suggest that NGOM salinity varies with large-scale Atlantic Ocean

  20. Length Scales and Types of Heterogeneities Along the Deep Subduction Interface: Insights From an Exhumed Subduction Complex on Syros Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Tong, X.; Lavier, L.

    2017-12-01

    The rheology of the deep subduction interface strongly influences the occurrence, recurrence, and migration of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events. To better understand the environment of deep ETS, we characterize the length scales and types of rheological heterogeneities that decorate the deep interface using an exhumed subduction complex. The Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece, records Eocene subduction to 60 km, partial exhumation along the top of the slab, and final exhumation along Miocene detachment faults. The CBU reached 450-580˚C and 14-16 kbar, PT conditions similar to where ETS occurs in several modern subduction zones. Rheological heterogeneity is preserved in a range of rock types on Syros, with the most prominent type being brittle pods embedded within a viscous matrix. Prograde, blueschist-facies metabasalts show strong deformation fabrics characteristic of viscous flow; cm- to m-scale eclogitic lenses are embedded within them as massive, veined pods, foliated pods rotated with respect to the blueschist fabric, and attenuated, foliation-parallel lenses. Similar relationships are observed in blueschist-facies metasediments interpreted to have deformed during early exhumation. In these rocks, metabasalts form lenses ranging in size from m- to 10s of m and are distributed at the m-scale throughout the metasedimentary matrix. Several of the metamafic lenses, and the matrix rocks immediately adjacent to them, preserve multiple generations of dilational veins and shear fractures filled with quartz and high pressure minerals. These observations suggest that coupled brittle-viscous deformation under high fluid pressures may characterize the subduction interface in the deep tremor source region. To test this further, we modeled the behavior of an elasto-plastic pod in a viscous shear zone under high fluid pressures. Our models show that local stress concentrations around the pod are large enough to generate transient dilational shear at seismic

  1. Tetragonal fcc-Fe induced by κ -carbide precipitates: Atomic scale insights from correlative electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Christian H.; Yao, Mengji; Dey, Poulumi; Lipińska-Chwalek, Marta; Berkels, Benjamin; Gault, Baptiste; Hickel, Tilmann; Herbig, Michael; Mayer, Joachim; Neugebauer, Jörg; Raabe, Dierk; Dehm, Gerhard; Scheu, Christina

    2018-02-01

    Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory calculations resolve the correlation between elastic strain fields and local impurity concentrations on the atomic scale. The correlative approach is applied to coherent interfaces in a κ -carbide strengthened low-density steel and establishes a tetragonal distortion of fcc-Fe. An interfacial roughness of ˜1 nm and a localized carbon concentration gradient extending over ˜2 -3 nm is revealed, which originates from the mechano-chemical coupling between local strain and composition.

  2. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  3. Adaptation and evolution of deep-sea scale worms (Annelida: Polynoidae): insights from transcriptome comparison with a shallow-water species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Chen, Chong; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Chiu, Jill M.Y.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Polynoid scale worms (Polynoidae, Annelida) invaded deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems approximately 60 million years ago, but little is known about their genetic adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment. In this study, we reported the first two transcriptomes of deep-sea polynoids (Branchipolynoe pettiboneae, Lepidonotopodium sp.) and compared them with the transcriptome of a shallow-water polynoid (Harmothoe imbricata). We determined codon and amino acid usage, positive selected genes, highly expressed genes and putative duplicated genes. Transcriptome assembly produced 98,806 to 225,709 contigs in the three species. There were more positively charged amino acids (i.e., histidine and arginine) and less negatively charged amino acids (i.e., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) in the deep-sea species. There were 120 genes showing clear evidence of positive selection. Among the 10% most highly expressed genes, there were more hemoglobin genes with high expression levels in both deep-sea species. The duplicated genes related to DNA recombination and metabolism, and gene expression were only enriched in deep-sea species. Deep-sea scale worms adopted two strategies of adaptation to hypoxia in the chemosynthesis-based habitats (i.e., rapid evolution of tetra-domain hemoglobin in Branchipolynoe or high expression of single-domain hemoglobin in Lepidonotopodium sp.). PMID:28397791

  4. Ice Cliff Backwasting over debris-covered Glaciers - Insights into their Formation and Development based on new Measurements and a point-scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Pellicciotti, F.; Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Reid, T. D.; Immerzeel, W.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of ice cliffs has been identified as one possible reason for relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. Few measurements exist for such cliffs and their formation and evolution processes are still poorly understood. On Lirung Glacier, in the Nepalese Himalayas, numerous cliffs were monitored for two consecutive years in the pre- and post-monsoon season. Slope varied between 30° and full vertical faces. Backwasting rates were highly variable depending on slope and aspect of the location on the cliff. Only a physically based energy balance model can reproduce this heterogeneity and provide insights into the importance of atmospheric forcing and cliff characteristics on their melt. Building on two previous studies such a model was developed. It was improved with measurements of radiative fluxes perpendicular to the cliff and by applying a high resolution DEM of the surrounding topography to estimate shading and radiative fluxes incident to the cliff including longwave radiation emitted by surrounding debris. We obtain a considerable reduction in incoming shortwave radiation for north-oriented cliffs compared to horizontal measurements, and significant incident longwave component that varies with height on the cliffs. Melt rates are highly variable in time and space for the cliff. While maximum values of up to 8 cm/day are reached during monsoon, melt rates in the post-monsoon season are considerably lower than in the pre-monsoon season. Nighttime refreezing processes during this period also played an important role. Apart from topography, cliff backwasting is extremely sensitive to albedo of the ice surface, reaching values as low as 0.05. Measurements of surface temperature and wind on the cliff further improved the understanding of outgoing radiation and turbulent fluxes. Once validated against stakes readings, the model was used to explain the presence and persistence of cliffs over Lirung glacier. We show that only North

  5. Crustal-Scale Fault Interaction at Rifted Margins and the Formation of Domain-Bounding Breakaway Complexes: Insights From Offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundsen, P. T.; Péron-Pinvidic, G.

    2018-03-01

    The large-magnitude faults that control crustal thinning and excision at rifted margins combine into laterally persistent structural boundaries that separate margin domains of contrasting morphology and structure. We term them breakaway complexes. At the Mid-Norwegian margin, we identify five principal breakaway complexes that separate the proximal, necking, distal, and outer margin domains. Downdip and lateral interactions between the faults that constitute breakaway complexes became fundamental to the evolution of the 3-D margin architecture. Different types of fault interaction are observed along and between these faults, but simple models for fault growth will not fully describe their evolution. These structures operate on the crustal scale, cut large thicknesses of heterogeneously layered lithosphere, and facilitate fundamental margin processes such as deformation coupling and exhumation. Variations in large-magnitude fault geometry, erosional footwall incision, and subsequent differential subsidence along the main breakaway complexes likely record the variable efficiency of these processes.

  6. Large-scale instructional reform in the Global South: insights from the mid-point evaluation of the Gauteng Primary Language and Mathematics Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahm Fleisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mid-point evaluation of the Gauteng Primary Language and Mathematics Strategy (GPLMS, an innovative large-scale reform designed to improve learning outcomes. Using data from universal testing of all learners in 2008 on a provincial systemic evaluation, and data from the 2011 and 2012 Annual National Assessment (ANA test, this paper addresses the key research question, namely whether the GPLMS is effective in closing the gap between performing and underperforming schools. Given the evidence we have presented of an instrument effect, namely that various versions of the ANA may not be strictly comparable, no definitive conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of the GPLMS.

  7. How much is too much assessment? Insight into assessment-driven student learning gains in large-scale undergraduate microbiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H; Schembri, Mark A; Hall, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    Designing and implementing assessment tasks in large-scale undergraduate science courses is a labor-intensive process subject to increasing scrutiny from students and quality assurance authorities alike. Recent pedagogical research has provided conceptual frameworks for teaching introductory undergraduate microbiology, but has yet to define best-practice assessment guidelines. This study assessed the applicability of Biggs' theory of constructive alignment in designing consistent learning objectives, activities, and assessment items that aligned with the American Society for Microbiology's concept-based microbiology curriculum in MICR2000, an introductory microbiology course offered at the University of Queensland, Australia. By improving the internal consistency in assessment criteria and increasing the number of assessment items explicitly aligned to the course learning objectives, the teaching team was able to efficiently provide adequate feedback on numerous assessment tasks throughout the semester, which contributed to improved student performance and learning gains. When comparing the constructively aligned 2011 offering of MICR2000 with its 2010 counterpart, students obtained higher marks in both coursework assignments and examinations as the semester progressed. Students also valued the additional feedback provided, as student rankings for course feedback provision increased in 2011 and assessment and feedback was identified as a key strength of MICR2000. By designing MICR2000 using constructive alignment and iterative assessment tasks that followed a common set of learning outcomes, the teaching team was able to effectively deliver detailed and timely feedback in a large introductory microbiology course. This study serves as a case study for how constructive alignment can be integrated into modern teaching practices for large-scale courses.

  8. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Angela; Verrinder, Glenda; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-02-16

    Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches' perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a 'try before you buy approach', presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.

  9. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela McGlashan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs, forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.

  10. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  11. The interplay between rheology and pre-existing structures in the lithosphere and its influence on intraplate tectonics: Insights from scaled physical analogue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santimano, T. N.; Adiban, P.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    The primary controls of deformation in the lithosphere are related to its rheological properties. In addition, recent work reveals that inherited zones of weakness in the deep lithosphere are prevalent and can also define tectonic activity. To understand how deformation is genetically related to rheology and/or pre-existing structures, we compare a set of physical analogue models with the presence and absence of a fault in the deep lithosphere. The layered lithosphere scaled models of a brittle upper crust, viscous lower crust and viscous mantle lithosphere are deformed in a convergent setting. Deformation of the model is recorded using high spatial and temporal stereoscopic cameras. We use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to acquire a time-series dataset and study the velocity field and subsequently strain in the model. The finished model is also cut into cross-section revealing the finite internal structures that are then compared to the topography of the model. Preliminary results show that deformation in models with an inherited fault in the mantle lithosphere is accommodated by displacement along the fault plane that propagates into the overlying viscous lower crust and brittle upper crust. Here, the majority of the deformation is localized along the fault in a brittle manner. This is in contrast to the model absent of a fault that also displays significant amounts of deformation. In this setting, ductile deformation is accommodated by folding and thickening of the viscous layers and flexural shearing of the brittle upper crust. In these preliminary experiments, the difference in the strength profile between the mantle lithosphere and the lower crust is within the same order of magnitude. Future experiments will include models where the strength difference is an order of magnitude. This systematic study aids in understanding the role of rheology and deep structures particularly in transferring stress over time to the surface and is therefore fundamental in

  12. Modeling fine-scale coral larval dispersal and interisland connectivity to help designate mutually-supporting coral reef marine protected areas: Insights from Maui Nui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chen, Yi-Leng; Elias, Edwin P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity among individual marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most important considerations in the design of integrated MPA networks. To provide such information for managers in Hawaii, USA, a numerical circulation model was developed to determine the role of ocean currents in transporting coral larvae from natal reefs throughout the high volcanic islands of the Maui Nui island complex in the southeastern Hawaiian Archipelago. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind, wave, and circulation model outputs were used to drive a km-scale, 3-dimensional, physics-based circulation model for Maui Nui. The model was calibrated and validated using satellite-tracked ocean surface current drifters deployed during coral-spawning conditions, then used to simulate the movement of the larvae of the dominant reef-building coral, Porites compressa, from 17 reefs during eight spawning events in 2010–2013. These simulations make it possible to investigate not only the general dispersal patterns from individual coral reefs, but also how anomalous conditions during individual spawning events can result in large deviations from those general patterns. These data also help identify those reefs that are dominated by self-seeding and those where self-seeding is limited to determine their relative susceptibility to stressors and potential roadblocks to recovery. Overall, the numerical model results indicate that many of the coral reefs in Maui Nui seed reefs on adjacent islands, demonstrating the interconnected nature of the coral reefs in Maui Nui and providing a key component of the scientific underpinning essential for the design of a mutually supportive network of MPAs to enhance conservation of coral reefs.

  13. How reliable are gray matter disruptions in specific reading disability across multiple countries and languages? Insights from a large-scale voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Altarelli, Irene; Monzalvo Lopez, Ana Karla; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Grabowska, Anna; Heim, Stefan; Ramus, Franck

    2015-05-01

    The neural basis of specific reading disability (SRD) remains only partly understood. A dozen studies have used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) differences between SRD and control children, however, recent meta-analyses suggest that few regions are consistent across studies. We used data collected across three countries (France, Poland, and Germany) with the aim of both increasing sample size (236 SRD and controls) to obtain a clearer picture of group differences, and of further assessing the consistency of the findings across languages. VBM analysis reveals a significant group difference in a single cluster in the left thalamus. Furthermore, we observe correlations between reading accuracy and GMV in the left supramarginal gyrus and in the left cerebellum, in controls only. Most strikingly, we fail to replicate all the group differences in GMV reported in previous studies, despite the superior statistical power. The main limitation of this study is the heterogeneity of the sample drawn from different countries (i.e., speaking languages with varying orthographic transparencies) and selected based on different assessment batteries. Nevertheless, analyses within each country support the conclusions of the cross-linguistic analysis. Explanations for the discrepancy between the present and previous studies may include: (1) the limited suitability of VBM to reveal the subtle brain disruptions underlying SRD; (2) insufficient correction for multiple statistical tests and flexibility in data analysis, and (3) publication bias in favor of positive results. Thus the study echoes widespread concerns about the risk of false-positive results inherent to small-scale VBM studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Use of focused acoustics for cell disruption to provide ultra scale-down insights of microbial homogenization and its bioprocess impact--recovery of antibody fragments from rec E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Aucamp, Jean P; Tang, Alison; Chatel, Alex; Hoare, Mike

    2012-08-01

    An ultra scale-down (USD) device that provides insight of how industrial homogenization impacts bioprocess performance is desirable in the biopharmaceutical industry, especially at the early stage of process development where only a small quantity of material is available. In this work, we assess the effectiveness of focused acoustics as the basis of an USD cell disruption method to mimic and study high-pressure, step-wise homogenization of rec Escherichia coli cells for the recovery of an intracellular protein, antibody fragment (Fab'). The release of both Fab' and of overall protein follows first-order reaction kinetics with respect to time of exposure to focused acoustics. The rate constant is directly proportional to applied electrical power input per unit volume. For nearly total protein or Fab' release (>99%), the key physical properties of the disruptate produced by focused acoustics, such as cell debris particle size distribution and apparent viscosity show good agreement with those for homogenates produced by high-pressure homogenization operated to give the same fractional release. The only key difference is observed for partial disruption of cells where focused acoustics yields a disruptate of lower viscosity than homogenization, evidently due to a greater extent of polynucleic acids degradation. Verification of this USD approach to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization is achieved using USD centrifugation to demonstrate the same sedimentation characteristics of disruptates prepared using both the scaled-down focused acoustic and the pilot-scale homogenization methods for the same fraction of protein release. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  16. Insight Is Not in the Problem: Investigating Insight in Problem Solving across Task Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Margaret E; Little, Daniel R; Cropper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    The feeling of insight in problem solving is typically associated with the sudden realization of a solution that appears obviously correct (Kounios et al., 2006). Salvi et al. (2016) found that a solution accompanied with sudden insight is more likely to be correct than a problem solved through conscious and incremental steps. However, Metcalfe (1986) indicated that participants would often present an inelegant but plausible (wrong) answer as correct with a high feeling of warmth (a subjective measure of closeness to solution). This discrepancy may be due to the use of different tasks or due to different methods in the measurement of insight (i.e., using a binary vs. continuous scale). In three experiments, we investigated both findings, using many different problem tasks (e.g., Compound Remote Associates, so-called classic insight problems, and non-insight problems). Participants rated insight-related affect (feelings of Aha-experience, confidence, surprise, impasse, and pleasure) on continuous scales. As expected we found that, for problems designed to elicit insight, correct solutions elicited higher proportions of reported insight in the solution compared to non-insight solutions; further, correct solutions elicited stronger feelings of insight compared to incorrect solutions.

  17. Potential for negative emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) through coastal peatland re-establishment: Novel insights from high frequency flux data at meter and kilometer scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Bergamaschi, Brian; Anderson, Frank; Knox, Sara; Miller, Robin; Fujii, Roger

    2018-04-01

    High productivity temperate wetlands that accrete peat via belowground biomass (peatlands) may be managed for climate mitigation benefits due to their global distribution and notably negative emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through rapid storage of carbon (C) in anoxic soils. Net emissions of additional greenhouse gases (GHG)—methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)—are more difficult to predict and monitor due to fine-scale temporal and spatial variability, but can potentially reverse the climate mitigation benefits resulting from CO2 uptake. To support management decisions and modeling, we collected continuous 96 hour high frequency GHG flux data for CO2, CH4 and N2O at multiple scales—static chambers (1 Hz) and eddy covariance (10 Hz)—during peak productivity in a well-studied, impounded coastal peatland in California’s Sacramento Delta with high annual rates of C fluxes, sequestering 2065 ± 150 g CO2 m‑2 y‑1 and emitting 64.5 ± 2.4 g CH4 m‑2 y‑1. Chambers (n = 6) showed strong spatial variability along a hydrologic gradient from inlet to interior plots. Daily (24 hour) net CO2 uptake (NEE) was highest near inlet locations and fell dramatically along the flowpath (‑25 to ‑3.8 to +2.64 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1). In contrast, daily net CH4 flux increased along the flowpath (0.39 to 0.62 to 0.88 g CH4 m‑2 d‑1), such that sites of high daily CO2 uptake were sites of low CH4 emission. Distributed, continuous chamber data exposed five novel insights, and at least two important datagaps for wetland GHG management, including: (1) increasing dominance of CH4 ebullition fluxes (15%–32% of total) along the flowpath and (2) net negative N2O flux across all sites as measured during a 4 day period of peak biomass (‑1.7 mg N2O m‑2 d‑1 0.51 g CO2 eq m‑2 d‑1). The net negative emissions of re-established peat-accreting wetlands are notably high, but may be poorly estimated by

  18. Proofs that Develop Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics educators have noted that mathematicians do not only read proofs to gain conviction but also to obtain insight. The goal of this article is to discuss what this insight is from mathematicians' perspective. Based on interviews with nine research-active mathematicians, two sources of insight are discussed. The first is reading a…

  19. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  20. Course of insight in manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.

  1. Clinical correlates of loss of insight in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Affective state may influence insight, especially regarding mania. Nevertheless, studies have so far suggested that depression seems not to significantly impair insight. To the best of our knowledge, this study pioneers the evaluation of how insight variations in bipolar depression correlate with clinical variables. Method A group of 165 bipolar patients, 52 of whom had depressive episodes according to DSM-5 criteria, were followed during a year. All patients underwent clinical assessment, and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD. Repeated-measures ANOVA was calculated comparing scores on the four ISAD factors (insight into symptoms, the condition itself, self-esteem and social relationships in order to investigate differences in insight according to different objects. Correlational analysis explored which clinical symptoms were linked to reduced insight. Results Worse total insight correlated with suicide attempt/ideation and fewer subsyndromal manic symptoms such as mood elevation, increased energy and sexual interest. Worse self-esteem insight was associated with not only suicide ideation/attempt but also with activity reduction and psychomotor retardation. Worse symptom insight also correlated with psychomotor retardation. Better insight into having an affective disorder was associated with more intense hypochondria symptoms. Finally, worse insight into having an illness was associated with psychotic episodes. Conclusion Our study found that symptoms other than psychosis – suicide ideation, psychomotor retardation and reduction of activity and work – correlate with insight impairment in bipolar depression.

  2. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Resting state functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C.; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Methods Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight—Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. Results As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusion Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left

  3. In Search of Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Craig A.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    Attaining the insight needed to solve the Mutilated Checkerboard problem, which requires discovery of an effective problem representation (EPR), is described. Performance on insight problems can be predicted from the availability of generators and constraints in the search for an EPR. Data for 23 undergraduates were analyzed. (TJH)

  4. Non Invasive BCIs for Neuroprostheses Control of the Paralysed Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Scherer, Reinhold; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Rupp, Rüdiger

    About 300,000 people in Europe alone suffer from a spinal cord injury (SCI), with 11,000 new injuries per year [20]. SCI is caused primarily by traffic and work accidents, and an increasing percentage of the total population also develops SCI from diseases like infections or tumors. About 70% of SCI cases occur in men. 40% are tetraplegic patients with paralyses not only of the lower extremities (and hence restrictions in standing and walking) but also of the upper extremities, which makes it difficult or impossible for them to grasp.

  5. Third-person Diagnostic Interview on the Cognitive Insight Level of Psychotic Patients with an Insight at the Denial Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid

    2016-01-01

    According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Center with an insight at the denial level being assessed using diagnostic interviews were divided randomly into two groups. Then, the two groups of patients' cognitive insights were evaluated using Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The findings indicated that in psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level, the third-person technique of interview compared to the first-person had little effect on the improvement of overall cognitive insight and its components, including self-reflection and self-assurance; however, this effect was not strong enough to make a significant difference between the two groups of patients. According to the study findings, we can conclude that the third-person interview compared to the first-person interview has no effect on the improvement of the cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. This finding is consistent with the previous studies indicating that although the theory of mind has some correlations with the clinical insight of patients, it has no effect on their cognitive insight.

  6. Insight and suicidality in psychosis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massons, Carmen; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier-David; Pousa, Esther; Ruiz, Ada; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Nieto, Lourdes; Cobo, Jesus; David, Anthony S; Dutta, Rina

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test whether specific insight dimensions are associated with suicidality in patients with psychotic disorders. 143 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited. Suicidality was assessed by item 8 of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Insight was measured by the Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) and the Markova and Berrios Insight Scale. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted. Those subjects aware of having a mental illness and its social consequences had higher scores on suicidality than those with poor insight. Awareness of the need for treatment was not linked with suicidality. The Markova and Berrios Insight scale total score and two specific domains (awareness of "disturbed thinking and loss of control over the situation" and "having a vague feeling that something is wrong") were related to suicidality. However, no insight dimensions survived the multivariable regression model, which found depression and previous suicidal behaviour to predict suicidality. Suicidality in psychosis was linked with some insight dimensions: awareness of mental illness and awareness of social consequences, but not compliance. Depression and previous suicidal behaviour mediated the associations with insight; thus, predicting suicidality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Dimensions of insight in schizophrenia: Exploratory factor analysis of items from multiple self- and interviewer-rated measures of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsztowicz, Susanna; Schmitz, Norbert; Lepage, Martin

    2018-03-10

    Insight in schizophrenia is regarded as a multidimensional construct that comprises aspects such as awareness of the disorder and recognition of the need for treatment. The proposed number of underlying dimensions of insight is variable in the literature. In an effort to identify a range of existing dimensions of insight, we conducted a factor analysis on combined items from multiple measures of insight. We recruited 165 participants with enduring schizophrenia (treated for >3years). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on itemized scores from two interviewer-rated measures of insight: the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded and the abbreviated Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder; and two self-report measures: the Birchwood Insight Scale and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. A five-factor solution was selected as the best-fitting model, with the following dimensions of insight: 1) awareness of illness and the need for treatment; 2) awareness and attribution of symptoms and consequences; 3) self-certainty; 4) self-reflectiveness for objectivity and fallibility; and 5) self-reflectiveness for errors in reasoning and openness to feedback. Insight in schizophrenia is a multidimensional construct comprised of distinct clinical and cognitive domains of awareness. Multiple measures of insight, both clinician- and self-rated, are needed to capture all of the existing dimensions of insight. Future exploration of associations between the various dimensions and their potential determinants will facilitate the development of clinically useful models of insight and effective interventions to improve outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The "Insight Paradox" in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved

  9. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  10. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  11. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  12. Diagnostic evaluation of the Community Earth System Model in simulating mineral dust emission with insight into large-scale dust storm mobilization in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sagar Prasad; Yang, Zong-Liang; Lawrence, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Large amounts of mineral dust are injected into the atmosphere during dust storms, which are common in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where most of the global dust hotspots are located. In this work, we present simulations of dust emission using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2.2 (CESM 1.2.2) and evaluate how well it captures the spatio-temporal characteristics of dust emission in the MENA region with a focus on large-scale dust storm mobilization. We explicitly focus our analysis on the model's two major input parameters that affect the vertical mass flux of dust-surface winds and the soil erodibility factor. We analyze dust emissions in simulations with both prognostic CESM winds and with CESM winds that are nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis values. Simulations with three existing erodibility maps and a new observation-based erodibility map are also conducted. We compare the simulated results with MODIS satellite data, MACC reanalysis data, AERONET station data, and CALIPSO 3-d aerosol profile data. The dust emission simulated by CESM, when driven by nudged reanalysis winds, compares reasonably well with observations on daily to monthly time scales despite CESM being a global General Circulation Model. However, considerable bias exists around known high dust source locations in northwest/northeast Africa and over the Arabian Peninsula where recurring large-scale dust storms are common. The new observation-based erodibility map, which can represent anthropogenic dust sources that are not directly represented by existing erodibility maps, shows improved performance in terms of the simulated dust optical depth (DOD) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) compared to existing erodibility maps although the performance of different erodibility maps varies by region.

  13. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  14. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  15. Africa Insight: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the Department of Higher ... Abstract: All articles should be accompanied by an abstract of between 100 and 125 words stating the main research problem, major findings and conclusion(s).

  16. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  17. Distribution and arrest of vertical through-going joints in a seismic-scale carbonate platform exposure (Sorrento peninsula, Italy): insights from integrating field survey and digital outcrop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, A.; Tavani, S.; Parente, M.; Iannace, A.; Vinci, F.; Pirmez, C.; Torrieri, S.; Giorgioni, M.; Pignalosa, A.; Mazzoli, S.

    2018-03-01

    Through-going joints cutting across beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. However, despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow, only few field studies focused on the understanding and estimation of through-going joint dimensional parameters, including spacing and vertical extent in relation to stratigraphy. Recent improvements in the construction of digital models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues, favouring the evaluation of relationships between jointing and stratigraphy at the reservoir scale. In this study, we present the results obtained from integrating field measurements with a digital outcrop model of a carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing a monocline of alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolostones, crossed by several vertical joints of different size. This study allowed us to define how major through-going joints pass across thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers. In essence, through-going joints arrest on "weak" levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages made of thick beds, in the same manner as bed-confined joints arrest on less competent interlayers.

  18. In-situ remediation of TCE by ERD in clay tills. Feasibility and performance of full-scale application insights gained through an integrated investigative approach for 2 sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    -scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project in-cluding 2 sites in Denmark undergoing remediation since 2006. Site remediation approach. At the Sortebrovej site an emulsified oil donor (EOS) and a bio-augmentation culture (KB1®) with specific degraders Dehalococcoides were injected......Background/Objectives. Remediation of trichloroethene (TCE) in clay and other low permeabil-ity geologic media, where groundwater flow occurs preferentially in higher permeability sand lenses or fractures, is a significant challenge. At older sites, much of the contaminant mass is pre......-sent as a sorbed phase in the matrix due to matrix diffusion. The principal challenge for in situ remediation in clay is to achieve effective contact between contaminant and bioremediation addi-tives (e.g., organic electron donors and bioaugmentation cultures). The feasibility and perfor-mance of full...

  19. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  20. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  1. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  2. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  3. Spatial Patterns of Long-Term Erosion Rates Beneath the Marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Insights into the Physics of Continental Scale Glacial Erosion from a Comparison with the Ice-Velocity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, I. M.; Tulaczyk, S.; Mac Gregor, K.; Joughin, I.

    2001-12-01

    As part of the effort to build quantitative models of glacial erosion and sedimentation, it is particularly important to construct scaled relations between erosion, transport, and sedimentation rates and appropriate glaciological variables (e.g., ice velocity). Recent acquisition of bed topography and ice velocity data for the marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)[Joughin et al., 1999; Lythe et al., in press] provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate continental-scale patterns of glacial erosion and their relationship to the ice velocity field. Utilizing this data, we construct a map of estimated long-term erosion rates beneath the WAIS. In order to calculate long-term erosion rates from the available data, we assume that: (1) the ice sheet has been present for ~5 mill. years, (2) the initial topography beneath the WAIS was that of a typical ( ~200 m.b.s.l.) continental shelf, and (3) the present topography is near local isostatic equilibrium (Airy type). The map of long-term erosion rates constructed in this fashion shows an intriguing pattern of relatively high rates (of the order of 0.1 mm/yr) concentrated beneath modern ice stream tributaries (ice velocity ~100 m/yr), but much lower erosion rates (of the order of 0.01 mm/yr) beneath both the modern fast-moving ice streams ( ~400 m/yr.) and the slow-moving parts of the ice sheet ( ~10 m/yr). This lack of clear correlation between the estimated erosion rates and ice velocity is somewhat unexpected given that both observational and theoretical studies have shown that bedrock erosion rates beneath mountain glaciers can often be calculated by multiplying the basal sliding velocity by a constant (typically of the order of ~10^-4)(Humphrey and Raymond, 1993 and Mac Gregor et al., 2000). We obtain an improved match between estimated erosion rates and bed topography by calculating erosion rates using horizontal gradients within the ice velocity field rather than the magnitude of ice velocity, as consistent

  4. The politics of insight

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insig...

  5. HPC Insights, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Power 6 ( Davinci ) systems. We have also made use of the Air Force Research Laboratory DSRC Altix (Hawk) and the Engineer Research and Development...the design and development of high performance gas turbine combustion systems both as a pretest analysis tool to predict static and dynamic...application while gaining insight into MATLAB’s value as an engineering tool . I would like to thank the MHPCC and the Akamai Workforce Initiative

  6. The politics of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs.

  7. The politics of insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  8. Evaluation of the Deadly Liver Mob program: insights for roll-out and scale-up of a pilot program to engage Aboriginal Australians in hepatitis C and sexual health education, screening, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Hopwood, Max; Cama, Elena; Saunders, Veronica; Jackson, L Clair; Walker, Melinda; Ooi, Catriona; Ubrihien, Ashley; Ward, James

    2018-02-01

    Deadly Liver Mob (DLM) is a peer-driven, incentivised health promotion program aimed at increasing understanding of hepatitis C, promoting harm reduction in relation to injecting drug use, and linking participants to screening for hepatitis C, other blood borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections among Aboriginal people in Western Sydney, NSW. This paper presents the evaluation of a pilot study examining the acceptability of the program as a first step of a scalability assessment. Deadly Liver Mob operated in co-located needle and syringe programs and sexual health clinics in two sites: (Site 1: two and a half years for 2 days/week; Site 2: 1 year for 1 day per week). Comparisons were made of the proportion of Aboriginal clients (Site 1) and occasions of service provided to Aboriginal clients (Site 2) in the 12 months prior and post-introduction of DLM. Interviews were conducted with 13 staff involved in delivery of DLM and with 19 clients. A total of 655 and 55 Aboriginal clients, respectively, attended Site 1 and Site 2 for health education. The proportion of Aboriginal clients attending both sites was significantly higher during the DLM compared with prior to its implementation. Of those attending for health education, 79 and 73%, respectively, attended screening following education. DLM clients strongly endorsed the program. Some staff were concerned about workforce capacity to effectively engage Aboriginal clients with multiple and complex needs, managing the differing aims of the participating services involved, and about offering of incentives for attendance at health services. While acceptability was high among staff and clients and preliminary results show high engagement with Aboriginal communities, this evaluation of a pilot program raises some issues to consider in scale up of DLM to other sites. The initiation of additional DLM sites should address issues of alignment with governing strategies and workforce capacity.

  9. What are System Dynamics Insights?

    OpenAIRE

    Stave, K.; Zimmermann, N. S.; Kim, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of system dynamics insights. In our field, the term “insight” is generally understood to mean dynamic insight, that is, a deep understanding about the relationship between structure and behavior. We argue this is only one aspect of the range of insights possible from system dynamics activities, and describe a broader range of potential system dynamics insights. We also propose an initial framework for discussion that relates different types of system dynamics a...

  10. INSIGHT AND SELF-STIGMA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Domagoj; Brecić, Petrana; Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight and high level of self-stigma are often present among patients with schizophrenia and are related to poorer treatment adherence, poorer social function and rehabilitation, aggressive behavior, higher level of depression, social anxiety, lower quality of life and self-esteem. Reports on a relationship between insight and stigma are controversial. We examined the relationship of the level of insight and self-stigma in a sample of 149 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and self-stigma with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Results showed 88.6% of the patients to have high or moderate insight, with a mean value of 2.73. General insight showed the highest level (2.58) and insight in positive symptoms the lowest level (2.9). The self-stigma score in general was 2.13, with stereotype endorsement being lowest (1.98). According to study results, 77.1% of patients felt minimal or low self-stigma across all subscales, except for stigma resistance subscale. Statistically significant correlation was found between insight and four subscales of self-stigma, while no correlation was found for the stigma resistance subscale only. These results imply the need of individually tailored antistigma and insight promoting programs for patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Insight and satisfaction with life among adolescents with mental disorders: assessing associations with self-stigma and parental insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, M; Hasson-Ohayon, I; Morag-Yaffe, M; Schapir, L; Zalsman, G; Shoval, G

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the associations of illness perception-related variables with satisfaction with life (SwL) among adolescents with mental disorders. Insight into mental disorder (SAI-E), Internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) and Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) were administrated to 30 adolescent patients. Adapted version for parents of the SAI-E was also administrated to 37 of their parents. Significant positive correlations were found between insight into the illness, self-stigma and parental insight. Insight and self-stigma were significantly negatively related to the total score of SwL and few of its dimensions while parental insight was significantly associated only with the SwL dimensions of school and self. Regression models revealed main negative effects of insight and self-stigma on SwL and no interaction effect. The possible independent contribution of insight and self-stigma to SwL should be addressed in interventions designed for family and adolescents coping with mental illness. Special attention should be given to the possible negative implications that insight possesses. In lack of support of the moderation role of self-stigma, reported in studies among adults with mental illness, future studies should trace other variables in order to further understand the insight paradox among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A study of poor insight in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Paula; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Harrison, Ben J; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2014-11-30

    We investigated levels of insight among patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) as compared to patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and evaluated whether levels of insight in SAD were related to specific sociodemographic and/or clinical features. Thirty-seven SAD patients and 51 OCD patients attending a tertiary obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders clinic were assessed with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a structured diagnostic interview, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Treatment Adherence Survey-patient version (TAS-P). According to the BABS, SAD patients exhibited insight levels that were as low as those exhibited by OCD patients, with up to 29.7% of them being described as "poor insight" SAD. Although poor insight SAD patients were more frequently married, less depressed and displayed a statistical trend towards greater rates of early drop-out from cognitive-behavioral therapy, their insight levels were not associated with other variables of interest, including sex, age, employment, age at onset, duration of illness, associated psychiatric disorders, SPIN and SDS scores. Patients with poor insight SAD might perceive their symptoms as being less distressful and thus report fewer depressive symptoms and high rates of treatment non-adherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe

    through negotiating, mobilizing coalitions, and legitimacy building. To illustrate and further develop this conceptualization, we build on insights from a longitudinal case study (2008-2014) and provide a rich empirical account of how a Danish telemedicine pilot was transformed into a large......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  14. Imaging morphogenesis: technological advances and biological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Philipp J

    2013-06-07

    Morphogenesis, the development of the shape of an organism, is a dynamic process on a multitude of scales, from fast subcellular rearrangements and cell movements to slow structural changes at the whole-organism level. Live-imaging approaches based on light microscopy reveal the intricate dynamics of this process and are thus indispensable for investigating the underlying mechanisms. This Review discusses emerging imaging techniques that can record morphogenesis at temporal scales from seconds to days and at spatial scales from hundreds of nanometers to several millimeters. To unlock their full potential, these methods need to be matched with new computational approaches and physical models that help convert highly complex image data sets into biological insights.

  15. Insights from the salinity origins and interconnections of aquifers in a regional scale sedimentary aquifer system (Adour-Garonne district, SW France): Contributions of δ34S and δ18O from dissolved sulfates and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, Agnès; Négrel, Philippe; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Millot, Romain; Malcuit, Eline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regional sedimentary aquifer on the Aquitaine Basin (SW France). • Dealing with limited number of groundwater wells available. • Strong control of evaporite dissolution on groundwater dissolved elements. • Guidelines for decision-makers to manage water resources. - Abstract: The multi-layered Eocene aquifer is a regional scale sedimentary aquifer system occupying ∼120,000 km 2 within the Adour-Garonne district (France). Local authorities have recently identified the aquifer as being at risk from extensive irrigation abstractions, threatening the sustainability of this key resource. Because large water abstractions for human activities can significantly influence the natural functioning of such aquifer systems, e.g., with leakage between aquifer layers, which can lead to water quality degradation, the characterization of such large systems constitutes a key point to protect and prevent further deterioration of aquatic ecosystems. This study provides further insight on this large aquifer through a geochemical approach, which addresses the limited number of groundwater wells where sampling is possible. For that purpose, a geochemical analysis combining two isotope systems (δ 34 S SO4 , δ 18 O SO4 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) has been applied. The Eocene sedimentary aquifer system (detrital to carbonate deposits) is made up of four aquifer layers, Eocene Infra-Molassic sand, Early Eocene, Middle Eocene and Late Eocene, and has a mineralized area north of the Aquitaine Basin, where groundwater shows strong mineralization and anomalous levels of critical substances (SO 4 , F, etc.), increasing the difficulty of resource exploitation. The extreme heterogeneity of the geochemical composition of the groundwater between the aquifers and within a single aquifer is discussed in terms of the lithological control induced by the lateral variation of facies and interconnections between aquifer layers. Geochemical tools, especially the δ 34 S and δ 18 O from

  16. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  17. The Association of Insight and Change in Insight with Clinical Symptoms in Depressed Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongbo; Chang, Qing; Ma, Yarong

    2018-04-25

    Lack of insight has been extensively studied and was found to be adversely correlated with impaired treatment compliance and worse long term clinical outcomes among patients with schizophrenia, while not much is known about this phenonmenon in patients with severe depression. To explore the correlates of insight and its relation to symptom changes among the most seriously ill patients with affective disorders, those who require hospitalization. Patients hospitalized in a large psychiatric hospital in south China with either major depressive disorder (MDD)(N=55) or bipolar depression (BD) (N=85) based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were assessed with the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire (ITAQ) one week after admission and at the time of discharge. Clinical symptoms were measured at the same time with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Depression subscale of the Symptom Check list-90 (SCL-90). Length of stay (LOS), duration of illness, duration of untreated mood disorder, number of previous episodes of depression and previous admissions for depression were documented during interviews with patients and their families and from a review of medical records. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical symptomatology and clinical history, to insight at the time of admission. The relationships between change in clinical symptoms and change in insight from admission to discharge were also examined. Stepwise multiple regression models suggested that any previous admissions for depression and higher anxiety factor scores on the HAMD-17 are significant independent predictors of insight accounting for 22.9% of the variance. Multiple regression analysis residual change scores (change scores adjusted for baseline values) on the ITAQ showed that improved insight over average stays of 51 days were inversely related to the residual psychomotor

  18. Insights on STEM Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  19. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  20. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...... of potential “rightshoring” options fosters clarity about the phenomena studied and their implications. The main practical implications of the six papers are summarized in Table II. Originality/value: The overall conceptual framework highlights the positioning of the final papers included into the special...

  1. Insight and illness perception in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2015-03-01

    Insight and illness perception are two concepts of interest in the study of factors related to clinical outcome in patients with psychosis. Insight implies a risk of emotional distress for the patient. Illness perceptions, regardless of their accuracy, might be favorable or not to illness. Literature provides evidence of significant correlates of these factors with clinical outcome, but they are rarely included in a single study. 1) assessing insight and illness perception in a sample of Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and, 2) analyzing how insight and illness perception relate to each other and how they relate to clinical status (i.e., positive, negative, and general psychopathology, depression, and anxiety). Sixty-one participants (55.7% females) were recruited from a public psychiatric hospital; insight and illness perceptions were assessed with the SUMD and the Brief-IPQ, respectively. Clinical status was assessed with the PANSS, CDS and BAI scales. Participants showed good insight, favorable illness perceptions for the cognitive and comprehension dimensions, but unfavorable for the emotional dimension. Clinical status of sample was characterized by mild symptoms. Poor insight related to positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness were significantly associated to most clinical status parameters, whereas comprehension showed no significant results. The study not only replicates the significant association on insight and illness perception with clinical outcome, but shows how their patterns of interactions are different, reinforcing the idea that they are two distinct factors worthy of being habitually acknowledged in research and clinical practice.

  2. Insight and its relationship with stigma in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Mishra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature on insight has paid insufficient attention to the social experiences that are associated with receiving and endorsing a diagnosis of mental illness. The psychological and behavioral commitments associated with insight extend beyond agreeing with a diagnosis and accepting treatment to include taking on the identity of an individual diagnosed with mental illness. This study sought to examine the relationship between insight and stigma in psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of insight and stigma was done using the system adopted by Kaplan and Sadock in their comprehensive textbook of psychiatry and Felt Stigma Scale in 100 psychiatric patients (40 patients suffering from Bipolar affective disorder, 30 Schizophrenics, 20 Substance dependents and 10 with Obsessive Compulsive disorder. Results: It was found that the level of stigma felt by patients with insight was significantly higher than that felt by patients without insight. Conclusion: Though there is a certain extent of stigma present in patients without insight, as is expected, the level of stigma increases as the patients develop insight.

  3. Insights into business student's book

    CERN Document Server

    Lannon, Michael; Trappe, Tonya

    1993-01-01

    With Challenging reading and listening texts from a range of authentic business sources, New Insights into Business will really engage your students. The thorough language and vocabulary syllabus together with the strong focus on business skills development gives students everything they need to function effectively in the workplace. New Insights into Business is a self-contained course and is also an ideal follow-on to First Insights into Business.

  4. Gaining Insight Into Femtosecond-scale CMOS Effects using FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    current . PMOS devices degrade under negative bias (NBTI) and NMOS under positive bias (PBTI). In some cases partial recovery occurs when stress...statically biased; we hypothesize that these transistors might act as ― canaries ‖ for subtle degradation of the BTI type. Characterizing their switching...drain current depends on the threshold voltage [6], approximated by ( ) (1) Therefore, a measured increase in delay can be

  5. Self-clarity and different clusters of insight and self-stigma in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2016-06-30

    The current study explored the self-experience of persons with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) by investigating the associations between different insight and self-stigma clusters, self-clarity, hope, recovery, and functioning. One hundred seven persons diagnosed with a SMI were administered six scales: self-concept clarity, self-stigma, insight into the illness, hope, recovery, and functioning. Correlations and cluster analyses were performed. Insight, as measured by a self-report scale was not related to any other variable. Self-stigma was negatively associated with self-clarity, hope, recovery and functioning. Three clusters emerged: moderate stigma/high insight (n=31), high stigma/moderate insight (n=28), and low stigma/low insight (n=42). The group with low stigma and low insight had higher mean levels of self-clarity and hope than the other two groups. There were no significant differences between cluster 1 (moderate stigma/high insight) and cluster 2 (high stigma/moderate insight) in all the variables beside self-clarity. The group with moderate stigma and high insight had significantly higher mean levels of self-clarity than the group with high stigma and moderate insight. Results reveal that when people diagnosed with SMI do not have high levels of self-stigma they often report a positive and clear sense of self accompanied with hope, regardless of having low insight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The “Insight Paradox” in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The so-called “insight paradox” posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27069064

  7. Insights into PRA methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.; Lofgren, E.; Atefi, B.; Liner, R.; Blond, R.; Amico, P.

    1984-08-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for six nuclear power plants were examined to gain insight into how the choice of analytical methods can affect the results of PRAs. The PRA sreflectope considered was limited to internally initiated accidents sequences through core melt. For twenty methodological topic areas, a baseline or minimal methodology was specified. The choice of methods for each topic in the six PRAs was characterized in terms of the incremental level of effort above the baseline. A higher level of effort generally reflects a higher level of detail or a higher degree of sophistication in the analytical approach to a particular topic area. The impact on results was measured in terms of how additional effort beyond the baseline level changed the relative importance and ordering of dominant accident sequences compared to what would have been observed had methods corresponding to the baseline level of effort been employed. This measure of impact is a more useful indicator of how methods affect perceptions of plant vulnerabilities than changes in core melt frequency would be. However, the change in core melt frequency was used as a secondary measure of impact for nine topics where availability of information permitted. Results are presented primarily in the form of effort-impact matrices for each of the twenty topic areas. A suggested effort-impact profile for future PRAs is presented

  8. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  9. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  10. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Hyperons: Insights into baryon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, J.

    1991-08-01

    The baryon octet is composed mainly of hyperons. Modern high energy hyperon beams provide a tool for the study of hyperon static properties and interactions. Experiments with these beams have provided new insights into hyperon rare decays, magnetic moments, and interactions. These experiments provide us with insights into the strong, weak, and electromagnetic structure of the baryons. 65 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs

  12. The impact of insight on social functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Almila; Delibas, Hakan; Bora, Ozlem; Mete, Levent

    2015-06-01

    It is still unclear whether insight has a direct association with social functioning in schizophrenia, independent of its association with symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of insight and its dimensions with social functioning in schizophrenia. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Patients with impaired insight and patients with unimpaired insight were compared for PSP score through independent samples t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the correlations between study variables. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used in order to determine the variables that predict social performance. The PSP score of patients with impaired insight was significantly lower than that of patients with unimpaired insight. There were significant correlations between insight dimensions and PSP score. PANSS negative scale score, awareness of achieved effects of medication and awareness of anhedonia/asociality were significant predictors of social performance. Insight has a significant impact on social functioning in schizophrenia, and some, but not all, insight dimensions have direct impact on social performance, independent of their association with symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. No-Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  14. No-scale inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  15. Spermatogenesis in mammals: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocu, Sophie; Calvel, Pierre; Rolland, Antoine D; Pineau, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly sophisticated process involved in the transmission of genetic heritage. It includes halving ploidy, repackaging of the chromatin for transport, and the equipment of developing spermatids and eventually spermatozoa with the advanced apparatus (e.g., tightly packed mitochondrial sheat in the mid piece, elongating of the tail, reduction of cytoplasmic volume) to elicit motility once they reach the epididymis. Mammalian spermatogenesis is divided into three phases. In the first the primitive germ cells or spermatogonia undergo a series of mitotic divisions. In the second the spermatocytes undergo two consecutive divisions in meiosis to produce haploid spermatids. In the third the spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa in a process called spermiogenesis. Paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and endocrine pathways all contribute to the regulation of the process. The array of structural elements and chemical factors modulating somatic and germ cell activity is such that the network linking the various cellular activities during spermatogenesis is unimaginably complex. Over the past two decades, advances in genomics have greatly improved our knowledge of spermatogenesis, by identifying numerous genes essential for the development of functional male gametes. Large-scale analyses of testicular function have deepened our insight into normal and pathological spermatogenesis. Progress in genome sequencing and microarray technology have been exploited for genome-wide expression studies, leading to the identification of hundreds of genes differentially expressed within the testis. However, although proteomics has now come of age, the proteomics-based investigation of spermatogenesis remains in its infancy. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of large-scale proteomic analyses of spermatogenesis, from germ cell development during sex determination to spermatogenesis in the adult. Indeed, a few laboratories have undertaken differential protein profiling

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  18. Unraveling interrelationships among psychopathology symptoms, cognitive domains and insight dimensions in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Pan, Wei; Dungan, Jennifer R; Keefe, Richard S E; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2018-03-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is long known to have a complex relationship with psychopathology symptoms and cognition. However, very few studies have examined models that explain these interrelationships. In a large sample derived from the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial (N=1391), we interrogated these interrelationships for potential causal pathways using structural equation modeling. Using the NIMH consensus model, latent variables were constructed for psychopathology symptom dimensions, including positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressed from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items. Neurocognitive variables were created from five predefined domains of working memory, verbal memory, reasoning, vigilance and processing speed. Illness insight and treatment insight were tested using latent variables constructed from the Illness and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ). Disorganized symptoms had the strongest effect on insight. Illness insight mediated the relationship of positive, depressed, and disorganized symptoms with treatment insight. Neurocognition mediated the relationship between disorganized and treatment insight and depressed symptoms and treatment insight. There was no effect of negative symptoms on either illness insight or treatment insight. Taken together, our results indicate overlapping and unique relational paths for illness and treatment insight dimensions, which could suggest differences in causal mechanisms and potential interventions to improve insight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Insight in bipolar mania: evaluation of its heterogeneity and correlation with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de Assis da; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2016-07-15

    Studies on insight in bipolar mania are not numerous and usually consider insight as a unitary construct. Evaluate how different facets of insight are affected in bipolar mania and investigate correlations between insight for each specific object in bipolar disorder and manic symptomatology. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed during a year, with 51 patients having manic episodes according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. The study found that insight regarding symptoms is worse than insight of having bipolar disorder, social relationships and self esteem. Moreover, poor global insight (total ISAD) correlates with more severe changes in mood, speech and thought structure, with worse insight about symptoms correlating with the same alterations and also with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy. Although a large sample of bipolar patients was followed up, the final sample composed of patients with at least one manic episode was relatively smaller. Moreover, the fact that the study was performed in a university hospital may have led to selection biases. Results suggest that patients with BD are reasonably capable of identifying that their condition implies consequences but have more impaired awareness of their energy and activity levels. A lower level of insight specifically about symptoms correlates with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy, which suggests a psychomotor nucleus able to impair insight in mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental insightfulness: retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David

    2018-06-01

    We open this introductory paper to the special issue with the theoretical and clinical roots of the insightfulness concept. Next, the Insightfulness Assessment (IA) is presented, followed by a review of key empirical findings supporting the IA. The central points in the papers in this special issue are reviewed next. These include the use of the IA with parents of children ranging in age from infancy to adolescence, its applicability outside the parent-child relationship (e.g. insightfulness toward a close friend), its use with high-risk mothers, and the usefulness of insightfulness both as a continuous and a categorical measure. The clinical applications of the IA are discussed, and we close with future directions for IA research.

  1. Insight, Neurocognition, and Schizophrenia: Predictive Value of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of insight in schizophrenia is a key feature of the illness and is associated with both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Previous research supports that neurocognitive dysfunction is related to lack of insight, but studies have not examined how neurocognition relates to change in insight over time. Therefore, the current study sought to understand how performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) differed between participants with varying degrees of change in insight over a 6-month period. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the WCST and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, and the PANSS was again administered at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that while neurocognition was related to insight at baseline, it was not related to subsequent change in insight. The implications of findings for conceptualization and assessment of insight are discussed. PMID:24303216

  2. Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...

  3. Scale Pretesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt C.

    2018-01-01

    Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…

  4. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (pinsight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical Experiments Providing New Insights into Plasma Focus Fusion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent extensive and systematic numerical experiments have uncovered new insights into plasma focus fusion devices including the following: (1 a plasma current limitation effect, as device static inductance is reduced towards very small values; (2 scaling laws of neutron yield and soft x-ray yield as functions of storage energies and currents; (3 a global scaling law for neutron yield as a function of storage energy combining experimental and numerical data showing that scaling deterioration has probably been interpreted as neutron ‘saturation’; and (4 a fundamental cause of neutron ‘saturation’. The ground-breaking insights thus gained may completely change the directions of plasma focus fusion research.

  6. Hydrogeology of Montserrat review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioch Hemmings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The tropical, active volcanic arc island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean. Study focus: New insights into hydrological recharge distribution, measurements of aquifer permeability, and geological and hydrological field observations from Montserrat are combined with a review of the current understanding of volcanic island hydrology. The aim is to begin to develop a conceptual model for the hydrology of Montserrat, and to inform and stimulate further investigation into the hydrology of volcanic arc islands, by combining a review of the current understanding of essential components of the hydrological system with fresh analysis of existing data, and new observations, data collection and analysis. This study provides new insights into hydrological recharge distribution, measurements of aquifer permeability, and geological and hydrological field observations from Montserrat. New hydrological insights for the region: A new groundwater recharge model predicts whole island recharge of 266 mm/year, between 10% and 20% of annual rainfall. Core scale permeability tests reveal ranges from 10−14 to 10−12 m2 for volcaniclastic rocks with coarse matrix, to a minimum of 10−18 m2 for andesitic lavas and volcaniclastics with fine or altered matrix. Analysis of historical pumping tests on aquifers in reworked, channel and alluvial sediment indicate permeabilities ∼10−10 m2. Springs at elevations between 200 and 400 m above mean sea level on Centre Hills currently discharge over 45 L/s. High discharge require a reasonably laterally continuous low permeability body. Contrasting conceptual models are presented to illustrate two potential hydrogeological scenarios. New field observations also reveal systematic spatial variations in spring water temperature and specific electrical conductivity indicating that meteoric waters supplying the springs are mixed with a deeper groundwater source at some sites. Keywords: Volcanic island

  7. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  8. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  9. Maslowian Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  10. Insight in psychosis: Metacognitive processes and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    de Vos, Annerieke

    2016-01-01

    Insight is impaired in 50- 80% of the patients with schizophrenia. Annerieke de Vos working at GGZ Drenthe and the University Medical Hospital Groningen, aimed to elucidate which processes underlie impaired insight and tried to improve insight in patients by targeting these processes. On September 21st she will defend her thesis entitled: "Insight in psychosis. Metacognitive processes and treatment.". Patients with impaired insight may fail to recognize that things in life are not going well ...

  11. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this

  12. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  13. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kako Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Kako, Koki Ito, Naoki Hashimoto, Kuniyoshi Toyoshima, Yusuke Shimizu, Nobuyuki Mitsui, Yutaka Fujii, Teruaki Tanaka, Ichiro Kusumi Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Objectives: To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia.Materials and methods: Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS, Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS, Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30.Results: The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms.Conclusion: Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness. Keywords: schizophrenia, insight

  14. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  15. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  16. Comparison of laminite fracture features at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Zihms, Stephanie; Miranda, Tiago; Lewis, Helen; Hall, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Laminites (NE Brazil) are well laminated carbonates that provide insight into the geomechanical behaviour of layered systems, especially when comparing deformation characteristics observed in the laboratory with outcrop / field scale deformations. This is useful in order to a)  validate where laboratory experiments can reproduce field scale deformation types b)  understand which feature characteristics can or cannot be scaled

  17. The relationship between theory of mind and insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulacı, Rıza Gökçer; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Özdel, Kadir; Öztürk, Nefise; Kuru, Erkan; Özdemir, İlker

    2018-02-09

    It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. To assess ToM skills, first- and second-order false-belief tests, a hinting test, a faux pas test, a reading the mind in the eyes test, and a double-bluff test were administered. Patients with OCD had poorer ToM abilities than healthy controls. All ToM scores were significantly lower in the poor insight group than in the good insight group (p insight than in OCD with good insight may contribute to the idea of OCD with poor insight being a subtype with different clinical and neuropsychological characteristics.

  18. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  19. KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.; )

    2001-01-01

    A correct version of the KNO scaling of multiplicity distributions is discussed in detail. Some assertions on KNO-scaling violation based on the misinterpretation of experimental data behavior are analyzed. An accurate comparison with experiment is presented for the distributions of negative particles in e + e - annihilation at √S = 3 - 161 GeV, in inelastic pp interactions at √S = 2.4 - 62 GeV and in nucleus-nucleus interactions at p lab = 4.5 - 520 GeV/c per nucleon. The p-bar p data at √S 546 GeV are considered [ru

  20. Insights from simulations of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604) (key issues review)

  1. Insights from simulations of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard B [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604) (key issues review)

  2. Insight in psychosis : Metacognitive processes and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke

    2016-01-01

    Insight is impaired in 50- 80% of the patients with schizophrenia. Annerieke de Vos working at GGZ Drenthe and the University Medical Hospital Groningen, aimed to elucidate which processes underlie impaired insight and tried to improve insight in patients by targeting these processes. On September

  3. Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Dispositional private self-focused attention variables such as insight, internal self-awareness (ISA), and self-reflectiveness (SR) have been found to relate to well-being. The present study sought to determine which dispositional private self-focused attention variables have the most predictive power for subjective well-being as measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985) and for a eudaemonic form of well-being as measured by the Psychological Well-Being Scale (C. D. Ryff, 1989). A total of 121 college student participants completed an online version of the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised, the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Psychological WellBeing Scale. Results of a multivariate regression analysis using the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised's (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985) subfactors of SR and ISA, the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire's (P. D. Trapnell & J. D. Campbell, 1999) subscales of Rumination and Reflection, and the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale's (A. M. Grant, J. Franklin, & P. Langford, 2002) Self-Reflection and Insight subscales revealed that the Insight subscale was the only statistically significant predictor (a positive predictor) for all 6 dimensions of psychological well-being. Insight was also the only significant positive predictor for satisfaction with life. The Rumination subscale was a significant negative predictor for 3 dimensions of psychological well-being, and the Reflection subscale was a significant positive predictor for 1 dimension. Implications of dispositional self-awareness variables and their relation to dimensions of well-being are discussed.

  4. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Scaling satan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  6. Mercury and methylmercury stream concentrations in a Coastal Plain watershed: A multi-scale simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is a ubiquitous global environmental toxicant responsible for most US fish advisories. Processes governing mercury concentrations in rivers and streams are not well understood, particularly at multiple spatial scales. We investigate how insights gained from reach-scale me...

  7. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  8. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  9. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  10. Toward understanding the insight paradox: internalized stigma moderates the association between insight and social functioning, hope, and self-esteem among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T

    2007-01-01

    Research has paradoxically linked awareness of illness to both better function outcomes and lesser hope and self-esteem. One possible explanation for these findings is that acceptance of having schizophrenia may impact outcomes differently depending on the meanings the person attaches to this acceptance, particularly whether he or she accepts stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness. To explore this possibility we performed a cluster analysis of 75 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders based on single measures of insight using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, internalized stigma using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and compared groups on concurrent assessments of hope and self-esteem. Three groups were produced by the cluster analyses: low in sight/mild stigma (n = 23), high insight/minimal stigma (n = 25), and high insight/moderate stigma (n = 27). As predicted, analysis of variance-comparing groups revealed that the high insight/moderate stigma group had significantly the lowest levels of hope on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and self-esteem using the Multidimensional Self-esteem Inventory. As predicted, the high insight/minimal stigma group also had significantly less impaired social function than the other groups. Implications for assisting persons to come to cope with awareness of illness and stigma are discussed.

  11. Neurocognitive functioning as an intermediary variable between psychopathology and insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-12-30

    Based on the neuropsychological deficit model of insight in schizophrenia, we constructed exploratory prediction models for insight, designating neurocognitive measures as the intermediary variables between psychopathology and insight into patients with schizophrenia. The models included the positive, negative, and autistic preoccupation symptoms as primary predictors, and activation symptoms as an intermediary variable for insight. Fifty-six Korean patients, in the acute stage of schizophrenia, completed the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as well as a comprehensive neurocognitive battery of tests at the baseline, 8-weeks, and 1-year follow-ups. Among the neurocognitive measures, the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) picture arrangement, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) perseverative response, and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) standard error of reaction time showed significant correlations with the symptoms and the insight. When these measures were fitted into the model as intermediaries between the symptoms and the insight, only the perseverative response was found to have a partial mediating effect - both cross-sectionally, and in the 8-week longitudinal change. Overall, the relationship between insight and neurocognitive functioning measures was found to be selective and weak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Economics Provide Insights into Trust Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishik, Claire

    Many security technologies require infrastructure for authentication, verification, and other processes. In many cases, viable and innovative security technologies are never adopted on a large scale because the necessary infrastructure is slow to emerge. Analyses of such technologies typically focus on their technical flaws, and research emphasizes innovative approaches to stronger implementation of the core features. However, an observation can be made that in many cases the success of adoption pattern depends on non-technical issues rather than technology-lack of economic incentives, difficulties in finding initial investment, inadequate government support. While a growing body of research is dedicated to economics of security and privacy in general, few theoretical studies in this area have been completed, and even fewer that look at the economics of “trust infrastructure” beyond simple “cost of ownership” models. This exploratory paper takes a look at some approaches in theoretical economics to determine if they can provide useful insights into security infrastructure technologies and architectures that have the best chance to be adopted. We attempt to discover if models used in theoretical economics can help inform technology developers of the optimal business models that offer a better chance for quick infrastructure deployment.

  13. Energy transitions research: Insights and cautionary tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, Arnulf

    2012-01-01

    This short essay first reviews the pioneers of energy transition research both in terms of data as well as theories. Three major insights that have emerged from this nascent research fields are summarized highlighting the importance of energy end-use and services, the lengthy process of transitions, as well as the patterns that characterize successful scale up of technologies and industries that drive historical energy transitions. The essay concludes with cautionary notes also derived from historical experience. In order to trigger a next energy transition policies and innovation efforts need to be persistent and continuous, aligned, as well as balanced. It is argued that current policy frameworks in place invariably do not meet these criteria and need to change in order to successfully trigger a next energy transition towards sustainability. - Highlights: ► Includes the first literature review of early energy transition research. ► Summarizes three major research findings from the literature. ► Reviews policy implications of recent case studies of energy technology innovation. ► Argues that current policy frameworks are deficient in view of above lessons.

  14. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  15. The relationship between insight and the level of expressed emotion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkiris, Ayse; Essizoglu, Altan; Gulec, Gulcan; Aksaray, Gokay

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is firstly to compare the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with good insight and OCD patients with poor insight in terms of socio-demographic and clinical features; to investigate the relation between insight and the level of the expressed emotion (EE) in the patients; and lastly to specify the factors that predict level of insight. OCD patients with good insight and patients with poor insight were compared in terms of clinical features and the perceived EE level of the patients and the individuals that they live with in order to specify the factors that predict the insight level, and to investigate the relationship between insight level and EE. It was found that the total Expressed Emotion Scale, total Level of Expressed Emotion (LEE), LEE-Emotional Response and LEE-Tolerance/Expectation subscale scores of the group comprised of patients with poor insight are higher than the other group. The results also show that the duration of illness and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) total score predict insight level. This study shows that the level of EE perceived by the patients with poor insight and the person that he/she lives with, is higher than the group with good insight. The studies that investigate the relationship between the factors of insight level and EE level, which are indicated to determine the level of the illness severity and its chronicity, will enable the researchers to understand the importance of the role of the family on the treatment processes of OCD.

  16. Do behavioural insights matter for competition policy?

    OpenAIRE

    CIRIOLO Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural insights make use of behavioural economics and psychology to analyse how humans behave when adopting economic decisions. The use of behavioural insights to improve policy-making is becoming increasing popular all over the world. Pensions, taxes, unemployment, energy efficiency, adult education, charitable giving and, of course, competition policy have benefitted from the application of behavioural insights. Emanuele Ciriolo, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre, expl...

  17. Genetic correlates of insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Keefe, Richard S E; Dungan, Jennifer R

    2018-05-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is clinically important as it is associated with several adverse outcomes. Genetic contributions to insight are unknown. We examined genetic contributions to insight by investigating if polygenic risk scores (PRS) and candidate regions were associated with insight. Schizophrenia case-only analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of Intervention Effectiveness trial. Schizophrenia PRS was constructed using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave-one out GWAS as discovery data set. For candidate regions, we selected 105 schizophrenia-associated autosomal loci and 11 schizophrenia-related oligodendrocyte genes. We used regressions to examine PRS associations and set-based testing for candidate analysis. We examined data from 730 subjects. Best-fit PRS at p-threshold of 1e-07 was associated with total insight (R 2 =0.005, P=0.05, empirical P=0.054) and treatment insight (R 2 =0.005, P=0.048, empirical P=0.048). For models that controlled for neurocognition, PRS significantly predicted treatment insight but at higher p-thresholds (0.1 to 0.5) but did not survive correction. Patients with highest polygenic burden had 5.9 times increased risk for poor insight compared to patients with lowest burden. PRS explained 3.2% (P=0.002, empirical P=0.011) of variance in poor insight. Set-based analyses identified two variants associated with poor insight- rs320703, an intergenic variant (within-set P=6e-04, FDR P=0.046) and rs1479165 in SOX2-OT (within-set P=9e-04, FDR P=0.046). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining genetic basis of insight. We provide evidence for genetic contributions to impaired insight. Relevance of findings and necessity for replication are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Probabilistic safety assessment applications and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchler, M.J.; Burns, N.L.; Liparulo, N.J.; Mink, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The insights gained through a comparison of seven PRA studies (Italian PUN, Sizewell B, Ringhals 2, Millstone 3, Zion 1 and 2, Oconee 3, and Seabrook) included insights regarding the adequacy of the PRA technology utilized in the studies and the potential areas for improvement and insights regarding the adequacy of plant designs and how PRA has been utilized to enhance the design and operation of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  19. Insights gained through probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchler, M.J.; Burns, N.L.; Liparulo, N.J.; Mink, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The insights gained through a comparison of seven probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) studies (Italian PUN, Sizewell B, Ringhals 2, Millstone 3, Zion 1 and 2, Oconee 3, and Seabrook) included insights regarding the adequacy of the PRA technology utilized in the studies and the potential areas for improvement and insights regarding the adequacy of plant designs and how PRA has been utilized to enhance the design and operation of nuclear power plants

  20. Formal thought disorder, neuropsychology and insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Alvaro; McKenna, Peter J; Berrios, German E

    2009-01-01

    Information provided by patients with schizophrenia and their respective carers is used to study the descriptive psychopathology and neuropsychology of formal thought disorder (FTD). Relatively intellectually preserved schizophrenia patients (n = 31) exhibiting from no to severe positive FTD completed a self-report scale of FTD, a scale of insight as well as several tests of executive and semantic function. The patients' carers completed another scale of FTD to assess the patients' speech. FTD as self-reported by patients was significantly associated with the synonyms test performance and severity of the reality distortion dimension. FTD as assessed by a clinician and by the patients' carers was significantly associated with executive test performance and performance in a test of associative semantics. Overall insight was significantly associated with severity of the reality distortion dimension and graded naming test performance, but was not associated with self-reported FTD or severity of FTD as assessed by the clinician or carers. The self-reported experience of FTD has different clinical and neuropsychological correlates from those of FTD as assessed by clinicians and carers. The assessment of FTD by patients and carers used along with the clinician's assessment may further the study of this group of symptoms. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Association between prefrontal N-acetylaspartate and insight in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabi, Daouia I; Liemburg, Edith J; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; de Vos, Annerieke E; Bais, Leonie; Knegtering, Henderikus; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Insight is impaired in most patients with psychosis and has been associated with poorer prognosis. The exact neural basis of impaired insight is still unknown, but it may involve disrupted prefrontal neural connectivity. Numerous studies have indeed found white matter (WM) abnormalities in psychosis. The association between prefrontal WM abnormalities and insight has not been studied yet by means of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). 1 H-MRS can be used to measure N-acetylaspartate (NAA), which is considered to be a marker of neuronal integrity. We measured insight with the Birchwood Insight Scale (BIS) as well as item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in 88 patients with psychosis. Prefrontal WM concentrations of NAA and ratios of NAA to creatine (Cr) were assessed with 1 H-MRS. Nonparametric partial correlational analyses were conducted between NAA concentrations and insight controlling for illness duration, standardized antipsychotic dose, symptom scores, voxel grey matter content and voxel cerebrospinal fluid content. We found a significant correlation between reduced NAA/Cr ratios and poorer insight as measured with the BIS, which remained significant after additional correction for full width at half maximum, signal/noise and age. This is the first study reporting a relationship between lower prefrontal concentrations of a marker of neuronal integrity and impaired insight, providing further evidence that prefrontal pathology may play an important role in impaired insight in psychosis. This may be explained by the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in several executive and metacognitive functions, such as cognitive flexibility and perspective taking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scaling Consumers' Purchase Involvement: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kraigher-Krainer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional scale, called ECID Scale, is presented in this paper. The scale is based on a comprehensive model and captures the two antecedent factors of purchase-related involvement, namely whether motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic and whether risk is perceived as low or high. The procedure of scale development and item selection is described. The scale turns out to perform well in terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity despite the use of a small set of items – four each – allowing for simultaneous measurements of up to ten purchases per respondent. The procedure of administering the scale is described so that it can now easily be applied by both, scholars and practitioners. Finally, managerial implications of data received from its application which provide insights into possible strategic marketing conclusions are discussed.

  3. Scaling analysis of meteorite shower mass distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Meibom, A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    Meteorite showers are the remains of extraterrestrial objects which are captivated by the gravitational field of the Earth. We have analyzed the mass distribution of fragments from 16 meteorite showers for scaling. The distributions exhibit distinct scaling behavior over several orders of magnetude......; the observed scaling exponents vary from shower to shower. Half of the analyzed showers show a single scaling region while the orther half show multiple scaling regimes. Such an analysis can provide knowledge about the fragmentation process and about the original meteoroid. We also suggest to compare...... the observed scaling exponents to exponents observed in laboratory experiments and discuss the possibility that one can derive insight into the original shapes of the meteoroids....

  4. Mokken scaling of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R; Watson, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hierarchical and cumulative nature of the 35 items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS), a disease-specific health-related quality of life measure. Data from 668 participants who completed the MIDAS were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure, which is a computer program that searches polychotomous data for hierarchical and cumulative scales on the basis of a range of diagnostic criteria. Fourteen MIDAS items were retained in a Mokken scale and these items included physical activity, insecurity, emotional reaction and dependency items but excluded items related to diet, medication or side-effects. Item difficulty, in item response theory terms, ran from physical activity items (low difficulty) to insecurity, suggesting that the most severe quality of life effect of myocardial infarction is loneliness and isolation. Items from the MIDAS form a strong and reliable Mokken scale, which provides new insight into the relationship between items in the MIDAS and the measurement of quality of life after myocardial infarction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  6. Measuring social capital: further insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi

    Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Research Insights About Risk Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese R. Viscelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, expectations for increased risk governance have been placed explicitly on boards of directors. In response, boards are being held responsible for not only understanding and approving management’s risk management processes, but they are also being held responsible for assessing the risks identified by those processes as part of overseeing management’s pursuit of value. These increasing responsibilities have led a number of organizations to adopt enterprise risk management (ERM as a holistic approach to risk management that extends beyond traditional silo-based risk management techniques. As boards, often through their audit committee, consider management’s implementation of ERM as part of the board’s risk oversight, a number of questions emerge that can be informed by academic research related to ERM. This article summarizes findings from ERM research to provide insights related to the board’s risk governance responsibilities. We also identify a number of research questions that warrant further analysis by governance scholars. It is our hope that this article will spawn varying types of research about ERM and corporate governance.

  8. Chronic alcoholism: insights from neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, S; Petit, G; Maurage, P; Kornreich, C; Verbanck, P; Noël, X

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the anatomical structures and cellular processes underlying psychiatric disorders may help bridge the gap between clinical signs and basic physiological processes. Accordingly, considerable insight has been gained in recent years into a common psychiatric condition, i.e., chronic alcoholism. We reviewed various physiological parameters that are altered in chronic alcoholic patients compared to healthy individuals--continuous electroencephalogram, oculomotor measures, cognitive event-related potentials and event-related oscillations--to identify links between these physiological parameters, altered cognitive processes and specific clinical symptoms. Alcoholic patients display: (1) high beta and theta power in the resting electroencephalogram, suggesting hyperarousal of their central nervous system; (2) abnormalities in smooth pursuit eye movements, in saccadic inhibition during antisaccade tasks, and in prepulse inhibition, suggesting disturbed attention modulation and abnormal patterns of prefrontal activation that may stem from the same prefrontal "inhibitory" cortical dysfunction; (3) decreased amplitude for cognitive event-related potentials situated along the continuum of information-processing, suggesting that alcoholism is associated with neurophysiological deficits at the level of the sensory cortex and not only disturbances involving associative cortices and limbic structures; and (4) decreased theta, gamma and delta oscillations, suggesting cognitive disinhibition at a functional level. The heterogeneity of alcoholic disorders in terms of symptomatology, course and outcome is the result of various pathophysiological processes that physiological parameters may help to define. These alterations may be related to precise cognitive processes that could be easily monitored neurophysiologically in order to create more homogeneous subgroups of alcoholic individuals.

  9. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  10. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  11. Cognitive insight in psychosis: the relationship between self-certainty and self-reflection dimensions and neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael A; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2010-07-30

    Cognitive insight in schizophrenia encompasses the evaluation and reinterpretation of distorted beliefs and appraisals. We investigated the neuropsychological basis of cognitive insight in psychosis. It was predicted that, like clinical insight, cognitive insight would be associated with a wide range of neuropsychological functions, but would be most strongly associated with measures of executive function. Sixty-five outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed on tests of intelligence quotient (IQ), executive function, verbal fluency, attention and memory, and completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, which includes two subscales, self-certainty and self-reflection. Higher self-certainty scores reflect greater certainty about being right and more resistant to correction (poor insight), while higher self-reflection scores indicate the expression of introspection and the willingness to acknowledge fallibility (good insight). The self-certainty dimension of poor cognitive insight was significantly associated with lower scores on the Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome; this relationship was not mediated by IQ. There were no relationships between self-reflection and any neuropsychological measures. We conclude that greater self-certainty (poor cognitive insight) is modestly associated with poorer executive function in psychotic individuals; self-reflection has no association with executive function. The self-certainty and self-reflection dimensions of cognitive insight have differential correlates, and probably different mechanisms, in psychosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…

  13. Inspiration & Insight - a tribute to Niels Reeh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, A. P.; Vieli, A.

    2009-12-01

    Niels Reeh was highly regarded for his contributions to glaciology, specifically through his rigorous combination of numerical modelling and field observations. In 1966 he began his work on the application of beam mechanics to floating glaciers and ice shelves and throughout his life, Niels retained a strong interest in modelling glacier dynamics. In the early 1980s Niels developed a 3D-model for ice sheets and in the late 1980s an advanced flow-line model. Niels Reeh also took part in the early ice-core drilling efforts in Greenland and later pioneered the concept of retrieving similar records from the surface of the ice-sheet margin. Mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets was another theme in Niels Reeh’s research, with a number of important contributions and insights still used when teaching the subject to students. Niels developed elegant models for ablation and snow densification, notable for their applicability in large-scale ice-sheet models and studied the impact of climate change on ice sheets and glaciers. Niels also took his interest in ice-dynamics and mass balance into remote sensing and worked successfully on methods to utilize radar and laser data from airborne surveys and satellites in glaciology. In this, he pioneered the combination of field experiments, satellite observations and numerical modelling to solve problems on the Greenland Ice Sheet. In this presentation we will attempt to provide an overview of Niels Reeh’s many-facetted career in acknowledgement of his contributions to the field of glaciology.

  14. Carbonate landscapes evolution: Insights from 36Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Vincent; Thomas, Franck; Ollivier, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Miramont, Cécile; Fleury, Jules; Benedetti, Lucilla; Guillou, Valéry; Aster Team

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate landscapes cover a significant fraction of the Earth surface, but their long-term dynamics is still poorly understood. When comparing with the situation in areas underlain by quartz-rich lithologies, where the routine use of 10Be-derived denudation rates has delivered fundamental insights on landscape evolution processes, this knowledge gap is particularly notable. Recent advances in the measurement of 36Cl and better understanding of its production pathways has opened the way to the development of a similar physically-based and quantitative analysis of landscape evolution in carbonate settings. However, beyond these methodological considerations, we still face fundamental geomorphological open questions, as for example the assessment of the importance of congruent carbonate dissolution in long-wavelength topographic evolution. Such unresolved problems concerning the relative importance of physical and chemical weathering processes lead to question the applicability of standard slope-dependent Geomorphic Transport Laws in carbonate settings. These issues have been addressed studying the geomorphological evolution of selected limestone ranges in Provence, SE France, where 36Cl concentration measurements in bedrock and stream sediment samples allow constraining denudation over 10 ka time-scale. We first identify a significant denudation contrast between the summit surface and the flanks of the ranges, pointing to a substantial contribution of gravity-driven processes to the landscape evolution, in addition to dissolution. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the relationships between hillslope morphology and hilltop denudation allow to identify a fundamental transition between two regimes: (1) a dynamics where hillslope evolution is controlled by linear diffusive downslope regolith transport; and, (2) a domain where denudation is limited by the rate at which physical and chemical weathering processes can produce clasts and lower the hilltop. Such an abrupt

  15. XPIWIT--an XML pipeline wrapper for the Insight Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartschat, Andreas; Hübner, Eduard; Reischl, Markus; Mikut, Ralf; Stegmaier, Johannes

    2016-01-15

    The Insight Toolkit offers plenty of features for multidimensional image analysis. Current implementations, however, often suffer either from a lack of flexibility due to hard-coded C++ pipelines for a certain task or by slow execution times, e.g. caused by inefficient implementations or multiple read/write operations for separate filter execution. We present an XML-based wrapper application for the Insight Toolkit that combines the performance of a pure C++ implementation with an easy-to-use graphical setup of dynamic image analysis pipelines. Created XML pipelines can be interpreted and executed by XPIWIT in console mode either locally or on large clusters. We successfully applied the software tool for the automated analysis of terabyte-scale, time-resolved 3D image data of zebrafish embryos. XPIWIT is implemented in C++ using the Insight Toolkit and the Qt SDK. It has been successfully compiled and tested under Windows and Unix-based systems. Software and documentation are distributed under Apache 2.0 license and are publicly available for download at https://bitbucket.org/jstegmaier/xpiwit/downloads/. johannes.stegmaier@kit.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  17. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  18. Newer insights in teledermatology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garehatty Rudrappa Kanthraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study and practice of dermatology care using interactive audio, visual, and data communications from a distance is called teledermatology. A teledermatology practice (TP provides teleconsultation as well tele-education. Initially, dermatologists used videoconference. Convenience, cost-effectiveness and easy application of the practice made "store and forward" to emerge as a basic teledermatology tool. The advent of newer technologies like third generation (3G and fourth generation (4G mobile teledermatology (MT and dermatologists′ interest to adopt tertiary TP to pool expert (second opinion to address difficult-to-manage cases (DMCs has resulted in a rapid change in TP. Online discussion groups (ODGs, author-based second opinion teledermatology (AST, or a combination of both are the types of tertiary TP. This article analyzes the feasibility studies and provides latest insight into TP with a revised classification to plan and allocate budget and apply appropriate technology. Using the acronym CAP-HAT, which represents five important factors like case, approach, purpose, health care professionals, and technology, one can frame a TP. Store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT is used to address routine cases (spotters. Chronic cases need frequent follow-up care. Leg ulcer and localized vitiligo need MT while psoriasis and leprosy require SAFT. Pigmented skin lesions require MT for triage and combination of teledermoscopy, telepathology, and teledermatology for diagnosis. A self-practising dermatologist and national health care system dermatologist use SAFT for routine cases and a combination of ASTwith an ODG to address a DMC. A TP alone or in combination with face-to-face consultation delivers quality care.

  19. Insight and subjective measures of quality of life in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Cynthia O; Harvey, Philip D; Agid, Ofer; Waye, Mary; Brambilla, Carla; Choi, Wing-Kit; Remington, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Lack of insight is a well-established phenomenon in schizophrenia, and has been associated with reduced rater-assessed functional performance but increased self-reported well-being in previous studies. The objective of this study was to examine factors that might influence insight (as assessed by the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire [ITAQ] or PANSS item G12) and subjective quality-of-life (as assessed by Lehman QoL Interview [LQOLI]), using the large National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) dataset. Uncooperativeness was assessed by PANSS item G8 ("Uncooperativeness"). In the analysis, we found significant moderating effects for insight on the relationships of subjective life satisfaction assessment to symptom severity (as assessed by CGI-S score), objective everyday functioning (as assessed by rater-administered Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life scale), clinically rated uncooperativeness (as assessed by PANSS G8), and discontinuation of treatment for all causes (all P > 0.05 for statistical interaction between insight and subject QoL). Patients with chronic schizophrenia who reported being "pleased" or "delighted" on LQOLI were found to have significantly lower neurocognitive reasoning performance and poorer insight (ITAQ total score). Our findings underscore the importance of reducing cognitive and insight impairments for both treatment compliance and improved functional outcomes.

  20. [Relationship of insight with depression and suicidal ideation in psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelaros, E; Zournatzis, E; Kontstantakopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    The associations of insight into psychosis (i.e., awareness of illness) with clinical variables have been examined by a great number of studies. Most of these studies revealed that the level of insight is negatively correlated with psychotic symptoms but positively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to test these findings in a Greek sample of patients. Forty-three outpatients (30 men and 13 women) with schizophrenia or delusional disorder being followed up at the Mental Health Centre of Kavala took part in the study. Patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Patients' mean age was 40.7 years and the mean duration of illness was 18.67 years. All participants were under treatment and clinically stable at the time of the study. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms, the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) to assess the insight into psychosis, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for the evaluation of depression recording separately the score for item 10 as an estimate of suicidal ideation. All the scales used have been adapted to Greek population. We used Spearman rho coefficient to assess the strength of correlations between the scales because the distributions of some scores were not normal. In order to assess the predictive value of insight for depression and suicidal ideation, we used hierarchical linear regression analysis. Correlation coefficients between SAI-E and the clinical scales of psychopathology, depression and suicide ideation was statistically significant at the pregression analysis showed that our model of positive and negative psychopathology and insight explained 47.4% of the variance of depression and 32.2% of the variance of suicidal ideation. The predictive value of insight was critically important, because only after the introduction of the SAI-E score in the analysis our

  1. Robotic and Virtual Reality BCIs Using Spatial Tactile and Auditory Oddball Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews nine robotic and virtual reality (VR) brain-computer interface (BCI) projects developed by the author, in collaboration with his graduate students, within the BCI-lab research group during its association with University of Tsukuba, Japan. The nine novel approaches are discussed in applications to direct brain-robot and brain-virtual-reality-agent control interfaces using tactile and auditory BCI technologies. The BCI user intentions are decoded from the brainwaves in realtime using a non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) and they are translated to a symbiotic robot or virtual reality agent thought-based only control. A communication protocol between the BCI output and the robot or the virtual environment is realized in a symbiotic communication scenario using an user datagram protocol (UDP), which constitutes an internet of things (IoT) control scenario. Results obtained from healthy users reproducing simple brain-robot and brain-virtual-agent control tasks in online experiments support the research goal of a possibility to interact with robotic devices and virtual reality agents using symbiotic thought-based BCI technologies. An offline BCI classification accuracy boosting method, using a previously proposed information geometry derived approach, is also discussed in order to further support the reviewed robotic and virtual reality thought-based control paradigms.

  2. Current trends in hardware and software for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, P; Bianchi, L; Guger, C; Cincotti, F; Schalk, G

    2011-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a non-muscular communication channel to people with and without disabilities. BCI devices consist of hardware and software. BCI hardware records signals from the brain, either invasively or non-invasively, using a series of device components. BCI software then translates these signals into device output commands and provides feedback. One may categorize different types of BCI applications into the following four categories: basic research, clinical/translational research, consumer products, and emerging applications. These four categories use BCI hardware and software, but have different sets of requirements. For example, while basic research needs to explore a wide range of system configurations, and thus requires a wide range of hardware and software capabilities, applications in the other three categories may be designed for relatively narrow purposes and thus may only need a very limited subset of capabilities. This paper summarizes technical aspects for each of these four categories of BCI applications. The results indicate that BCI technology is in transition from isolated demonstrations to systematic research and commercial development. This process requires several multidisciplinary efforts, including the development of better integrated and more robust BCI hardware and software, the definition of standardized interfaces, and the development of certification, dissemination and reimbursement procedures.

  3. Efficient FIR Filter Implementations for Multichannel BCIs Using Xilinx System Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain computer interface (BCI is a combination of software and hardware communication protocols that allow brain to control external devices. Main purpose of BCI controlled external devices is to provide communication medium for disabled persons. Now these devices are considered as a new way to rehabilitate patients with impunities. There are certain potentials present in electroencephalogram (EEG that correspond to specific event. Main issue is to detect such event related potentials online in such a low signal to noise ratio (SNR. In this paper we propose a method that will facilitate the concept of online processing by providing an efficient filtering implementation in a hardware friendly environment by switching to finite impulse response (FIR. Main focus of this research is to minimize latency and computational delay of preprocessing related to any BCI application. Four different finite impulse response (FIR implementations along with large Laplacian filter are implemented in Xilinx System Generator. Efficiency of 25% is achieved in terms of reduced number of coefficients and multiplications which in turn reduce computational delays accordingly.

  4. Robotic and Virtual Reality BCIs Using Spatial Tactile and Auditory Oddball Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews nine robotic and virtual reality (VR) brain–computer interface (BCI) projects developed by the author, in collaboration with his graduate students, within the BCI–lab research group during its association with University of Tsukuba, Japan. The nine novel approaches are discussed in applications to direct brain-robot and brain-virtual-reality-agent control interfaces using tactile and auditory BCI technologies. The BCI user intentions are decoded from the brainwaves in realti...

  5. Efficient FIR Filter Implementations for Multichannel BCIs Using Xilinx System Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Usman; Wasim, Muhammad; Khan, Umar Shahbaz; Mubasher Saleem, Muhammad; Hassan, Ali; Rashid, Nasir; Islam Tiwana, Mohsin; Hamza, Amir; Kashif, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Background . Brain computer interface (BCI) is a combination of software and hardware communication protocols that allow brain to control external devices. Main purpose of BCI controlled external devices is to provide communication medium for disabled persons. Now these devices are considered as a new way to rehabilitate patients with impunities. There are certain potentials present in electroencephalogram (EEG) that correspond to specific event. Main issue is to detect such event related potentials online in such a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this paper we propose a method that will facilitate the concept of online processing by providing an efficient filtering implementation in a hardware friendly environment by switching to finite impulse response (FIR). Main focus of this research is to minimize latency and computational delay of preprocessing related to any BCI application. Four different finite impulse response (FIR) implementations along with large Laplacian filter are implemented in Xilinx System Generator. Efficiency of 25% is achieved in terms of reduced number of coefficients and multiplications which in turn reduce computational delays accordingly.

  6. Natural stimuli improve auditory BCIs with respect to ergonomics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Johannes; Krenzlin, Konrad; Dähne, Sven; Tangermann, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Moving from well-controlled, brisk artificial stimuli to natural and less-controlled stimuli seems counter-intuitive for event-related potential (ERP) studies. As natural stimuli typically contain a richer internal structure, they might introduce higher levels of variance and jitter in the ERP responses. Both characteristics are unfavorable for a good single-trial classification of ERPs in the context of a multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) system, where the class-discriminant information between target stimuli and non-target stimuli must be maximized. For the application in an auditory BCI system, however, the transition from simple artificial tones to natural syllables can be useful despite the variance introduced. In the presented study, healthy users (N = 9) participated in an offline auditory nine-class BCI experiment with artificial and natural stimuli. It is shown that the use of syllables as natural stimuli does not only improve the users’ ergonomic ratings; also the classification performance is increased. Moreover, natural stimuli obtain a better balance in multi-class decisions, such that the number of systematic confusions between the nine classes is reduced. Hopefully, our findings may contribute to make auditory BCI paradigms more user friendly and applicable for patients.

  7. Robotic and Virtual Reality BCIs Using Spatial Tactile and Auditory Oddball Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maciej Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews nine robotic and virtual reality (VR brain-computer interface (BCI projects developed by the author, in collaboration with his graduate students, within the BCI-lab research group during its association with University of Tsukuba, Japan. The nine novel approaches are discussed in applications to direct brain-robot and brain-virtual-reality-agent control interfaces using tactile and auditory BCI technologies. The BCI user intentions are decoded from the brainwaves in realtime using a non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG and they are translated to a symbiotic robot or virtual reality agent thought-based only control. A communication protocol between the BCI output and the robot or the virtual environment is realized in a symbiotic communication scenario using an user datagram protocol (UDP, which constitutes an internet of things (IoT control scenario. Results obtained from healthy users reproducing simple brain-robot and brain-virtual-agent control tasks in online experiments support the research goal of a possibility to interact with robotic devices and virtual reality agents using symbiotic thought-based BCI technologies. An offline BCI classification accuracy boosting method, using a previously proposed information geometry derived approach, is also discussed in order to further support the reviewed robotic and virtual reality thought-based control paradigms.

  8. Current trends in hardware and software for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, P.; Bianchi, L.; Guger, C.; Cincotti, F.; Schalk, G.

    2011-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a non-muscular communication channel to people with and without disabilities. BCI devices consist of hardware and software. BCI hardware records signals from the brain, either invasively or non-invasively, using a series of device components. BCI software then translates these signals into device output commands and provides feedback. One may categorize different types of BCI applications into the following four categories: basic research, clinical/translational research, consumer products, and emerging applications. These four categories use BCI hardware and software, but have different sets of requirements. For example, while basic research needs to explore a wide range of system configurations, and thus requires a wide range of hardware and software capabilities, applications in the other three categories may be designed for relatively narrow purposes and thus may only need a very limited subset of capabilities. This paper summarizes technical aspects for each of these four categories of BCI applications. The results indicate that BCI technology is in transition from isolated demonstrations to systematic research and commercial development. This process requires several multidisciplinary efforts, including the development of better integrated and more robust BCI hardware and software, the definition of standardized interfaces, and the development of certification, dissemination and reimbursement procedures.

  9. Insight and psychosis: Functional and anatomical brain connectivity and self-reflection in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; van der Meer, Lisette; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; David, Anthony S; Aleman, André

    2015-12-01

    Impaired insight into illness, associated with worse treatment outcome, is common in schizophrenia. Insight has been related to the self-reflective processing, centred on the medial frontal cortex. We hypothesized that anatomical and functional routes to and from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would differ in patients according to their degree of impaired insight. Forty-five schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy subjects performed a self-reflection task during fMRI, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Using dynamic causal modelling we observed increased effective connectivity from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and dorsal mPFC (dmPFC) towards the vmPFC with poorer insight and decrease from vmPFC to the IPL. Stronger connectivity from the PCC to vmPFC during judgment of traits related to self was associated with poorer insight. We found small-scale significant changes in white matter integrity associated with clinical insight. Self-reflection may be influenced by synaptic changes that lead to the observed alterations in functional connectivity accompanied by the small-scale but measurable alterations in anatomical connections. Our findings may point to a neural compensatory response to an impairment of connectivity between self-processing regions. Similarly, the observed hyper-connectivity might be a primary deficit linked to inefficiency in the component cognitive processes that lead to impaired insight. We suggest that the stronger cognitive demands placed on patients with poor insight is reflected in increased effective connectivity during the task in this study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Chinese version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS: Mokken scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Roger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hierarchical scales are very useful in clinical practice due to their ability to discriminate precisely between individuals, and the original English version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale has been shown to contain a hierarchy of items. The purpose of this study was to analyse a Mandarin Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale for a hierarchy of items according to the criteria of Mokken scaling. Data from 180 Chinese participants who completed the Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure and the 'R' statistical programme using the diagnostics available in these programmes. Correlation between Mandarin Chinese items and a Chinese translation of the Short Form (36 Health Survey was also analysed. Findings Fifteen items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were retained in a strong and reliable Mokken scale; invariant item ordering was not evident and the Mokken scaled items of the Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale correlated with the Short Form (36 Health Survey. Conclusions Items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale form a Mokken scale and this offers further insight into how the items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale relate to the measurement of health-related quality of life people with a myocardial infarction.

  11. A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study of Insight in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Patients in Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Kanradi, Haridas; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20) were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD) was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude) increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups.

  12. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  13. Insight, self-stigma and psychosocial outcomes in Schizophrenia: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Y-J; Chang, H-A; Kao, Y-C; Tzeng, N-S; Lu, C-W; Loh, C-H

    2018-04-01

    Poor insight is prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with acute illness severity, medication non-adherence and poor treatment outcomes. Paradoxically, high insight has been associated with various undesirable outcomes, including low self-esteem, depression and low subjective quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. Despite the growing body of studies conducted in Western countries supporting the pernicious effects of improved insight in psychosis, which bases on the level of self-stigma, the effects are unclear in non-Western societies. The current study examined the role of self-stigma in the relationship between insight and psychosocial outcomes in a Chinese population. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from two general university hospitals. Sociodemographic data and clinical variables were recorded and self-report scales were employed to measure self-stigma, depression, insight, self-esteem and subjective QoL. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the cross-sectional data. High levels of self-stigma were reported by 39% of the participants (n = 67). The influences of insight, self-stigma, self-esteem and depression on subjective QoL were confirmed by the SEM results. Our model with the closest fit to the data (χ 2 = 33.28; df = 20; p = 0.03; χ 2/df = 1.66; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.06) demonstrated that self-stigma might fully mediate the association of insight with low self-esteem, depression and poor subjective QoL. High insight into illness contributed to self-stigma, which caused low self-esteem and depression and, consequently, low QoL. Notably, insight did not directly affect self-esteem, depression or QoL. Furthermore, the association of insight with poor psychosocial outcomes was not moderated by self-stigma. Our findings support the mediating model of insight relevant to the poor psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with

  14. Associations of suicidality with cognitive ability and cognitive insight in outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Jennifer; Choi, Jennifer; Kangas, Julie L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Harvey, Philip D; Depp, Colin A

    2018-02-01

    Previous literature suggests that better cognitive ability and insight are associated with greater lifetime risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia, counter to the direction of association in the general population. However, the conjoint association between distinct cognitive domains, insight, and suicidality has not been assessed. In a cross-sectional study, 162 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed cognitive testing via the MATRICS battery, symptom and cognitive insight assessments, along with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. We then contrasted participants based on history of suicidality by cognitive domains and insight measures and conducted multivariate analyses. Although a history of any passive ideation was not associated with cognitive ability or insight, verbal learning was positively associated with a greater history of suicidal attempt and prior ideation with a plan and intent. Higher cognitive insight, and the self-reflectiveness subscale insight, was also associated with history of passive or active suicidal ideation. Cognitive insight and cognitive ability were independent from each other, and there were no moderating influences of insight on the effect of cognitive ability on suicide related history. Exploratory analyses revealed that history of planned attempts were associated with greater verbal learning, whereas histories of aborted attempts were associated with poorer reasoning and problem-solving. Although cross-sectional and retrospective, this study provides support that greater cognitive ability, specifically verbal learning, along with self-reflectiveness, may confer elevated risk for more severe suicidal ideation and behavior in an independent fashion. Interestingly, poorer problem-solving was associated with aborted suicide attempts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Does Insight Affect the Efficacy of Antipsychotics in Acute Mania?: An Individual Patient Data Regression Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, Carlijn C M; Koeter, Maarten W J; Wohlfarth, Tamar D; Storosum, Jitschak G; van den Brink, Wim; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Denys, Damiaan A J P

    2016-02-01

    Patients having an acute manic episode of bipolar disorder often lack insight into their condition. Because little is known about the possible effect of insight on treatment efficacy, we examined whether insight at the start of treatment affects the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment in patients with acute mania. We used individual patient data from 7 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled registration studies of 4 antipsychotics in patients with acute mania (N = 1904). Insight was measured with item 11 of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and study endpoint 3 weeks later. Treatment outcome was defined by (a) mean change score, (b) response defined as 50% or more improvement on YMRS, and (c) remission defined as YMRS score less than 8 at study endpoint. We used multilevel mixed effect linear (or logistic) regression analyses of individual patient data to assess the interaction between baseline insight and treatment outcomes. At treatment initiation, 1207 (63.5%) patients had impaired or no insight into their condition. Level of insight significantly modified the efficacy of treatment by mean change score (P = 0.039), response rate (P = 0.033), and remission rate (P = 0.043), with greater improvement in patients with more impaired insight. We therefore recommend that patients experiencing acute mania should be treated immediately and not be delayed until patients regain insight.

  17. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  18. Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance. Sagadevan G Mundree, Bienyameen Baker, Shaheen Mowla, Shaun Peters, Saberi Marais, Clare Vander Willigen, Kershini Govender, Alice Maredza, Samson Muyanga, Jill M Farrant, Jennifer A Thomson ...

  19. Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Proteus, New Insights for a New Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddell, William; Kim, Joanne; Smith, Jack

    2004-01-01

    .... The Proteus concept offers a range of new insights that, when used in the planning process, will assist military, intelligence, and industry leaders in their efforts to prepare for future success...

  1. [Exploring the relationship between internalized stigma, insight and depression for inpatients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, C; Bouchoux, A

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies on insight in people with schizophrenia showed that insight level is linked with treatment compliance. Therefore, many therapies are aimed at increasing the insight level, such as psycho-education. However, insight level is also probably linked with depression level. So, improving insight is at risk of increasing the level of depression. Nevertheless, results on this topic are not consensual in the scientific literature. Presumably, this could be due to the concept of insight itself, although we could hypothesise that some confounding variables are implied in the interaction between insight and depression, such as internalized stigma. to test the hypothesis that the relationship between insight and depression is mediated by internalized stigma in people with schizophrenia. Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV or ICD-10) recruited in mental health services in Île de France (75% male), aged 20 to 64 years (m=38.71, σ=0. 43), filled in questionnaires assessing internalized stigma (ISMI), depression (CDSS and BDI) and insight (SAIQ, Q8, IS), after giving their written informed consent. Correlations between insight, depression and different variables were made (Hypothesis 1). Then we ran multiple regressions and partial correlations to test the internalized stigma mediation (Hypothesis 2). Insight, internalized stigma and depression are statistically significantly correlated with each scales used (except Q8). Insight is correlated with depressed mood (correlations between IS and CDSS: r=0.27, P=0.04, and BDI, r=0.40, P=0.001). We also found negative correlations between SAIQ and CDSS (r=-0.35, P=0.005) and the BDI (r=-0.4265, P=0.000) which means that good insight is linked with depression. This result validates our hypothesis 1. The statistic tests reveal other complementary results: the association between insight and depression is mediated by the level of internalized stigma: when ISMI is controlled, the correlation between insight and

  2. Cognitive functioning and insight in schizophrenia and in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birindelli, Nadia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Crivelli, Barbara; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Rocca, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning and insight of illness in two groups of patients during their stable phases, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder. We recruited 104 consecutive outpatients, 64 with schizophrenia, 40 with schizoaffective disorder, in the period between July 2010 and July 2011. They all fulfilled formal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric assessment included the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Sindrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Insight of illness was evaluated using SUMD. Neuropsychological assessment included Winsconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT). Differences between the groups were tested using Chi-square test for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. All variables significantly different between the two groups of subjects were subsequently analysed using a logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure using diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) as dependent variable. After backward selection of variables, four variables predicted a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: marital status, a higher number of admission, better attentive functions and awareness of specific signs or symptoms of disease. The prediction model accounted for 55% of the variance of schizoaffective disorder diagnosis. With replication, our findings would allow higher diagnostic accuracy and have an impact on clinical decision making, in light of an amelioration of vocational functioning.

  3. Decision insight into stakeholder conflict for ERN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siirola, John; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Benz, Zachary O.; Stansbury, Melanie; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting); Warrender, Christina E.; Morrow, James Dan

    2012-02-01

    Participatory modeling has become an important tool in facilitating resource decision making and dispute resolution. Approaches to modeling that are commonly used in this context often do not adequately account for important human factors. Current techniques provide insights into how certain human activities and variables affect resource outcomes; however, they do not directly simulate the complex variables that shape how, why, and under what conditions different human agents behave in ways that affect resources and human interactions related to them. Current approaches also do not adequately reveal how the effects of individual decisions scale up to have systemic level effects in complex resource systems. This lack of integration prevents the development of more robust models to support decision making and dispute resolution processes. Development of integrated tools is further hampered by the fact that collection of primary data for decision-making modeling is costly and time consuming. This project seeks to develop a new approach to resource modeling that incorporates both technical and behavioral modeling techniques into a single decision-making architecture. The modeling platform is enhanced by use of traditional and advanced processes and tools for expedited data capture. Specific objectives of the project are: (1) Develop a proof of concept for a new technical approach to resource modeling that combines the computational techniques of system dynamics and agent based modeling, (2) Develop an iterative, participatory modeling process supported with traditional and advance data capture techniques that may be utilized to facilitate decision making, dispute resolution, and collaborative learning processes, and (3) Examine potential applications of this technology and process. The development of this decision support architecture included both the engineering of the technology and the development of a participatory method to build and apply the technology

  4. Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to

  5. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Insight of patients and their parents into schizophrenia: Exploring agreement and the influence of parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Alexandra; Norton, Joanna; Bortolon, Catherine; Robichon, Melissa; Rolland, Camille; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2015-08-30

    Poor insight is found in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients and has been associated with multiple factors of which cognitive functioning, social and environmental factors. Few studies have explored associations between patient insight and that of their biological parents', and the influence of parental factors. Insight was assessed in 41 patients and their biological parents with Amador's Scale for the assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Parents' knowledge about schizophrenia and critical attitudes were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. Both groups underwent cognitive assessments for working memory and executive functioning. Insight in patients and their parents was not associated for any of the SUMD dimensions but a significant correlation was found between patient and parent awareness of treatment effect for patient-parent dyads with frequent daily contact. Low parental critical attitude was associated with higher patient awareness of symptoms and a high parental memory task score with high patient insight. Our study is the first to suggest a possible influence of parental factors such as critical attitudes and cognitive performance on patient insight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy in India's Future: Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Boillot, Jean-Joseph; Autheman, Nicolas; Ruet, Joel; Siddiqui, Zakaria; Zaleski, C. Pierre; Cruciani, Michel

    2009-01-01

    In the decades following India's independence from British rule in 1947, the West's image of India was summarized in three simple cliches: the world's largest democracy, an impoverished continent, and economic growth hampered by a fussy bureaucracy and the caste system, all in a context of a particular religion. These cliches are perhaps one of the reasons that the success of India's green revolution was recognized so late, a revolution that allowed the country to develop its agricultural sector and to feed its population. Since the 1990's, the easing of planning constraints have liberated the Indian economy and allowed it to embark on a more significant path of growth. New cliches have begun to replace the old: India will become a second China and, lagging by 10 to 20 years, will follow the same trajectory, with its development marked more by services and the use of renewable energy. However, these trends will not prevent primary energy demand from exploding. On the contrary, India faces difficult choices on how it increases clean, secure, affordable energy to all its citizens. Many of the choices are the same as found elsewhere, but on a scale matched only by China. The IFRI European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy Project intends this study to deepen public understanding of the magnitude of India's challenges. Various aspects of the serious energy problems are studied throughout this monograph. The authors have written freely on these matters without attempting to reconcile their different viewpoints. The first chapter, by Maite Jaureguy-Naudin and Jacques Lesourne, presents an overview of India's present and future energy system. The authors follow a prudent but realistic view of India's future. The second chapter, by Jean-Joseph Boillot, a French expert on India who has published several books and articles on this subject, and Nicolas Autheman, research fellow, describes in greater detail the specifics of India's economy and the actors who are now present

  8. Scale dependence of deuteron electrodisintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S. N.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Isolating nuclear structure properties from knock-out reactions in a process-independent manner requires a controlled factorization, which is always to some degree scale and scheme dependent. Understanding this dependence is important for robust extractions from experiment, to correctly use the structure information in other processes, and to understand the impact of approximations for both. Purpose: We seek insight into scale dependence by exploring a model calculation of deuteron electrodisintegration, which provides a simple and clean theoretical laboratory. Methods: By considering various kinematic regions of the longitudinal structure function, we can examine how the components—the initial deuteron wave function, the current operator, and the final-state interactions (FSIs)—combine at different scales. We use the similarity renormalization group to evolve each component. Results: When evolved to different resolutions, the ingredients are all modified, but how they combine depends strongly on the kinematic region. In some regions, for example, the FSIs are largely unaffected by evolution, while elsewhere FSIs are greatly reduced. For certain kinematics, the impulse approximation at a high renormalization group resolution gives an intuitive picture in terms of a one-body current breaking up a short-range correlated neutron-proton pair, although FSIs distort this simple picture. With evolution to low resolution, however, the cross section is unchanged but a very different and arguably simpler intuitive picture emerges, with the evolved current efficiently represented at low momentum through derivative expansions or low-rank singular value decompositions. Conclusions: The underlying physics of deuteron electrodisintegration is scale dependent and not just kinematics dependent. As a result, intuition about physics such as the role of short-range correlations or D -state mixing in particular kinematic regimes can be strongly scale dependent

  9. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  10. Is Insight Always the Same? A Protocol Analysis of Insight in Compound Remote Associate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…

  11. IPE data base structure and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    A data base (the ''IPE Insights Data Base''), has been developed that stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants are conducting in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter GL88-20. The data base, which is a collection of linked dbase files, stores information about individual plant designs, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. This data base can be queried and used as a computational tool to derive insights regarding the plants for which data is stored. This paper sets out the objectives of the IPE Insights Data Base, describes its structure and contents, illustrates sample queries, and discusses possible future uses

  12. IPE data base structure and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1994-01-01

    A data base (the open-quotes IPE Insights Data Baseclose quotes), has been developed that stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants are conducting in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter GL88-20. The data base, which is a collection of linked dBase files, stores information about individual plant designs, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. This data base can be queried and used as a computational tool to derive insights regarding the plants for which data is stored. This paper sets out the objectives of the IPE Insights Data Base, describes its structure and contents, illustrates sample queries, and discusses possible future uses

  13. Unawareness of the disease in patients with schizophrenia: diagnosis and insight-oriented psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Osokina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Phenomenon of patients' unawareness of their illness (insight is a pathognomonic diagnostic criterion that distinguishes schizophrenia from many other psychiatric disorders. More than half of patients with schizophrenia do not realize their illness that makes their treatment more difficult. Diagnosis of insight in patients with schizophrenia is an important issue. The volume and content of rehabilitation programs depends on it. The purpose of research is to study the structure of insight in patients with schizophrenia, its relationship with certain clinical, social and psychological indicators, and to assess the influence of insight-oriented psychotherapy on the outcomes of schizophrenia. Material and methods. 237 patients with schizophrenia were studied: 139 (58.6 % men and 98 (41.4 % women aged 18-35 years. Patients of the main group (122 people received pharmacotherapy and were included in the program of insight-oriented psychotherapy. Patients of the comparison group (115 people received standard treatment. Measurement of the insight level was carried out using the scale of unawareness of mental disorder (SUMD. To study social indicators the scale of social functioning in various spheres was used (Zaitsev, 1999. The quality of life level and social stigma were measured by WHOQOL-BREF and adapted version of the self-stigmatization scale (SSMIS. Evaluation of outcomes in schizophrenia was carried out using the IMR and RMQ scales. The level of cognitive functioning was assessed by the GACF-CogFu scale. The severity of depression was measured by the scale developed by Beck (BDI. The mechanisms of psychological defense were assessed using the scale of R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman (1979. Mathematical processing of the results was also carried out. Results. Correlations were found between a higher level of patient awareness of the disease and its better prognosis (r= -0.507; p<0.05, a higher level of social functioning (r= 0.478; p<0

  14. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  15. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  16. Neural signatures of attention: insights from decoding population activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Gregoriou, Georgia G

    2018-01-01

    Understanding brain function and the computations that individual neurons and neuronal ensembles carry out during cognitive functions is one of the biggest challenges in neuroscientific research. To this end, invasive electrophysiological studies have provided important insights by recording the activity of single neurons in behaving animals. To average out noise, responses are typically averaged across repetitions and across neurons that are usually recorded on different days. However, the brain makes decisions on short time scales based on limited exposure to sensory stimulation by interpreting responses of populations of neurons on a moment to moment basis. Recent studies have employed machine-learning algorithms in attention and other cognitive tasks to decode the information content of distributed activity patterns across neuronal ensembles on a single trial basis. Here, we review results from studies that have used pattern-classification decoding approaches to explore the population representation of cognitive functions. These studies have offered significant insights into population coding mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss how such advances can aid the development of cognitive brain-computer interfaces.

  17. Arthropod evolution and development: recent insights from chelicerates and myriapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Daniel J; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-08-01

    Research on arthropod genetics and development has added much to our understanding of animal evolution. While this work has mainly focused on insects, a growing body of research on the less studied myriapods and chelicerates is providing important new insights into arthropod genomics and development. Multiple chelicerate lineages have a high incidence of gene duplication, which is suggestive of large-scale and even whole genome duplications. Furthermore, the duplication and divergence of genes is associated with the evolution of appendage morphology and other phenotypes in chelicerates and myriapods. Recent studies of these arthropods have also helped to understand the evolution and development of segmented bodies. Further research on chelicerate and myriapod models as well as species from other orders of these subphyla has great potential to expand our understanding of the evolution of animal genomes and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Induced seismicity provides insight into why earthquake ruptures stop

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin

    2017-12-21

    Injection-induced earthquakes pose a serious seismic hazard but also offer an opportunity to gain insight into earthquake physics. Currently used models relating the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes to injection parameters do not incorporate rupture physics. We develop theoretical estimates, validated by simulations, of the size of ruptures induced by localized pore-pressure perturbations and propagating on prestressed faults. Our model accounts for ruptures growing beyond the perturbed area and distinguishes self-arrested from runaway ruptures. We develop a theoretical scaling relation between the largest magnitude of self-arrested earthquakes and the injected volume and find it consistent with observed maximum magnitudes of injection-induced earthquakes over a broad range of injected volumes, suggesting that, although runaway ruptures are possible, most injection-induced events so far have been self-arrested ruptures.

  19. Metacognitive reflection and insight therapy (MERIT) for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, S; van Donkersgoed, R J M; Timmerman, M E; Aan Het Rot, M; Wunderink, L; Arends, J; van Der Gaag, M; Aleman, A; Lysaker, P H; Pijnenborg, G H M

    2018-04-25

    Impaired metacognition is associated with difficulties in the daily functioning of people with psychosis. Metacognition can be divided into four domains: Self-Reflection, Understanding the Other's Mind, Decentration, and Mastery. This study investigated whether Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) can be used to improve metacognition. This study is a randomized controlled trial. Patients in the active condition (n = 35) received forty MERIT sessions, the control group (n = 35) received treatment as usual. Multilevel intention-to-treat and completers analyses were performed for metacognition and secondary outcomes (psychotic symptomatology, cognitive insight, Theory of Mind, empathy, depression, self-stigma, quality of life, social functioning, and work readiness). Eighteen out of 35 participants finished treatment, half the drop-out stemmed from therapist attrition (N = 5) or before the first session (N = 4). Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated that in both groups metacognition improved between pre- and post-measurements, with no significant differences between the groups. Patients who received MERIT continued to improve, while the control group returned to baseline, leading to significant differences at follow-up. Completers analysis (18/35) showed improvements on the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A) scales Self Reflectivity and metacognitive Mastery at follow-up. No effects were found on secondary outcomes. On average, participants in the MERIT group were, based on MAS-A scores, at follow-up more likely to recognize their thoughts as changeable rather than as facts. MERIT might be useful for patients whose self-reflection is too limited to benefit from other therapies. Given how no changes were found in secondary measures, further research is needed. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Georgetown University Research Psychologist Shares Terrorism Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2013-01-01

    Georgetown University research psychologist Dr. Anne Speckhard has spent the last decade interviewing more than four hundred terrorists, terrorist supporters, family members, close associates and even terrorist's hostages in Western Europe and the Middle East. Speckhard shared her insights with students at the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security in July.

  1. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  2. Some new insights into collimator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Atkins, F.B.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Beck, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    Relationships among collimator design parameters, physical properties of the resulting images, and human observer performance are discussed. The insight provided by these relationships hopefully will prove useful to the individual who must design or select a collimator for a particular imaging task

  3. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  4. Scientific Visualization: From Data to Insight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 7. Scientific Visualization: From Data to Insight. Vijay Natarajan. General Article Volume 18 Issue 7 July 2013 pp 615-629. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/07/0615-0629 ...

  5. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  6. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    individuals in critical life phases. This book has been written by experts who documented latest developments in the field. It is written for individuals looking for in depth knowledge of the nutritional, chemistry, biochemistry, health and medical relevance of the vitamin. The book provides insights...

  7. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  8. Innovate or perish: The RSM Insight debate

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Russell

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although innovation is one the hottest management topics of the 21st century, very few firms excel at it. Here, in the first RSM Insight debate, three of the school’s leading management scholars discuss how firms should approach the subject of innovation and what it takes to be successful at it.

  9. Innovate or perish : The RSM Insight debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilbert (Russell)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although innovation is one the hottest management topics of the 21st century, very few firms excel at it. Here, in the first RSM Insight debate, three of the school’s leading management scholars discuss how firms should approach the subject of innovation and what

  10. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided

  11. Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...

  12. Insights and their emergence in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasmundi, Sarah Bro; Linell, Per

    2017-01-01

    of sense-making, problem-solving and task performance in naturalistic contexts. Second, it presents a promising method for the analysis of cognitive activities, Cognitive Event Analysis (CEA), with which we investigate real-life medical interactions, especially the emergence of insights in procedural task......-cultural patterns of behaviour....

  13. Safeguarding our environment: insight from an African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The care and management of the natural environment constitutes an important aspect of environmental philosophy; an area of study that critically scrutinizes and evaluates human activities in his environment. African environmental ethics approaches problematic fundamental issues in deep ecology with a unique insight, ...

  14. Swahili residential architecture reconsidered | Steyn | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  15. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2003 physics pp. 285–295. Insights on some chiral ... Liquid crystals; smectics; chirality; frustrated phases; twist grain boundary phases. ... molecules are more or less packed in layers and smectic phases can be seen ..... (imaging plate or CCD camera) which was located at about 300 mm from the sample.

  16. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  17. Psychosis: clinical insight and beliefs in immigrants in their first episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Barrett, Elizabeth Ann; Nerhus, Mari; Büchman, Camilla; Simonsen, Carmen; Faerden, Ann; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2018-04-01

    Lack of insight into illness is frequent in psychotic disorders and seen as part of their primary pathology. The recognition of symptoms as psychotic, and beliefs about treatment alternatives, is also influenced by socio-cultural factors. Here we examined clinical insight into illness and beliefs about psychosis in immigrants in their first episode of psychosis compared with a reference group. A total of 277 first-episode psychosis participants were recruited to this cross-sectional study; 40 first- and 40 second-generation immigrants from Europe, Americas and Oceania (n = 37), Asia including Turkey (n = 28) or Africa (n = 15). The Birchwood Insight Scale was used to measure clinical insight and 'The Attitudes and Beliefs about Mental Health Problems' schizophrenia version to assess socio-cultural beliefs. Immigrants did not differ from the reference sample in clinical insight. After controlling for education level, first-generation immigrants were less likely to recognize psychotic symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 2.9; Wald = 8.977, degrees of freedom (d.f.) 1, P = 0.003) and viewed hospitalization (OR 5.2; Wald = 20.388, d.f. 1, P = 0.001) and treatment by a psychiatrist (OR 4.9; Wald = 6.609, d.f. 1, P = 0.01)) as less beneficial than the reference group. Immigrants from Asia held more alternative explanations (OR 0.3; Wald = 6.567, d.f. 1, P = 0.010). There were significantly stronger associations between clinical insight and socio-cultural beliefs in the reference group. Socio-cultural beliefs about psychosis in immigrants in first-episode psychosis call for more tailored information to this group, and emphasize the importance of treatment interventions involving both a cultural and personal perspective of insight. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Bolide Airbursts as a Seismic Source for the 2018 Mars InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, J.; Teanby, N. A.; Wookey, J.; Selby, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Garcia, R.

    2017-10-01

    In 2018, NASA will launch InSight, a single-station suite of geophysical instruments, designed to characterise the martian interior. We investigate the seismo-acoustic signal generated by a bolide entering the martian atmosphere and exploding in a terminal airburst, and assess this phenomenon as a potential observable for the SEIS seismic payload. Terrestrial analogue data from four recent events are used to identify diagnostic airburst characteristics in both the time and frequency domain. In order to estimate a potential number of detectable events for InSight, we first model the impactor source population from observations made on the Earth, scaled for planetary radius, entry velocity and source density. We go on to calculate a range of potential airbursts from the larger incident impactor population. We estimate there to be {˜} 1000 events of this nature per year on Mars. To then derive a detectable number of airbursts for InSight, we scale this number according to atmospheric attenuation, air-to-ground coupling inefficiencies and by instrument capability for SEIS. We predict between 10-200 detectable events per year for InSight.

  19. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  20. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  1. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  2. Overlap and distinction between measures of insight and self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit

    2018-05-24

    Multiple studies on insight into one's illness and self-stigma among patients with serious mental illness and their relatives have shown that these constructs are related to one another and that they affect outcome. However, a critical exploration of the items used to assess both constructs raises questions with regard to the possible overlapping and centrality of items. The current study used five different samples to explore the possible overlap and distinction between insight and self-stigma, and to identify central items, via network analyses and principal component factor analysis. Findings from the network analyses showed overlap between insight and self-stigma exist with a relatively clearer observational distinction between the constructs among the two parent samples in comparison to the patient samples. Principal component factor analysis constrained to two factors showed that a relatively high percentage of items were not loaded on either factor, and in a few datasets, several insight items were loaded on the self-stigma scale and vice versa. The author discusses implications for research and calls for rethinking the way insight is assessed. Clinical implications are also discussed in reference to central items of social isolation, future worries and stereotype endorsement among the different study groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Insightfulness and later infant attachment in clinically depressed and nonclinical mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Quitmann, Julia H; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne; Tharner, Anne; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal insightfulness and sensitivity and subsequent infant attachment security and disorganization in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant groups. Nineteen depressed mothers with infants ages 3 to 11 months participated in this study. Twenty nonclinical mother-infant dyads were matched to the clinical sample according to infant sex and age. Maternal depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), insightfulness using the Insightfulness Assessment (IA), and sensitivity using the Maternal Sensitivity Scales (M.D.S. Ainsworth, 1969). IA classifications and subscales were considered separately. Later infant attachment was assessed by the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). Depressed mothers tended to have less securely attached children than did nonclinical mothers. Within the clinical sample, the insightfulness categories correlated slightly moderately with attachment security, but were not related to attachment disorganization. Within the nonclinical sample, the IA categories were slightly moderately associated with attachment security and with disorganization. On IA subscales, relationship patterns differed in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant dyads. These findings provide the first evidence of the predictive power of the IA categorization and subscales on subsequent infant attachment. They also may allow the development of different foci of intervention for enhancing insightful caregiving. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  5. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  6. The association of lifetime insight and cognition in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Zarzuela, Amalia; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    Poor insight has been related to poor course in psychosis. However, the role of cognition in insight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cognition and lifetime psychopathological dimensions on insight in psychosis. We followed up 42 patients with psychotic disorders over 10years. Lifetime psychopathological dimensions and cognitive performance were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups by lifetime patterns of insight and compared with 42 healthy volunteers. Lower IQ and poorer social cognition were associated with higher risks of poorer lifetime insight of feeling ill and global insight respectively. Lifetime negative symptoms were associated with a higher risk of poorer lifetime insight into symptoms. Lifetime lack of insight is independent of cognitive impairment in specific domains, except for social cognition. Higher IQ may contribute to better lifetime awareness of illness, while better ability to manage emotions is involved in lifetime global insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. To scale or not to scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, dynamic energy budget (DEB) models operate with animals that have maintenance rates scaling with their body volume, and assimilation rates scaling with body surface area. However, when applying such criteria for the individual in a population level model, the emergent behaviour...

  8. The use of the Job Satisfaction Scale in Slovenian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vid Pogačnik

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Job Satisfaction Scale was applied to a representative sample of 5.094 employees in 54 Slovenian companies. Appropriate metric characteristics and the possibility of insight into global job satisfaction as well as into its 15 aspects, speak for usefulness of this instrument. The quality of work life in Slovenian companies is also briefly described.

  9. Microsecond atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations of polyimides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulin, S.V.; Gurtovenko, A.A.; Larin, S.V.; Nazarychev, V.M.; Lyulin, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    We employ microsecond atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations to get insight into the structural and thermal properties of heat-resistant bulk polyimides. As electrostatic interactions are essential for the polyimides considered, we propose a two-step equilibration protocol that includes long

  10. Knowledge and insight in relation to functional remission in patients with long-term psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Hartvig, Per

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the knowledge and insight in relation to treatment response. METHODS: A naturalistic study was performed using patient interviews and information gathered from patient drug charts. Apart from the rating scales used for classification of treatment response (CANSEPT method), the SPKS knowledge......BACKGROUND: Patients with psychotic symptoms often respond poorly to treatment. Outcomes can be affected by biological, physiological and psychological factors according to the vulnerability-stress model. The patient's coping strategies and beliefs have been correlated with outcomes. OBJECTIVES...... of illness and drugs rating scale was utilized. RESULTS: In the group of patients in functional remission (FR; n = 38), 37% had insight into their illness as compared to 10% among those not in functional remission (non-FR; n = 78; P strategy for responding...

  11. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  12. Addressing the challenges of diagnostics demand and supply: insights from an online global health discussion platform

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Nora; Wachter, Keri; Pai, Madhukar; Gallarda, Jim; Boehme, Catharina; Celentano, Isabelle; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Several barriers challenge development, adoption and scale-up of diagnostics in low and middle income countries. An innovative global health discussion platform allows capturing insights from the global health community on factors driving demand and supply for diagnostics. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of the online discussion ?Advancing Care Delivery: Driving Demand and Supply of Diagnostics? organised by the Global Health Delivery Project (GHD) (http://www.ghdonline.org/) at H...

  13. Economies of scale in ICT: how to balance infrastructure and applications for economies of scale in ICT and business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, U.; Dedene, G.; Maes, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study offers new insight into the economies of scale of ICT departments. Drawing from data on Housing Corporations, Municipalities and Hospitals, evidence was found that particularly infrastructure-related investments leverage a more efficient use of ICT resources. The measured economies

  14. Economies of scale in ICT: how to balance infrastructure and applications for economies of scale in ICT and business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, U.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers new insight into the economies of scale of ICT departments. Drawing from data on Housing Corporations, Municipalities and Hospitals, evidence was found that particularly infrastructure-related investments leverage a more efficient use of ICT resources. The measured economies

  15. Safety insights from forensics evaluations at Daiichi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rempe

    2017-01-01

    Information obtained from Daiichi is required to inform Decontamination and Decommissioning activities, improving the ability of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO to characterize potential hazards and to ensure the safety of workers involved with cleanup activities. This paper reports initial results from the US Forensics Effort to utilize examination information obtained by TEPCO to enhance the safety of existing and future nuclear power plant designs. In this paper, three examples are presented in which examination information, such as visual images, dose surveys, sample evaluations, and muon tomography examinations, along with data from plant instrumentation, are used to obtain significant safety insights in the areas of component performance, fission product release and transport, debris end-state location, and combustible gas generation and transport. In addition to reducing uncertainties related to severe accident modeling progression, these insights confirm actions, such as the importance of water addition and containment venting, that are emphasized in updated guidance for severe accident prevention, mitigation, and emergency planning.

  16. Scaling Principles for Understanding and Exploiting Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Alfred

    A grand challenge in the science of adhesion is the development of a general design paradigm for adhesive materials that can sustain large forces across an interface yet be detached with minimal force upon command. Essential to this challenge is the generality of achieving this performance under a wide set of external conditions and across an extensive range of forces. Nature has provided some guidance through various examples, e.g. geckos, for how to meet this challenge; however, a single solution is not evident upon initial investigation. To help provide insight into nature's ability to scale reversible adhesion and adapt to different external constraints, we have developed a general scaling theory that describes the force capacity of an adhesive interface in the context of biological locomotion. We have demonstrated that this scaling theory can be used to understand the relative performance of a wide range of organisms, including numerous gecko species and insects, as well as an extensive library of synthetic adhesive materials. We will present the development and testing of this scaling theory, and how this understanding has helped guide the development of new composite materials for high capacity adhesives. We will also demonstrate how this scaling theory has led to the development of new strategies for transfer printing and adhesive applications in manufacturing processes. Overall, the developed scaling principles provide a framework for guiding the design of adhesives.

  17. Forming a Perceived Franchise Value: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights and deals with the topic of perceived franchise value. The objective of the paper is – what elements form the franchisee's perceived value in service business (comparing with alternative of own business model). The aim of the paper is to propose systematic value elements in the process of forming a value of a franchise business model perceived by the franchisee. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be relevant to en...

  18. Biblical Leadership: Insights for Today's Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Hershey H.; Friedman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The scholarly literature in management has paid little attention to the study of Biblical figures as leaders. This paper aims to advance the effort to fill this gap by demonstrating that many insights about successful and unsuccessful leadership may be derived from the Bible. Successful leaders demonstrated a willingness to be different, a passion for justice, humility, and a concern for others. Unsuccessful leaders were sidetracked from their mission by the hunger for power or by lust and envy.

  19. Paris after Trump: An Inconvenient Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    With his announcement to pull the US out of the Paris Agreement US President Donald Trump has snubbed the international climate policy community. Key remaining parties to the Agreement such as Europe and China might call for carbon tariffs on US imports as a sanctioning instrument to coerce US compliance. Our analysis, however, reveals an inconvenient insight for advocates of carbon tariffs: given the possibility of retaliatory tariffs across all imported goods, carbon tariffs do not constitu...

  20. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  1. Egypt: Pharoahs and Fundamentalists? | Swart | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerrie Swart, Hussein Solomon, Anneli Botha. Abstract. Africa Insight Vol.33(4) 2003: 78-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ai.v33i4.22345 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  2. Atomic scale chemical tomography of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Brian; Wang, Xiaoyue; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Human bone is a complex hierarchical material. Understanding bone structure and its corresponding composition at the nanometer scale is critical for elucidating mechanisms of biomineralization under healthy and pathological states. However, the three-dimensional structure and chemical nature of bone remains largely unexplored at the nanometer scale due to the challenges associated with characterizing both the structural and chemical integrity of bone simultaneously. Here, we use correlative transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the first time, to our knowledge, to reveal structures in human bone at the atomic level. This approach provides an overlaying chemical map of the organic and inorganic constituents of bone on its structure. This first use of atom probe tomography on human bone reveals local gradients, trace element detection of Mg, and the co-localization of Na with the inorganic-organic interface of bone mineral and collagen fibrils, suggesting the important role of Na-rich organics in the structural connection between mineral and collagen. Our findings provide the first insights into the hierarchical organization and chemical heterogeneity in human bone in three-dimensions at its smallest length scale - the atomic level. We demonstrate that atom probe tomography shows potential for new insights in biomineralization research on bone.

  3. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  4. Risk insights from seismic margin reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the information that has been derived from the three seismic-margin reviews conducted so far, and the information that is potentially available from using the seismic-margin method more generally. There are two different methodologies for conducting seismic margin reviews of nuclear power plants, one developed under NRC sponsorship and one developed under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. Both methodologies will be covered in this paper. The paper begins with a summary of the steps necessary to complete a margin review, and will then outline the key technical difficulties that need to be addressed. After this introduction, the paper covers the safety and operational insights derived from the three seismic-margin reviews already completed: the NRC-sponsored review at Maine Yankee; the EPRI-sponsored review at Catawba; and the joint EPRI/NRC/utility effort at Hatch. The emphasis is on engineering insights, with attention to the aspects of the reviews that are easiest to perform and that provide the most readily available insights

  5. 2016 Mars Insight Mission Design and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Frauenholz, Ray; Fujii, Ken; Wallace, Mark; You, Tung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Scheduled for a launch in the 2016 Earth to Mars opportunity, the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) Mission will arrive to Mars in late September 2016 with the primary objective of placing a science lander on the surface of the Red Planet followed by the deployment of two science instruments to investigate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. In order to achieve a successful landing, the InSight Project has selected a launch/arrival strategy that satisfies the following key and driving requirements: (1) Deliver a total launch mass of 727 kg, (2) target a nominal landing site with a cumulative Delta V99 less than 30 m/s, and (3) approach EDL with a V-infinity upper limit of 3.941 km/s and (4) an entry flight-path angle (EFPA) of -12.5 +/- 0.26 deg, 3-sigma; the InSight trajectories have been designed such that they (5) provide UHF-band communications via Direct-To-Earth and MRO from Entry through landing plus 60 s, (6) with injection aimpoints biased away from Mars such that the probability of the launch vehicle upper stage impacting Mars is less than 1.0 X 10(exp 4) for fifty years after launch, and (7) non-nominal impact probabilities due to failure during the Cruise phase less than 1.0 X 10(exp 2).

  6. Insights from an overview of four PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Arrieta, L.; Teichmann, T.; Davis, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of an investigation of four probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), those for Millstone 3 Seabrook, Shoreham, and Oconee 3, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Reliability and Risk Assessment branch of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This group of four PRAs was subjected to an overview process with the basic goal of ascertaining what insights might be gained (beyond those already documented within the individual PRAs) by an independent evaluation of the group with respect to nuclear plant safety and vulnerability. Specifically, the objectives of the study were 1) to identify and rank initiators, systems, components, and failure modes from dominant accident sequences according to their contribution to core melt probability and public risk; and 2) to derive from this process plant-specific and generic insights. The effort was not intended to verify the specific details and results of each PRA but rather - having accepted the results - to see what they might mean in a more global context. This paper also presents some comments and insights into the amenability of certain features of these PRAs to this type of overview process

  7. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  8. Preferential flow from pore to landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.; Larsbo, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, we give a brief personal overview of some recent progress in quantifying preferential flow in the vadose zone, based on our own work and those of other researchers. One key challenge is to bridge the gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (i.e. pore to Darcy scales) and the scales of interest for management (i.e. fields, catchments, regions). We present results of recent studies that exemplify the potential of 3-D non-invasive imaging techniques to visualize and quantify flow processes at the pore scale. These studies should lead to a better understanding of how the topology of macropore networks control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow under variable initial and boundary conditions. Extrapolation of this process knowledge to larger scales will remain difficult, since measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these larger scales are lacking. Recent work suggests that the application of key concepts from percolation theory could be useful in this context. Investigation of the larger Darcy-scale heterogeneities that generate preferential flow patterns at the soil profile, hillslope and field scales has been facilitated by hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help to parameterize models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  9. A deeper view of insight in schizophrenia: Insight dimensions, unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms and its relation with psychopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Esther; Ochoa, Susana; Cobo, Jesús; Nieto, Lourdes; Usall, Judith; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Garcia-Ribera, Carles; Pérez Solà, Victor; Ruiz, Ada-I; Baños, Iris; Cobo, Jesús; García-Ribera, Carles; González, Beatriz; Massons, Carmina; Nieto, Lourdes; Monserrat, Clara; Ochoa, Susana; Pousa, Esther; Ruiz, Ada-Inmaculada; Ruiz, Isabel; Sanchez-Cabezudo, Dolores; Usall, Judith

    2017-11-01

    1. To describe insight in a large sample of schizophrenia subjects from a multidimensional point of view, including unawareness of general insight dimensions as well as unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms. 2. To explore the relationship between unawareness and clinical and socio-demographic variables. 248 schizophrenia patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, five factor model of Lindenmayer) and the full Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Bivariate associations and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between unawareness, symptoms and socio-demographic variables. Around 40% of the sample showed unawareness of mental disorder, of the need for medication and of the social consequences. Levels of unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms varied considerably. General unawareness dimensions showed small significant correlations with positive, cognitive and excitement factors of psychopathology, whereas these symptom factors showed higher correlations with unawareness of particular symptoms. Similarly, regression models showed a small significant predictive value of positive symptoms in the three general unawareness dimensions while a moderate one in the prediction of particular symptoms. Misattribution showed no significant correlations with any symptom factors. Results confirm that insight in schizophrenia is a multi-phased phenomenon and that unawareness into particular symptoms varies widely. The overlap between unawareness dimensions and psychopathology is small and seems to be restricted to positive and cognitive symptoms, supporting the accounts from cognitive neurosciences that suggest that besides basic cognition poor insight may be in part a failure of self-reflection or strategic metacognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ice nucleating particles from a large-scale sampling network: insight into geographic and temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrod, Jann; Weber, Daniel; Thomson, Erik S.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Saturno, Jorge; Artaxo, Paulo; Curtius, Joachim; Bingemer, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    The number concentration of ice nucleating particles (INP) is an important, yet under quantified atmospheric parameter. The temporal and geographic extent of observations worldwide remains relatively small, with many regions of the world (even whole continents and oceans), almost completely unrepresented by observational data. Measurements at pristine sites are particularly rare, but all the more valuable because such observations are necessary to estimate the pre-industrial baseline of aerosol and cloud related parameters that are needed to better understand the climate system and forecast future scenarios. As a partner of BACCHUS we began in September 2014 to operate an INP measurement network of four sampling stations, with a global geographic distribution. The stations are located at unique sites reaching from the Arctic to the equator: the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory ATTO in Brazil, the Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea, the Zeppelin Observatory at Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic and the Taunus Observatory near Frankfurt, Germany. Since 2014 samples were collected regularly by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto silicon substrates. The INP on the substrate are activated and analyzed in the isothermal static diffusion chamber FRIDGE at temperatures between -20°C and -30°C and relative humidity with respect to ice from 115 to 135%. Here we present data from the years 2015 and 2016 from this novel INP network and from selected campaign-based measurements from remote sites, including the Mt. Kenya GAW station. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project BACCHUS under grant agreement No 603445 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit FOR 1525 (INUIT).

  11. New insights into the nanometer-scaled cell-surface interspace by cell-sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Mirko; Baumann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The culture of adherent cells on solid surfaces is an established in vitro method, and the adhesion process of a cell is considered as an important trigger for many cellular processes (e.g., polarity and tumor genesis). However, not all of the eliciting biochemical or biophysical reactions are yet understood. Interestingly, there are not much experimental data about the impact that the interspace between an adherent cell and the (solid) substrate has on the cell's behavior. This interspace is mainly built by the basolateral side of epithelial cells and the substrate. This paper gives some new results of non-invasive and non-optical measurements in the interspace. The measurements were made with silicon cell-sensor hybrids. Measurements of acidification, adhesion, and respiration are analyzed in view of the situation in the interspace. The results show that, in general, the release of an ion or molecule on the basolateral side can have much more influence on the biophysical situation than a release of an ion or molecule on the apical side. In particular, the apical acidification (i.e., amount of extruded protons) of, e.g., epithelial tumor cells is several orders of magnitude higher than the basolateral acidification. These experimental results are a simple consequence of the fact that the basolateral volume of the interspace is several orders of magnitudes smaller than the apical volume. These results have the following consequences for the cell adhesion:a)static situation: if a cell is already adhered to a solid substrate, the basolateral and apical release and uptake of molecules have to be considered in a very differentiated way; b)dynamic situation: if the cell is adhering to the substrate, the then built basolateral side changes in a much stronger way than the apical side. This effect is here discussed as a possible eliciting and general mechanism for essential intracellular changes

  12. Insights into mountain precipitation and snowpack from a basin-scale wireless-sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Glaser, S.; Bales, R.; Conklin, M.; Rice, R.; Marks, D.

    2017-08-01

    A spatially distributed wireless-sensor network, installed across the 2154 km2 portion of the 5311 km2 American River basin above 1500 m elevation, provided spatial measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and snow depth in the Sierra Nevada, California. The network consisted of 10 sensor clusters, each with 10 measurement nodes, distributed to capture the variability in topography and vegetation cover. The sensor network captured significant spatial heterogeneity in rain versus snow precipitation for water-year 2014, variability that was not apparent in the more limited operational data. Using daily dew-point temperature to track temporal elevational changes in the rain-snow transition, the amount of snow accumulation at each node was used to estimate the fraction of rain versus snow. This resulted in an underestimate of total precipitation below the 0°C dew-point elevation, which averaged 1730 m across 10 precipitation events, indicating that measuring snow does not capture total precipitation. We suggest blending lower elevation rain gauge data with higher-elevation sensor-node data for each event to estimate total precipitation. Blended estimates were on average 15-30% higher than using either set of measurements alone. Using data from the current operational snow-pillow sites gives even lower estimates of basin-wide precipitation. Given the increasing importance of liquid precipitation in a warming climate, a strategy that blends distributed measurements of both liquid and solid precipitation will provide more accurate basin-wide precipitation estimates, plus spatial and temporal patters of snow accumulation and melt in a basin.

  13. Wild boar movement ecology across scales: Insights from a population expanding into agroecosystems of Southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Morelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Over the time, ungulates have seen their populations continuously changing under the e ect of direct, i.e. hunting pressure, and indirect, i.e. land-use changes, human activities. Under control until recently, ungulates have progressively adapted to these modi cations and are now able to cope with human-shaped environments, consequently their number and range have greatly and worryingly increased. More particularly, among ungulates species, the wild boar Sus scrofa raises...

  14. New insights into scaling of fat-free mass to height across children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimian; Zhang, Junyi; Ying, Zhiliang; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Forbes expressed fat-free mass (FFM, in kg) as the cube of height (H, in m): FFM = 10.3 × H(3). Our objective is to examine the potential influence of gender and population ancestry on the association between FFM and height. This is a cross-sectional analysis involving an existing dataset of 279 healthy subjects (155 males and 124 females) with age 5-59 years and body mass index (BMI) 14-28 kg/m(2). FFM was measured by a four-component model as the criterion. Nonlinear regression models were fitted: FFM = 10.8 × H(2.95) for the males and FFM = 10.1 × H(2.90) for the females. The 95% confidence intervals for the exponential coefficients were (2.83, 3.07) for the males and (2.72, 3.08) for the females, both containing hypothesized value 3.0. Population ancestry adjustment was considered in the H-FFM model. The coefficient of the H-FFM model for male Asians is smaller than that for male Caucasians (P = 0.006), while there is no statistically significant difference among African-Americans, Caucasians and Hispanics: 10.6 for the males (10.1 for Asians, 10.8 for African-Americans, 10.7 for Caucasians and 10.4 for Hispanics) and 9.6 for the females (9.3 for Asians, 9.8 for African-Americans, 9.6 for Caucasians and 9.5 for Hispanics). Age adjustment was unnecessary for the coefficient of the H-FFM model. Height is the most important factor contributing to the magnitude of FFM across most of the lifespan, though both gender and ancestry effects are significant in the H-FFM model. The proposed H-FFM model can be further used to develop a mechanistic model to explain why population ancestry, gender and age influence the associations between BMI and %Fat. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Merabet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein function is encoded within protein sequence and protein domains. However, how protein domains cooperate within a protein to modulate overall activity and how this impacts functional diversification at the molecular and organism levels remains largely unaddressed. Focusing on three domains of the central class Drosophila Hox transcription factor AbdominalA (AbdA, we used combinatorial domain mutations and most known AbdA developmental functions as biological readouts to investigate how protein domains collectively shape protein activity. The results uncover redundancy, interactivity, and multifunctionality of protein domains as salient features underlying overall AbdA protein activity, providing means to apprehend functional diversity and accounting for the robustness of Hox-controlled developmental programs. Importantly, the results highlight context-dependency in protein domain usage and interaction, allowing major modifications in domains to be tolerated without general functional loss. The non-pleoitropic effect of domain mutation suggests that protein modification may contribute more broadly to molecular changes underlying morphological diversification during evolution, so far thought to rely largely on modification in gene cis-regulatory sequences.

  16. Alkali chloride induced corrosion of superheaters under biomass firing conditions: Improved insights from laboratory scale studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed to the fo......One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed......, [1–3]). However, complete understanding of the corrosion mechanism under biomass-firing conditions has not yet been achieved. This is attributed partly to the complex nature of the corrosion process since there are many species produced from fuel combustion which can interact with one another...... and the steel surface. Many studies have focused on specific parameters such as, deposit composition (KCl, K2SO4, K2CO3, etc.) or gas species such as HCl, SO2, H2O [4–6], however, more research is necessary to understand the interaction of deposits and gas mixtures with each other and metallic superheater...

  17. New insights about enzyme evolution from large scale studies of sequence and structure relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Babbitt, Patricia; Brown, SD; Babbitt, PC

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfami

  18. Insights into mountain precipitation and snowpack from a basin-scale wireless-sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A spatially distributed wireless-sensor network, installed across the 2154 km2 portion of the 5311 km2 American River basin above 1500 m elevation, provided spatial measurements of temperature, relative humidity and snow depth. The network consisted of 10 sensor clusters, each with 10 measurement no...

  19. Revisiting the Euganean Geothermal System (NE Italy) - insights from large scale hydrothermal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Marco; Cacace, Mauro; Fabbri, Paolo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Zampieri, Dario; Dalla Libera, Nico

    2017-04-01

    As one of the largest and most extensive utilized geothermal system in northern Italy, the Euganean Geothermal System (EGS, Veneto region, NE Italy) has long been the subject of still ongoing studies. Hydrothermal waters feeding the system are of meteoric origin and infiltrate in the Veneto Prealps, to the north of the main geothermal area. The waters circulate for approximately 100 km in the subsurface of the central Veneto, outflowing with temperatures from 65°C to 86°C to the southwest near the cities of Abano Terme and Montegrotto Terme. The naturally emerging waters are mainly used for balneotherapeutic purposes, forming the famous Euganean spa district. This preferential outflow is thought to have a relevant structural component producing a high secondary permeability localized within an area of limited extent (approx. 25 km2). This peculiar structure is associated with a local network of fractures resulting from transtentional tectonics of the regional Schio-Vicenza fault system (SVFS) bounding the Euganean Geothermal Field (EGF). In the present study, a revised conceptual hydrothermal model for the EGS based on the regional hydrogeology and structural geology is proposed. Particularly, this work aims to quantify: (1) the role of the regional SVFS, and (2) the impact of the high density local fractures mesh beneath the EGF on the regional-to-local groundwater flow circulation at depths and its thermal configuration. 3D coupled flow and heat transport numerical simulations inspired by the newly developed conceptual model are carried out to properly quantify the results from these interactions. Consistently with the observations, the obtained results provide indication for temperatures in the EGF reservoir being higher than in the surrounding areas, despite a uniform basal regional crustal heat inflow. In addition, they point to the presence of a structural causative process for the localized outflow, in which deep-seated groundwater is preferentially conducted to the surface, warming up on its way, by the high level of connected fractures beneath the EGF, thus corroborating the proposed conceptual model.

  20. Large Scale Sequencing of Dothideomycetes Provides Insights into Genome Evolution and Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Sajeet; Crous, Pedro; Binder, Manfred; Spatafora, Joseph; Grigoriev, Igor

    2015-03-16

    Dothideomycetes is the largest and most diverse class of ascomycete fungi with 23 orders 110 families, 1300 genera and over 19,000 known species. We present comparative analysis of 70 Dothideomycete genomes including over 50 that we sequenced and are as yet unpublished. This extensive sampling has almost quadrupled the previous study of 18 species and uncovered a 10 fold range of genome sizes. We were able to clarify the phylogenetic positions of several species whose origins were unclear in previous morphological and sequence comparison studies. We analyzed selected gene families including proteases, transporters and small secreted proteins and show that major differences in gene content is influenced by speciation.

  1. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  2. Inspiring your audience to action: insights from theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W.; Hekkers, J.; Mott, B.

    2011-12-01

    Findings from market research sponsored by The Ocean Project, along with many other recent studies, have revealed two troubling facts: 1. Despite increased efforts to grow climate and ocean literacy among the general public, American adult's knowledge of climate and ocean health has remained stagnant in the past decade; and 2. Knowledge and level of concern about climate change show little correlation, i.e. the people who are most concerned about climate change are not the ones who know most about the science of climate change, and vice versa. If knowledge does not lead to action among the general public, what implications does this have for those of us working for conservation? How can we motivate people to act for conservation? The Ocean Project's large-scale survey of American attitudes and values vis-à-vis ocean, climate change, and related conservation issues provides answers to many such burning questions. Our research findings reveal critical insights about what, who, and how we can communicate for maximum efficacy. In particular, youth and minorities emerged as important constituencies: not only are they more environmentally aware and/or socially conscious, they are important influencers who demonstrate greater propensity to modify their behaviors and/or engage in conservation advocacy. Our presentation will discuss the implications of these findings for strategic communication for conservation action as well as present case studies from the Monterey Bay Aquarium that support these research findings and provide insights from evaluation of two significantly different interpretive approaches to communicate about climate change-a live animal exhibit and a video-based, live-narrated auditorium program.

  3. KEY ISSUES REVIEW: Insights from simulations of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard B.

    2007-03-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604)

  4. Toughening by nano-scaled twin boundaries in nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Haofei; Qu, Shaoxing; Yang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Joint enhancement on strength and toughness provides a cutting-edge research frontier for metals and alloys. Conventional strengthening methods typically lead to suppressed ductility and fracture toughness. In this study, large-scale atomic simulation on the fracture process is performed featuring nanocrystals embedded with nano-scaled twin boundaries (TBs). Four toughening mechanisms by nano-scaled TBs are identified: (i) crack blunting through dislocation accommodation along the nano-scaled TBs; (ii) crack deflection in a manner of intragranular propagation; (iii) daughter crack formation along the nano-scaled TBs that further enhances the toughness and (iv) curved TB planes owing to an excessive pileup of geometrically necessary dislocations. These toughening mechanisms jointly dictate the mechanical behavior of nano-structured materials, and provide insights into the application of nano-scaled TBs with an aim to simultaneously obtain enhanced strength and toughness. New approaches to introduce these coherent internal defects into the nanostructure of crystalline materials are also proposed

  5. The relationship between insight and psychosis in state patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. State patients committed under the Mental Health Act must have insight into their illness and the crime they committed before they can be discharged. Patients with schizophrenia are described as having poor insight into the nature and severity of their disorder. Various factors influence insight, and in some studies ...

  6. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  7. Cellular-scale hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Horton, Renita

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic tools are providing many new insights into the chemical, physical and physicochemical responses of cells. Both suspension-level and single-cell measurements have been studied. We review our studies of these kinds of problems for red blood cells with particular focus on the shapes of ...

  8. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  9. Optimal renormalization scales and commensurate scale relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations relate observables to observables and thus are independent of theoretical conventions, such as the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme. The physical quantities are related at commensurate scales which satisfy a transitivity rule which ensures that predictions are independent of the choice of an intermediate renormalization scheme. QCD can thus be tested in a new and precise way by checking that the observables track both in their relative normalization and in their commensurate scale dependence. For example, the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule at a given momentum transfer Q can be predicted from measurements of the e+e - annihilation cross section at a corresponding commensurate energy scale √s ∝ Q, thus generalizing Crewther's relation to non-conformal QCD. The coefficients that appear in this perturbative expansion take the form of a simple geometric series and thus have no renormalon divergent behavior. The authors also discuss scale-fixed relations between the threshold corrections to the heavy quark production cross section in e+e - annihilation and the heavy quark coupling α V which is measurable in lattice gauge theory

  10. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-04

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90/sup 0/ torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this.

  11. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90 0 torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this

  12. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  13. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  14. Phylogenetic turnover during subtropical forest succession across environmental and phylogenetic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Purschke, Oliver; Michalski, Stefan G.; Bruelheide, Helge; Durka, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although spatial and temporal patterns of phylogenetic community structure during succession are inherently interlinked and assembly processes vary with environmental and phylogenetic scales, successional studies of community assembly have yet to integrate spatial and temporal components of community structure, while accounting for scaling issues. To gain insight into the processes that generate biodiversity after disturbance, we combine analyses of spatial and temporal phylogenetic ...

  15. Ultra-Scale Visualization: Research and Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, K-L; Ross, Robert; Huang Jian; Humphreys, Greg; Max, Nelson; Moreland, Kenneth; Owens, John D; Shen, H-W

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the science behind large-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments requires extracting meaning from data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. Visualization is the most intuitive means for scientists to understand data at this scale, and the most effective way to communicate their findings with others. Even though visualization technology has matured over the past twenty years, it is still limited by the extent and scale of the data that it can be applied to, and also by the functionalities that were mostly designed for single-user, single-variable, and single-space investigation. The Institute for Ultra-Scale Visualization (IUSV), funded by the DOE SciDAC-2 program, has the mission to advance visualization technologies to enable knowledge discovery and dissemination for peta-scale applications. By working with the SciDAC application projects, Centers for Enabling Technology, and other Institutes, IUSV aims to lead the research innovation that can create new visualization capabilities needed for gleaning insights from data at petascale and beyond to solve forefront scientific problems. This paper outlines what we see as some of the biggest research challenges facing the visualization community, and how we can approach education and outreach to put successful research in the hands of scientists

  16. Is Humanity Doomed? Insights from Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, offers profound insights into human sustainability. However, astrobiology is commonly neglected in sustainability research. This paper develops three topics connecting astrobiology to sustainability: constraints on what zones in the universe are habitable, the absence of observations of extraterrestrial civilizations, and the physical fate of the universe. These topics have major implications for our thinking and action on sustainability. While we may not be doomed, we must take certain actions to sustain ourselves in this universe. The topics also suggest that our current sustainability efforts may be of literally galactic importance.

  17. A Storytelling Approach: Insights from the Shambaa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Camillo

    2018-03-19

    Narrative medicine explores the stories that patients tell; this paper, conversely, looks at some of the stories that patients are told. The paper starts by examining the 'story' told by the Shambaa people of Tanzania to explain the bubonic plague and contrasts this with the stories told by Ghanaian communities to explain lymphatic filariasis. By harnessing insights from memory studies, these stories' memorability is claimed to be due to their use mnemonic devices woven into stories. The paper suggests that stories can be unpatronising, informative, and appropriate vehicles for communicating medical information to all age groups across all cultures.

  18. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  19. Frameworks for visualization at the extreme scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, Kenneth I; Miller, Mark; Childs, Hank; Bethel, E Wes; Clyne, John; Ostrouchov, George; Ahern, Sean

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of visualization at the extreme scale involve issues of scale, complexity, temporal exploration and uncertainty. The Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology to increased scientific discovery and insight. In this paper, we introduce new uses of visualization frameworks through the introduction of Equivalence Class Functions (ECFs). These functions give a new class of derived quantities designed to greatly expand the ability of the end user to explore and visualize data. ECFs are defined over equivalence classes (i.e., groupings) of elements from an original mesh, and produce summary values for the classes as output. ECFs can be used in the visualization process to directly analyze data, or can be used to synthesize new derived quantities on the original mesh. The design of ECFs enable a parallel implementation that allows the use of these techniques on massive data sets that require parallel processing

  20. Linking Scales in Plastic Deformation and Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Paneda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; S. Deshpande, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    We investigate crack growth initiation and subsequent resistance in metallic materials by means of an implicit multi-scale approach. Strain gradient plasticity is employed to model the mechanical response of the solid so as to incorporate the role of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs......) and accurately capture plasticity at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation. The response ahead of the crack is described by means of a traction-separation law, which is characterized by the cohesive strength and the fracture energy. Results reveal that large gradients of plastic strain accumulatein...... the vicinity of the crack, elevating the dislocation density and the local stress. This stress elevation enhances crack propagation and significantly lowers the steady state fracture toughness with respect to conventional plasticity. Important insight is gained into fracture phenomena that cannot be explained...

  1. Stigma as a predictor of insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruß, Linda; Wiedl, Karl Heinz; Waldorf, Manuel

    2012-07-30

    Insight in schizophrenia can be seen as a multifactorial phenomenon. Although multifactorial pathways have also been suggested for insight formation, motivational explanations have rarely been tested. The present study explores stigma as one possible determinant of a motivated lack of insight in integrated models of insight formation. It examines the contribution of socio-demographic and clinical variables, neurocognitive functions, symptoms, and stigma to the prediction of insight into illness. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N=111) participated in a comprehensive battery of instruments to measure insight dimensions, stigma, neurocognitive functions, symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical variables. Blockwise multiple regression analysis indicates significant association of variability in insight dimensions with gender (7%) and stigma (i. e., stereotype agreement: 5%). Our findings demonstrate an incremental validity of stigma, which indicates a motivational pathway of insight formation. This study enables better understanding of the multifactorial nature of insight, which should be considered in therapeutic interventions to improve insight. The roles of gender and neurocognitive functions in insight formation are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling Double Subjectivity for Gaining Programmable Insights: Framing the Case of Uber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Henderson Cheeks

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the premier platform that enable the emergence of new technologies. Online news is unstructured narrative text that embeds facts, frames, and amplification that can influence society attitudes about technology adoption. Online news sources are carriers of voluminous amounts of news for reaching significantly large audience and have no geographical or time boundaries. The interplay of complex and dynamical forces among authors and readers allow for progressive emergent and latent properties to exhibit. Our concept of “Double subjectivity” provides a new paradigm for exploring complementary programmable insights of deeply buried meanings in a system. The ability to understand internal embeddedness in a large collection of related articles are beyond the reach of existing computational tools, and are hence left to human readers with unscalable results. This paper uncovers the potential to utilize advanced machine learning in a new way to automate the understanding of implicit structures and their associated latent meanings to give an early human-level insight into emergent technologies, with a concrete example of “Uber”. This paper establishes the new concept of double subjectivity as an instrument for large-scale machining of unstructured text and introduces a social influence model for the discovery of distinct pathways into emerging technology, and hence an insight. The programmable insight reveals early spatial and temporal opinion shift monitoring in complex networks in a structured way for computational treatment and visualization.

  3. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.

  4. Mechanistic insights into heterogeneous methane activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Allegra A.; Aljama, Hassan; Kakekhani, Arvin; Yoo, Jong Suk; Kulkarni, Ambarish

    2017-01-01

    While natural gas is an abundant chemical fuel, its low volumetric energy density has prompted a search for catalysts able to transform methane into more useful chemicals. This search has often been aided through the use of transition state (TS) scaling relationships, which estimate methane activation TS energies as a linear function of a more easily calculated descriptor, such as final state energy, thus avoiding tedious TS energy calculations. It has been shown that methane can be activated via a radical or surface-stabilized pathway, both of which possess a unique TS scaling relationship. Herein, we present a simple model to aid in the prediction of methane activation barriers on heterogeneous catalysts. Analogous to the universal radical TS scaling relationship introduced in a previous publication, we show that a universal TS scaling relationship that transcends catalysts classes also seems to exist for surface-stabilized methane activation if the relevant final state energy is used. We demonstrate that this scaling relationship holds for several reducible and irreducible oxides, promoted metals, and sulfides. By combining the universal scaling relationships for both radical and surface-stabilized methane activation pathways, we show that catalyst reactivity must be considered in addition to catalyst geometry to obtain an accurate estimation for the TS energy. Here, this model can yield fast and accurate predictions of methane activation barriers on a wide range of catalysts, thus accelerating the discovery of more active catalysts for methane conversion.

  5. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  6. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  7. Insights to regenerate materials: learning from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aznar, J. M.; Valero, C.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Javierre, E.

    2016-08-01

    Self-healing materials, both biological and engineered, integrate the ability to repair themselves and recover their functionality using the resources inherently available to them. Although significant advances have been made, in recent years, for the design of different concepts of self-healing materials, this work aims to provide some insights into how living materials are able to regenerate or heal when a fracture or injury occurs. The main sensors that regulate this adaptive and regenerative behavior are the cells. These are able to sense the mechanical alterations in their surroundings and regulate their activity in order to remove dead tissue and/or create new tissue. Therefore, understanding how cells are able to regenerate tissues under complex and multiphysics conditions can define the biomimetics guidelines to heal through inert or traditional engineering materials. In this work, we present a combination of experiments and different kinds of multiscale and multiphysics models in order to understand how mechanics regulate some mechanisms at cell and tissue level. This combination of results aims to gain insight into the development of novel strategies for self-healing materials, mimicking the behavior induced by cells and biological tissues.

  8. Determinants of nursing competence of nursing students in Taiwan: the role of self-reflection and insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Cheng-Joo; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2015-03-01

    A nursing practicum course is critical to strengthening the nursing competence of nursing students. Research has found that practice stress and coping behaviors can have either a negative or positive influence on the learning and practice performance of nursing students. Nevertheless, there are few evidence-based studies related to the relationship between self-reflection and insight and nursing competence in Taiwanese nursing students. To test the determinants and the effect of self-reflection and insight on nursing competence in nursing students during the first 2 months of their practice experience. Cross-sectional and correlational research designs were employed. From September to November 2013, a total of 312 nursing students at a junior college in southern Taiwan served as participants in this study. Four questionnaires were used to collect data: Self-reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Coping Behavior Inventory (CBI), and Holistic Nursing Competence Scale (HNCS). The research model was evaluated through structural equation modeling (SEM), with the use of the partial least squares (PLS) method. Results indicated that self-reflection and insight, practice stress, and practice coping behavior were statistically significantly associated with nursing competence. In addition, self-reflection and insight were significantly and positively associated with practice coping behavior and negatively associated with practice stress. Students' coping behavior partially mediates the effect of self-reflection and stress on nursing competence. Overall, these variables explained 39.4% of the variance in these students' nursing competence. Self-reflection and insight affected nursing competence during the practice period. These variables have not only had a direct influence on nursing competence but also an indirect effect through the mediating effect of coping behavior and stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of local slopes at the InSight landing site on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Cushing, Glen; Galuszka, Donna M.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Hare, Trent M.; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Kipp, Devin M; Redding, Bonnie L.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the topography of the surface within the InSight candidate landing ellipses, we generated Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) at lander scales and those appropriate for entry, descent, and landing simulations, along with orthoimages of both images in each stereopair, and adirectional slope images. These products were used to assess the distribution of slopes for each candidate ellipse and terrain type in the landing site region, paying particular attention to how these slopes impact InSight landing and engineering safety, and results are reported here. Overall, this region has extremely low slopes at 1-meter baseline scales and meets the safety constraints of the InSight lander. The majority of the landing ellipse has a mean slope at 1-meter baselines of 3.2°. In addition, a mosaic of HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE DTMs within the final landing ellipse (ellipse 9) was generated to support entry, descent, and landing simulations and evaluations. Several methods were tested to generate this mosaic and the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline program dem_mosaic produced the best results. For the HRSC-CTX-HiRISE DTM mosaic, more than 99 % of the mosaic has slopes less than 15°, and the introduction of artificially high slopes along image seams was minimized.

  10. New insights into insight: Neurophysiological correlates of the difference between the intrinsic "aha" and the extrinsic "oh yes" moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmaler, Katrin; Nigbur, Roland; Ivanova, Galina

    2017-01-27

    Insight refers to a situation in which a problem solver immediately changes his understanding of a problem situation. This representational change can either be triggered by external stimuli, like a hint or the solution itself, or by internal solution attempts. In the present paper, the differences and similarities between these two phenomena, namely "extrinsic" and "intrinsic" insight, are examined. To this end, electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded while subjects either recognize or generate solutions to German verbal compound remote associate problems (CRA). Based on previous studies, we compare the alpha power prior to insightful solution recognition with the alpha power prior to insightful solution generation. Results show that intrinsic insights are preceded by an increase in alpha power at right parietal electrodes, while extrinsic insights are preceded by a respective decrease. These results can be interpreted in two ways. In consistency with other studies, the increase in alpha power before intrinsic insights can be interpreted as an increased internal focus of attention. Accordingly, the decrease in alpha power before extrinsic insights may be associated with a more externally oriented focus of attention. Alternatively, the increase in alpha power prior to intrinsic insights can be interpreted as an active inhibition of solution-related information, while the alpha power decrease prior to extrinsic insights may reflect its activation. Regardless of the interpretation, the results provide strong evidence that extrinsic and intrinsic insight differ on the behavioral as well as the neurophysiological level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia: Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenborg, G H M; Timmerman, M E; Derks, E M; Fleischhacker, W W; Kahn, R S; Aleman, A

    2015-06-01

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. The effects of five antipsychotic drugs in first episode psychosis on insight were compared in a large scale open randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 European countries: the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST). Patients with at least minimal impairments in insight were included in the present study (n=455). Insight was assessed with item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), administered at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. The use of antipsychotics was associated with clear improvements in insight over and above improvements in other symptoms. This effect was most pronounced in the first three months of treatment, with quetiapine being significantly less effective than other drugs. Effects of spontaneous improvement cannot be ruled out due to the lack of a placebo control group, although such a large spontaneous improvement of insight would seem unlikely. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Scale of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Semerci, Nuriye

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.

  13. Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, H S; Clémence, A; Marion-Veyron, R; Antonietti, J-P; Alameda, L; Golay, P; Conus, P

    2017-03-01

    Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

  14. Human seizures couple across spatial scales through travelling wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, L.-E.; Fiddyment, G.; Madsen, J. R.; Eskandar, E. N.; Truccolo, W.; Eden, U. T.; Cash, S. S.; Kramer, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy--the propensity toward recurrent, unprovoked seizures--is a devastating disease affecting 65 million people worldwide. Understanding and treating this disease remains a challenge, as seizures manifest through mechanisms and features that span spatial and temporal scales. Here we address this challenge through the analysis and modelling of human brain voltage activity recorded simultaneously across microscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. We show that during seizure large-scale neural populations spanning centimetres of cortex coordinate with small neural groups spanning cortical columns, and provide evidence that rapidly propagating waves of activity underlie this increased inter-scale coupling. We develop a corresponding computational model to propose specific mechanisms--namely, the effects of an increased extracellular potassium concentration diffusing in space--that support the observed spatiotemporal dynamics. Understanding the multi-scale, spatiotemporal dynamics of human seizures--and connecting these dynamics to specific biological mechanisms--promises new insights to treat this devastating disease.

  15. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Walmagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside, offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis.

  16. The Insight ToolKit Image Registration Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eAvants

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available scientific resources help establish evaluation standards, provide a platform for teaching and improve reproducibility. Version 4 of the Insight ToolKit ( ITK4 seeks to es- tablish new standards in publicly available image registration methodology. ITK4 makes severaladvances in comparison to previous versions of ITK. ITK4 supports both multivariate images and objective functions; it also unifies high-dimensional (deformation field and low-dimensional (affine transformations with metrics that are reusable across transform types and with com- posite transforms that allow arbitrary series of geometric mappings to be chained together seamlessly. Metrics and optimizers take advantage of multi-core resources, when available.Furthermore, ITK4 reduces the parameter optimization burden via principled heuristics that automatically set scaling across disparate parameter types (rotations versus translations. A related approach also constrains steps sizes for gradient-based optimizers. The result is that tuning for different metrics and/or image pairs is rarely necessary allowing the researcher tomore easily focus on design/comparison of registration strategies. In total, the ITK4 contribu- tion is intended as a structure to support reproducible research practices, will provide a more extensive foundation against which to evaluate new work in image registration and also enable application level programmers a broad suite of tools on which to build. Finally, we contextu- alize this work with a reference registration evaluation study with application to pediatric brainlabeling.

  17. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  19. Operating experience insights supporting ageing assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Be effective in ageing management means looking at the right aspects, with the right techniques, and one of the most effective tool which could be used for that purpose is the analysis of operating experience. The paper has as objective to perform a review of available operating experience, with the aim to provide a better picture about the impact of ageing effects. The IAEA International Reporting System and NRC Licensee Event Reports were chosen as reference databases, both databases being internationally recognized as important sources of information about events occurrences in the nuclear power plants. The ageing related events identified in the selected time window were analyzed in detail, and the contributions of each major degradation mechanisms that have induced the ageing related events (specific to each defined group of components) was represented and discussed. The paper demonstrates the possibility to use operating experience insights in highlighting the ageing effects. (authors)

  20. Structural insights into microtubule doublet interactions inaxonemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Sui, Haixin

    2007-06-06

    Coordinated sliding of microtubule doublets, driven by dynein motors, produces periodic beating of the axoneme. Recent structural studies of the axoneme have used cryo-electron tomography to reveal new details of the interactions among some of the multitude of proteins that form the axoneme and regulate its movement. Connections among the several sets of dyneins, in particular, suggest ways in which their actions may be coordinated. Study of the molecular architecture of isolated doublets has provided a structural basis for understanding the doublet's mechanical properties that are related to the bending of the axoneme, and has also offered insight into its potential role in the mechanism of dynein activity regulation.

  1. Phylogeographic insights into cryptic glacial refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Jim; Bennett, K D

    2008-10-01

    The glacial episodes of the Quaternary (2.6 million years ago-present) were a major factor in shaping the present-day distributions of extant flora and fauna, with expansions and contractions of the ice sheets rendering large areas uninhabitable for most species. Fossil records suggest that many species survived glacial maxima by retreating to refugia, usually at lower latitudes. Recently, phylogeographic studies have given support to the existence of previously unknown, or cryptic, refugia. Here we summarise many of these insights into the glacial histories of species in cryptic refugia gained through phylogeographic approaches. Understanding such refugia might be important as the Earth heads into another period of climate change, in terms of predicting the effects on species distribution and survival.

  2. New insights regarding ATWS for BWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouin, M.T.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; LaChance, J.L.; Ferrell, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) accident sequences have been found in past studies to have a relatively high core damage frequency (ranging from 5.4E-6 to 3E-4 per year) that represents a significant contribution to the total core damage frequency (ranging from 7-to-33%). Results of analyses for the two boiling water reactors (BWRs) analyzed as part of NUREG/CR-4550 indicate both a lower core damage frequency (ranging from 2E-7 to 1E-6 per year) and a lower contribution to the total core damage frequency (ranging from <1-to-10%). Based on these updated analyses, newer insights on the effects of reactor power equilibration, recirculation pump trip, high and low pressure injection and high pressure seal failure coupled with a detailed accident sequence analysis have resulted in lowering the significance of ATWS to core damage frequency

  3. Insights into Mechanisms of Chronic Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail B. Diack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of abnormal conformers of a host encoded protein in the central nervous system. The process leading to neurodegeneration is still poorly defined and thus development of early intervention strategies is challenging. Unique amongst these diseases are Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases, which have the ability to transmit between individuals. The infectious nature of these diseases has permitted in vivo and in vitro modelling of the time course of the disease process in a highly reproducible manner, thus early events can be defined. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the cell-to-cell spread of protein aggregates by a “prion-like mechanism” is common among the protein misfolding diseases. Thus, the TSE models may provide insights into disease mechanisms and testable hypotheses for disease intervention, applicable to a number of these chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Anthelmintic metabolism in parasitic helminths: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Peter M; MacKintosh, Neil; Morphew, Russell M

    2012-08-01

    Anthelmintics are the cornerstone of parasitic helminth control. Surprisingly, understanding of the biochemical pathways used by parasitic helminths to detoxify anthelmintics is fragmented, despite the increasing global threat of anthelmintic resistance within the ruminant and equine industries. Reductionist biochemistry has likely over-estimated the enzymatic role of glutathione transferases in anthelmintic metabolism and neglected the potential role of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYPs). Proteomic technologies offers the opportunity to support genomics, reverse genetics and pharmacokinetics, and provide an integrated insight into both the cellular mechanisms underpinning response to anthelmintics and also the identification of biomarker panels for monitoring the development of anthelmintic resistance. To date, there have been limited attempts to include proteomics in anthelmintic metabolism studies. Optimisations of membrane, post-translational modification and interaction proteomic technologies in helminths are needed to especially study Phase I CYPs and Phase III ABC transporter pumps for anthelmintics and their metabolites.

  5. Insights into software development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  6. Limitations, insights and improvements to gyrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.; Kagan, Grigory; Simakov, Andrei N.

    2009-01-01

    We first consider gyrokinetic quasineutrality limitations when evaluating the axisymmetric radial electric field in a non-turbulent tokamak by an improved examination of intrinsic ambipolarity. We next prove that the background ions in a pedestal of poloidal ion gyroradius scale must be Maxwellian and nearly isothermal in Pfirsch-Schlueter and banana regime tokamak plasmas, and then consider zonal flow behaviour in a pedestal. Finally, we focus on a simplifying procedure for our transport time scale hybrid gyrokinetic-fluid treatment that removes the limitations of gyrokinetic quasineutrality and remains valid in the pedestal.

  7. Diary Insights of an EFL Reading Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopera Medina Sergio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that classroom diaries are subjective. This article explores the diary insights of a foreign language reading teacher. The inquiry was based on the following research question: What do the diary insights really evidence about the teaching practices of a foreign language reading teacher? As a research method, a case study was implemented. Five instruments were used to collect data: diary of the teacher, observations, questionnaires, tests, and focus groups. Given that motivation, interaction, reading improvement, and the application of reading strategies were supported by the research instruments, it would seem that a diary can be objective.A menudo se argumenta que los diarios de clase son subjetivos. En este artículo se exploran las apreciaciones que un profesor de lectura en inglés como lengua extranjera registra en su diario. La indagación se basó en la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Qué apoya realmente las anotaciones de diario acerca de las prácticas de enseñanza de un profesor de lectura en lengua extranjera? Como método de estudio se implementó el estudio de caso. Se utilizaron cinco instrumentos para recolectar la información: diario del profesor, observaciones de clase, cuestionarios, exámenes y grupos focales. Dado que estos instrumentos de investigación incidieron en la motivación, la interacción, la mejoría en lectura y en la aplicación de las estrategias de lecturas, se podría concluir que un diario puede ser objetivo.

  8. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  9. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  10. Scales of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  11. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  12. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  13. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  14. Scales and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  15. The art of insight in science and engineering mastering complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Sanjoy

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Sanjoy Mahajan shows us that the way to master complexity is through insight rather than precision. Precision can overwhelm us with information, whereas insight connects seemingly disparate pieces of information into a simple picture. Unlike computers, humans depend on insight. Based on the author's fifteen years of teaching at MIT, Cambridge University, and Olin College, The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering shows us how to build insight and find understanding, giving readers tools to help them solve any problem in science and engineering. To master complexity, we can organize it or discard it. The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering first teaches the tools for organizing complexity, then distinguishes the two paths for discarding complexity: with and without loss of information. Questions and problems throughout the text help readers master and apply these groups of tools. Armed with this three-part toolchest, and without complicated mathematics, readers can estimate the flight ...

  16. Clinical and Cognitive Insight in a Compensatory Cognitive Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z.; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of limited insight is a crucial consideration in the treatment of individuals with psychiatric illness. In the context of psychosis, both clinical and cognitive insight have been described. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between clinical and cognitive insight and neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric symptom severity, and everyday functioning in patients with a primary psychotic disorder participating in a compensatory cognitive training (CT) intervention. Sixty-nine individuals diagnosed with a primary psychotic disorder were randomized to a 3-month CT intervention or to standard pharmacotherapy, and they completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, clinical, and functional battery at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The CT intervention focused on habit formation and compensatory strategy learning in four domains: prospective memory, attention and vigilance, learning and memory, and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility. At baseline, better clinical insight was significantly related to better executive functioning and less severe negative symptoms. There was no significant association between cognitive insight and cognitive functioning, symptom severity, or everyday functioning ability. The CT intervention did not have an effect on clinical or cognitive insight, but better cognitive insight prior to participation in CT significantly predicted decreased positive and depressive symptom severity posttreatment, and better clinical insight predicted improved self-reported quality of life. Although clinical insight is related to executive functioning, the correlates of cognitive insight remain elusive. Intact insight appears to be beneficial in ameliorating clinical symptomatology like positive symptoms and depression, rather than augmenting cognition. It may be valuable to develop brief interventions aimed at improving clinical and cognitive insight prior to other psychosocial rehabilitation in order to maximize the benefit of

  17. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Williams, Mark L.; Bowman, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  18. High Resolution Insights into Snow Distribution Provided by Drone Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, T.; Sirguey, P. J.; Cullen, N. J.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2017-12-01

    accumulation and ablation, snow depth maps provide geostatistically robust insights into seasonal snow processes, with unprecedented detail. Such data may enhance understanding of physical processes controlling spatial and temporal distribution of seasonal snow, and their relative importance at varying spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Biointerface dynamics--Multi scale modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2015-08-01

    Irreversible nature of matrix structural changes around the immobilized cell aggregates caused by cell expansion is considered within the Ca-alginate microbeads. It is related to various effects: (1) cell-bulk surface effects (cell-polymer mechanical interactions) and cell surface-polymer surface effects (cell-polymer electrostatic interactions) at the bio-interface, (2) polymer-bulk volume effects (polymer-polymer mechanical and electrostatic interactions) within the perturbed boundary layers around the cell aggregates, (3) cumulative surface and volume effects within the parts of the microbead, and (4) macroscopic effects within the microbead as a whole based on multi scale modeling approaches. All modeling levels are discussed at two time scales i.e. long time scale (cell growth time) and short time scale (cell rearrangement time). Matrix structural changes results in the resistance stress generation which have the feedback impact on: (1) single and collective cell migrations, (2) cell deformation and orientation, (3) decrease of cell-to-cell separation distances, and (4) cell growth. Herein, an attempt is made to discuss and connect various multi scale modeling approaches on a range of time and space scales which have been proposed in the literature in order to shed further light to this complex course-consequence phenomenon which induces the anomalous nature of energy dissipation during the structural changes of cell aggregates and matrix quantified by the damping coefficients (the orders of the fractional derivatives). Deeper insight into the matrix partial disintegration within the boundary layers is useful for understanding and minimizing the polymer matrix resistance stress generation within the interface and on that base optimizing cell growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Insight in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Positive, Negative and Neurocognitive Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Boban; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of insight is considered as the hallmark of schizophrenia. Substantial proportion of patients with schizophrenia has either poor or absent insight. Insight is a multidimensional and dynamic construct which appears to have intricate links with other symptom dimensions of the psychotic illness. A better appreciation of the association that insight shares with other symptom clusters in psychosis could help us in gaining knowledge about aetiology, prognosis and treatment-related facets of the disorder. This is likely to have critical implications in the understanding and therapeutics of schizophrenia. PMID:25722504

  1. Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Rodriguez, Eileen T

    2010-03-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence and Social Acceptance (TRS) at baseline and again upon completion of the intervention. Boys participating in INSIGHTS, compared with those in the Read Aloud program, showed a significant decline in attentional difficulties and overt aggression toward others. Teachers in INSIGHTS, compared to those in the attention control condition, reported significantly fewer problems managing the emotional-oppositional behavior, attentional difficulties, and covert disruptive behavior of their male students. They also perceived the boys as significantly more cognitively and physically competent.

  2. Art Advancing Science: Filmmaking Leads to Molecular Insights at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Charles; Ingber, Donald E

    2017-12-26

    Many have recognized the potential value of facilitating activities that span the art-science interface for the benefit of society; however, there are few examples that demonstrate how pursuit of an artistic agenda can lead to scientific insights. Here, we describe how we set out to produce an entertaining short film depicting the fertilization of the egg by sperm as a parody of a preview for another Star Wars movie to excite the public about science, but ended up developing a simulation tool for multiscale modeling. To produce an aesthetic that communicates mechanical continuity across spatial scales, we developed custom strategies that integrate physics-based animation software from the entertainment industry with molecular dynamics simulation tools, using experimental data from research publications. Using this approach, we were able to depict biological physicality across multiple spatial scales, from how sperm tails move to collective molecular behavior within the axoneme to how the molecular motor, dynein, produces force at the nanometer scale. The dynein simulations, which were validated by replicating results of past simulations and cryo-electron microscopic studies, also predicted a potential mechanism for how ATP hydrolysis drives dynein motion along the microtubule as well as how dynein changes its conformation when it goes through the power stroke. Thus, pursuit of an artistic work led to insights into biology at the nanoscale as well as the development of a highly generalizable modeling and simulation technology that has utility for nanoscience and any other area of scientific investigation that involves analysis of complex multiscale systems.

  3. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  4. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  5. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  6. Improving insight and non-insight problem solving with brief interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming-Ching; Butler, Laurie T; Koutstaal, Wilma

    2013-02-01

    Developing brief training interventions that benefit different forms of problem solving is challenging. In earlier research, Chrysikou (2006) showed that engaging in a task requiring generation of alternative uses of common objects improved subsequent insight problem solving. These benefits were attributed to a form of implicit transfer of processing involving enhanced construction of impromptu, on-the-spot or 'ad hoc' goal-directed categorizations of the problem elements. Following this, it is predicted that the alternative uses exercise should benefit abilities that govern goal-directed behaviour, such as fluid intelligence and executive functions. Similarly, an indirect intervention - self-affirmation (SA) - that has been shown to enhance cognitive and executive performance after self-regulation challenge and when under stereotype threat, may also increase adaptive goal-directed thinking and likewise should bolster problem-solving performance. In Experiment 1, brief single-session interventions, involving either alternative uses generation or SA, significantly enhanced both subsequent insight and visual-spatial fluid reasoning problem solving. In Experiment 2, we replicated the finding of benefits of both alternative uses generation and SA on subsequent insight problem-solving performance, and demonstrated that the underlying mechanism likely involves improved executive functioning. Even brief cognitive- and social-psychological interventions may substantially bolster different types of problem solving and may exert largely similar facilitatory effects on goal-directed behaviours. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    responsibilities and inadequate procedures of implementing objectives. Planning for development in South Africa needs to take various factors into account. Economic and green economic growth is pursued, while social imbalances are addressed and the environment is protected against unreasonable exploitation. The term Sustainable Development is a neutral concept in the vision of many of the regulating authorities; however, the implementation of sustainability is difficult. This study considers an approach which aligns activities in a specified region to the vision and objectives of the applicable regulatory authorities, as an alternative to achieving objectives strictly through enforcing regulations. It was determined whether objectives of development planning were realistic in terms of water availability. It was established that the position of a farm in the landscape is a determining factor of the impact it has on the catchment area's water supply. For this purpose, hydrological modelling (SWAT and SIMGRO) was done for the Letaba catchment of the Limpopo Province, on two scales to also accommodate small-scale farming communities more accurately. Parallel to the modelling, the National Development Plan (NDP), the National Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD), the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) and the principles of Water Allocation Reform (WAR) were regarded. For regional categorisation, the relevant municipal Integrated Development Plan (IDP), Spatial Development Framework (SDF), Local Economic Development (LED) plan and the applicable Catchment Management Strategy (CMS) were considered. The developed Integrated Evaluation Model combined all the visions and objectives of the mentioned strategic documents to specifically assess the contribution a small-scale farm makes. The evaluation results provided insight into the alignment of activities to the ideals of a region and can be useful when formulating actions to reach a common vision. Small-scale

  8. Beyond KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, S.

    1998-01-01

    A generalization of the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling law of the multiplicity distributions P(n) is presented. It consists of a change in the normalization point of P(n) compensated by a suitable change in the renormalized parameters and a rescaling. The iterative repetition of the transformation yields the sequence of higher-order moment distributions of P(n). Each member of this sequence may exhibit data collapsing behavior in case of violation of the original KNO scaling hypothesis. It is shown that the iterative procedure can be viewed as varying the collision energy, i.e. the moment distributions of P(n) can represent the pattern of pre-asymptotic KNO scaling violation. The fixed points of the iteration will be determined and a consistency test based on Feynman scaling is to be given. (author)

  9. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  10. Current insights into phage biodiversity and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-10-01

    Phages exert tremendous ecological and evolutionary forces directly on their bacterial hosts. Phage induced cell lysis also indirectly contributes to organic and inorganic nutrient recycling. Phage abundance, diversity, and distribution are therefore important parameters in ecosystem function. The assumption that phage consortia are ubiquitous and homogenous across habitats (everything is everywhere) is currently being re-evaluated. New studies on phage biogeography have found that some phages are globally distributed while others are unique and perhaps endemic to specific environments. Furthermore, advances in technology have allowed scientists to conduct experiments aimed at analyzing phage consortia over temporal scales, and surprisingly have found reoccurring patterns. This review discusses currents in the field of phage ecology with particular focus on efforts to characterize phage diversity and biogeography across various spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Correlation Between Insight and Capacity to Consent to Research in Subjects With Bipolar Disorder Type I and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Tobler, Chantal Aristizábal; Gómez, Constanza Ovalle; Triana, Jaime Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) can affect patient autonomy and capacity to consent to participate in research. Other variables associated with the autonomy of patients must be explored in order to improve the quality of the currently available tools. To evaluate the relationship between insight and the capacity to consent to participate in research in patients with BD-I and schizophrenia. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted with 120 subjects (40 subjects with schizophrenia, 40 with BD-I, and 40 healthy controls). The tools used were the Scale Assessment Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) and the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-CR), which was first adapted culturally, and its validity and reliability assessed. The results obtained on each scale were compared and the association between them were evaluated. There is a direct correlation between the capacity to consent to research, measured using the MacCAT-CR tool, and the degree of insight, measured using the SAI-E scale, with an effect size of 1.3 for BD-I and 2.03 for schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is a correlation between the degree of insight and the capacity to consent to research in subjects with schizophrenia and BD-I. Insight should therefore be included as a relevant variable to assess the capacity to consent, and future studies should include it when researching on or designing new tools which aim at a greater respect of patient autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Terms, Trends, and Insights: PV Project Finance in the United States, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2017. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). This work represents the second DOE sponsored effort to benchmark financing costs across the residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV markets, as part of its larger effort to benchmark the components of PV system costs.

  13. Scale-Dependent Grasp

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Makoto; Shirai, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the scale-dependent grasp.Suppose that a human approaches an object initially placed on atable and finally achieves an enveloping grasp. Under such initialand final conditions, he (or she) unconsciously changes the graspstrategy according to the size of objects, even though they havesimilar geometry. We call the grasp planning the scale-dependentgrasp. We find that grasp patterns are also changed according tothe surface friction and the geometry of cross section in additi...

  14. Charm production and mass scales in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Scott, D.M.; Sivers, D.

    1976-07-01

    Because of their large mass, the production of charmed particles offers the possibility of new insight into fundamental dynamics. An approach to deep inelastic processes is discussed in which Generalized Vector Meson Dominance is used to extend parton model results away from the strict Bjorken scaling limit into regions where mass scales play an important role. The processes e + e - annihilation, photoproduction, deep inelastic leptoproduction, photon-photon scattering and the production of lepton pairs in hadronic collisions are discussed. The GCMD approach provides a reasonably unified framework and makes specific predictions concerning the way in which these reactions reflect an underlying flavour symmetry, broken by large mass differences. (author)

  15. Elements of dual scaling an introduction to practical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Quantification methodology of categorical data is a popular topic in many branches of science. Most books, however, are either too advanced for those who need it, or too elementary to gain insight into its potential. This book fills the gap between these extremes, and provides specialists with an easy and comprehensive reference, and others with a complete treatment of dual scaling methodology -- starting with motivating examples, followed by an introductory discussion of necessary quantitative skills, and ending with different perpsectives on dual scaling with examples, advanced topics, and f

  16. Economies of scale in ICT: how to balance infrastructure and applications for economies of scale in ICT and business

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, U.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers new insight into the economies of scale of ICT departments. Drawing from data on Housing Corporations, Municipalities and Hospitals, evidence was found that particularly infrastructure-related investments leverage a more efficient use of ICT resources. The measured economies between low and high infrastructure spending organizations are on average more than 20% for their operational ICT labour and for their total ICT costs. It was also found that organizations should spend a...

  17. ThrottleBot - Performance without Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Michael Alan; Panda, Aurojit; Tsai, Yuan-Cheng; Wang, Hantao; Shenker, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Large scale applications are increasingly built by composing sets of microservices. In this model the functionality for a single application might be split across 100s or 1000s of microservices. Resource provisioning for these applications is complex, requiring administrators to understand both the functioning of each microservice, and dependencies between microservices in an application. In this paper we present ThrottleBot, a system that automates the process of determining what resource wh...

  18. Digital Marketing Insights and Opportunities in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    MBA. Besfort Ahmeti

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, we have witnessed an ever increasing concentration of companies towards the consumer. This has come as a result of various factors, of which an important one has been the digital revolution, which has empowered consumers by giving them access to information and access to one another on a global scale. In an attempt by companies to adapt to this customer empowerment in order to achieve a greater profitability by better serving customers, digital marketing was born. Digital m...

  19. Martian Oceans: Old Debate - New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of an ancient ocean in the northern lowlands of Mars has been discussed for decades [1-14], but the subject remains controversial [15-20]. Among the many unique features of the northern lowlands is the extensive development of "giant polygons" - polygonal landforms that range from 1 to 20 km across. The kilometer-scale size of these features distinguishes them from a variety of smaller polygons (usually < 250 m) on Mars that have been compared to terrestrial analogs such as ice-wedge and desiccation features. However, until recently, geologists were aware of no examples of polygons on Earth comparable in scale to the giant polygons of Mars, so there were no good analogs from which to draw interpretations. That picture has changed with 3D seismic data acquired by the petroleum industry in exploration of offshore basins. The new data reveal kilometer-scale polygonal features in more than 50 offshore basins on Earth]. These features provide a credible analog for the giant polygons of Mars.

  20. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  1. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen San Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25, but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  2. Insights into the Mechanisms of Chloroplast Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamato Yoshida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The endosymbiosis of a free-living cyanobacterium into an ancestral eukaryote led to the evolution of the chloroplast (plastid more than one billion years ago. Given their independent origins, plastid proliferation is restricted to the binary fission of pre-existing plastids within a cell. In the last 25 years, the structure of the supramolecular machinery regulating plastid division has been discovered, and some of its component proteins identified. More recently, isolated plastid-division machineries have been examined to elucidate their structural and mechanistic details. Furthermore, complex studies have revealed how the plastid-division machinery morphologically transforms during plastid division, and which of its component proteins play a critical role in generating the contractile force. Identifying the three-dimensional structures and putative functional domains of the component proteins has given us hints about the mechanisms driving the machinery. Surprisingly, the mechanisms driving plastid division resemble those of mitochondrial division, indicating that these division machineries likely developed from the same evolutionary origin, providing a key insight into how endosymbiotic organelles were established. These findings have opened new avenues of research into organelle proliferation mechanisms and the evolution of organelles.

  3. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford JL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health

  4. Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2013-11-10

    Causal inference from observational studies is a fundamental topic in biostatistics. The causal graph literature typically views probability theory as insufficient to express causal concepts in observational studies. In contrast, the view here is that probability theory is a desirable and sufficient basis for many topics in causal inference for the following two reasons. First, probability theory is generally more flexible than causal graphs: Besides explaining such causal graph topics as M-bias (adjusting for a collider) and bias amplification and attenuation (when adjusting for instrumental variable), probability theory is also the foundation of the paired availability design for historical controls, which does not fit into a causal graph framework. Second, probability theory is the basis for insightful graphical displays including the BK-Plot for understanding Simpson's paradox with a binary confounder, the BK2-Plot for understanding bias amplification and attenuation in the presence of an unobserved binary confounder, and the PAD-Plot for understanding the principal stratification component of the paired availability design. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Insights into Conifer Giga-Genomes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Amanda R.; Birol, Inanc; Bousquet, Jean; Ingvarsson, Pär K.; Jansson, Stefan; Jones, Steven J.M.; Keeling, Christopher I.; MacKay, John; Nilsson, Ove; Ritland, Kermit; Street, Nathaniel; Yanchuk, Alvin; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Insights from sequenced genomes of major land plant lineages have advanced research in almost every aspect of plant biology. Until recently, however, assembled genome sequences of gymnosperms have been missing from this picture. Conifers of the pine family (Pinaceae) are a group of gymnosperms that dominate large parts of the world’s forests. Despite their ecological and economic importance, conifers seemed long out of reach for complete genome sequencing, due in part to their enormous genome size (20–30 Gb) and the highly repetitive nature of their genomes. Technological advances in genome sequencing and assembly enabled the recent publication of three conifer genomes: white spruce (Picea glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). These genome sequences revealed distinctive features compared with other plant genomes and may represent a window into the past of seed plant genomes. This Update highlights recent advances, remaining challenges, and opportunities in light of the publication of the first conifer and gymnosperm genomes. PMID:25349325

  6. Understanding whistleblowing: qualitative insights from nurse whistleblowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Peters, Kath; Andrew, Sharon; Edenborough, Michel; Halcomb, Elizabeth; Luck, Lauretta; Salamonson, Yenna; Wilkes, Lesley

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to explore the reasons behind the decision to blow the whistle and provide insights into nurses' experiences of being whistleblowers. Whistleblowing is a stigmatized and hidden activity that carries considerable ramifications to all concerned. In the health sector, when episodes of poor practice or service provision are identified, it is frequently nurses who are the whistleblowers. Despite this, there is remarkably limited literature that explores nurses' experiences of whistleblowing. Qualitative narrative inquiry design. Data were collected in 2008 from 11 nurse whistleblowers using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Participants were drawn from a range of general and specialty clinical areas and experienced whistleblowing as highly stressful. The findings were clustered into three main themes, namely: (i) Reasons for whistleblowing: I just couldn't advocate, (ii) Feeling silenced: Nobody speaks out, and (iii) Climate of fear: You are just not safe. The whistleblowing nurses believed they were acting in accordance with a duty of care. There is a need for greater clarity about the role nurses have as patient advocates. Furthermore, there is need to develop clear guidelines that create opportunities for nurses to voice concerns and to ensure that healthcare systems respond in a timely and appropriate manner, and a need to foster a safe environment in which to raise issues of concern. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Dahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE, presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to generate part-worth utilities for fertilizer product attributes. We then conducted a latent class analysis to identify market segments that could be expected to respond to differentiated product design strategies. We were able to quantify both purchasing preferences for fertilizer product attributes as well as the importance of each attribute to the perceived utility of a product. We were further able to identify five distinct market segments that make clear the potential for differentiated strategies in the home gardening market. We found both negative and positive price sensitivities, with sociodemographically distinct subgroups that favored low-, mid-, and high-priced products. We also found purchasing preferences for brand status, product labeling and nutrient values. Our results provide insights that should help product managers in the biogas industry develop marketing strategies to integrate digestate into a sustainable energy production system.

  8. Babesiosis: recent insights into an ancient disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunfeld, K-P; Hildebrandt, A; Gray, J S

    2008-09-01

    Ever since the discovery of parasitic inclusions in erythrocytes of cattle in Romania by Victor Babes at the end of the 19th century, newly recognised babesial pathogens continue to emerge around the world and the substantial public health impact of babesiosis on livestock and man is ongoing. Babesia are transmitted by ixodid ticks and infection of the host causes a host-mediated pathology and erythrocyte lysis, resulting in anemia, hyperbilirubinuria, hemoglobinuria, and possibly organ failure. Recently obtained molecular data, particularly for the 18S rRNA gene, has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the sometimes puzzling phylogenetic situation of the genus Babesia and new information has been added to help determine the taxonomic position of many species. Moreover, it seems that owing to higher medical awareness the number of reported cases in humans is rising steadily. Hitherto unknown zoonotic babesias are now being reported from geographical areas where babesiosis was not known to occur and the growing numbers of immunocompromised individuals suggest that the frequency of cases will continue to rise. This review covers recent insights into human babesiosis with regard to phylogeny, diagnostics and treatment in order to provide new information on well known as well as recently discovered parasites with zoonotic potential.

  9. Ionomer Dynamics: Insights from Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers (polymers containing ionic functionality) have been traditionally used as packaging materials and in molding applications, and are now of increasing interest as candidate single ion conductors for energy storage devices, in energy conversion, and for other electroactive materials applications. The focus of this presentation is on the insight that broadband dielectric (impedance) spectroscopy brings to our understanding of ion and polymer dynamics of this family of materials. As an example of our recent work on relatively conductive ionomers, the first portion of the presentation will focus on anion conducting polyphosphazene ionomers, in which polymer bound cations are quaternized with either short alkyl or short ether oxygen chains. The low Tg, amorphous nature, and cation-solvating backbone distinguish polyphosphazenes as promising materials for ion conduction, the iodide variants being of particular interest in solar cells. In the second part of this overview, the first findings on the molecular dynamics of linear precise polyethylene-based ionomers containing 1-methylimidazolium bromide pendants on exactly every 9th, 15th, or 21st carbon atom will be summarized. In order to develop a robust interpretation of the dynamics of these materials, it is imperative to develop a thorough understanding of microphase separation (e.g. ion aggregation), and each of the above studies is complimented by multiangle X-ray scattering experiments. Supported by the NSF Polymers Program and DOE Basic Energy Sciences.

  10. Temporal Processing in Audition: Insights from Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Vani G; Teki, Sundeep; Schnupp, Jan W H

    2017-11-03

    Music is a curious example of a temporally patterned acoustic stimulus, and a compelling pan-cultural phenomenon. This review strives to bring some insights from decades of music psychology and sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) literature into the mainstream auditory domain, arguing that musical rhythm perception is shaped in important ways by temporal processing mechanisms in the brain. The feature that unites these disparate disciplines is an appreciation of the central importance of timing, sequencing, and anticipation. Perception of musical rhythms relies on an ability to form temporal predictions, a general feature of temporal processing that is equally relevant to auditory scene analysis, pattern detection, and speech perception. By bringing together findings from the music and auditory literature, we hope to inspire researchers to look beyond the conventions of their respective fields and consider the cross-disciplinary implications of studying auditory temporal sequence processing. We begin by highlighting music as an interesting sound stimulus that may provide clues to how temporal patterning in sound drives perception. Next, we review the SMS literature and discuss possible neural substrates for the perception of, and synchronization to, musical beat. We then move away from music to explore the perceptual effects of rhythmic timing in pattern detection, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Finally, we review the neurophysiology of general timing processes that may underlie aspects of the perception of rhythmic patterns. We conclude with a brief summary and outlook for future research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-stigma, insight, and family burden among Israeli mothers of people with serious mental illness: Ethno-national considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Roe, David

    2017-06-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated and compared the associations between insight, self-stigma, and family burden among Jewish and Arab mothers of an adult son or daughter with serious mental illness (SMI) in Israel. A total of 162 Israeli mothers of a person with SMI participated in the study; 95 were Jewish (58.6%), and 67 were Arab (41.4%). Insight, self-stigma, and family burden scales were administered. Jewish mothers reported higher levels of insight into their son's or daughter's illness and reported greater family burden compared to Arab mothers. No significant differences in self-stigma scores were found between Jewish and Arab mothers. The pattern of associations between insight, self-stigma, and burden differed between Jewish and Arab mothers. Self-stigma was found to mediate the relationship between insight and burden among Jewish mothers but not among Arab mothers. Ethno-national affiliation should be taken into consideration regarding how family members conceptualize and experience mental illness, as this might affect care.

  12. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  13. Visual Attention Modulates Insight versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals,…

  14. Adaptation Insights: Lessons from participatory research in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... The Adaptation Insights series consists of nine case studies from seven projects supported by the Climate Change Adaptation in Africaprogram. Each brief presents insights from research carried out with the active involvement of communities at risk from climate change. The series includes case studies ...

  15. Insight in Schizophrenia : Involvement of Self-Reflection Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; de Vos, Annerieke E.; Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Nolen, Willem A.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one's traits and

  16. Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jung-Beeman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available People sometimes solve problems with a unique process called insight, accompanied by an "Aha!" experience. It has long been unclear whether different cognitive and neural processes lead to insight versus noninsight solutions, or if solutions differ only in subsequent subjective feeling. Recent behavioral studies indicate distinct patterns of performance and suggest differential hemispheric involvement for insight and noninsight solutions. Subjects solved verbal problems, and after each correct solution indicated whether they solved with or without insight. We observed two objective neural correlates of insight. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (Experiment 1 revealed increased activity in the right hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus for insight relative to noninsight solutions. The same region was active during initial solving efforts. Scalp electroencephalogram recordings (Experiment 2 revealed a sudden burst of high-frequency (gamma-band neural activity in the same area beginning 0.3 s prior to insight solutions. This right anterior temporal area is associated with making connections across distantly related information during comprehension. Although all problem solving relies on a largely shared cortical network, the sudden flash of insight occurs when solvers engage distinct neural and cognitive processes that allow them to see connections that previously eluded them.

  17. Characteristics of Kodak Insight, an F-speed intraoral film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, J B; Platin, E; Mol, A

    2001-01-01

    This study reports film speed, contrast, exposure latitude, resolution, and response to processing solution depletion of Kodak Insight intraoral film. Densitometric curves were generated by using International Standards Organization protocol. Additional curves were generated for Ultra-speed, Ektaspeed Plus, and Insight films developed in progressively depleted processing solutions. Eight observers viewed images of a resolution test tool for maximum resolution assessment. Images of an aluminum step-wedge were reviewed to determine useful exposure latitude. Insight's sensitivity in fresh automatic processor solutions places it in the F-speed group. An average gradient of 1.8 was found with all film types. Insight provided 93% of the useful exposure latitude of Ektaspeed Plus film. Insight maintained contrast in progressively depleted processing solutions. Like Ektaspeed Plus, Insight was able to resolve at least 20 line-pairs per millimeter. Under International Standards Organization conditions, Insight required only 77% of the exposure of Ektaspeed Plus film. Insight film provided stable contrast in depleted processing solutions.

  18. Training for Future Operations: Digital Leaders' Transformation Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, John

    2003-01-01

    ... and insights to expand the understanding of issues and requirements Finally, the team developed specific recommendations intended to give transformation leaders a distinctive training advantage The practical insights and recommendations point to initiatives the Army can take to establish Objective Force training as a decisive combat multiplier.

  19. Improved understanding of protein complex offers insight into DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer Science Writing Internship Improved understanding of protein complex offers insight into DNA clearer understanding of the origin recognition complex (ORC) - a protein complex that directs DNA replication - through its crystal structure offers new insight into fundamental mechanisms of DNA replication

  20. REFLEX : A metacognitive group treatment to improve insight in psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, M.; Van der Meer, L.; De Vos, A.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Van der Gaag, M.; Aleman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many people with schizophrenia (50-80%) demonstrate impaired insight. A number of interventions aiming to improve insight have been proposed and evaluated, for example cognitive behavioral therapy and psycho-education. Results of these interventions leave room for improvement. Therefore,

  1. Insight in psychosis: Standards, science, ethics and value judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K S

    2017-06-01

    The clinical assessment of insight solely employs biomedical perspectives and criteria to the complete exclusion of context and culture and to the disregard of values and value judgments. The aim of this discussion article is to examine recent research from India on insight and explanatory models in psychosis and re-examine the framework of assessment, diagnosis and management of insight and explanatory models. Recent research from India on insight in psychosis and explanatory models is reviewed. Recent research, which has used longitudinal data and adjusted for pretreatment variables, suggests that insight and explanatory models of illness at baseline do not predict course, outcome and treatment response in schizophrenia, which seem to be dependent on the severity and quality of the psychosis. It supports the view that people with psychosis simultaneously hold multiple and contradictory explanatory models of illness, which change over time and with the trajectory of the illness. It suggests that insight, like all explanatory models, is a narrative of the person's reality and a coping strategy to handle with the varied impact of the illness. This article argues that the assessment of insight necessarily involves value entailments, commitments and consequences. It supports a need for a broad-based approach to assess awareness, attribution and action related to mental illness and to acknowledge the role of values and value judgment in the evaluation of insight in psychosis.

  2. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  3. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  4. Optimal defense resource allocation in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Guoqiang; Xia, Yongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The robustness research of networked systems has drawn widespread attention in the past decade, and one of the central topics is to protect the network from external attacks through allocating appropriate defense resource to different nodes. In this paper, we apply a specific particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the defense resource allocation in scale-free networks. Results reveal that PSO based resource allocation shows a higher robustness than other resource allocation strategies such as uniform, degree-proportional, and betweenness-proportional allocation strategies. Furthermore, we find that assigning less resource to middle-degree nodes under small-scale attack while more resource to low-degree nodes under large-scale attack is conductive to improving the network robustness. Our work provides an insight into the optimal defense resource allocation pattern in scale-free networks and is helpful for designing a more robust network.

  5. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  6. The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene ( DRD2 ) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.

  7. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through α-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp

  8. Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades

    OpenAIRE

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.

    2009-01-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children?s Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher?s Rating Scale of Child?s Actual Competence ...

  9. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  10. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  11. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  12. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  13. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    the insights into fear, anxiety, and avoidance at the individual level extrapolate to groups and populations and can be meaningfully applied to economics, prejudice, and politics. Fear is ultimately a contagious social emotion. Keywords: amygdala, anxiety, arousal, autonomic, emotion, phobia

  14. An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahla Zargar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, many people have used point of sales for purchasing goods and services. Point of sales tends to provide a reliable method for making purchases in stores. Implementation of point of sales may reduce depreciation cost of automated telling machines and helps banks increase their productivities. Therefore, for bank managers, it is important to provide high quality services. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure quality service using SERVQUAL scale. The study first extracts six factors including Trust, Responsiveness, Reliability, Empathy, Tangibles and getting insight for future development through the implementation of structural equation modeling. Next, it has implemented structural equation modeling and realizes that all components had positive impacts on customer satisfaction.

  15. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  16. The INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) which has been created to classify nuclear and radiological events in terms of severity. This scale comprises eight levels from 0 to 7, from a slight but noticeable shift with respect to nominal operation to a major accident. Criteria used for incident and accident classification are indicated; they are based on consequences outside the site, consequences within the site, degradation of in-depth defence. The benefit and weaknesses of this scale are briefly indicated. The major concerned actors are the IAEA, the NEA and the ASN. Some key figures are given (number of declared events and incidents), and a ranking of the main nuclear events is proposed with a brief description of the event: Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Sellafield, Tokaimura, Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Countries which have adopted INES are indicated, as well as the number of incidents reports in France to the ASN

  17. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  18. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  19. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  20. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.