Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.
Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca
Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem.Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0 to 6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close R...
Storebø, Ole Jakob; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Simonsen, Erik
OBJECTIVE: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. METHOD: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...
Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne; Eapen, Valsamma
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) and Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA) symptoms in a sample of first-time mothers with an unsettled infant during the first postpartum year. Eighty-three primiparous women admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires assessing ASA symptoms, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. Nurses recorded infant behavior using 24-hour charts. The prevalence of ASAD in this sample was 19.3% and women with ASAD were, on average, more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders, report aversive parenting experiences during childhood and show adult attachment style insecurity. Both ASAD and ASA symptoms were predicted by adult attachment anxiety, and ASAD was associated with unsettled infant behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance mediated relations between parental over-control and ASAD diagnosis, and between parental abuse and ASAD diagnosis. Attachment anxiety mediated the relation between parental over-control and ASA symptoms, and attachment avoidance mediated the relations of parental over-control and parental abuse with ASA symptoms. This study highlights the prevalence of ASAD among first time mothers experiencing early parenting difficulties and the roles of childhood parenting experiences and adult attachment style in the development of the disorder. This points to the importance of introducing universal screening for ASAD in postnatal settings, and for the development of targeted interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca
Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents' self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0-6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child's age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem.
Full Text Available Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem.Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0 to 6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised (ECR-R questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC.Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem.
Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L
The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.
López Seco, F; Mundo-Cid, P; Aguado-Gracia, J; Gaviria-Gómez, A M; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A
The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered. We found an association between maternal insecure attachment and comorbid depressive disorder in childhood ADHD. An insecure maternal attachment style must be considered in the assessment and treatment of childhood ADHD with comorbid depression.
Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J.; Meijer, Carin J.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Shergill, Sukhi S.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia
Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients
Velotti, P.; D’Aguanno, M.; de Campora, G.; di Francescantonio, S.; Garofalo, C.; Giromini, L.; Petrocchi, C.; Terrasi, M.; Zavattini, G.C.
The relation between attachment styles and emotion regulation is well documented, and emotion dysregulation is considered characteristic of individuals with insecure attachment styles. Although gender differences in emotion regulation have often been reported, it is not clear whether the association
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira
This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Ren, D.; Arriaga, X.B.; Mahan, E.R.
Chronic attachment insecurity can affect the outlook people have on relationships. This research examines how attachment insecurity relates to perceived importance of various features in a romantic relationship (e.g., intimacy, independence). Consistent with predictions, the results from Studies 1–3
HIV-positive participants (N = 60) completed questionnaires assessing consistent condom use three months preceding study, multiple sexual partners, adult attachment, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Results revealed that insecure attachment styles (particularly negative attachment representations of self) and ...
Oka, Megan; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew
Intimate partner violence and insecure attachment are therapeutically relevant concepts when working with couples. The link between attachment and intimate partner violence has been examined in the literature, but an area of aggression that often goes unexamined is relational aggression, or using third parties as a means of being aggressive toward a partner. We asked how participants' attachment behaviors were related to their own and partners' relational and physical aggression. We used structural equation modeling to estimate actor-partner interdependence among these relationships in 644 heterosexual couples. Results indicated significant partner paths from attachment to relational aggression, as well as significant actor paths between relational aggression and physical aggression. Implications were discussed. Data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…
Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare
Kotov, Kimberly M
Teens and young adults with insecure attachment may be remarkably susceptible to alcohol and substance use disorders. Particularly in the separation process of leaving-home and entering college, an underlying insecure attachment may manifest through symptoms of alcohol or drug abuse; as these young adults engage in what is perceived to be adult drinking behavior, they become too "attached" to the alcohol as a substitute for earlier, sporadically-available objects (usually parents). That is, they enact a similar relationship to this drug that they may have learned to have with an insecure parent: too close at times, but ultimately fostering guilt, dependence and destructive action. Fear of abandonment, rejection and negative judgment may be intensified in this age group as they struggle at the cusp of independence, but these issues are particularly relevant for insecurely attached teens. In this report, attachment theory is briefly described and applied to the assessment and treatment of a college freshman diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. By engaging the patient in evaluating her actions and motives through the attachment model, the therapy helps her to channel help-seeking behavior appropriately, to establish expectations for consistency and reliability from significant people in her life and to feel safer without turning to alcohol as a crutch. An argument is made for the general application of attachment theory to alcohol and drug use disorders in this significant phase of young adult development.
Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard
It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paran...
Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano
There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.
Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert
Children's anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (M age = 10.34 years; SD age = 0.63) filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex, and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.
Full Text Available Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect-regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (Mage = 10.34 years; SDage = 0.63 filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...
Williams, Riccardo; Leone, Luigi; Faedda, Noemi; Natalucci, Giulia; Bellini, Benedetta; Salvi, Elisa; Verdecchia, Paola; Cerutti, Rita; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo
It is widely recognised that there are associations between headache, psychiatric comorbidity and attachment insecurity in both adults and children. The aims of this study were: 1) to compare perceived attachment security and anxiety in children and adolescents with migraine without aura and a healthy control group; 2) to test whether the child's perceived security of attachment to the mother and the father mediated the association between migraine and anxiety. One hundred children and adolescents with Migraine without Aura were compared with a control group of 100 children without headache. The Security Scale (measures perceived security of attachments) and the Self-Administered Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents, a measure of anxiety symptoms, were administered to all participants. The clinical group had lower attachment security than the control group and higher scores on all anxiety scales. Anxiety was negatively correlated with attachment. Children's attachment to their mother mediated the increase in global anxiety in the clinical group. Insecure paternal attachment was associated with greater insecurity in maternal attachment, suggesting that there is a complex pathway from migraine to anxiety symptoms mediated by perceived insecurity of paternal attachment and hence also by perceived insecurity of maternal attachment. These results suggest that insecure parental attachment may exacerbate anxiety in children and adolescents with migraine and point to the importance of multimodal interventions, perhaps taking account of family relationships, for children and adolescents with migraine.
Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole
Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…
Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, E.P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.
Studies have found that male batterers are more often insecurely attached as compared with nonbatterers. However, it is still not clear how insecure attachment is related to domestic violence. Many studies compared batterers and nonbatterers regarding pathological personality characteristics that
Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda
An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.
Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia
Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.
Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert
Children?s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hy...
Shakory, Sharry; Van Exan, Jessica; Mills, Jennifer S; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Keating, Leah; Taube-Schiff, Marlene
Binge eating has a high prevalence among bariatric patients and is associated with post-surgical weight gain. This study examined the potential mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the relation between attachment insecurity and binge eating among this population. Participants were 1388 adult pre-bariatric surgery candidates from an accredited bariatric surgery assessment centre in Toronto, Ontario. Participants completed measures of psychological functioning, including attachment style and emotion regulation. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulties with emotion regulation mediated a positive association between insecure-anxious attachment and binge eating. An insecure-avoidant attachment was found to have a non-significant association with binge eating when examining the total effect. However, when difficulties with emotion regulation were controlled for in the model to examine its role as a mediator, this association became significant, and emotion regulation difficulties also mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and binge eating. These findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important clinical issue to address in order to reduce binge eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
The current study examined the effects of oxytocin administration on the response to infant crying in individuals with secure or insecure attachment representations as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. We measured feelings of irritation and the use of excessive force as indicated by grip
Hernandez, Daphne C; Jacknowitz, Alison
In this study, we examined characteristics associated with experiencing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity and how persistent and transitional adult food insecurity influences toddler cognitive and motor development, along with toddler's weight and health status. Using the first 2 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, 4 mutually exclusive variables capturing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity were created to capture those adults that experience adult food insecurity in the following: both waves, in 1 wave (at 9 or 24 mo after birth), and never experience food insecurity. We used logistic regression models to estimate characteristics associated with the likelihood of experiencing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate how persistent and transitional adult food insecurity influences toddler development. Similar factors influenced one's likelihood of experiencing adult transitional and persistent food insecurity; individuals who experienced any food insecurity were more economically disadvantaged. Thus, outreach efforts do not need to vary by duration of food insecurity. Whereas negative effects of food insecurity on school-aged children are found in the literature, it appears toddlers are buffered from the effects of persistent adult food insecurity. Our findings suggest that toddlers residing with a temporarily food-insecure adult compared with a never food-insecure adult experienced immediate, but small, negative effects on their development. Hence, outreach and assistance may lessen immediate impacts of food insecurity on toddler development.
Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard
It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paranoia. Twenty clinical participants with a psychosis-spectrum diagnosis and twenty controls were studied over six consecutive days using the experience sampling method (ESM). The findings revealed that fluctuations in attachment insecurity were significantly higher in the clinical group, that elevated stress predicted a subsequent increase in attachment insecurity, and that elevated attachment insecurity predicted a subsequent increase in paranoia; this effect was not observed in auditory hallucinations once co-occurring symptoms were controlled for. Finally, although previous ESM studies have shown that low self-esteem precedes the occurrence of paranoia, attachment insecurity continued to predict paranoia even when self-esteem was controlled for. The findings suggest that attachment security may be associated with a lower risk of paranoia, and that psychological interventions should address attachment beliefs and work towards establishing a sense of attachment security. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wiltgen, Anika; Arbona, Consuelo; Frankel, Leslie; Frueh, B Christopher
Current research suggests that interpersonal trauma has an impact on insecure attachment and anxiety. Some research further suggests that attachment may play a mediating role between traumatic events and psychopathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the experience of interpersonal trauma, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and clinical anxiety severity among adult psychiatric inpatients who reported having experienced interpersonal trauma after the age of 16. It was hypothesized that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance would mediate the relationship between interpersonal trauma and clinical anxiety level. This study used archival data on 414 adult psychiatric inpatients in a large city in the Southwest U.S. Results suggest that interpersonal trauma was correlated to attachment avoidance but not to attachment anxiety and that attachment avoidance partially mediated the relation of interpersonal trauma to anxiety. The attachment framework appositely explains how a negative model of other contributes to the relation between experiences of interpersonal trauma and anxiety in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riem, Madelon M E; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H
The current study examined the effects of oxytocin administration on the response to infant crying in individuals with secure or insecure attachment representations as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. We measured feelings of irritation and the use of excessive force as indicated by grip strength using a handgrip dynamometer during exposure to infant crying in 42 women without children who were administered intranasal oxytocin or a placebo. In addition, amygdala responses to infant crying and control sounds were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effects of oxytocin on reactivity to crying were moderated by attachment security. Oxytocin decreased the use of excessive handgrip force and amygdala reactivity in response to crying in individuals with insecure attachment representations. Our findings indicate that insecure individuals, who show emotional, behavioral, and neural hyperreactivity to crying, benefit the most from intranasal oxytocin.
Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan
The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.
Toward infants whose attachment to their first attachment figures (mainly their mothers) is insecure, how can we intervene in them? To reveal it, an observation was carried out regularly once a week, over a period of 9 months. The subjects were an infant who has insecure attachment and comparative one who has secure attachment. And the attachment behaviors they exhibited toward nursery school teachers, strangers, and an observer were counted. The amount of the attachment behaviors of the infa...
Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Candilera, Gabriella; Rosafio, Iole; Erbuto, Denise; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo
Women constitute only a small proportion of inmates, but several studies have shown that they have higher rates of psychiatric disturbance than incarcerated men and community samples. Mental health treatment is necessary to prevent severe illness and suicide in these women. The convenience sample consisted of 40 female detainees and 40 controls who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), insecure attachment (ECR), impulsivity (BIS-11), and sexual behavior (SESAMO). The incarcerated women had higher levels of affective temperament (except for hyperthymia), avoidance, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychosexual issues than the female community sample. Many interrelated emotional and affective disturbances affect the physical and psychological well-being of women in jail, and it is possible that these problems may lead to suicide. Health professionals need to develop gender-specific therapeutic interventions for women in jail. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Andersen, T. E.
Cognitive and behavioural treatments have been shown to be effective for the management of chronic pain. However, not all patients succeed at such a treatment. Attachment insecurity has recently been proposed as an individual vulnerability factor that may have a negative impact on pain, disability...... would be associated with anxiety and depression. Moreover, we hypothesised that attachment avoidance would be positively associated with the use of opioids. Finally, we predicted that patients with an insecure attachment orientation would profit less from a routine pain management program. Data were...... collected from 72 patients referred consecutively from December 2008 to August 2009 to a 13-week pain management program at a Danish multidisciplinary pain centre. Both attachment dimensions were positively associated with anxiety and depression. Moreover, the insecurely attached patients used significantly...
Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J
To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.
Wiltgen, Anika; Adler, Herman; Smith, Ryan; Rufino, Katrina; Frazier, Christopher; Shepard, Christopher; Booker, Kirk; Simmons, Diedra; Richardson, Leah; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by traits such as extreme rigidity, perfectionism, and controlling behavior, all of which have a negative impact on interpersonal functioning. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to elucidate the interpersonal dysfunction characteristic of OCPD; yet, there is a dearth of attachment research on OCPD in the context of severe mental illness. Attachment security and personality disorders were assessed in adult inpatients with severe mental illness. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was used to match OCPD and control subjects on age, gender, number of psychiatric disorders, and number of criteria endorsed for borderline personality disorder. Consistent with hypotheses, the OCPD group (n=61) showed greater attachment avoidance than controls (n=61), and the avoidance was manifested in a predominance of the most insecure attachment style, fearful attachment. Correlations between attachment anxiety/avoidance with specific OCPD diagnostic criteria revealed that attachment avoidance was correlated with four of eight OCPD criteria across the full sample. Within the subset of OCPD patients, attachment avoidance was significantly correlated with OCPD criterion 3 (is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships). The use of self-report measure of attachment and the high burden of illness in the SMI population may not generalize to interview based assessment or outpatients, respectively. Findings attest to the severity of impairment in interpersonal functioning and attachment avoidance, in particular, is characteristic of OCPD patients. These results suggest that viable treatment targets include interpersonal functioning along with more classical features of OCPD such as perfectionism and obsessiveness in task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schoenmaker, Christie; Huffmeijer, Renske; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Dries, Linda; Linting, Mariëlle; van der Voort, Anja; Juffer, Femmie
The associations between attachment representations of adopted young adults and their experiential and physiological arousal to infant crying were examined. Attachment representations were assessed with the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA), and the young adults listened to infant cries, during which ratings of cry perception were collected and physiological reactivity was measured. Secure adoptees showed a well-integrated response to infant distress: heart-rate increases and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawal were coupled with heightened perception of urgency in these individuals. In insecure adoptees RSA withdrawal was absent, and a combination of lowered perceived urgency and heightened sympathetic arousal was found, reflecting a deactivating style of emotional reactivity. Overall, our findings support the idea that internal working models of attachment explain individual differences in the way attachment-related information is processed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD traits, and (ii whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles.A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview, and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms.Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits.Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention.
Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between alexithymia and adult attachment. There were 100 participants aged 18–30 years (63 females who completed the following questionnaires: demographics, Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21, Fear of Intimacy Scale (FIS, and Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20. Findings revealed predicted associations of TAS-20 alexithymia scores with insecure attachment as assessed by RAAS (i.e., lower scores on Close and Depend, and higher scores on Anxiety, fear of intimacy as assessed by FIS, and the DASS-21 index of negative mood. After controlling for age, gender and negative mood, fear of intimacy mediated the association of alexithymia with insecure attachment. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed.
Cavanagh, Sarah R; Glode, Ryan J; Opitz, Philipp C
Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia's effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity (EDA) and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia's benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one's social relationships.
Lee, Dong-Gwi; Park, Jae Joon; Bae, Byeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun-Woo
The present study investigated the moderating effects of prevention-focus on the paths from the dimensions of insecure attachment (attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety) to depression. Two hundred twenty eight Korean college students completed the Experience in Close Relationship - Revised Scale; the Regulatory Focus Strategies Scale; and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results revealed a significant moderating effect for prevention-focus on the path from attachment avoidance to depression, but not on the path from attachment anxiety to depression. They further suggest that different interventions are needed for different combinations of persons' insecure attachment dimensions and levels of prevention-focus. Counseling implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert
Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banerjee, Tanushree; Crews, Deidra C; Wesson, Donald E; Dharmarajan, Sai; Saran, Rajiv; Ríos Burrows, Nilka; Saydah, Sharon; Powe, Neil R
Poor access to food among low-income adults has been recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but there are no data for the impact of food insecurity on progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with risk for ESRD among persons with and without earlier stages of CKD. Longitudinal cohort study. 2,320 adults (aged ≥ 20 years) with CKD and 10,448 adults with no CKD enrolled in NHANES III (1988-1994) with household income ≤ 400% of the federal poverty level linked to the Medicare ESRD Registry for a median follow-up of 12 years. Food insecurity, defined as an affirmative response to the food-insecurity screening question. Development of ESRD. Demographics, income, diabetes, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria. Dietary acid load was estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. We used a Fine-Gray competing-risk model to estimate the relative hazard (RH) for ESRD associated with food insecurity after adjusting for covariates. 4.5% of adults with CKD were food insecure. Food-insecure individuals were more likely to be younger and have diabetes (29.9%), hypertension (73.9%), or albuminuria (90.4%) as compared with their counterparts (Pinsecure group was 51.2 mEq/d versus 55.6 mEq/d, respectively (P=0.05). Food-insecure adults were more likely to develop ESRD (RH, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-3.10) compared with food-secure adults after adjustment for demographics, income, diabetes, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria. In the non-CKD group, 5.7% were food insecure. We did not find a significant association between food insecurity and ESRD (RH, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.40-1.49). Use of single 24-hour diet recall; lack of laboratory follow-up data and measure of changes in food insecurity over time; follow-up of cohort ended 10 years ago. Among adults with CKD, food insecurity was independently associated with a higher likelihood of
Jih, Jane; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Seligman, Hilary K; Boscardin, W John; Nguyen, Tung T; Ritchie, Christine S
Increased out-of-pocket health-care expenditures may exert budget pressure on low-income households that leads to food insecurity. The objective of the present study was to examine whether older adults with higher chronic disease burden are at increased risk of food insecurity. Secondary analysis of the 2013 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Health Care and Nutrition Study (HCNS) linked to the 2012 nationally representative HRS. USA. Respondents of the 2013 HRS HCNS with household incomes insecurity was 27·8 %. Compared with those having 0-1 conditions, respondents with MCC were significantly more likely to report food insecurity, with the adjusted odds ratio for those with 2-4 conditions being 2·12 (95 % CI 1·45, 3·09) and for those with ≥5 conditions being 3·64 (95 % CI 2·47, 5·37). A heavy chronic disease burden likely exerts substantial pressure on the household budgets of older adults, creating an increased risk for food insecurity. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity among older adults, screening those with MCC for food insecurity in the clinical setting may be warranted in order to refer to community food resources.
Mousavi, Bahareh; Safarzadeh, Sahar
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the group play therapy on the insecure attachment and social skills of orphans in Ahvaz city. Statistical population included all orphans in Ahvaz city, of whom 30 students were selected whose scores in insecure attachment and in social skills were one standard deviation higher and one standard…
Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S
Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.
Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E
Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.
This article describes a phenomenological study of the artistic creations of bird nests by four school-aged children to illuminate their internal experiences of attachment. The author analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews pertaining to two-dimensional and three-dimensional artistic representations of a bird's nest and a family of…
Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer
In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Drannikov, Angela
To examine the individual contributions of insecure attachment styles and depression symptom severity to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder (AJD) with depressed mood. Participants were 67 patients diagnosed with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth edition AJD with depressed mood, who completed standardised self-report questionnaires measuring study variables. Mean scores and SDs were computed for the outcome and predictor measures. Pearson correlations among the measures were computed. The study hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analyses. All analyses were performed using the SPSS-17 software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). ANOVA showed a significant main effect of the insecure attachment styles on depression symptom severity and life satisfaction scores. The results suggest that depressive symptoms were more severe (F = 4.13, df = 2.67, P insecure groups did not significantly differ by these variables. The anxious/ambivalent attachment style and depression symptom severity significantly contributed to HRQoL, accounting for 21.4% and 29.7% of the total variance, respectively [R(2) = 0.79; Adjusted R(2) = 0.77; F (5, 67) = 33.68, P < 0.0001], even after controlling for gender, marital and employment status confounders. The results show that the anxious/ambivalent attachment style together with depression symptom severity substantially and independently predict the HRQoL outcome in AJD with depressed mood.
Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna
High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421. A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity.The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35-0.93, needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00-2.72, subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16-4.36, HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36-12.96, heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16-0.97 and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.68.The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed.
Russell, V Michelle; Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K
Attachment theory provides a useful framework for predicting marital infidelity. However, most research has examined the association between attachment and infidelity in unmarried individuals, and we are aware of no research that has examined the role of partner attachment in predicting infidelity. In contrast to research showing that attachment anxiety is unrelated to infidelity among dating couples, 2 longitudinal studies of 207 newlywed marriages demonstrated that own and partner attachment anxiety interacted to predict marital infidelity, such that spouses were more likely to perpetrate infidelity when either they or their partner was high (vs. low) in attachment anxiety. Further, and also in contrast to research on dating couples, own attachment avoidance was unrelated to infidelity, whereas partner attachment avoidance was negatively associated with infidelity, indicating that spouses were less likely to perpetrate infidelity when their partner was high (vs. low) in attachment avoidance. These effects emerged controlling for marital satisfaction, sexual frequency, and personality; did not differ across husbands and wives; and did not differ across the two studies, with the exception that the negative association between partner attachment avoidance and own infidelity only emerged in 1 of the 2 studies. These findings offer a more complete understanding of the implications of attachment insecurity for marital infidelity and suggest that studies of unmarried individuals may not provide complete insights into the implications of various psychological traits and processes for marriage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Balsevičienė, Birutė; Šinkariova, Liuda
Recently there has been more and more research examining adult attachment. It is important to notice that secure attachment is likely to be some kind of prevention of psychopathology and insecure attachment has increasingly been utilized as a powerful explanatory model for psychopathology. However, recently there is more research on the associations between attachment styles and depression to investigate related potential mediation in order to increase our understanding of the underlying proc...
Sarah Rose Cavanagh
Full Text Available Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia’s effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia’s benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one’s social relationships.
Pellegrini, R J; Hicks, R A; Roundtree, T; Inman, G M
The study was designed to extend inquiry on adult attachment style to include the variable of personal stamina. The data were derived from an anonymous survey administered to 163 college students (82 women and 81 men) in introductory psychology classes. Attachment style was measured by the Close Relationship Questionnaire, based on a four-category scheme suggested by Bartholomew. Stamina was evaluated with a self-report scale developed by R. A. Hicks. The pattern of statistically significant differences (p stamina scores than did those who self-endorsed the fearful or preoccupied alternatives in that categorical measure. No other pairwise comparisons of stamina scores were statistically significant. The results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that secure attachment is more facilitative of personal stamina than are insecure styles. Methodological limits on inferences and corresponding alternative interpretations, the potential effectiveness of defensive suppression of the attachment system in dismissing-avoidant adults, and directions for research are discussed.
Full Text Available Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7-11 with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment. Social stress was elicited via the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C. For one group of children a friendly therapy-dog (N=24 was present, for one control group a friendly human (N=10 and for the other control group a toy dog (N=13. Stress levels were measured via salivary cortisol before, during, and after the TSST-C and subjective reports. The physiological stress response was significantly lower in the dog condition in comparison to the two other support conditions. Cortisol levels correlated negatively with the amount of physical contact between child and dog. We conclude that male children with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment profit more from the presence of a therapy-dog than of a friendly human under social stress. Our findings support the assumption that the increasing practice of animal-assisted education is reasonable and that dogs can be helpful assistants in education/special education, since stress interferes with learning and performance in students.
Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau
This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.
Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Koren-Karie, Nina; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri
Why is it easy for some people to play together and difficult for others? In this interdisciplinary pilot study, we looked at dyadic interaction in motion as a paradigm to explore the expression of attachment in adulthood. We used a device that gives simple, quantitative and automated indicators for the quality of interaction while playing the mirror game. Forty-seven participants played the mirror game with the same gender-matched expert players. In addition, participants were interviewed on the Adult Attachment Interview to assess their quality of attachment. Using high resolution kinematic measures, we found that secure attachment was correlated with high complexity of the game and low synchrony compared to insecure attachment. The findings suggest that security of attachment is related to a more exploratory and less rigid game than insecure-dismissing attachment. These preliminary findings imply that high resolution analysis of simple movement interaction could carry information about attachment behavior.
Keough, Matthew T; Penniston, Trinda L; Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Michael Bagby, R; Quilty, Lena C
One of the central pathways to problem gambling (PG) is gambling to cope with negative moods, which is a cardinal feature of depression. Insecure attachment styles are also etiologically related to depression; and, therefore, by extension, those who are insecurely attached may engage in excessive gambling behaviors to cope with depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate this and to this end predicted that depression severity and coping motives for gambling would conjointly mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and PG. Data came from a larger investigation of PG within mood disorders. Participants exhibited a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder and endorsed a mood episode within the past ten years. Participants (N=275) completed self-report measures during a two-day assessment. Path analysis supported two main indirect effects. First, anxious attachment predicted elevated depression, which in turn predicted increased coping motives for gambling, which subsequently predicted greater PG severity. Second, this double mediational pathway was also observed for avoidant attachment. Results suggest that insecure attachment relates to PG via depressive symptoms and coping-related gambling motives. Mood symptoms and associated gambling motives are malleable and are promising targets of gambling interventions for insecurely attached individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne
Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.
Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Njai, Rashid; Blanck, Heidi M
A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our analytic sample included 66,553 adults from 12 states. Food insecurity was determined by response (always/usually/sometimes) to the question, "How often in the past 12 months would you say you were worried or stressed about having enough money to buy nutritious meals?" T tests were used to compare prevalence differences between groups, and logistic regression was used to examine the association between food insecurity and obesity. Among the 12 states, the prevalence of obesity was 27.1% overall, 25.2% among food secure adults, and 35.1% among food insecure adults. Food insecure adults had 32% increased odds of being obese compared to food secure adults. Compared with food secure adults, food insecure adults had significantly higher prevalence of obesity in the following population subgroups: adults ages ≥30 years, women, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, adults with some college education or a college degree, a household income of food insecure adults were obese. Food insecurity was associated with obesity in the overall population and most population subgroups. These findings are consistent with previous research and highlight the importance of increasing access to affordable healthy foods for all adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara
This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.
Wickham, S; Sitko, K; Bentall, R P
A growing body of research has investigated associations between insecure attachment styles and psychosis. However, despite good theoretical and epidemiological reasons for hypothesising that insecure attachment may be specifically implicated in paranoid delusions, few studies have considered the role it plays in specific symptoms. We examined the relationship between attachment style, paranoid beliefs and hallucinatory experiences in a sample of 176 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 113 healthy controls. We also investigated the possible role of negative self-esteem in mediating this association. Insecure attachment predicted paranoia but not hallucinations after co-morbidity between the symptoms was controlled for. Negative self-esteem partially mediated the association between attachment anxiety and clinical paranoia, and fully mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and clinical paranoia. It may be fruitful to explore attachment representations in psychological treatments for paranoid patients. If future research confirms the importance of disrupted attachment as a risk factor for persecutory delusions, consideration might be given to how to protect vulnerable young people, for example those raised in children's homes.
Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina
Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Hernandez, Daphne C; Reesor, Layton; Murillo, Rosenda
Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are increasing among older adults. Food insecurity is a nutrition-related factor that coexists with obesity among low-income individuals. The majority of the research on the food insecurity-obesity paradox has been conducted on low-income mothers and children, with research lacking on large diverse samples of older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess gender disparities in the association between food insecurity and overweight and obesity among low-income older adults. Cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data were used. Food insecurity status was determined by ≥3 affirmative responses on the 10-item US Department of Agriculture Food Security Scale (FSS). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention based on self-reported height and weight. Adults included were low-income (≤1.99 federal poverty level [FPL]), older (aged ≥60 years), with a normal BMI (18.5) or greater who had complete data on FSS, BMI, and the following covariates: age, race or ethnicity, marital status, income, nativity status, physical activity, poor health status, health insurance coverage, problems paying medical bills or for medicine, and region of residency (N=5,506). Multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by gender to estimate the association between food insecurity and higher weight status. All models included covariates. In covariate-adjusted models, compared with low-income, food secure men, low-income, food-insecure men had 42% and 41% lower odds of being overweight and overweight or obese, respectively. Despite the high prevalence rate of obesity among low-income, food-insecure women, food insecurity was not significantly related to overweight, obesity, or overweight or obesity for older adult women in adjusted models. Food insecurity-overweight and -obesity paradox appears not to be present in older men. However, food insecurity and
Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been an increase of experimental research on automatic unconscious processes concerning the evaluation of the self and others. Previous research investigated implicit aspects of romantic attachment using self-report measures as explicit instruments for assessing attachment style. There is a lack of experimental procedures feasible for neurobiological settings. We developed a reaction time experiment (RT using a narrative attachment measure with an implicit nature and were interested to capture automatic processes, when the individuals’ attachment system is activated. We aimed to combine attachment methodology with knowledge from implicit measures by using a decision reaction time paradigm. This should serve as a means to capture implicit aspects of attachment. This experiment evaluated participants’ response to prototypic attachment sentences in association with their own attachment classification, measured with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP.First the AAP was administered as the standardized interview procedure to 30 healthy participants, which were classified into a secure or insecure group. In the following experimental session, both experimenter and participants were blind with respect to classifications. 128 prototypically secure or insecure sentences related to the 8 pictures of the AAP were presented to the participants. Their response and reaction times were recorded. Based on the response (accept, reject a continuous security scale was defined. Both the AAP classification and security scale were related to the reaction times. Differentiated study hypotheses were confirmed for insecure sentences, which were accepted faster by participants from the insecure attachment group (or with lower security scale, and rejected faster by participants form secure attachment group (or with higher security scale. The elaborating unconscious processes were more activated by insecure sentences with
Mahalik, James R.; Aldarondo, Etiony; Gilbert-Gokhale, Steven; Shore, Erika
The authors hypothesized that masculine gender role stress would mediate the relationship between insecure attachment and controlling behaviors in a sample of men who batter. To examine this hypothesis, 143 men who were court mandated to attend a batterers' intervention program in a northeastern state completed measures including the Controlling…
Morales-Ruán, Ma Del Carmen; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Valderrama-Álvarez, Zaira; Melgar-Quiñónez, Hugo
To describe the association of food insecurity (FI) and obesity in adults in Mexico. Cross-sectional design. We included adults' data from the health and nutrition national survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012). Measures of weight and height were obtained and BMI was calculated. The level of household food insecurity was measured through the Latin American Scale of Food Security (ELCSA). Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. 70.6% of the population had some level of food insecurity, 42.6% mild insecurity, 17.7% moderate insecurity and 10.3% severe insecurity. Adults with mild FI had higher probability of obesity (OR: 1.66; 95%CI 1.11-2.50). Women were slightly more likely to be obese (OR: 1.78; 95%CI 1.01-3.12). Mild FI is associated with obesity, particularly among women.
Steiner, John F; Stenmark, Sandra H; Sterrett, Andrew T; Paolino, Andrea R; Stiefel, Matthew; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Zeng, Chan
To estimate food insecurity prevalence and develop a statistical prediction model for food insecurity. Retrospective cohort study. Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Adult members who completed a pre-Medicare Annual Wellness Visit survey. Food insecurity was assessed using a single screening question. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics from electronic health records and self-reported characteristics from the survey were used to develop the prediction model. Of 130,208 older adult members between January 2012 and December 2015, 50,097 (38.5%) completed food insecurity screening, 2,859 of whom (5.7% of respondents) reported food insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity was 10.0% or greater among individuals who were black or Hispanic, had less than high school education, had Medicaid insurance, were extremely obese, had poor health status or quality of life, had depression or anxiety, had impairments in specific activities of daily living, had other nutritional risk factors, or were socially isolated (all pinsecurity and those without and 14.3% of individuals in the highest quintile of risk reported food insecurity. Food insecurity is prevalent even in older adults with private-sector healthcare coverage. Specific individual characteristics, and a model based on those characteristics, can identify older adults at higher risk of food insecurity. System-level interventions will be necessary to connect older adults with community-based food resources. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.
Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate
Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...
Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena
Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and
Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Njai, Rashid; Blanck, Heidi M.
A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our analytic sample included 66,553 adults from 12 states. Food insecurity was determined by response (always/usually/sometimes) to the question,“Howoften in the past 12 months wou...
Homenko, Daria R.; Morin, Philip C.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Weinstock, Ruth S.
Objective: To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Methods: Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n = 74).…
Pryor, Laura; Lioret, Sandrine; van der Waerden, Judith; Fombonne, Éric; Falissard, Bruno; Melchior, Maria
Food insecurity has been found to be related to anxiety and depression; however, the association with other psychiatric disorders, particularly among young adults, is not well known. We examined whether food insecurity is independently associated with four common mental health problems among a community sample of young adults in France. Data are from the TEMPO longitudinal cohort study. In 1991, participants' parents provided information on health and family socioeconomic characteristics. In 2011, participants' (18-35 years) reported food insecurity, mental health symptoms, and socioeconomic conditions (n = 1214). Mental health problems ascertained included major depressive episode, suicidal ideation, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse and/or dependence (nicotine, alcohol and cannabis). Cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and mental health problems were tested using modified Poisson regressions, weighted by inverse probability weights (IPW) of exposure. This makes food insecure and not food insecure participants comparable on all characteristics including socioeconomic factors and past mental health problems. 8.5 % of young adults were food insecure. In IPW-controlled analyses, food insecurity was associated with increased levels of depression (RR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.01-4.02), suicidal ideation (RR = 3.23, 95 % CI 1.55-6.75) and substance use problems (RR = 1.68, 95 % CI 1.15-2.46). Food insecurity co-occurs with depression, suicidal ideation and substance use problems in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that reductions in food insecurity during this important life period may help prevent mental health problems. Policies aiming to alleviate food insecurity should also address individuals' psychiatric problems, to prevent a lifelong vicious circle of poor mental health and low socioeconomic attainment.
Michail, Maria; Birchwood, Max
Social anxiety is among the most prevalent affective disturbances among people with psychosis. The developmental pathways associated with its emergence in psychosis, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study is to identify the developmental risk factors associated with social anxiety disorder in first-episode psychosis and to investigate whether social anxiety in psychosis and non-psychosis is associated with similar or different adult attachment styles. This is a cross-sectional study. A sample of individuals with social anxiety disorder (with or without psychosis) was compared with a sample with psychosis only and healthy controls on childhood trauma, dysfunctional parenting and adult attachment. Childhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting (pchildhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting between socially anxious people with and without psychosis. Higher levels of insecure adult attachment (x(2)1=38.5, pChildhood adversities were not associated with insecure adult attachment in people with social anxiety (with or without psychosis). Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study we cannot infer causal relationships between early risk factors, including childhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting, and social anxiety. Also, the use of self-report measures of attachment could be subject to biases. Shared developmental risk factors are implicated in the emergence of affective disorders in psychosis and non-psychosis. Social anxiety in psychosis is associated with insecurity in adult attachments which does not arise a result of adverse developmental pathways. Understanding the bio-psycho-social risk factors for affective dysregulation in psychosis could inform psychological interventions about the role of developmental anomaly and trauma in the emergence of affective dysregulation in psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alexander, P C; Anderson, C L; Brand, B; Schaeffer, C M; Grelling, B Z; Kretz, L
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors. Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview (Family Attachment Interview; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and completed measures of current functioning (Impact of Event Scale, SCL-10, Beck Depression Inventory) and personality (MCMI-II). Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed. Analyses of variance suggested that attachment (as represented by a category) was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies and preoccupied individuals showing more dependent, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment (as represented by four dimensions) was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression. The findings demonstrated the propensity for insecure attachment among incest survivors. Sexual abuse severity and attachment have significant but distinct effects on longterm outcome; abuse characteristics predict classic PTSD symptoms and attachment insecurity predicts distress, depression, and personality disorders above and beyond any effects of abuse severity.
McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...
van Dam, D S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Velthorst, E; Meijer, C J; de Haan, L
The association between childhood maltreatment (ChM) and psychotic disorders is well established. However, there is an ongoing debate about which factors account for this relationship. One explanation is that the relationship between ChM and psychosis is mediated by adult attachment style. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether adult attachment style mediates the relationship between ChM and positive and negative symptomatology. We investigated the relation between ChM and psychotic symptoms, taking into account levels of (insecure) attachment, in 131 patients with psychotic illness, 123 siblings and 72 controls. ChM was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance were measured using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM). In both patients and siblings, ChM predicted positive symptoms and this relationship was partly mediated by attachment style. This relationship was found to be stronger for siblings than for patients. ChM predicted negative symptoms in patients and siblings. In the patient sample, attachment style did not mediate the relationship between ChM and negative symptoms, whereas attachment style was found to be a mediator in the sibling sample. ChM was associated with positive and negative symptomatology in both patients and siblings. Particularly in siblings, the relationship between ChM and psychosis seems to be mediated by adult attachment style. Perhaps attachment style may play a more prominent role on a subclinical level.
Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria
The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.
Trillingsgaard, Tea; Sommer, Dion; Mathias, Lasgaard
), the way it affects the couple relationship is likely to depend on interacting factors from different domains of risk (e.g. individual and couple level). We expected interactions to appear between domains of attachment and labour division. The hypothesis was that sole responsibility in child care...... and housework would predict lower relationship satisfaction, particularly among mothers who were high on attachment insecurity. Methods: Data from self-report measures of adult attachment, child care, housework and relationship satisfaction were collected from 255 first-time mothers at six months postpartum....... Results: Sole responsibility in child care predicted lower relationship satisfaction, particularly among mothers who were high on attachment avoidance. This interaction effect was significant but small. Among main effects, higher levels of either attachment anxiety or avoidance were linked with lower...
Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A
Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hernandez, Daphne C; Reesor, Layton M; Murillo, Rosenda
The majority of the food insecurity-obesity research has indicated a positive association among women, especially minority women. Less research has been conducted on men, and the findings are inconsistent. The aim was to assess whether gender and race/ethnic disparities exists between the food insecurity and overweight/obesity relationship among adults ages 18-59. We used the cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 19,990). Three or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale indicated food insecure experiences. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity to estimate the association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity controlling for several demographic characteristics. Adults on average were 36 years of age (51% female; 56% white, 27% Hispanic, and 17% black), 27% were food insecure, and 65% were overweight/obese. Food insecurity was most prevalent among blacks and Hispanics, regardless of gender. A greater percentage of food insecure women were overweight/obese compared to food secure women among all race/ethnicity groups; while similar proportions of white, black, and Hispanic men were overweight/obese irrespective of their food security status. In covariate-adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with a 41% and 29% higher odds of being overweight/obese among white and Hispanic women, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to overweight/obesity among black women nor among white, black, and Hispanic men. The complex relationship between food insecurity and obesity suggests a need to investigate potential behavioral and physiological mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hagedorn, Rebecca L; Olfert, Melissa D
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Adult Food Security Survey was used to measure food insecurity. Independent variables include money expenditure (MES), coping strategies (CSS), academic performance (APS), and demographic, health, economic and culinary variables. Participant responses ( n = 692) showed one third (36.6%) of respondents were food-insecure. Students with higher scores for MES and CSS had significantly higher odds of being food-insecure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81 to 2.38 and OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, respectively). The odds of high APS scores (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) were inversely related to food insecurity. Results of the logistic regression showed MES, CSS, health, and school year remained a significant predictor of food insecurity in college students. These findings suggest behavioral differences in terms of coping strategies, money expenditure, and academic progress among food-insecure students and can be used to identify and target at-risk students to promote student food security and well-being.
Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Gu?ye, Nd?ye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Ba?la; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.
Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HI...
Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria
Attachment theory is currently receiving much attention in relation to how adults cope with severe illness. The study aims were using the experiences of patients and family members to explore attachment figures (a central concept within the theory) during palliative home care. Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four types of attachment figures were identified: (i) family and friends, (ii) health care practitioners, (iii) pets and (iv) God. Both non-physical and physical contact with the attachment figures facilitated a sense of security. In addition, the patient/family members and their attachment figures were described by some as a "we", and when one part of the "we" felt insecure, this made the other also feel insecure. The patients' unstable and progressing illnesses constituted a threat to the patients' and family members' sense of security. The availability of the attachment figures made them feel secure, and they could then divert their attention from the patients' illnesses to other things in everyday life, e.g. socialising with family and friends. Some family members also had to cope with the loss of their own attachment figure, when the patient, who had previously been a source of security for them, was no longer able to offer protection and comfort due to the progression of the illness. Important aspects of attachment figures in the end-of-life context were identified, and their clinical implications will be discussed.
Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa
To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.
Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Barnett, Melissa
Using data from the Durham Child Health and Development Study (n=148), the current study examines the associations between child and parenting variables at 6 months and child attachment quality at 12 months of age and maternal report of child self regulation at 24 months of age. Child and parent variables predicted distinct forms of insecure attachment relationships. Observations of infant soothability during the reunion session of the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm at 6 months differentially predicted children with later insecure-ambivalent attachments from those with secure attachments. Observations of maternal negative intrusiveness at 6 months of age differentially predicted children with insecure-avoidant attachments from those with secure attachments. Maternal sensitivity at 6 months was associated with maternal report of child affective problems at 24 months, but this association was moderated by infant negativity during soothing and later moderated by child attachment quality. Collectively, these results suggest the following two mutually exclusive possibilities regarding infant soothability and later ambivalent attachment quality: either infant soothability is a unique and distinct predictor of later ambivalent attachment quality and this cascade represents a developmental shift in child risk during the first year of life, or that infant soothability following a stressful task at 6 months of age is itself an early indicator of ambivalent attachment behavior with the mother. The data from the current study could not provide differential support for one possibility over the other. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nacak, Yeliz; Morawa, Eva; Tuffner, Daniela; Erim, Yesim
Current models assume somatoform pain disorder (SPD) to be the result of a complex interaction between bio- and psychosocial factors, but the etiology is still not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of attachment style and the frequency of traumatic life events, especially childhood adversities, in patients with SPD compared to healthy controls. We compared 65 patients with SPD (confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview, SCID-I) to 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The following questionnaires were employed: Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between SPD and psychological factors. Insecure attachment was significantly more prevalent (60%) in patients with SPD compared to healthy subjects (14%; pcumulative traumatic events emphasize their importance as risk factors of SPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P
This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.
Murillo, Rosenda; Reesor, Layton M; Scott, Claudia W; Hernandez, Daphne C
We examined sex and race/ethnicity differences in the association between food insecurity status and prediabetes among adults. We used cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data on non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adults aged 18-59 years whose household income was ≤ 299% Federal Poverty Line (N = 19,048). Food insecurity status was determined by 3 or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale. Pre-diabetes was self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations of food insecurity with pre-diabetes and adjusted for several demographic characteristics. All models were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, food insecure non-Hispanic white women and non-Hispanic black women had 53% and over 200% higher odds of being pre-diabetic, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to pre-diabetes for Hispanic women or men. Limited food resources appear to place non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women at risk for pre-diabetes. Linking food assistance programs with community-based health education programs may be a comprehensive approach to support those who are food insecure with diabetes prevention.
Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne
This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brassard, Audrey; Dupuy, Emmanuelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Shaver, Phillip R
We examined the potential role of three mediators--sexual self-esteem, sexual anxiety, and sexual assertiveness--of the association between romantic attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and two aspects of women's sexual functioning: sexual function and sexual satisfaction. A sample of 556 women aged 18 to 30 agreed to complete an online series of validated questionnaires assessing attachment insecurities and several aspects of sexual functioning. Lower sexual self-esteem and higher sexual anxiety mediated the associations between attachment anxiety and lower sexual function and satisfaction. Lower sexual self-esteem and higher sexual anxiety also partially mediated the links between attachment-related avoidance and the two sexual functioning variables. Sexual assertiveness, however, did not mediate these associations. A significant interaction between attachment anxiety and avoidance was also found to predict sexual satisfaction, with women high in avoidance and low in anxiety being the least satisfied. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and clinical implications.
Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A
Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like childhood cancer may cause survivors to be more insecurely attached than healthy peers, which could have downstream effects on survivors' romantic relationships later in life. Therefore, we examined survivors' perspectives on parent behaviors, adult attachment, and marital status among adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to controls. One hundred forty-nine young adult survivors and 149 matched controls (M age = 28, range 20-40) indicated their relationship status (single vs. partnered) and completed standardized questionnaires assessing memories of upbringing (warmth, overprotection, rejection) and adult attachment (avoidance, anxiety). Adult survivors of childhood cancer remembered mothers and fathers as emotionally warmer (d = 0.53/0.30), and mothers as less rejecting than controls (d = 0.30). Adult attachment was overall similar between survivors and controls, but partnered survivors reported particularly low attachment-related anxiety. Childhood cancer was related to higher mother and father warmth, which were associated with lower attachment-related avoidance and in turn with a greater likelihood of being in a relationship. Adult childhood cancer survivors did not remember their parents as overprotective, but reported more positive parenting relative to controls; and similar adult attachment and relationship status. The results were unexpected, but offer novel insights for future prospective studies, which are necessary to better understand psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer.
Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children.This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing and U-unresolved/with losses. Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985, while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008.As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore an extended interpersonal model of health anxiety, according to which health-anxious individuals are trapped in a vicious circle of health-related reassurance-seeking, alienation from others, and worry about health, while somatic absorption with body sensations, insecure attachment, neuroticism, safety-seeking behaviors, and medical services utilization were also included in the model. Data were collected from 196 Greek university students using standardized instruments. Results indicated that anxious attachment was directly related to absorption (β = .163, p < .05 and alienation (β = .204, p < .05, while avoidant attachment was directly related to absorption (β = −.344, p < .001, reassurance-seeking (β = −.130, p < .05, and alienation (β = .148, p < .05. Neuroticism was positively and significantly associated with all dimensions of health anxiety. Absorption, alienation, and anxious attachment were related to medical services utilization, which, in turn, was related to safety-seeking behaviors (β = .200, p < .01. Neuroticism and anxious attachment were also indirectly and positively associated with worry. Moreover, absorption was positively related to worry and reassurance-seeking, worry was positively related to reassurance-seeking, and alienation was positively related to worry. Study results highlight the key role that interpersonal (e.g., alienation from others and perceptual factors (e.g., the tendency to focus on bodily sensations can play in health anxiety maintenance, and the importance of anxious and avoidant attachment in safety-seeking behavior engagement. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.
Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia
The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny
It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.
Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai
Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.
Kuipers, G.S.; van Loenhout, Z.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.
Objective: To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. Method: We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder
Haltigan, John D; Roisman, Glenn I
Based on data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,149), the current article provides the first large-sample investigation of associations between different forms of infant attachment insecurity and dissociative symptomatology from childhood through midadolescence as measured by scales based on the mother, teacher, and youth self-report versions of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessments. Findings did not replicate the previously reported and highly cited evidence that infant attachment disorganization is associated with dissociative symptomatology. In contrast, correlations of small magnitude were observed between infant avoidance and dissociative symptomatology, as assessed by teachers and mothers (but not self-report). Results were not moderated by contextual risk. Limitations of the study included the absence of measures of maltreatment and interpersonal trauma, leaving open the possibility that infant attachment disorganization is a diathesis for later dissociation in the context of severe and/or chronic trauma. Nevertheless, the present results strongly indicate the need for additional research exploring the possible role of environmental factors in the development of dissociative symptomatology. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Van Petegem, Stijn; Beyers, Wim; Brenning, Katrijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
The present investigation focuses on the associations between adolescents' insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) and their autonomous functioning in family decision making. In line with recent insights in the construct of adolescent autonomy, we combined two perspectives on autonomy, differentiating between the degree of independent versus dependent functioning and the self-endorsed and pressuring motives underlying (in)dependent functioning. A longitudinal sample of 327 adolescents (age range = 13-20 years; 64 % girls) completed questionnaires on attachment to the mother and father and on both autonomy operationalisations on two measurement moments spanning a 1-year interval. Structural equation modeling showed that attachment avoidance generally was unrelated to the degree of independent decision making and the motives underlying independent decision making, but related to more pressuring motives for dependent decision making. Anxiety, on the other hand, was associated with a lower degree of independent decision making as well as with more pressuring motives for both independent and dependent decision making. Cross-lagged paths were generally in line with these findings. Theoretical implications are outlined in the discussion.
Loinaz, Ismael; Sánchez, Luis Miguel; Vilella, Andrea
The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results confirmed the low utility of nonspecific empathy, the predominance of high self-esteem, and the difficulty of identifying an insecure attachment. The implications of the use of these variables in the treatment of offenders, and the need to improve the assessment tools, are discussed.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha; van IJzendoorn, Marinus
Institutional care has been shown to lead to insecure and disorganized attachments and indiscriminate friendliness. Some children, however, are surprisingly resilient to the adverse environment. Here the protective role of the long variant of the serotonin receptor gene (5HTT) is explored in a small hypothesis-generating study of 37 Ukrainian…
Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt
Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…
Marmarosh, Cheri L; Kivlighan, Dennis M; Bieri, Kathryn; LaFauci Schutt, Jean M; Barone, Carrie; Choi, Jaehwa
The purpose of this study was to test the notion that complementary attachments are best for achieving a secure base in psychotherapy. Specifically, we predicted third to fifth session alliance from client- and therapist-rated attachment style interactions. Using a combined sample of 46 therapy dyads from a community mental health clinic and university counseling center, the client- and therapist-perceived therapy alliance, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance were examined at the beginning of therapy. The results of an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kenny & Cook, 1999, Partner effects in relationship research: Conceptual issues, analytic difficulties, and illustrations. Personal Relationships, 6, 433-448.) indicated that there was no direct effect of either client or therapist attachment style on therapist or client early ratings of the alliance. One significant interaction emerged and indicated that client-perceived alliance was influenced by therapist and client attachment anxiety. The client-perceived early alliance was higher when more anxious therapists worked with clients with decreasing anxiety. The client early alliance was higher when less anxious therapists worked with clients with increasing anxiety. The findings partially support the notion that different attachment configurations between the therapist and client facilitate greater alliance, but this was the case only when assessing client-perceived early alliance and only with regards to the dimension of attachment anxiety. There were no significant main effects or interactions when exploring therapist-perceived alliance. Implications of the findings are discussed along with recommendations for future study and clinical training. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio
To examine the independent association of household food insecurity (HFI) with diabetes and hypertension in a nationally representative cross-sectional sample from Mexico. We assessed the association between HFI and self-reported doctor diagnosed diabetes and hypertension among 32 320 adult individuals using multiple logistic regression. HFI was measured using an adapted version for Mexico of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). HFI was a risk factor for diabetes among women but not men and for hypertension among both genders. Diabetes odds were higher by 31, 67 and 48%, among women living in mild, moderate, and severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households, respectively. Living in moderate to severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households was associated with hypertension odds that were 28 and 32% higher, respectively. Decreasing HFI may help improve public health and national development in Mexico.
Dong, Kimberly R; Tang, Alice M; Stopka, Thomas J; Beckwith, Curt G; Must, Aviva
being in a food insecure group. Food insecure participants resided in different neighborhoods than food secure participants. The highest density of food insecure participants resided in census tracts with the lowest median incomes for the general population. The areas of highest density for each level of food security for our participants were in the census tracts with the lowest levels of full-time employment for the general population. The prevalence of food insecurity and very low food security were markedly higher in our probation population compared to the general RI population. These findings suggest that access to food on a regular basis is a challenge for adults on probation. Depression and being homeless were independently associated with a greater odds of being in a food insecure group. In addition to intervening directly on food insecurity, developing interventions and policies that address the contributing factors of food insecurity, such as safe housing and treatment for depression, are critical.
Stopka, Thomas J.; Beckwith, Curt G.
.29, 0.98) had a lower odds of being in a food insecure group. Food insecure participants resided in different neighborhoods than food secure participants. The highest density of food insecure participants resided in census tracts with the lowest median incomes for the general population. The areas of highest density for each level of food security for our participants were in the census tracts with the lowest levels of full-time employment for the general population. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity and very low food security were markedly higher in our probation population compared to the general RI population. These findings suggest that access to food on a regular basis is a challenge for adults on probation. Depression and being homeless were independently associated with a greater odds of being in a food insecure group. In addition to intervening directly on food insecurity, developing interventions and policies that address the contributing factors of food insecurity, such as safe housing and treatment for depression, are critical. PMID:29883491
Jessiman-Perreault, Geneviève; McIntyre, Lynn
Household food insecurity is related to poor mental health. This study examines whether the level of household food insecurity is associated with a gradient in the risk of reporting six adverse mental health outcomes. This study further quantifies the mental health impact if severe food insecurity, the extreme of the risk continuum, were eliminated in Canada. Using a pooled sample of the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 302,683), we examined the relationship between level of food insecurity, in adults 18-64 years, and reporting six adverse mental health outcomes. We conducted a probit analysis adjusted for multi-variable models, to calculate the reduction in the odds of reporting mental health outcomes that might accrue from the elimination of severe food insecurity. Controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic covariates, a food insecurity gradient was found in six mental health outcomes. We calculated that a decrease between 8.1% and 16.0% in the reporting of these mental health outcomes would accrue if those who are currently severely food insecure became food secure, after controlling for covariates. Household food insecurity has a pervasive graded negative effect on a variety of mental health outcomes, in which significantly higher levels of food insecurity are associated with a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Reduction of food insecurity, particularly at the severe level, is a public health concern and a modifiable structural determinant of health worthy of macro-level policy intervention.
van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien
The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…
Benzekri, Noelle A; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S
Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.
Noelle A Benzekri
Full Text Available Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes.We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review.One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01 and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02. Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01.Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.
Warren, Stacie L; Bost, Kelly K; Roisman, Glenn I; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Engels, Anna S; Choi, Eunsil; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy
Using data from 34 participants who completed an emotion-word Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the effects of adult attachment on neural activity associated with top-down cognitive control in the presence of emotional distractors. Individuals with lower levels of secure-base-script knowledge--reflected in an adult's inability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--demonstrated more activity in prefrontal cortical regions associated with emotion regulation (e.g., right orbitofrontal cortex) and with top-down cognitive control (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and superior frontal gyrus). Less efficient performance and related increases in brain activity suggest that insecure attachment involves a vulnerability to distraction by attachment-relevant emotional information and that greater cognitive control is required to attend to task-relevant, nonemotional information. These results contribute to the understanding of mechanisms through which attachment-related experiences may influence developmental adaptation.
Gittleman, M G; Klein, M H; Smider, N A; Essex, M J
Attachment theory posits links between early experiences with parents, adult relationships and adult mental health, but does not specify whether these are independent, mediating, or moderating effects. Associations of parent's behaviour on the Parental Bonding Instrument, adult attachment styles and three dimensions of mental health were investigated in a large sample of women and men. Men and women with secure styles recalled higher levels of care from both parents than those with fearful styles. Maternal and paternal control were more consistent predictors of increased distress for men than for women. Fearful and preoccupied adult styles were associated with higher levels of distress in both men and women. While adult styles had few mediating effects on the association of parental behaviour and mental health, interactions between the fearful style and parental variables suggested that this form of insecurity sometimes accentuated the impact of high parental care or low paternal control on mental health in both men and women; among women, however, the secure style seemed to buffer somewhat the negative effect of high parental control. Although the amount of variance explained by either parental behaviour or adult styles was modest, patterns of moderating effects of adult styles on associations between parental behaviour and mental health suggested that both continuity and discontinuity principles can be applied to understanding these links.
To, Quyen G; Frongillo, Edward A; Gallegos, Danielle; Moore, Justin B
Household food insecurity and physical activity are each important public-health concerns in the United States, but the relation between them has not been investigated thoroughly. This study aimed to examine the association between food insecurity and physical activity in the U.S. population. Physical activity measured by accelerometry (PAM) and physical activity measured by questionnaire (PAQ) data from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Individuals aged 65 y, pregnant women, individuals with physical limitations, and individuals with family income >350% of the poverty line were excluded. Food insecurity was measured by the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Adjusted ORs were calculated from logistic regression to identify the association between food insecurity and adherence to the physical-activity guidelines. Adjusted coefficients were obtained from linear regression to identify the association between food insecurity with sedentary/physical-activity minutes. In children, food insecurity was not associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines measured via PAM or PAQ and with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity than food-secure children (adjusted coefficient = -5.24, P = 0.02). In adults, food insecurity was significantly associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines (adjusted OR = 0.72, P = 0.03 for PAM; and OR = 0.84, P PAQ) but was not associated with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity, and food-insecure adults were less likely to adhere to the physical-activity guidelines than those without food insecurity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare
The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.
Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta
Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.
Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars
Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....
Huang, Yu-Lien; Chen, Sue-Huei; Su, Yi-Jen; Kung, Yi-Wen
Greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is seen in individuals exposed to interpersonal traumatic events. Based on an attachment perspective, interpersonal trauma exposure may activate one's attachment insecurity system and disrupt affect, behaviour and interpersonal function, which may in turn create more difficulties to cope with interpersonal traumas and exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment anxiety relative to attachment avoidance would be a stronger predictor of greater PTSD symptoms following interpersonal traumas versus impersonal traumas in a Taiwanese sample. One hundred and sixty-two trauma-exposed Taiwanese young adults completed the measures of symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD, and attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. In this Taiwanese study, higher attachment anxiety was observed in individuals who were exposed to interpersonal traumas. The interpersonal trauma group reported greater PTSD symptoms than did the impersonal trauma group. Specifically, after controlling for age, occurrence of trauma and distress of trauma, attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, predicted more PTSD total severity and avoidance symptoms in the interpersonal trauma group. The findings may be pertinent to attachment anxiety-related hyperactivating strategies, as well as specific cultural values and a forbearance strategy applied to regulate traumatic distress in a collectivist society. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Diener, Marc J; Monroe, Joel M
The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and therapeutic alliance in individual psychotherapy. Search procedures yielded 17 independent samples (total N = 886, average n = 52, standard deviation = 24) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that greater attachment security was associated with stronger therapeutic alliances, whereas greater attachment insecurity was associated with weaker therapeutic alliances, with an overall weighted effect size of r = .17, p .10) with the exception of the source of alliance ratings; results indicated that patient-rated alliance demonstrated a significantly larger relationship with attachment compared with therapist-rated alliance (Qbetween = 3.95, df = 1, p = .047). Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms. Further, gender dysphoric adults showed significantly higher levels of attachment disorganization and polyvictimisation, relative to controls. Comparisons of subgroups, defined by natal gender, showed that trans women, compared to control males, had more involving and physically and psychologically abusive fathers, and were more often separated from their mothers; trans men, relative to female controls, had more involving mothers and were more frequently separated from and neglected by their fathers. The research has several implications for treatment, clinical health psychology, family support and education.
Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing
Irving, Shalon M; Njai, Rashid S; Siegel, Paul Z
Food insecurity is positively linked to risk of hypertension; however, it is not known whether this relationship persists after adjustment for socioeconomic position (SEP). We examined the association between food insecurity and self-reported hypertension among adults aged 35 or older (N = 58,677) in 12 states that asked the food insecurity question in their 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire. After adjusting for SEP, hypertension was more common among adults reporting food insecurity (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.36). Our study found a positive relationship between food insecurity and hypertension after adjusting for SEP and other characteristics.
Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Martínez-Martínez, Oscar; Orta-Alemán, Dania; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael
To examine factors associated with food insecurity among urban older adults (65 years and older). Three hundred and fifty two older adults attending community centers in a neighborhood of Mexico City were surveyed for food insecurity, functional impairments, health and mental health status, cash-transfer assistance, socio-demographic characteristics, social isolation, and the built food environment. Having at least primary education and receiving cash-transfers were significantly associated with a lower probability of being moderately-severely food insecure (OR=0.478 and 0.597, respectively). The probability of moderate-severe food insecurity was significantly higher among elderly at risk of depression (OR=2.843), those with at least one activity of daily living impaired (OR=2.177) and those with at least one instrumental activity of daily living impaired (OR=1.785). Higher educational attainment and cash-transfers may have a positive influence on reducing food insecurity. Depression and functional limitations may increase the likelihood of food insecurity among older adults.
Schrock, Joshua M; McClure, Heather H; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Charlton, Karen E; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Naidoo, Nirmala; Kowal, Paul
Our objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556). Adjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition. In adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P insecurity. Those who were severely food insecure had greater odds of being underweight (OR = 1.36, P insecurity explained 4.7%-29.7% of the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition, depending on the variables considered. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that food insecurity is a mechanism linking social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in India. These analyses contribute to a better understanding of processes leading to variation in body composition, which may help enhance the design of interventions aimed at improving population nutritional status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G
This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.
Montgomery, Joshua; Lu, Juan; Ratliff, Scott; Mezuk, Briana
Purpose While both food insecurity and depression have been linked to risk of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and depression among adults with diabetes. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2014), a nationally representative, population-based survey. Analytic sample was limited to adults aged ≥20 with diabetes determined by either fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 1724) and adults age ≥20 with prediabetes determined by fasting plasma glucose (100-125 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 2004). Food insecurity was measured using the US Food Security Survey Module. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between food insecurity and depression while accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Approximately 10% of individuals with diabetes and 8.5% of individuals with prediabetes had severe food insecurity in the past year; an additional 20.3% of individuals with diabetes and 14.3% of those with prediabetes had mild food insecurity. Among individuals with diabetes, both mild and severe food insecurity were associated with elevated odds of depression These relationships were similar in magnitude among individuals with prediabetes. Conclusions Food insecurity is significantly associated with depressive symptoms in people with diabetes and prediabetes. Results point to the need to address economic issues in conjunction with psychosocial issues for comprehensive diabetes care.
Lee, Jung Sun
Food insecurity in older adults is a clinically relevant problem with important implications for healthcare costs; however, few studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and the healthcare cost burden in older adults. It may be due in part to lack of appropriate data and methods to examine these issues in the existing datasets. It is critical to identify and obtain the data necessary for estimating healthcare costs associated with food insecurity and to explore specific mechanisms by which food insecurity is related to adverse health outcomes and associated healthcare costs. This paper discusses how to best utilize and link available, nationally representative datasets and develop infrastructure and procedures to establish state and local datasets. As an example, an innovative approach tested in Georgia to establish a state-level dataset in a sample of low-income, older adults in need of food assistance is discussed. In this approach, data from the state aging services client database and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data were linked. Such efforts are essential to estimate the healthcare cost burden of food-insecure older adults who have a particularly higher burden of chronic diseases and direct future research, program, and policy decisions to improve the food and healthcare security of low-income, older adults. PMID:23319122
George, Carol; West, Malcolm
This article summarizes the development and validation of the Adult Attachment Projective System (AAP), a measure we developed from the Bowlby-Ainsworth developmental tradition to assess adult attachment status. The AAP has demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984/1985/1996; Main & Goldwyn, 1985-1994; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003), interjudge reliability, and test-retest reliability, with no effects of verbal intelligence or social desirability. The AAP coding and classification system and application in clinical and community samples are summarized. Finally, we introduce the 3 other articles that are part of this Special Section and discuss the use of the AAP in therapeutic assessment and treatment.
Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa
Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…
Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Verbeke, Willem J M I; Mokry, Michal; Vrtička, Pascal
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited. We for the first time examined relations between intra-individual differences in attachment and epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene promoter in 109 young adult human participants. Our results revealed that attachment avoidance was significantly and specifically associated with increased OXTR and NR3C1 promoter methylation. These findings offer first tentative clues on the possible etiology of attachment avoidance in humans by showing epigenetic modification in genes related to both social stress regulation and HPA axis functioning.
Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should
Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well
Nguyen, Binh T; Shuval, Kerem; Bertmann, Farryl; Yaroch, Amy L
We examined whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation changes associations between food insecurity, dietary quality, and weight among US adults. We analyzed adult dietary intake data (n = 8333) from the 2003 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bivariate and multivariable methods assessed associations of SNAP participation and 4 levels of food security with diet and weight. Measures of dietary quality were the Healthy Eating Index 2010, total caloric intake, empty calories, and solid fat; weight measures were body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. SNAP participants with marginal food security had lower BMI (1.83 kg/m2; P < .01) and lower probability of obesity (9 percentage points; P < .05). SNAP participants with marginal (3.46 points; P < .01), low (1.98 points; P < .05), and very low (3.84 points; P < .01) food security had better diets, as illustrated by the Healthy Eating Index. Associations between SNAP participation and improved diet and weight were stronger among Whites than Blacks and Hispanics. Our research highlights the role of SNAP in helping individuals who are at risk for food insecurity to obtain a healthier diet and better weight status.
Venci, Brittany J; Lee, Seung-Yeon
This study examined associations of functional limitation due to any health problems and six chronic diseases (arthritis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart attack, hypertension, and stroke) with food security among U.S. adults. The 2011 National Health Interview Survey data for 30,010 adults (≥18 years) were used. Adults were categorized into food secure, low food secure, or very low food secure. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for having functional limitation and chronic diseases while adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The prevalence of functional limitation and the chronic diseases were higher in low-food-secure and very low-food-secure than food-secure adults. The adjusted ORs were significant in both low food secure and very low food secure, respectively, for functional limitation (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.14), (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.91, 2.52), inflammatory diseases or joint/muscular pain (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.68), (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04), diabetes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.51), (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.48), and hypertension (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35), (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.65) when compared with food-secure adults. Findings indicate that food insecurity is associated with functional limitation and chronic diseases, whereas directionality is unknown. Besides the traditional food assistance program for food-insecure populations, interventions to prevent or manage chronic diseases may be necessary to help them reduce the risk of the diseases and manage their conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe
Objective: Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to
Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk
Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie
Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan
Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it
Fiori, Francesca; Rinesi, Francesca; Spizzichino, Daniele; Di Giorgio, Ginevra
A growing body of scientific literature highlights the negative consequences of employment insecurity on several life domains. This study focuses on the young adult labour force in Italy, investigating the relationship between employment insecurity and mental health and whether this has changed after years of economic downturn. It enhances understanding by addressing differences in mental health according to several employment characteristics; and by exploring the role of respondents' economic situation and educational level. Data from a large-scale, nationally representative health survey are used to estimate the relationship between employment insecurity and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI), by means of multiple linear regressions. The study demonstrates that employment insecurity is associated with poorer mental health. Moreover, neither temporary workers nor unemployed individuals are a homogeneous group. Previous job experience is important in differentiating the mental health risks of unemployed individuals; and the effects on mental health vary according to occupational status and to the amount of time spent in a condition of insecurity. Further, the experience of financial difficulties partly explains the relationship between employment insecurity and mental health; and different mental health outcomes depend on respondents' educational level. Lastly, the risks of reporting poorer mental health were higher in 2013 than in 2005. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David, P.; Dewitte, Marieke; De Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline
Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...
Gregório, Maria João; Rodrigues, Ana M; Graça, Pedro; de Sousa, Rute Dinis; Dias, Sara S; Branco, Jaime C; Canhão, Helena
Food insecurity is a limited or uncertain access to the adequate food and is a significant public health problem. We aimed to assess determinants of food insecurity and the corresponding health impact in Portugal, a southern European country that faced a severe economic crisis. Data were derived from the Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases Cohort Study (EpiDoC), a population-based cohort of 10,661 individuals that were representative of the Portuguese adult population and followed since 2011. A cross-sectional analysis of the third wave of evaluation (EpiDoC 3) was performed between 2015 and 2016. Food insecurity was assessed with the household food insecurity psychometric scale. Socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD), self-reported non-communicable disease, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (EQ-5D-3L), physical function (HAQ score), and health resource consumption information was also collected. The estimated proportion of food insecurity was 19.3% among a total of 5,653 participants. Food insecure households had low adherence to the MD (OR = 0.44; 95% IC 0.31-0.62). In addition, diabetes (OR = 1.69; 95% IC 1.20-2.40), rheumatic disease (OR = 1.67; 95% IC 1.07-2.60), and depression symptoms (OR = 1.50; 95% IC 1.09-2.06) were independently associated with food insecurity. On average, food insecure households had a lower HRQoL (OR = 0.18; 95% IC 0.11-0.31) and a higher disability (OR = 2.59; 95% IC 2.04-3.29). A significantly higher proportion of food insecure households reported being hospitalized (OR = 1.57; 95% IC 1.18-2.07) and had more public hospital medical appointments (OR = 1.48; 95% IC 1.12-1.94) in the previous 12 months. We found that food insecurity is highly prevalent in Portugal. Food insecurity was associated with low adherence to the MD, non-communicable chronic diseases, lower quality of life, and higher health resource consumption. Therefore, this study provides valuable
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between attachment styles and stigma in adults. Participants were 361 adults (186 females and 175 males aged between 18 and 69 (M=31.77, SD=9.45. Participants completed the measurement instruments for determining their stigmatizing tendencies and attachment styles. Study results showed that, stigma tendencies of people with the secure attachment style are lower for the discrimination and exclusion, prejudgment and psychological health dimensions, and are higher for people with the fearful attachment style for the discrimination and exclusion, labeling and psychological health dimensions. Preoccupied and dismissive attachment styles are also positively associated with prejudgment tendency. Finally, stigma tendencies of males are more likely to be higher than females for the discrimination and exclusion, labeling and psychological health dimensions. Because different attachment styles are related variously to the subscales of stigma in this study, interventions to decrease stigma of individuals can verge to enhancing the quality of mother-child interactions.
Meredith, Pamela; Strong, Jenny; Ford, Pauline; Branjerdporn, Grace
Although adult attachment theory has been revealed as a useful theoretical framework for understanding a range of health parameters, the associations between adult attachment patterns and a range of oral health parameters have not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between attachment insecurity and: (1) oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), (2) oral health behaviours, and (3) self-rated oral health. In association with this aim, sample characteristics were compared with normative data. The sample in this cross-sectional study was comprised of 265 healthy adults, recruited via convenience sampling. Data were collected on attachment patterns (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, ECR-S), OHRQoL (Oral Health Impact Profile-14, OHIP-14), oral health behaviours (modified Dental Neglect Scale, m-DNS), and self-rated oral health (one-item global rating of oral health). Multivariate regression models were performed. Both dimensions of attachment insecurity were associated with lowered use of favourable dental visiting behaviours, as well as decreased OHRQoL for both overall well-being and specific aspects of OHRQoL. Attachment avoidance was linked with diminished self-rated oral health. This study supports the potential value of an adult attachment framework for understanding a range of oral health parameters. The assessment of a client's attachment pattern may assist in the identification of people who are at risk of diminished OHRQoL, less adaptive dental visiting behaviours, or poorer oral health. Further research in this field may inform ways in which attachment approaches can enhance oral health-related interventions.
Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon
The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Volling, Brenda L.; Notaro, Paul C.; Larsen, Joelle J.
Examines the pairings of adult attachment styles among married couples raising young children. There was no relation between adult attachment styles, parenting behavior, and the security of infant/parent attachments. Future work would benefit by focusing on the dyadic constellations of adult attachment styles and their implications for family…
Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q
The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.
Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Canevini, Maria Paola
The study evaluated reflective functioning (RF), maternal attachment, mind-mindedness, and emotional availability among 44 adolescent mother-infant dyads and 41 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant age 3 months, mother-infant interaction was coded with the mind-mindedness coding system and Emotional Availability Scales; mother attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) were more insecure and had lower RF; they were also less sensitive, more intrusive and hostile, and less structuring of their infant's activity; they used fewer attuned mind-related comments and fewer mind-related comments appropriate to infant development. In adult mothers, the Mother Idealizing and Lack of Memory AAI scales were correlated to non-attuned mind-related comments and the Father Anger scale to negative mind-related comments. In adult mothers, RF was associated with sensitivity. This was not the case with adolescent mothers. In both groups of mothers, there were no associations between sensitivity and mind-mindedness.
Davis, Cynthia R.; Usher, Nicole; Dearing, Eric; Barkai, Ayelet R.; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Crowell, Judith A.
Objective Adult attachment discourse patterns and current family relationship quality were examined as predictors of health behaviors and number of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) criteria met. Methods A sample of 215 White/European American and Black/African American adults, aged 35 to 55, were examined cross-sectionally. Discourse was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), specifically: 1) coherence, a marker of attachment security, 2) unresolved trauma/loss, a marker of disorganized and distorted cognition related to trauma, and 3) idealization, the tendency to minimize the impact of stressful experiences. Health behaviors of diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol use were also assessed, as were adverse childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms and relationship functioning. MetS includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity. Results Using path analysis and accounting for childhood adversity and depressive symptoms, AAI coherence and unresolved trauma or loss were directly linked to number of MetS criteria met (β = −.22 and .21 respectively). Idealization was indirectly linked to MetS through poor diet (β = −.26 and −.36 respectively), predicting 21% of the variance in number of MetS criteria met. Conclusions Attachment representations related to stress appraisal and care-seeking behaviors appear to serve as cognitive mechanisms increasing risk of MetS. PMID:25264975
Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine
Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Tasca, Giorgio A
Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S Hairston, Ilana; E Handelzalts, Jonathan; Assis, Chen; Kovo, Michal
Despite decades of research demonstrating the role of adult attachment styles and early mother-infant bonding in parenting behaviors and maternal mental health, these constructs have seldom been studied together. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment styles and specific bonding difficulties of mothers. In addition, as postpartum depression and childbirth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms have been associated with both constructs, we explored their possible mediation effect. One hundred fourteen mothers, 4 to 12 weeks' postpartum, completed a demographic questionnaire, the Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (M. Mikulincer, V. Florian, & A. Tolmacz, 1990), the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (L.F. Brockington, C. Fraser, & D. Wilson, 2006), the Modified Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (J.L. Callahan, S.E. Borja, & M.T. Hynan, 2006), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J.L. Cox, G. Chapman, D. Murray, & P. Jones, 1996), using an online survey system. As predicted, insecure attachment styles were associated with bonding difficulties wherein anxious/ambivalent attachment was associated with greater infant-focused anxiety, mediated by postpartum depression but not childbirth-related PTSD symptoms. In contrast, greater avoidant attachment style was associated with greater rejection and anger, mediated by childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not depression symptoms. The current study confirmed the association of different attachment styles with bonding as well as the mediating roles of childbirth-related PTSD and postpartum depression symptoms. Future psychological interventions may utilize such evidence to target interventions for bonding disorders in accordance with individual differences. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Thomas, Brittany; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Sidani, Souraya; Gucciardi, Enza
Routine food insecurity screening is recommended in diabetes care to inform more tailored interventions that better support diabetes self-management among food-insecure patients. This pilot study explored the acceptability and feasibility of a food insecurity screening initiative within a diabetes care setting in Toronto. A systematic literature review informed the development of a food insecurity screening initiative to help health-care providers tailor diabetes management plans and better support food-insecure patients with type 2 diabetes. Interviews with 10 patients and a focus group with 15 care providers elicited feedback on the relevance and acceptance of the food insecurity screening questions and a care algorithm. Subsequently, 5 care providers at 4 sites implemented the screening initiative over 2 weeks, screening 33 patients. After implementation, 7 patients and 5 care providers were interviewed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the screening initiative. Our findings demonstrate that patients are willing to share their experiences of food insecurity, despite the sensitivity of this topic. Screening elicited information about how patients cope with food insecurity and how this affects their ability to self-manage diabetes. Care providers found this information helpful in directing their care and support for patients. Using a standardized, respectful method of assessing food insecurity can better equip health-care providers to support food-insecure patients with diabetes self-management. Further evaluation of this initiative is needed to determine how food insecurity screening can affect patients' self-management and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breanne N. Wright
Full Text Available Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455 completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure (p = 0.02 and food-insecure (p < 0.0001 pantry clients. Mean energy intake (p = 0.0003, number of eating occasions (p = 0.004, and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit (p < 0.001 and whole fruit (p < 0.0003 increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients.
Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Folke, Sofie; Lunn, Susanne
Objective: The association between in-session silences and client attachment, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome was investigated in two treatments for bulimia nervosa. Method: 69 women and one man were randomized to two years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) or 20 sessions of cogni......Objective: The association between in-session silences and client attachment, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome was investigated in two treatments for bulimia nervosa. Method: 69 women and one man were randomized to two years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) or 20 sessions...
McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin
The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…
Bosmans, Guy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.
We examined the prediction that the interaction between Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene ("NR3C1") methylation, stress, and experienced maternal support predicts anxious and avoidant attachment development. This was tested in a general population sample of 487 children and adolescents (44% boys, M[subscript age] = 11.84, SD[subscript age] =…
Leonida Kobal Možina
Full Text Available Distinctions among different attachment styles often appear to be unclear. These distinction inadequacies also result from superficial knowledge of psychodynamic factors of the attachment system, which the concept of internal working models often neglects. In my research I have examined the appearance of specific object relations characteristics in the adulthood period. In other words, I have examined the solution of the separation-individuation process according to the internal working models of self and other, which exist in the background of the attachment system. Twenty-one young adult volunteers included in this research took part in a psychotherapeutic camp in order to help children and adolescents with psychosocial problems. Information was gathered with the Interpersonal Relations Questionnaire (Bartholomew in Horowitz, 1991, the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998 and with two semi-structured interviews. Among volunteers with a negative self-model, dimensions of symbiotic merging, egocentrism, separation anxiety and social isolation were more evident, whereas volunteers with a negative other-model expressed fear of engulfment more clearly. Results have confirmed that volunteers with prevailingly insecure attachment styles have problems with separation-individuation process and with achieving reciprocal autonomy.
Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dean Wesley R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are
Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M
Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA). The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers) in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are experiencing food insecurity; and for those living in rural or
Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia
This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…
Rothman, Jessica; Kayigamba, Felix; Hills, Victoria; Gupta, Neil; Machara, Faustin; Niyigena, Peter; Franke, Molly F
The objective of this study was to examine how food insecurity changed among HIV-positive adults during the first 12 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and whether any change differed according to the receipt of food support, which was provided in the context of a comprehensive community-based intervention. We conducted secondary data analyses of data from a prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of a community-based cART delivery model when added to clinic-based cART delivery in Rwanda. We included patients from four health centers that implemented a clinic-based cART delivery model alone and five health centers that additionally implemented the intervention, which included 10 months of food support. We compared food insecurity at 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to baseline, and stratified by receipt of the intervention. Relative to baseline, median food insecurity score decreased after 3, 6, and 12 months (p value insecurity scores remained unchanged at 3 and 12 months and were significantly higher after 6 months. In adjusted analyses, participants enrolled in the community-based intervention with a food ration had a lower risk of severe food insecurity and a lower risk of moderate or severe food insecurity after 12 months. A comprehensive community-based HIV program including a food ration likely contributes to an alleviation of food insecurity among adults newly initiating cART.
Lohman, Brenda J; Gillette, Meghan T; Neppl, Tricia K
As the first study of its kind, the overall purpose of this article was to examine the relationships and interactions between harsh parenting (HP) and food insecurity (FI) in adolescence on the development of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) in emerging adulthood. Data came from the Iowa Youth and Families Project, a longitudinal study of 451 adolescent youth and their families that began in 1989 in the rural Midwest. Adolescents were aged 13 years at the initial assessment, and weight status in emerging adulthood was measured 10 years later at age 23. Experiencing HP in adolescence predicted greater odds of OW/OB at 23 years old. Higher body mass indexes of the adolescent and his or her father in adolescence also increased the odds of being OW/OB at 23 years. Having parents with higher levels of education lowered the odds of being OW/OB in emerging adulthood. Finally, females who experienced high levels of FI and HP in adolescence had higher odds of OW/OB at 23 years in comparison to males. HP, in combination with FI in adolescence, predicted OW/OB for females in emerging adulthood but not for males. This study contributes to an understanding of the interplay between multiple influences in adolescence: namely, parenting and economic influences. Assessing antecedents to OW/OB in emerging adulthood via multiple pathways provides a more complex understanding of how and why adolescents turn into OW/OB adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.
Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Chaka, Eshetu E; Nedjat, S; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Majdzadeh, R
The link between household food insecurity and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus still remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between household food insecurity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. EMBASE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched up to March 2017. The selection of studies, data extraction and assessing the risk of bias in the included studies were carried out by two reviewers independently. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random effects model. A total of 18 articles including a total of 55,353,915 adult participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled ORs of the cross-sectional studies revealed that household food insecurity was significantly associated with the odds of T2DM (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11-1.42) with no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.63) but heterogeneity between studies (I 2 = 61.1%). Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that the country where the study conducted and household food insecurity assessment tool used to influence the effect of household food insecurity on the odds of T2DM. However, the pooled ORs for two case-control and one cohort studies were not significantly associated between household food insecurity and T2DM in adults. This study strengthens the hypothesis of the household food insecurity effect on the odds of T2DM among adults. Further longitudinal studies based on larger, and more representative samples are needed to identify the underlying relationships between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Pasalich, Dave S; Fleming, Charles B; Oxford, Monica L; Zheng, Yao; Spieker, Susan J
Multiple placement changes disrupt continuity in caregiving and undermine well-being in children in child welfare. This study conducted secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a relationship-based intervention, Promoting First Relationships(©) (PFR), reduced risk for a maladaptive cascade from placement instability to less secure attachment to elevated externalizing problems. Participants included caregivers (birth or foster/kin) of toddlers (10-24 months) recently transitioned to their care because of child welfare placement decisions. Although main effects of PFR on security and externalizing problems were not previously observed, this study's results revealed that PFR attenuated the association between multiple placement changes (baseline) and less security (postintervention) and that the indirect effect of placement instability on greater externalizing problems (6-month follow-up) via less security was evident only in toddlers in the comparison condition. These findings shed light on how a history of multiple caregiver changes may influence toddlers' risk for poor adjustment in subsequent placements, and the promise of supporting caregivers through a parenting intervention to prevent such risk. © The Author(s) 2016.
Adoption holds particular interest for attachment researchers. Although children adopted as babies experience almost continuous care by their adoptive parents, older placed children experience at least one major change of caregiver when they join their adoptive family. Moreover, in the majority of cases, older placed children have generally suffered a pre-adoption history of abuse, neglect and/or rejection. It is now being recognized that older placed children's attachment histories and internal working models (IWMs) established in relationship with their initial carers remain active in relationship with their new carers. Transactional models have helped both researchers and practitioners to understand the dynamics of parent-child relationships in cases where insecure children with histories of neglect, abuse and rejection find themselves in new caregiving environments. The present study examines the childhood experiences of adult adopted people and their current levels of contact with their adoptive mothers, and in cases where people had searched for and found a birth relative, current levels of contact with their birth mother. Although no information was collected on the adopted adult's pre-placement history, age at placement was used as a proxy measure to examine whether older placed children reported different adoption experiences and what their current levels of contact were with their adoptive and birth mothers. The findings show that age at placement was associated with adopted people's reported experiences of being adopted and current rates of contact with their adoptive and birth mothers, with those placed at older ages most likely to report that they (1) did not feel they belonged in their adoptive families while growing up, (2) did not feel loved by their adoptive mother, (3) were least likely to remain in high-frequency contact with their adoptive mother, and (4) were least likely to remain in high-frequency contact with their birth mother. An
Seth A Berkowitz
Full Text Available Food insecurity, the uncertain ability to access adequate food, can limit adherence to dietary measures needed to prevent and manage cardiometabolic conditions. However, little is known about temporal trends in food insecurity among those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions.We used data from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2012, analyzed in 2015-2016, to calculate trends in age-standardized rates of food insecurity for those with and without the following diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and obesity.21,196 NHANES participants were included from 4 waves (4,408 in 2005-2006, 5,607 in 2007-2008, 5,934 in 2009-2010, and 5,247 in 2011-2012. 56.2% had at least one cardiometabolic condition, 24.4% had 2 or more, and 8.5% had 3 or more. The overall age-standardized rate of food insecurity doubled during the study period, from 9.06% in 2005-2006 to 10.82% in 2007-2008 to 15.22% in 2009-2010 to 18.33% in 2011-2012 (p for trend < .001. The average annual percentage change in food insecurity for those with a cardiometabolic condition during the study period was 13.0% (95% CI 7.5% to 18.6%, compared with 5.8% (95% CI 1.8% to 10.0% for those without a cardiometabolic condition, (parallelism test p = .13. Comparing those with and without the condition, age-standardized rates of food insecurity were greater in participants with diabetes (19.5% vs. 11.5%, p < .0001, hypertension (14.1% vs. 11.1%, p = .0003, coronary heart disease (20.5% vs. 11.9%, p < .001, congestive heart failure (18.4% vs. 12.1%, p = .004, and obesity (14.3% vs. 11.1%, p < .001.Food insecurity doubled to historic highs from 2005-2012, particularly affecting those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions. Since adherence to specific dietary recommendations is a foundation of the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease, these
Söllner, Wolfgang; Behringer, Johanna; Böhme, Stephanie; Stein, Barbara; Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried
Burnout describes a syndrome of exhaustion resulting from insufficient coping with work-related distress. We investigated if patients that are being clinically treated for burnout show insecure and unresolved attachment representation more often compared with healthy controls. 50 out of 60 consecutive burnout patients participated in the study. Mental representation of attachment was measured by using the Adult Attachment Interview. Additionally, we administered the Self Report Questionnaire to Assess Emotional Experience and Emotion Regulation and several burnout specific questionnaires. A population sample was used as control group. Burnout patients were classified as insecurely attached significantly more often than controls. Unresolved attachment status concerning loss or trauma was found significantly more often within the burnout sample. Patients with insecure attachment representation reported a lower subjective significance of work. Patients with avoidant insecure attachment showed more depersonalisation. Patients with unresolved loss/trauma reported less social support. They showed more passive-negative emotion experience and emotion regulation characterized by externalization. The results of the study suggest that an insecure or unresolved attachment representation might constitute an intrapersonal risk factor for the development of burnout syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.
Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…
Caspers, Kristin M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert
Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This…
Merrill, Lex L; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Crouch, Julie L; May, Patricia; Gold, Steven R; Milner, Joel S
...], child sexual abuse [CSA], domestic violence [DV]) on adult CPA risk and examined whether adult attachment serves as a mediator or moderator of these relationships, or as an independent predictor of CPA risk...
Berkowitz, Seth A; Berkowitz, Theodore S Z; Meigs, James B; Wexler, Deborah J
Food insecurity, the uncertain ability to access adequate food, can limit adherence to dietary measures needed to prevent and manage cardiometabolic conditions. However, little is known about temporal trends in food insecurity among those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions. We used data from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012, analyzed in 2015-2016, to calculate trends in age-standardized rates of food insecurity for those with and without the following diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and obesity. 21,196 NHANES participants were included from 4 waves (4,408 in 2005-2006, 5,607 in 2007-2008, 5,934 in 2009-2010, and 5,247 in 2011-2012). 56.2% had at least one cardiometabolic condition, 24.4% had 2 or more, and 8.5% had 3 or more. The overall age-standardized rate of food insecurity doubled during the study period, from 9.06% in 2005-2006 to 10.82% in 2007-2008 to 15.22% in 2009-2010 to 18.33% in 2011-2012 (p for trend heart disease (20.5% vs. 11.9%, p heart failure (18.4% vs. 12.1%, p = .004), and obesity (14.3% vs. 11.1%, p affecting those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions. Since adherence to specific dietary recommendations is a foundation of the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease, these results have important implications for clinical management and public health.
Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.
This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict…
Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.
This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…
Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad; Foroughan, Mahshid; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi
Social well-being and place attachment are two important concepts in health and quality of life of older adults. There are few studies on the relationship between these concepts at the individual level. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of place attachment dimensions on social well-being dimensions in older adults. This study was…
Woodhouse, S.; Ayers, S.; Field, A. P.
There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N = 9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρ =-.27), and a medium...
Messina, Serena; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare
Attachment's role in children's memories of wellbeing and distress was evaluated through the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in 30 Italian children, aged 6 years (15 secure and 15 insecure). Their mothers' coherence of discourse was determined using the Adult Attachment Interview. A mediation model examining whether children's attachment…
Brenk-Franz, Katja; Strauß, Bernhard; Tiesler, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Christian; Schneider, Nico; Gensichen, Jochen
The conceptual model of attachment theory has been applied to understand the predispositions of patients in medical care and the patient-provider relationship. In patients with chronic conditions insecure attachment was connected to poorer self-management. The patient-provider relationship is associated with a range of health related outcomes and self-management skills. We determined whether the quality of the patient-provider relationship mediates the link between adult attachment and self-management among primary care patients with multiple chronic diseases. 209 patients with a minimum of three chronic diseases (including type II diabetes, hypertension and at least one other chronic condition) between the ages of 50 and 85 from eight general practices were included in the APRICARE cohort study. Adult attachment was measured via self-report (ECR-RD), self-management skills by the FERUS and the patient-provider relationship by the PRA-D. The health status and chronicity were assessed by the GP. Multiple mediation analyses were used to examine whether aspects of the patient-provider relationship (communication, information, affectivity) are a mediators of associations between adult attachment and self-management. The analysis revealed that the quality of the patient-provider relationship mediated the effect of attachment on self-management in patients with multiple chronic conditions. Particularly the quality of communication and information over the course of treatment has a significant mediating influence. A personalized, attachment-related approach that promotes active patient-provider communication and gives information about the treatment to the patient may improve self-management skills in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti
Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing physical and psychological aggression, the two dimensions of attachment insecurity (anxiety over abandonment and avoidance of intimacy), the demand-withdraw communication pattern, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability (a control measure). As predicted, there was an association between attachment anxiety and aggression (both physical and psychological), which was mediated by the man demands/woman withdraws (MD/WW) pattern (as reported by the men). There was no evidence of mediation by the woman demands/man withdraws pattern, as reported by the men. Relationship satisfaction mediated the association between attachment anxiety and psychological (but not physical) aggression, but did not mediate the link between avoidance and aggression (physical or psychological). Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.
Lachlan A McWilliams
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.
Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.
This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…
RABY, K. LEE; YARGER, HEATHER A.; LIND, TERESA; FRALEY, R. CHRIS; LEERKES, ESTHER; DOZIER, MARY
The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting ad...
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Haltigan, John D; Leerkes, Esther M; Supple, Andrew J; Calkins, Susan D
The current study examined associations between attachment state of mind measured prenatally (N = 259) and maternal behavior in the reunion episode of the still-face procedure when infants were six months of age both as a main effect and in conjunction with infant negative affect. Using a dimensional approach to adult attachment measurement, dismissing and preoccupied states of mind were negatively associated with maternal sensitivity, and each correlated with distinct parenting behaviors. Positive associations were found between dismissing states of mind and maternal monitoring and preoccupied states of mind and maternal withdraw. Maternal preoccupation moderated associations between infant negative affect and maternal intrusive, withdrawn, and monitoring behaviors, supporting the notion that maternal attachment influences parenting behavior via a modulatory process in which infant distress cues are selectively filtered and responded to. Analyses using a traditional AAI scale and classification approach also provided evidence for distinct parenting behavior correlates of insecure adult attachment representations. The importance of measuring global and stylistic differences in maternal behavior in contexts which allow for the activation of the entire range of infant affective states is discussed.
Kvrgic, Sara; Beck, Eva-Marina; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Kossowsky, Joe; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Vauth, Roland
Assessing attachment style in people with schizophrenia may be important to identify a risk factor in building a strong therapeutic relationship and so indirectly to understand the development of mal-compliance as one of the major obstacles in the treatment of schizophrenia. The present study analysed the psychometric properties of the German version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), which assesses avoidant and anxious attachment style. A sample of 127 patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in this study. In testing discriminant validity, we assessed psychopathology, depression, therapeutic relationship and service engagement. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure were analysed. The German version of PAM exhibited acceptable to good internal and test-retest reliabilities and the two-factor structure of the English version could be replicated. Avoidant attachment style was related to higher levels of positive symptoms and to a poorer therapeutic relationship. In the context of external validation, a regression analysis revealed that a poor therapeutic relationship correlated with avoidant attachment style, independent of anxious attachment style and depressive symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with higher treatment adherence. Both insecure attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) were found to be correlated with higher levels of depression, but only attachment anxiety had an independent predictive value for self-reported depression in regression analysis. The German version of PAM displayed satisfactory psychometric properties and seems to be a reliable measure for assessing attachment style in individuals with schizophrenia. Validation of PAM led to the finding that only the avoidant attachment style might be a risk factor when building a strong therapeutic relationship in schizophrenia. In future studies, other factors influencing therapeutic relationship should be
Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L
This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals.
The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975). These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old) and their sty...
Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M
This study examined the association of compositional measures of collective social functioning, composed of community and familial social capital and perceived personal disparity, with food security among older (aged 50-59 y) and senior (aged ≥ 60 y) adult residents of the largely rural Brazos Valley in Central Texas using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment (analytic N = 1059, 74% response rate). Among older adults and seniors, 18.6% reported food insecurity (5.5% often and 13.1% sometimes), defined as running out of food and not having money to buy more. Low community social capital was reported by 22.4% of participants, and 30.8% indicated they were single, widowed, or divorced, an indicator of limited familial social capital. A robust multinomial regression model found the odds of reporting greater food insecurity increased for individuals who were women, African American, residents of a household with a low or poverty-level income, individuals who perceived themselves to be worse off than others within their community, and those who had low social capital. The odds of being food insecure decreased for older respondents, partnered respondents and persons with more education (pseudo r(2) = 0.27, p < 0.0000). Compositional level measures of collective social functioning are important associates of food insecurity among older adults and seniors, regardless of severity.
Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich; Nicole M. Stettler; Kristen A. Stouder; Chelsea Harrington
This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM) (Simpson, 1990) and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR) (Schaefer & Olson, 1981). Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for posit...
Behrens, Kazuko Y; Kaplan, Nancy
This study explored the applicability of family drawings as a tool to estimate attachment security in a sample of Japanese six-year-olds (N = 47), applying Kaplan and Main's ( 1986 ) Family Drawing system. Maternal secure/insecure attachment status judged by the Adult Attachment Interview predicted family drawings' secure/insecure distinction produced by Japanese six-year-olds. However, insecure Japanese drawings took forms not seen in the original Berkeley drawings, such as a lineup of faces alone. Further examination of the Japanese children's drawings using global rating scales (Fury, Carlson, & Sroufe, 1997 ) yielded significant gender differences, rarely reported in the attachment literature, with girls scoring higher in scales that predict attachment security and boys scoring higher in scales that predict attachment insecurity. However, attachment security, as captured in the drawings, was not related to attachment security, observed behaviorally using Main and Cassidy's ( 1988 ) sixth-year reunion system. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of measurements, gender, and culture.
Powers, Sally I; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Gunlicks, Meredith; Sayer, Aline
This study investigated theoretically predicted links between attachment style and a physiological indicator of stress, salivary cortisol levels, in 124 heterosexual dating couples. Cortisol was assessed at 7 points before and after an experimental conflict negotiation task, creating a trajectory of stress reactivity and recovery for each participant. Growth modeling of cortisol data tested hypotheses that (a) insecurely attached individuals show patterns of greater physiological stress reactions to interpersonal conflict than do securely attached individuals and (b) people with insecurely attached partners show patterns of greater stress in reaction to relationship conflict than those with securely attached partners. Hypothesis 1 was supported, but men and women differed in the type of insecure attachment that predicted stress trajectories. Hypothesis 2 was supported for men, but not for women. The discussion emphasizes the role of gender role norms and partner characteristics in understanding connections between adult attachment and patterns of cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.
In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953
Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie
The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants…
Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude
This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…
Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.
Bengle, Rebecca; Sinnett, Stephanie; Johnson, Tommy; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Lee, Jung Sun
Low-income older adults are at increased risk of cutting back on basic needs, including food and medication. This study examined the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) in low-income Georgian older adults. The study sample includes new Older Americans Act Nutrition Program participants and waitlisted people assessed by a self-administered mail survey (N = 1000, mean age 75.0 + so - 9.1 years, 68.4% women, 25.8% African American). About 49.7% of participants were food insecure, while 44.4% reported practicing CRN. Those who were food insecure and/or who practiced CRN were more likely to be African American, low-income, younger, less educated, and to report poorer self-reported health status. Food insecure participants were 2.9 (95% CI 2.2, 4.0) times more likely to practice CRN behaviors than their counterparts after controlling for potential confounders. Improving food security is important inorder to promote adherence to recommended prescription regimens.
Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Ninety-two adults attending outpatient mental health services completed measures of attachment style and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. Correlation and linear regression analyses found anxious attachment to be positively associated with treatment-seeking distress and found avoidant attachment to be negatively associated with openness to personal disclosure in the therapy relationship. Insecure attachment may influence prospective patients' readiness for psychotherapy. Patients with an avoidant attachment style may need assistance in preparing for the relational aspects of psychotherapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars; Poot, Françoise; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucía; Kupfer, Jörg; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Linder, M Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; van Middendorp, Henriët; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Dalgard, Florence
Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale. Patient satisfaction with the dermatologist was assessed with an 11-degree scale. A total of 3,635 adult outpatients and 1,359 controls participated in the study. Dermatological outpatients were less able to depend on others, were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress.
Meredith, Pamela Joy
Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.
MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John
To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Markin, Rayna D; Marmarosh, Cheri
Although clinical researchers have applied attachment theory to client conceptualization and treatment in individual therapy, few researchers have applied this theory to group therapy. The purpose of this article is to begin to apply theory and research on adult dyadic and group attachment styles to our understanding of group dynamics and processes in adult therapy groups. In particular, we set forth theoretical propositions on how group members' attachment styles affect relationships within the group. Specifically, this article offers some predictions on how identifying group member dyadic and group attachment styles could help leaders predict member transference within the therapy group. Implications of group member attachment for the selection and composition of a group and the different group stages are discussed. Recommendations for group clinicians and researchers are offered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
Objective The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Method Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Conclusion Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. PMID:23794358
Schure, Marc B; Katon, Jodie G; Wong, Edwin; Liu, Chuan-Fen
Food and housing insecurity may contribute to poorer mental and physical health. It is unclear as to whether those with prior military service, compared to those without, are more vulnerable to these current stressors. The objective of this study was to use U.S. population-based data to determine whether prior military service moderates the association of food and housing insecurity with poor mental and physical health. We analyzed data from nine states administering the Social Context module from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations of housing and food insecurity with poor mental and physical health and potential modification by military service. Compared with those with a history of military service, those without had higher prevalence of food insecurity (23.1% versus 13.7%) and housing insecurity (36.0% versus 22.5%). Food insecurity was associated with poor mental and physical health (mental health: odds ratio (OR)=3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=[3.18-3.77]; physical health: OR=3.21, 95% CI=[2.92-3.53]). Similar associations were observed between housing insecurity and poor mental and physical health. Prior military service was significantly associated with poor physical health. Interaction terms of prior military service with food and housing were not statistically significant. Food and housing insecurity does not appear to differentially impact mental and physical health among those with and without military service.
Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A
In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.
Berry, Katherine; Danquah, Adam
We aimed to provide an integrated overview of the key goals and strategies of an attachment-informed psychotherapy by summarizing the literature describing the clinical implications of attachment theory for psychological therapy for adults. We carried out a narrative thematic review of 58 texts from a diverse range of therapeutic schools, until we agreed that we had reached a saturation of themes. We identified six key themes: Changing internal working models; the therapeutic relationship and creating a secure base; formulating and processing relationship experiences; countertransference; separation, termination and boundary issues; and working with different attachment styles or patterns. We discuss empirical evidence in relation to each theme and highlight areas for research. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to inform psychological therapy with adults, but there is a pressing need for further research to empirically demonstrate the 'added value' of an attachment perspective. Attachment theory should be used to inform individual psychological therapy in adulthood. From the outset of their careers, therapists should receive training and supervision to enhance their awareness of their own and their clients' attachment experiences and how these play out during therapy. There is a need for greater empirical research to investigate whether the degree to which therapists formulate and meet clients' attachment needs influences outcomes. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Diana Fernandes Oliveira
Full Text Available As relações estabelecidas no seio familiar são extremamente importantes no desenvolvimento dos traços de personalidade dos indivíduos. O objectivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o desenvolvimento do perfeccionismo e as representações de vinculação, numa amostra de 690 jovens adultos, com idades entre os 17 e os 30 anos. Os participantes preencheram um Questionário Sócio-Demográfico, duas Escalas Multidimensionais de Perfeccionismo (MPS-F e MPS-H e um Inventário de Vinculação (IPPA. Os resultados indicam a existência de uma relação entre as dimensões maladaptativas do perfeccionismo e a representação de uma Vinculação Insegura à mãe e ao pai, enquanto as dimensões adaptativas do perfeccionismo relacionam-se com a representação de uma Vinculação Segura. Estes resultados sugerem que um dos factores que contribuem para o desenvolvimento do perfeccionismo é a natureza das relações parentais e consequentes interacções.The relationships established within the family are extremely important in the development of individual personality traits. The goal of this study was to investigate the relation between the development of perfectionism and attachment representations in a sample of 690 young adults, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Participants completed two scales of Self-report Measure of Perfectionism (H-MPS and F-MPS and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, as well as a Social-Demographic Questionnaire. Results indicate the existence of a relation between maladaptive perfectionism dimensions and an insecure attachment representation to parents, whereas adaptive perfectionism dimensions seem to be related to a secure attachment representation. The results suggest that one of the contributing factors to the development of perfectionism is the nature of parental relationships and their consequent interactions.
Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.
Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…
Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...
Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía
This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.
This article examines the system under which lecturers were employed in British adult education before the Second World War, when the responsible agencies relied heavily on "full-time part-time tutors" who had no official status or employment security and were thus subject to pressures infringing on their academic freedom. (Author/PGD)
Lafrenaye-Dugas, Anne-Julie; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine
While it is documented that clients consulting in sex therapy tend to report high rates of childhood interpersonal traumas (e.g., physical, psychological and sexual abuse), which are associated to insecure attachment and poorer therapeutic alliance, the interrelations of these variables have not yet been evaluated in this specific population. This study examined the associations between attachment, cumulative trauma and therapeutic alliance in 278 sex therapy patients who filled out self-report questionnaires. Results revealed that avoidant attachment acted as a moderator between cumulative trauma and the agreement on tasks dimension of therapeutic alliance. Results suggests the relevance for sex therapists to investigate past traumas and current attachment representations to guide interventions and optimize treatment benefits.
Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William
The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.
Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, Ingeborg A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; de Ruiter, Corine; Brosschot, Jos F
To investigate the effect of the mental representation of attachment on information processing, 28 anxiety disorder outpatients, as diagnosed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised, were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. They also completed an emotional Stroop task with subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, a free recall memory task, and a recognition test. All tasks contained threatening, neutral, and positively valenced stimuli. A nonclinical comparison group of 56 participants completed the same measures. Results on the Stroop task showed color-naming interference for threatening words in the supraliminal condition only. Nonclinical participants with insecure attachment representations showed a global response inhibition to the Stroop task. Clinical participants with secure attachment representations showed the largest Stroop interference of the threatening words compared to the other groups. Results on the free recall task showed superior recall of all types of stimuli by participants with secure attachment representations. In the outpatient group, participants with secure attachment representations showed superior recall of threatening words on the free recall task, compared to insecure participants. Results on the recognition task showed no differences between attachment groups. We conclude that secure attachment representations are characterized by open communication about and processing of threatening information, leading to less defensive exclusion of negative material during the attentional stage of information processing and to better recall of threatening information in a later stage. Attachment insecurity, but not the type of insecurity, seems a decisive factor in attention and memory processes.
Leyh, Rainer; Heinisch, Christine; Kungl, Melanie T; Spangler, Gottfried
The induction of emotional states has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive processing capacities. At a neurophysiological level, P3 amplitude responses that are associated with attention allocation have been found to be reduced to task-relevant stimuli during emotional conditions as compared to neutral conditions suggesting a draining impact of emotion on cognitive resources. Attachment theory claims that how individuals regulate their emotions is guided by an internal working model (IWM) of attachment that has formed early in life. While securely attached individuals are capable of freely evaluating their emotions insecurely attached ones tend to either suppress or heighten the emotional experience in a regulatory effort. To explore how attachment quality moderates the impact of emotional contexts on information processing event-related potentials (ERPs) in 41 individuals were assessed. Subjects were instructed to detect neutral target letters within an oddball paradigm. Various images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as background pictures and represented negative, positive and neutral task-irrelevant contexts. Attachment representation was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and individuals were assigned to one of three categories (secure, insecure-dismissing, insecure-preoccupied). At a behavioral level, the study revealed that negative emotionally conditions were associated with the detection of less target stimuli in insecure-dismissing subjects. Accordingly, ERPs yielded reduced P3 amplitudes in insecure-dismissing subjects when given a negative emotional context. We interpret these findings in terms of less sufficient emotion regulation strategies in insecure-dismissing subjects at the cost of accurate behavioral performance. The study suggests that attachment representation differentially moderates the relationship between emotional contexts and information processing most evident in insecure
As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.
Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang
This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions.
Full Text Available Background: Literature underline that attachment styles can be considered as an important factor that facilitates exploration of the self and environment, and influences individual’s thoughts, feelings and behavior, above all during adolescence. The purposes of the present study were the following: to investigate the relation between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles; to measure the predictive variables of the adult attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and the predictors of the level of alexithymia. Method: The participants were 217 students, of which: a group of 97 Andalusian academic students (44.7%, aged between 18 and 29 (M = 19.47; SD = 2.23; a group of 120 students from Sicilian academic students (55.3%, aged between 18 and 23 (M = 18.85; SD = 1.11. The participants were assigned to complete the following questionnaires: the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships. Results: Findings suggest that there are differences between Italy and Spain in adult attachment styles: in particular, Italian students appeared to manifest a higher tendency to use the avoidance style than Spanish ones, which manifested a higher level of anxiety. Furthermore, belonging to the Andalusian culture, and above all, having an elevated perception of the paternal and maternal overprotection could represent possible predictive variables to the general level of alexithymia. Conclusions: The results of this study support the research hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with the perceived parental bonding and attachment style.
Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich
Full Text Available This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM (Simpson, 1990 and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR (Schaefer & Olson, 1981. Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for positive and negative dimensions of conflict. Path analyses indicated numerous actor and partner effects in the links between attachment, intimacy, and conflict. For men, both avoidant and anxious attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For women though, both secure and avoidant attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For men, all domains of intimacy were predictive of their own or their partner’s conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy was predictive of conflict behaviors. All domains of men’s intimacy emerged as significant mediators of associations between attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy mediated these associations. Implications for the treatment of relationally-discordant couples are discussed.
Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan
This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships.
Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine
There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive
Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.
Extending an earlier study that found high self-esteem to modify the impact of otherwise maladaptive perfectionism on depression, the current study used adult attachment theory to explore the link between perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression in college students. Results indicated that self-esteem buffered the effects of maladaptive…
Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte
One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. The aim of this study was to examine people's tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. ©Christiane Eichenberg, Markus Schott, Oliver Decker, Brigitte Sindelar. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 17.05.2017.
Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte
Background One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. Objective The aim of this study was to examine people’s tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. Methods An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. Results In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Conclusions Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. PMID:28526662
Zhu, Wenzhen; Wang, Chiachih Dc; Chong, Chu Chian
In the current study, we tested a moderated mediation model in which cultural orientation moderated the mediation model of adult attachment-perceived social support-depressive symptoms, using 2 comparable cross-cultural samples of college students recruited from China and the U.S. (n = 363 for each group). Results indicated that perceived social support mediated the effect of attachment anxiety on depressive symptoms as well as the link between attachment avoidance and depression in both samples. Moderated mediation analyses using PROCESS revealed that interdependent self-construal significantly buffered the indirect effect of attachment avoidance (via perceived social support) on depressive symptoms. The findings indicated significant differences in the mediation models between the U.S. and China groups and interdependent self-construal accounted for the between-country differences. Limitations, implications of the findings, and future research directions are discussed from the perspectives of cross-cultural variation of adult attachment functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C
This study examined the attachment patterns of late-adopted children (aged 4-7) and their adoptive mothers during the first 7- to 8-month period after adoption and aimed to evaluate the effect of adoptive mothers' attachment security on the revision of the attachment patterns of their late-adopted children. We assessed attachment patterns in 20 adoptive dyads and 12 genetically related dyads at two different times: T1 (time 1) within 2 months of adoption and T2 (time 2) 6 months after T1. The children's behavioural attachment patterns were assessed using the Separation-Reunion Procedure and the children's representational (verbal) attachment patterns using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. The attachment models of the adoptive mothers were classified using the Adult Attachment Interview. We found that there was a significant enhancement of the late-adopted children's attachment security across the time period considered (P= 0.008). Moreover, all the late-adopted children who showed a change from insecurity to security had adoptive mothers with secure attachment models (P= 0.044). However, the matching between maternal attachment models and late-adopted children's attachment patterns (behaviours and representations) was not significant. Our data suggest that revision of the attachment patterns in the late-adopted children is possible but gradual, and that the adoptive mothers' attachment security makes it more likely to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Becker, Carolyn Black; Middlemass, Keesha; Taylor, Brigitte; Johnson, Clara; Gomez, Francesca
The primary aim of this study was to investigate eating disorder (ED) pathology in those living with food insecurity. A secondary aim was to investigate whether any-reason dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry increased as level of food insecurity increased. Participants (N = 503) seeking food from food pantries completed questionnaires assessing level of food insecurity, demographics, ED pathology, dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry. Consistent with hypotheses, participants with the highest level of food insecurity (i.e., adults who reported having hungry children in their household) also endorsed significantly higher levels of binge eating, overall ED pathology, any-reason dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry compared to participants with lower levels of food insecurity. Contrary to hypotheses, compensatory behaviors also increased as level of food insecurity worsened. Overall, 17% of those in the child hunger food insecurity group reported clinically significant ED pathology. This is the first study to assess the full spectrum of ED pathology in a low-income, marginalized population with food insecurity. Given that food insecurity is a global concern, results from this study suggest that greater attention to the association between ED pathology and food insecurity is warranted by researchers around the world. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Martini, Lauren; Pihoker, Catherine; Frongillo, Edward A; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liu, Lenna L; Dabelea, Dana; Lawrence, Jean M; Liese, Angela D
Household food insecurity (FI), i.e., limited availability of nutritionally adequate foods, is associated with poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the association of FI among youth and young adults (YYA) with type 1 diabetes to inform recent clinical recommendations from the American Diabetes Association for providers to screen all patients with diabetes for FI. Using data from the Washington and South Carolina SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study sites, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional evaluation of associations between FI and glycemic control, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits among YYA with type 1 diabetes. FI was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module, which queries conditions and behaviors typical of households unable to meet basic food needs. Participants' HbA 1c were measured from blood drawn at the research visit; socio-demographics and medical history were collected by survey. The prevalence of FI was 19.5%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, YYAs from food-insecure households had 2.37 higher odds (95% CI: 1.10, 5.09) of high risk glycemic control, i.e., HbA 1c >9.0%, vs. peers from food-secure households. In adjusted binomial regression analysis for ED visits, YYAs from food-insecure households had an adjusted prevalence rate that was 2.95 times (95% CI [1.17, 7.45]) as great as those from food secure households. FI was associated with high risk glycemic control and more ED visits. Targeted efforts should be developed and tested to alleviate FI among YYA with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The perception of infant emotions is an integral part of sensitive caregiving within the mother-child relationship, a maternal ability which develops in mothers during their own attachment history. In this study we address the association between maternal attachment representation and brain activity underlying the perception of infant emotions. Event related potentials (ERPs of 32 primiparous mothers were assessed during a three stimulus oddball task presenting negative, positive and neutral emotion expressions of infants as target, deviant or standard stimuli. Attachment representation was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview during pregnancy. Securely attached mothers recognized emotions of infants more accurately than insecurely attached mothers. ERPs yielded amplified N170 amplitudes for insecure mothers when focusing on negative infant emotions. Secure mothers showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to target emotion expressions of infants compared to insecure mothers, especially within conditions with frequent negative infant emotions. In these conditions, P3 latencies were prolonged in insecure mothers. In summary, maternal attachment representation was found associated with brain activity during the perception of infant emotions. This further clarifies psychological mechanisms contributing to maternal sensitivity.
Bryant, R A; Creamer, M; O'Donnell, M; Forbes, D; Felmingham, K L; Silove, D; Malhi, G; van Hoof, M; McFarlane, A C; Nickerson, A
Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress. Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7-8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist. Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = -3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = -0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p post-traumatic psychopathology.
Full Text Available The salubrious association between religious involvement and well-being is evident among the general population of religious individuals. In particular, the sense of attachment to a deity is linked to promoting healthy behavior and positive well-being. The link between religious attachment and well-being is particularly salient for emerging adults during a life stage where they are developing their own sense of self while also renegotiating religious commitments. The current study uses OLS regression and a lagged dependent variable model to analyze how perceived closeness to God is linked to the sense of life purpose among a diverse, national sample of emerging adults. We find that relative to those perceiving closeness to God, those who reported feeling neutral or did not believe in God experienced lower levels of life purpose. Respondents who reported feeling distant from God had the lowest scores on the Life Purpose Index. The findings are examined within the framework of religion and attachment theory literature. The study encourages researchers to consider attachment to a deity as an important link in explaining well-being outcomes, especially among religious individuals.
Mula, Marco; Danquah-Boateng, Davies; Cock, Hannah R; Khan, Usman; Lozsadi, Dora A; Nirmalananthan, Niranjanan
Interpersonal relationships are viewed as important contexts within which psychopathology emerges and persists or desists. Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans especially in families and lifelong friendships. The present study was aimed at investigating attachment styles in adult patients with epilepsy as compared to subjects with migraine and their potential correlates with a history of mood disorders. A consecutive sample of 219 adult outpatients with epilepsy (117) or migraine (102) was assessed with the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Patients with epilepsy and a lifetime history of mood disorders presented elevated scores for Need for approval (pmigraine and a lifetime history of mood disorders presented lower scores in Confidence (p=0.002) and higher scores in Discomfort with closeness (p=0.026). An anxious-preoccupied attachment correlated with mood disorders in epilepsy while it was an avoidant pattern in migraine. Our results bring further data on the role of psychological variables in mood disorders in epilepsy. Further studies will allow early identification of patients at risk and the development of preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ana María Fernández
Full Text Available The Adult Attachment Revised Scale is a measure of relationship attachment that contains three dimensions: closeness, dependence and anxiety. In Study 1, the scale was translated and applied to a sample of 420 university students in order to assess reliability. In addition, the scale criterion validity was estimated through measures of self-perception and affectivity. The results of Study 1 supported the internal consistency of two dimensions of attachment, but dependence was lower than expected (α = .62. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and failed to reach a convergent fit, thus demonstrating that two of the items in dependence were considered problematic. In Study 2, difficult items in Study 1 were reworded and the new version of the scale was applied to 81 participants. The results of two subsequent CFAs showed adequate fit of the scale and increased internal consistency with this new wording (α > .73, which replaced the expression "depend on others" by "getting help from others", which is a better construct representation of the meaning of dependence in the context of attachment closeness. Therefore, not only did we adapt the three dimensions of the attachment scale, but also provided evidence of its validity related to locally adapted instruments.
Joana Cabral; Paula Mena Matos; Wim Beyers; Bart Soenens
Although the quality of parent-adolescent emotional bonds has consistently been proposed as a major influence on young adult's psycho-emotional functioning, the precise means by which these bonds either facilitate or impede adaptive coping are not well-understood. In an effort to advance this inquiry, the present study examined interrelationships among measures of parental attachment, emotion regulation processes, and preferred coping strategies within a sample of 942 college freshmen. Struct...
Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Van Exan, Jessica; Tanaka, Rika; Wnuk, Susan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Difficulties with emotion regulation is a hypothesized mechanism through which attachment insecurity may affect emotional eating. No studies have yet investigated this effect in the bariatric population. Because many obese individuals engage in emotional eating, difficulty regulating emotion may be an important underlying mechanism through which attachment insecurity is linked to emotional eating in bariatric surgery candidates. In this cross-sectional study, 1393 adult bariatric surgery candidates from the Toronto Western Hospital were recruited to complete the Emotional Eating Scale (EES), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD7), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and the Experiences for Close Relationships 16-item Scale (ECR-16) in order to explore the mediating role of emotion regulation on the relationship between attachment insecurity and emotional eating. Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework examined direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity on emotional eating. The indices of this overall model indicated that the specified set of direct and indirect pathways and corresponding correlations were a good fit with the data (RMSEAemotional eating were significant. Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important mechanism to consider when examining the association between attachment insecurity and emotional eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates. Although causality cannot be concluded, these results shed light on the important role that emotion regulation may have in predicting problematic eating in bariatric patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adult attachment as a moderator of treatment outcome for generalized anxiety disorder: Comparison between cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening and CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy.
Newman, Michelle G; Castonguay, Louis G; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Moore, Ginger A
To determine whether baseline dimensions of adult insecure attachment (avoidant and anxious) moderated outcome in a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening (CBT + SL) versus CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy (CBT + I/EP). Eighty-three participants diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were recruited from the community and assigned randomly to CBT + SL (n = 40) or to CBT + I/EP (n = 43) within a study using an additive design. PhD-level psychologists treated participants. Blind assessors evaluated participants at pretreatment, posttreatment, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up with a composite of self-report and assessor-rated GAD symptom measures (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinician's Severity Rating). Avoidant and anxious attachment were assessed using self-reported dismissing and angry states of mind, respectively, on the Perceptions of Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Consistent with our prediction, at all assessments higher levels of dismissing styles in those who received CBT + I/EP predicted greater change in GAD symptoms compared with those who received CBT + SL for whom dismissiveness was unrelated to the change. At postassessment, higher angry attachment was associated with less change in GAD symptoms for those receiving CBT + I/EP, compared with CBT + SL, for whom anger was unrelated to change in GAD symptoms. Pretreatment attachment-related anger failed to moderate outcome at other time points and therefore, these moderation effects were more short-lived than the ones for dismissing attachment. When compared with CBT + SL, CBT + I/EP may be better for individuals with GAD who have relatively higher dismissing styles of attachment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Adult Attachment as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Comparison Between Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Plus Supportive Listening and CBT Plus Interpersonal and Emotional Processing Therapy
Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Jacobson, Nicholas C.; Moore, Ginger A.
Objective To determine whether baseline dimensions of adult insecure attachment (avoidant and anxious) moderated outcome in a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening (CBT + SL) versus CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy (CBT + I/EP). Method Eighty-three participants diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were recruited from the community and assigned randomly to CBT + SL (n = 40) or to CBT + I/EP (n = 43) within a study using an additive design. PhD-level psychologists treated participants. Blind assessors evaluated participants at pretreatment, posttreatment, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up with a composite of self-report and assessor-rated GAD symptom measures (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinician’s Severity Rating). Avoidant and anxious attachment were assessed using self-reported dismissing and angry states of mind, respectively, on the Perceptions of Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results Consistent with our prediction, at all assessments higher levels of dismissing styles in those who received CBT + I/EP predicted greater change in GAD symptoms compared with those who received CBT + SL for whom dismissiveness was unrelated to the change. At postassessment, higher angry attachment was associated with less change in GAD symptoms for those receiving CBT + I/EP, compared with CBT + SL, for whom anger was unrelated to change in GAD symptoms. Pretreatment attachment-related anger failed to moderate outcome at other time points and therefore, these moderation effects were more short-lived than the ones for dismissing attachment. Conclusions When compared with CBT + SL, CBT + I/EP may be better for individuals with GAD who have relatively higher dismissing styles of attachment. PMID:26052875
Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R
Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.
Full Text Available Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM. Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI and inferior parietal lobule (IPL in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction.
Patou Masika Musumari
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57% were food insecure, and 188 (20.9% were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38-3.09. We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15-3.32 and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11-0.83 odds of non-adherence to ART. CONCLUSION: Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Cassella, Michael J; Viglione, Donald J
Using attachment theory, in this research, we explored the construct validity of the Rorschach (Exner, 1974) Texture (T) response as a measure of interpersonal closeness and contact. A total of 40 men and 39 women completed the Rorschach and 2 attachment inventories. Their romantic partners also completed an informant version of the attachment measures. Attachment styles were measured by factor scores involving both self-report and partner report. Results indicate that attachment theory, as a broad conceptual framework, is associated with T. Specifically, T = 1 is most closely associated with a secure attachment style, T > 1 with aspects of the preoccupied style, and T = 0 with aspects of the avoidant style and an absence of secure attachment. Needs for closeness and contact associated with T can be couched within an adult attachment theory, but in this study, we did not test for problematic aspects of insecure attachment. Gender is a complicating factor and deserves more study.
Cabral, Joana; Matos, Paula M; Beyers, Wim; Soenens, Bart
Although the quality of parent-adolescent emotional bonds has consistently been proposed as a major influence on young adult's psycho-emotional functioning, the precise means by which these bonds either facilitate or impede adaptive coping are not well-understood. In an effort to advance this inquiry, the present study examined interrelationships among measures of parental attachment, emotion regulation processes, and preferred coping strategies within a sample of 942 college freshmen. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test whether the link between attachment to parents and the use of particular coping strategies is mediated by differences in emotion regulation mechanisms. As hypothesized, differences in attachment to parents predicted differences in the use of emotion regulation mechanisms and coping strategies. More specifically, having a close emotional bond, feeling supported in autonomy processes and having (moderately) low levels of separation anxiety toward parents predict more constructive emotion regulation mechanisms and coping strategies. Additionally emotion regulation was found to (partly or totally) mediate the association between attachment and coping.
EunYoung Kim, PhD; Inhyo Cho, PhD; Eun Joo Kim, PhD
Purpose: This study investigated the mediating effects of loneliness and depression on the relationship between adult attachment and smartphone addiction in university students. Methods: A total of 200 university students participated in this study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results: There were significant positive relationships between attachment anxiety, loneliness, depression, and smartphone addiction. ...
Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) tend to be interrelated rather than independently occurring. There is a graded effect associated with ACE exposure and pathology, with an increase when ACE exposure is four or more. This study examined a sample of active individuals (n=129) to determine distribution patterns and relationships between ACEs, attachment classification, unresolved mourning (U), and disclosure difficulty. The results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between increased ACEs and greater unresolved mourning. Specifically, the group differences for individuals who experienced no ACE (n=42, 33%), those with 1-3 ACEs (n=48, 37.8%), and those with ≥4 ACEs (n=37, 29.1%) revealed a pattern in which increased group ACE exposure was associated with greater lack of resolution for past trauma/loss experiences, more adult traumatic events, and more difficulty disclosing past trauma. Despite ≥4 ACEs, 51.4% of highly exposed individuals were classified as secure in the Adult Attachment Interview. Resilience in this group may be related to a combination of attachment security, college education, and engagement in meaningful activities. Likewise, adversity may actually encourage the cultivation of more social support, goal efficacy, and planning behaviors; factors that augment resilience to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa
This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Byrow, Yulisha; Peters, Lorna
Attention biases figure prominently in CBT models of social anxiety and are thought to maintain symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Studies have shown that individual differences in pre-treatment attention biases predict cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) outcome. However, these findings have been inconsistent as to whether vigilance towards threat predicts better or poorer treatment outcome. Adult attachment style is an individual characteristic that may influence the relationship between attention bias and SAD. This study investigates the relationship between attention biases and CBT treatment outcome for SAD. Furthermore, we examined the influence of adult attachment style on this relationship. Participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD completed a passive viewing (measuring vigilance towards threat) and a novel difficulty to disengage (measuring difficulty to disengage attention) eye-tracking task prior to attending 12 CBT group sessions targeting SAD. Symptom severity was measured at pre- and post-treatment. Regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 50 participants. Greater vigilance for threat than avoidance of threat at pre-treatment predicted poorer treatment outcomes. Greater difficulty disengaging from happy faces, compared to neutral faces, predicted poorer treatment outcomes. Attachment style did not moderate these relationships. The associations between attention biases and specific components of CBT treatment were not examined. The novel findings regarding difficulty to disengage attention require replication. The findings have implications for the theoretical models of SAD and for the treatment of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi
In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830
Kursmark, Meredith; Weitzman, Michael
Food insecurity is a relatively new measure of household and child malnutrition. This paper reviews recent studies that have examined aspects of its etiology and adverse child health and development. Smoking by adults in children's homes has recently been found to be highly associated with childhood food insecurity. Much recent research has also examined the relationship between food insecurity and childhood obesity, and thus far, whereas suggestive, results are conflicting. Some studies have found that parenting practices and parental depression are factors that link household food insecurity with childhood obesity. Other health outcomes recently shown to be associated with food insecurity include undernutrition, decreased mental proficiency, increased developmental risk, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and poor health status. Most of the studies of food insecurity to date have come from the USA. There is, however, absolutely no reason to believe that this measure, and the negative child health outcomes associated with it, does not apply to other developed nations. Similarly, it is likely that children and families living in developing countries suffer a greater prevalence and severity of food insecurity and its negative consequences. Childhood food insecurity has numerous significant negative effects on childhood health and development, may be associated with obesity, and occurs much more often in impoverished homes with adult smokers.
Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth
Nakao, Tatsuma; Kato, Kazuo
This study attempted to adapt into Japanese the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory) that was constructed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998), based on 14 existing scales. Of 387 respondents, 231 who reported having been or are currently involved in romantic relationships were employed for final analysis. We examined validities of the Japanese version of ECR in the two ways: (1) Examining the correlations between "Anxiety" and Self-esteem scale by Rosenberg (1965) which were theoretically related to Self-view, and the correlations between "Avoidance" and Other-view scale by Kato (1999b) which were theoretically related to Other-view; (2) whether or not ECR represents the features of four attachment styles as classified by Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The results supported our expectations. This Japanese version of ECR was demonstrated to have adequate psychometric properties in validity and reliability.
Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Della Marca, Giacomo
The aim of this study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with dissociative disorders (DD) before and after the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after the AAI in 13 individuals with DD and 13 healthy participants matched for age and gender. Significant change in HRV was observed only in the DD group. After the AAI, those with DD showed significant increases in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (pre-AAI = 1.91 ± 1.19; post-AAI = 4.03 ± 2.40; Wilcoxon test = -2.76, p = .005). Our results suggest that the retrieval of childhood attachment experiences in individuals with DD is associated with a change in HRV patterns that could reflect the emotion dysregulation of dissociative psychopathological processes.
J. Camille Hall
Full Text Available For many African Americans, the extended family has been the source of strength, resilience, and survival. Although changes in African American families, like changes in all families in the United States that have diluted the importance of kinship ties, many African Americans continue to place a high value on extended family members. Children of Africans and communities of African descent traditionally interact with multiple caregivers, consisting of kin, and fictive kin.Utilizing both attachment theory and risk and resilience literature, this paper discusses ways to better understand the resilient nature of African American families and how multiple attachment relationships assist at-risk African American children, specifically adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs.
Lang, Andras; Papp, Barbara; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan
Related to emotion regulation and mental health, adult attachment and affective temperaments are relevant research topics of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, to date, only one study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. Thus, we aimed to further reveal adult attachment's association with affective temperaments. Affective temperament and adult attachment dimensions of 1469 Hungarian university students were assessed with self-report measures (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego autoquestionnaire and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively). Age and measured variables were compared between genders with ANOVAs. Associations between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments were examined with Pearson's correlations and partial correlations; the moderation effect of age and gender on these relationships was tested with PROCESS macro. Using Fisher r-to-z transformation, we also compared our results with the findings of the previous study. Cohen's ds were used to report effect size and Cronbach's alphas were computed as indices of internal reliability. Significant correlations were found between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments. Correlations were especially robust between attachment anxiety and depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Contrasted with the results of the previous study, hyperthymic temperament was negatively related to attachment avoidance and anxious temperament was significantly more strongly correlated with attachment anxiety in our study. We used a previous version of the adult attachment measure. Our sample differed from the target sample in several ways. Participants were not screened for mental disorders. Findings highlight that adult attachment dimensions are significantly associated with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lemay, Edward P; Dudley, Kari L
In three studies, the authors tested a model positing that chronically insecure individuals often believe that their relationship partners view them as highly insecure. In turn, because of expectations regarding the social consequences of expressing insecurities, these reflected appraisals of insecurity are thought to predict suspicion of partners' authenticity and feelings of powerlessness within relationships. Results supported these predictions. Self-esteem, attachment anxiety, neuroticism, proclivity for anger, and proclivity for hurt feelings predicted reflected appraisals of insecurity independently of whether partners detected insecurity. In turn, chronically insecure participants were suspicious of their partners' authenticity and felt powerless in their relationships partly because they believed they were viewed as insecure. This research suggests that beliefs that one is perceived as insecure, even when they are misguided, can partially explain interpersonal cognitions associated with actually being insecure.
MacGregor, Erica K.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K.; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John
Objective To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. Method 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992–2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Results Parent avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (p=0.083). Parent anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (p=0.961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.034), and in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (p=0.045) and lethality of attempts (p=0.003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.025) and major depressive disorder (p=0.012). Parent avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (p=0.048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (p=0.003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parent attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring, and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. PMID:25098943
Kim, EunYoung; Cho, Inhyo; Kim, Eun Joo
This study investigated the mediating effects of loneliness and depression on the relationship between adult attachment and smartphone addiction in university students. A total of 200 university students participated in this study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. There were significant positive relationships between attachment anxiety, loneliness, depression, and smartphone addiction. However, attachment anxiety was not significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. The results also showed that loneliness did not directly mediate between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. In addition, loneliness and depression serially mediated between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The results suggest there are mediating effects of loneliness and depression in the relationship between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting smartphone addiction among university students. Future study is required to find a causal path to prevent smartphone addiction among university students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando
Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.
Waters, Theodore E A; Steele, Ryan D; Roisman, Glenn I; Haydon, Katherine C; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
An emerging literature suggests that variation in Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985) states of mind about childhood experiences with primary caregivers is reflected in specific linguistic features captured by the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count automated text analysis program (LIWC; Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007). The current report addressed limitations of prior studies in this literature by using two large AAI corpora ( N s = 826 and 857) and a broader range of linguistic variables, as well as examining associations of LIWC-derived AAI dimensions with key developmental antecedents. First, regression analyses revealed that dismissing states of mind were associated with transcripts that were more truncated and deemphasized discussion of the attachment relationship whereas preoccupied states of mind were associated with longer, more conflicted, and angry narratives. Second, in aggregate, LIWC variables accounted for over a third of the variation in AAI dismissing and preoccupied states of mind, with regression weights cross-validating across samples. Third, LIWC-derived dismissing and preoccupied state of mind dimensions were associated with direct observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity as well as infant attachment security in childhood, replicating the pattern of results reported in Haydon, Roisman, Owen, Booth-LaForce, and Cox (2014) using coder-derived dismissing and preoccupation scores in the same sample.
Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D
Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might inﬂuence adolescent decisions to gamble.
Full Text Available An important cornerstone of Bowlby’s attachment theory (1969/1997 is the proposal that moving away from parents and toward peers is an indication of healthy development. In this study, we explored the benefit of the shift, not the shift itself, in a sample of emerging adults experiencing a stressful life event (i.e., the transition from university. Although the shift from parents to peers is an important cornerstone of Bowlby’s theory, this study is one of the first to test the differential effects of parent and peer networks on adjustment. In this longitudinal study, 73 participants completed surveys to assess attachment, social networks, and distress one month before completing their undergraduate degree and 6 months later. We found that participants experiencing the transition from university, who chose a peer as the first person in their network, tended to report stable scores over time whereas participants who chose a family member reported more variable scores. Interestingly, the direction of change was not different for the groups, just the magnitude of change. Furthermore, the difference in adjustment was not found when we compared the groups using the percent hierarchy method highlighting that there is a benefit of exploring primary attachment relationships when examining the influence of networks on adjustment.
McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael
Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…
Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard
Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah
Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.
Tasca, Giorgio A
The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kent, Blake Victor; Bradshaw, Matt; Uecker, Jeremy E
We analyze a sample of older U.S. adults with religious backgrounds in order to examine the relationships among two types of divine forgiveness and three indicators of psychological well-being (PWB) as well as the moderating role of attachment to God. Results suggest that (a) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are not associated with changes in PWB over time, (b) secure attachment to God at baseline is associated with increased optimism and self-esteem, (c) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are more strongly associated with increased PWB among the securely attached, and (d) among the avoidantly attached, PWB is associated with consistency in one's beliefs, that is, a decreased emphasis on forgiveness from God. Findings underscore the importance of subjective beliefs about God in the lives of many older adults in the United States.
O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.
Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
We examined attachment to employment and education among young adults before they were granted a fixed-term work disability pension due to psychiatric diagnosis, and the factors associated with this attachment. The data comprised all persons aged 18-34 who received a new-onset fixed-term disability pension compensation due to a mental disorder in Finland in 2008 (N = 1163). The data were derived from pension applications and the enclosed medical records, and were linked to employment records from a period of three years before the disability pension. We analysed the factors associated with attachment to employment or education with log-binomial regression analysis. Fifty percent of the participants were attached to employment or education before work disability pension. The attached were more often women; had higher basic and vocational education; had mood disorder rather than psychosis diagnosis as a primary diagnosis; and had no record of harmful alcohol use or drug use, or recorded symptoms of mental disorders already at school-age. The level of attachment to employment or education before work disability pension is low among young adults with mental disorders and several risk factors predict poor attachment; severe or comorbid mental disorder, early-life psychiatric morbidity, substance use, male sex, low basic education, and lacking vocational education.
Roelsgaard Obling, Anne
In this paper I present a dramatic health care system collapse and scandal in the UK. I analyse the story about appalling suffering of a large amount of patients at Mid Staffordshire NHS foundation trust between 2005 and 2008, and the subsequent public inquiry in 2013 of the Stafford hospital...... and the trust’s professional staff and directors. On this background, I discuss present day response to the scandal and show how this response departures from a preoccupation with operational truths, such as world-class management, regulatory transparency and openness, and culture of compassion. I argue...... that organization studies and work that critically reflect upon the context in which clinical malpractice occurs have been largely absent from this discussion. This is peculiar since the scandal seems to be an open invitation to organization theory and organization concepts to take on a life and role...
Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A
Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.
Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of
Food insecurity remains a persistent problem in the United States. Several studies have shown that food insecurity is associated with child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. However, some potential methodological limitations remain. For example, most studies use a household measure of food insecurity while there is evidence that children, especially younger ones, tend to be shielded by their parents from experiencing food insecurity. In addition, the mechanisms through which food insecurity affects children are not well understood. This study uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to address these limitations. Fixed-effects models show that the association is even larger using a measure of child food insecurity instead of a household one. Correlated-random effects models show a large difference in child behavior problems between food secure and food insecure children due to unobserved heterogeneity. In addition, the association between child food insecurity and child externalizing behaviors remains largely unexplained while food insecurity among adults explains almost all the variation in the association with child internalizing behaviors. Food insecure children and parents are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, which may lead to behavior problems in young children. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on reducing the risk of food insecurity, especially for children in fragile families, in order to reduce behavior problems and improve their educational attainment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma
Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified
Nazzaro, Maria Paola; Boldrini, Tommaso; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Giovanardi, Guido; Lingiardi, Vittorio
Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88). Attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS). Findings showed that RF had significant negative associations with cluster A and B personality disorders, and a significant positive association with psychological functioning. Moreover, levels of RF and personality functioning were influenced by attachment patterns. Finally, RF completely mediated the relationship between (secure/insecure) attachment and adaptive psychological features, and thus accounted for differences in overall personality functioning. Lack of mentalization seemed strongly associated with vulnerabilities in personality functioning, especially in patients with cluster A and B personality disorders. These findings provide support for the development of therapeutic interventions to improve patients' RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
杨安博; 任真; 陶晓春
tendencies regulated by interlocking behavioral systems. In Hazen and Shaver＇ s studies romantic love was conceptualized as an attachment process. They also supposed that adult work activity could be viewed as functionally parallel to what Bowlby calls exploration ： for adults, work is a major source of the actual and perceived competence. On the basis of attachment theories and studies, they tested the relationship between attachment-love and exploration-work in adulthood. They found that securely attached respondents reported relatively high levels of work satisfaction in terms of job security, co-workers, income, and opportunities for challenge and advancement; anxious/ambivalent attachment was associated with feelings of job insecurity, lack of appreciation and recognition by co-workers, and not getting desirable and deserved promotions; avoidantly attached respondents reported dissatisfaction with co-workers but were similar to secure respondents in their satisfaction with job security and opportunities for learning. We investigated the employers in companies with the ＂snow ball＂ sampling method. Finally, 110 employers completed the questionnaires which included the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale （ECR） , the Adult Attachment Relationship Questionnaire （RQ） and the Work Performance Scale. The result showed that about half of the participants （ 50.9% ） were secure, 26 participants （23.6%） were dismissing, 22 participants （20%） were preoccupied, and only 6 participants （5.5%） were fearful. There was no significant difference among the four styles in task performance. However, the preoccupied attached respondents were lower than secure attached respondents and fearful attached respondents in contextual performance. The correlation analysis showed that the total years of work was correlated with avoidance positively, with anxiety negatively, with contextual performance negatively. The anxiety dimension of attachment was positively
Cecilia Serena Pace
Full Text Available Background: Several recent studies highlighted that both attachment insecurity and emotion regulation difficulties form a key part of conceptual models of anorexia nervosa (AN, but they had never been analyzed in the same controlled study. Method: This study examined the attachment states of mind, assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, and emotion regulation difficulties, measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, among 25 girls with AN diagnosis aged 14-18 years (M age=16.52, SD= 1.23, and 25 general population controls, matched for gender, age, years of education and SES. Results. The AN group reported both significantly higher attachment insecurity (75% vs 46%, Fisher Exact Test, p=.04, dismissing (Ds in particular (χ²=6.41, df=2, p=.03, and difficulties with emotion regulation than non-clinical controls. Two AAI’s scales connected to Ds classification – idealization of mother and lack of recall – were significantly correlated to lack of emotional awareness and clarity. Conclusions. Our results provide support for conceptualization of AN emphasizing the role of attachment insecurity and emotional dysregulation in the development and maintenance of this restrictive type of eating disorder. These findings may have implications for treatment programs which may prove more fruitful integrating attachment-based intervention with clinical work focused on development of emotion regulation abilities.
O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…
Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen
This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…
Barbaro, Nicole; Parkhill, Michele R; Nguyen, David
Attachment theory has increasingly been utilized to understand the etiology of sexual violence, and anxious attachment appears to be especially informative in this domain. We investigate the influence of general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment on hostile masculine attitudes to predict male-perpetrated sexual assault. We hypothesize that hostile masculinity will mediate the relationship between general anxious attachment style and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 1) and the relationship between specific anxious attachment to the assaulted woman and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 2). Men ( N = 193) completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to determine sexual assault history and completed measures of general attachment style, specific attachment to the woman involved in the sexual activity, and measures of hostile masculine attitudes. Results support the hypothesized mediation models, such that general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment are significantly associated with hostile masculinity, which in turn, predicts the likelihood of male-perpetrated sexual assault. The findings suggest that the unique characteristics of anxious attachment may escalate into hostile masculinity, which then increases the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This research is the first to investigate attachment bonds to the woman involved in the sexual activity and likelihood of sexual assault perpetration against the same woman.
Frances S Chen
Full Text Available Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976. The A allele at OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < .005. These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.
Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia
Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…
Umemura, Tomo; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia
Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called attachment preferences), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on
Full Text Available Background and aim: There are an increasing number of studies showing an association of adult attachment styles to psychopathology. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between attachment style and depression among students of Bu-Ali Sina University in Iran. Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 157 girl students who were randomly selected. They were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI (Hazan and Shaver, and theBeck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. The data was analysis by using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS 16 statistical package. Results: Findings indicated that secure attachment style had no significant correlation with depression and insecure attachment styles had a significant positive correlation with depression (p
Nicole Lyn Letourneau RN, PhD, FCAHS
Full Text Available Nursing has a long history of attending to the importance of early attachment experiences to later development. Attachment strategies formed in infancy and early childhood can have lifelong effects on an individual’s behavior and health. Advances in neuroimaging technology allow us to understand how these early experiences map onto the structure and function of the brain and ultimately behavior and health. Previous reviews have discussed the findings of studies observing correlations between attachment strategy and neural function and structure in romantic partners and parents, but far less has been said about nonparenting adults. This article reviews the relationship between attachment strategies developed in childhood and brain structure and function in nonparenting adults. A total of 14 studies met inclusion criteria. Results showed adult attachment patterns of nonparenting adults are pervasively correlated with brain structure and function, with most associations observed in executive regions, followed by affective and reward processing. Notably, no studies found associations between attachment pattern and stress response, in contrast with studies of mothers. These brain regions are linked to the many behavioral, mood and substance abuse disorders observed in adults with insecure attachment patterns. Nurses can use these findings to help prevent, assess and address these health risks in nonparenting adults, as well as provide the brain-based evidence to support the utility of nursing interventions designed to further promote healthy parent–child relationships and secure parent–child attachment.
Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Simons, Claudia J P; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe
Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM, and comprises avoidant (discomfort with close relationships, high value of autonomy) and anxious (separation anxiety, dependency on others) attachment. Insight into the association between attachment style and ToM is clinically relevant, as it enhances our understanding and clinical approach to social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Therefore, we studied the association between insecure attachment styles and ToM in patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, and healthy controls. A total of 111 patients with a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum, 106 non-affected siblings and 63 controls completed the Psychosis Attachment Measure, the Conflicting Beliefs and Emotions, a subsection of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Severity of symptoms was assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. After controlling for sex, intelligence, history of trauma and symptom severity, avoidant attachment was significantly associated with cognitive as well as with affective ToM, showing U-shaped associations, indicating better ToM performance for patients with lower or higher levels of avoidant attachment compared to medium levels. Anxious attachment in patients was associated with more problems in cognitive ToM. The results from this study support the idea that an anxious attachment style is associated with worse ToM performance in patients. Results also suggested a potential protective role of higher levels of avoidant attachment on ToM. These findings bear clinical relevance, as activation of (insecure) attachment mechanisms may affect interpersonal
Fleischman, Sari; Shorey, Hal S
Attachment anxiety has been depicted as an undesirable therapist characteristic based on findings that preoccupied therapists, relative to those with other attachment styles, report more ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. What has not been considered, however, is the extent to which attachment dynamics are related to theoretical orientations and how attachment styles and theoretical orientations combine to predict therapists' perceptions of the quality of their alliances. The present surveyed 290 licensed psychologists nationally. Results revealed that even within a sample of primarily secure psychologists, higher 15 levels of attachment anxiety correlated positively with the endorsement of psychodynamic orientations, and negatively with the endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations and self-reported alliance quality. Endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations, in turn, correlated positively with therapist-reported alliance quality. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which attachment dimensions should be considered in therapists' understandings of their therapeutic alliances.
Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na
Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.
Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.
Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.
Maroto, Maya E.
The latest U.S. government surveys indicate that one in six Americans suffer from food insecurity, which means they have trouble affording adequate food. Previous research has shown that food insecurity affects adult cognitive ability, energy levels, ability to concentrate as well as child academic success. Food insecurity has been studied in…
Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood
An examination of the nexus of security, insecurity and health shows that security is a prerequisite for health. The many and varied ways that armed violence--including threats of armed violence--can affect people's health can be documented by formal studies; however, valuable data also exist in other reports, such as media reports. The health community needs to recognize that people's insecurity is a massive global health issue. The foreign policies of donor governments should incorporate recognition that documentation, analysis and publication of data describing the impact of insecurity on people's health can lead to the creation of policies to enhance people's security.
Schmitt, David P.; Diniz, Glaucia; Alcalay, Lidia; Durkin, Kevin; Allensworth, Melissa; Echegaray, Marcela; Allik, Juri; Eremsoy, Ekin; Ault, Lara; Euler, Harald A.; Austers, Ivars; Falzon, Ruth; Bennett, Kevin L.; Fisher, Maryanne L.; Bianchi, Gabriel
As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-cat...
Verbeke, W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.; Pozharliev, R.; Ein-Dor, T.
We first seek to explore the relationship between attachment styles of professional financial service customers and their ability to experience customer satisfaction and build relationships with a commercial bank. Secure attached people identify with the commercial bank, feel satisfied and are loyal
Full Text Available As a part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ, a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the “Model of Self” and “Model of Other” scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within the most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that Secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures, and Preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.
Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám
Previous research has suggested that owners’ attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners’ attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners’ higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners’ attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog’s needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss. PMID:25706147
Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD, Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.
Katherine B. Gunter
Full Text Available Among rural families, rates of both child obesity and household food insecurity (FI are higher compared to non-rural families. These disparities result from a complex interplay of social and environmental conditions that influence behavior. The Transtheoretical Model suggests individual readiness to change underlies success in modifying obesity-preventing behaviors; however, whether an association between readiness to change obesity-related behaviors and FI status among rural families exists is unknown. We examined the association between readiness to change family-level nutrition and physical activity (PA behaviors that predict child obesity and family FI status within a sample of rural families to better understand these relationships. Families (n=144 were recruited from six rural Oregon communities in 2013. Families completed a FI screener and the Family Stage of Change Survey (FSOC, a measure of readiness to change family-level nutrition and PA behaviors associated with obesity. Demographic differences by FI status were explored, and regression was applied to examine relationships between FI and FSOC scores, adjusting for relevant covariates. Among FI families (40.2%, more were non-white (77.8% vs. 22.2%; p=0.036 and had lower adult education (30.4% vs. 11.8% with >high school degree; p=0.015 compared to non-FI families. After adjusting for education, race, ethnicity, and eligibility for federal meal programs, readiness to provide opportunities for PA was lower among FI families (p=0.002. These data highlight a need to further investigate how food insecurity and low readiness to provide PA opportunities, i.e. “physical activity insecurity” may be contributing to the higher obesity rates observed among rural children and families. Keywords: Food insecurity, Physical activity, Rural, Childhood obesity
Szalai, Tamás Dömötör; Czeglédi, Edit
Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called "Hungarostudy 2013" (N = 2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD = 18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N = 76) among the respondents (N = 1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t (1888) = -3.939, p eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR = 1.09, p = 0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR = 0.98, p = 0.515). Younger age (OR = 0.97, p cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment's further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love and sex. We recorded Event-related potentials (ERPs in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2 and PSW components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems.
Fossati, Andrea; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella
To assess how the maladaptive personality domains and facets that were included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorders relate to adult attachment styles, 480 Italian nonclinical adults were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). To evaluate the uniqueness of the associations between the PID-5 scales and the ASQ scales, the participants were also administered the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Multiple regression analyses showed that the ASQ scales significantly predicted both PID-5 domain scales and BFI scales; however, the relationships were different both qualitatively and quantitatively. With the exception of the PID-5 risk taking scale (adjusted R(2) = 0.02), all other PID-5 trait scales were significantly predicted by the ASQ scales, median adjusted R(2) value = 0.25, all ps personality domains and traits listed in the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders show meaningful associations with adult attachment styles.
Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Steele, Howard; Mehlhase, Heike; Cordes, Katharina; Steele, Miriam; Harder, Susanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard
Underlying persistent psychological difficulties have been found to moderate potential adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on parenting and infant development. The authors examined whether mothers presenting postpartum depressive symptoms showed higher levels of personality pathology and more insecure state of mind regarding attachment compared to nondepressed mothers. Participants (N = 85) were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Present State Examination, the Adult Attachment Interview, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II. Mothers with high EPDS scores were more likely to have a preoccupied insecure state of mind and to have personality disorder compared with mothers scoring below clinical cutoff. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that personality disorder and AAI classification were independently related to EPDS score, and that these two factors together accounted for 48% of the variance in EPDS score. Findings are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in PPD populations and underline the importance of examining potential coexisting psychological difficulties when studying PPD.
Bailey, C; Shelton, D
This study examined self-reports of psychopathic offenders' childhood interactions with their parents to better understand what variables influence adult criminal psychopathy. The findings showed that childhood separations, physical abuse and indifferent parenting styles were more prominent in self-reports of incarcerated male psychopaths than with incarcerated males who were not psychopathic. To better understand the worldview of the criminal psychopath, and the trajectory of psychopathy, there is a need for more studies that examine childhood interactions with parental figures as reported by the adult criminal psychopath. Despite the high percentage of incarcerated psychopaths, few studies attempt to assess the past parent-child bonds of these individuals by asking them to report childhood attachments with their parents. Currently, there is limited data regarding common variables that contribute to a break in parent-child attachment and later adult criminal psychopathy. The data that presently exist concentrate on juvenile or community samples and do not explore the attachment variables that continue into adult criminal psychopathy. This paper presents the current literature regarding self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult psychopaths compared with self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult non-psychopaths. Variables that influence a break in attachment between the offenders and their parents and suggestions for future clinical research are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Malik, Sonia; Wells, Adrian; Wittkowski, Anja
Attachment theory has been conceptualised as an emotion regulation theory. Research attributes the occurrence of depressive symptoms to a dysfunction of emotion regulation. Anxious attachment and avoidant attachment, which are two dimensions of insecure attachment, are hypothesised to lead to the development of hyperactivating and deactivating emotion regulation strategies. This systematic review examines the literature on the role of emotion regulation and its relationship with attachment and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, we examined evidence for hyperactivating and deactivating strategies. Nineteen papers were identified. Adolescent studies demonstrated associations of varying strength and found unreliable and contradictory results for emotion regulation as a mediator. Conversely, adult studies provided strong evidence for emotion regulation as a mediator. The hypothesis that hyperactivating strategies mediate anxious attachment and depressive symptoms was consistently supported. Mixed evidence was provided for deactivating strategies as mediators to avoidant attachment and depressive symptomatology. Limitations of methodology and quality of studies are identified with particular attention drawn to problems with conceptual singularity and multicollinearity. Despite mixed variable findings, this review indicates that emotion regulation is a mediator between attachment and depression. Hyperactivating strategies, in particular, have been consistently noted as mediators for anxious attachment and depressive symptomatology, whereas evidence for deactivating strategies as mediators between avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms has been mixed. Future research should test the mediators of attachment and symptoms and examine theoretically grounded models of psychopathology, such as metacognitive and cognitive models using clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte; Tetens, Inge
.001) and higher risk of psychological distress (women: adj.RR 2.42 P Obesity was more prevalent in low/very low food secure women (RR 2.44 P Food insecurity in Denmark is associated with adverse factors...... such as unhealthy diet, obesity, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. It is important to widen food insecurity research to non-liberal welfare states since low/very low food security is negatively associated with unhealthy eating and other health indicators, even in a social-democratic welfare state.......Background: Food insecurity and its consequences have not received much attention in the Nordic, social-democratic welfare states. This study reports the prevalence of low and very low food security in Denmark, identifies its socio-demographic determinants and examines its associations with eating...
Merz, E.-M.; Consedine, N.S.
The current study examines the association between family support and wellbeing in the elderly, paying particular attention to the possible moderating role of attachment style. Data from a community-dwelling, ethnically diverse, elderly sample (N ¼ 1118) were analyzed to determine the best linear
Pielage, SB; Luteijn, F; Arrindell, WA
Attachment theory predicts that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals' later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The present study examined the role of intimacy in the current romantic relationship as a possible mediator of the relationship
Weisel, Amatzia; Kamara, Ahiya
This study examined differences between deaf/hard-of-hearing (D/HH) and hearing persons with regard to two interrelated and continuous developmental processes: attachment (Bowlby, 1969) and individuation (Mahler, 1963). The study also examined intergroup differences in two personal variables assumed to be influenced by these processes: self-esteem…
Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K
High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment
Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C
To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.
Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A
This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.
Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. Food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever reason, hunger is the immediate ph...
Full Text Available Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Empirical evidence indicates that parenting is negatively influenced by maternal drug use and its associated adverse psychosocial conditions. As a consequence, many interventions have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyse how drug addiction can affect the quality of an adult’s attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviours towards the child and can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies have also identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-addicted mothers and their children, but a specific model of insecurity is still needed to be attested, requiring further investigations. In recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs which address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.
Umemura, Tomotaka; Watanabe, Manami; Tazuke, Kohei; Asada-Hirano, Shintaro; Kudo, Shimpei
The universality of secure base construct, which suggests that one's use of an attachment figure as a secure base from which to explore the environment is an evolutionary outcome, is one of the core ideas of attachment theory. However, this universality idea has been critiqued because exploration is not as valued in Japanese culture as it is in Western cultures. Waters and Waters (2006) hypothesized that one's experiences of secure base behaviors are stored as a script in memory, and developed a narrative assessment called the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA) to evaluate one's secure base script. This study examined the validity of the ASA and the utility of secure base concept in Japanese culture. A sample of Japanese young adults (N = 89; M = 23.46; SD = 3.20; 57% = females) completed both the ASA and self-report questionnaires. The results revealed that the ASA score was associated with two dimensions of self-report questionnaires assessing parent-youth attachment relationships (trust and communication). The ASA score was not related to Japanese cultural values (amae acceptance, interdependent self-construal, and low independent self-construal). However, a low ASA score was related to a psychological dysfunction in the Japanese cultural context; hikikomori symptoms, which are defined as a desire to remain in his or her own room and his or her understanding of this behavior in other people. We concluded that since hikikomori can be interpreted as an extreme inhibition of exploration, the association between low secure base script and hikikomori symptoms suggests the utility of secure base construct in Japan. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Qi, Rui; Zhou, Xianping; Yu, Jianqun; Chen, Weixia; Li, Zhenlin; Zhang, Chunle
The present paper is aimed to observe the lateral attachment of the renal fascia (RF) in vivo with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning, and to discuss its diagnostic value. 121 healthy adults were adopted into this experiment. All images were obtained with MDCT and double phase enhancement scanning. Then we observed the lateral attachment of RF. In addition, we mad a fresh body specimen as anatomical basis. The study found that above the renal hilar plane (RHP), the anterior renal fascia laterally fused with the peritoneum of the liver on the right and the peritoneum of the spleen on the left,and the posterior renal fascia fused with the subdiaphragmatic fascia. The lateral attachment of the RF at the RHP and the lower renal pole(LRP)is divided into three types. The RF in Type I is about 47.9% (58/121) at the left RHP, while about 33.9% (41/121) at the right RHP. At the LRP of the kidney is about 55.3% (67/121) on the left, and about 42.1% (51/121) on the right. The RF in Type I is about 38.8% (47/121) on the left side at the RHP, about 26.4% (32/121) on the right side. At the LRP, left side about 27.3% (33/121), right side about 13.3%(16/121). The RF in Type III at the RHP is 13.3% (16/121) on the left side, and on the right side is about 39.7% (48/121). At the LRP, it is about 17.4% (21/121) on the left side, and about 44.6% (54/121) on the right side. MDCT can display the lateral attachment of the RF better as well as the outside connection of the retroperitoneal space.
Demers, Isabelle; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.
This article examines the quality of maternal mind-mindedness among adult and adolescent mothers, using an assessment of the appropriateness and emotional valence of maternal mind-related comments while interacting with their infants. Twenty-nine adult mothers and 69 adolescent mothers participated in two assessments with their 18-month-old…
Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J
Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439
Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J
Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.
Cook, Stephanie H; Valera, Pamela; Calebs, Benjamin J; Wilson, Patrick A
The present study examined the moderating effect of adult attachment on the association between childhood traumatic experiences, (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and being bullied), age of childhood traumatic experience, and young adult depression symptoms among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Self-report measures of attachment, childhood traumatic experiences, and depression symptoms were collected from a community-based sample of YBGBM living in New York City (n = 228). Regression analyses were conducted to address the study goals. Findings indicated that YBGBM who were more anxious in their adult attachment style and experienced being bullied or physically abused by a non-family member during childhood experienced greater depression in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less anxious in their adult attachment style. In addition, we found that being bullied later in childhood was associated with greater depression symptoms than being bullied earlier. Lastly, we found that YBGBM who were more avoidant and bullied later in adolescence reported more depression symptoms in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less avoidant in their attachment style. The findings suggest that it may be important to utilize an attachment perspective that is sensitive to age of traumatic experience when creating mental health and trauma interventions for YBGBM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male 469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.
Levitan, Robert D; Atkinson, Leslie; Pedersen, Rebecca; Buis, Tom; Kennedy, Sidney H; Chopra, Kevin; Leung, Eman M; Segal, Zindel V
While a large body of descriptive work has thoroughly investigated the clinical correlates of atypical depression, little is known about its fundamental origins. This study examined atypical depression from an attachment theory framework. Our hypothesis was that, compared to adults with melancholic depression, those with atypical depression would report more anxious-ambivalent attachment and less secure attachment. As gender has been an important consideration in prior work on atypical depression, this same hypothesis was further tested in female subjects only. One hundred ninety-nine consecutive adults presenting to a tertiary mood disorders clinic with major depressive disorder with either atypical or melancholic features according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders were administered a self-report adult attachment questionnaire to assess the core dimensions of secure, anxious-ambivalent, and avoidant attachment. Attachment scores were compared across the 2 depressed groups defined by atypical and melancholic features using multivariate analysis of variance. The study was conducted between 1999 and 2004. When men and women were considered together, the multivariate test comparing attachment scores by depressive group was statistically significant at p depression was associated with significantly lower secure attachment scores, with a trend toward higher anxious-ambivalent attachment scores, than was melancholia. When women were analyzed separately, the multivariate test was statistically significant at p depressive groups. These preliminary findings suggest that attachment theory, and insecure and anxious-ambivalent attachment in particular, may be a useful framework from which to study the origins, clinical correlates, and treatment of atypical depression. Gender may be an important consideration when considering atypical depression from an attachment perspective. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R
Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.
Schroeder, Krista; Smaldone, Arlene
Aim To report an analysis of the concept of food insecurity, in order to 1) propose a theoretical model of food insecurity useful to nursing and 2) discuss its implications for nursing practice, nursing research, and health promotion. Background Forty eight million Americans are food insecure. As food insecurity is associated with multiple negative health effects, nursing intervention is warranted. Design Concept Analysis Data sources A literature search was conducted in May 2014 in Scopus and MEDLINE using the exploded term “food insecur*.” No year limit was placed. Government websites and popular media were searched to ensure a full understanding of the concept. Review Methods Iterative analysis, using the Walker and Avant method Results Food insecurity is defined by uncertain ability or inability to procure food, inability to procure enough food, being unable to live a healthy life, and feeling unsatisfied. A proposed theoretical model of food insecurity, adapted from the Socio-Ecological Model, identifies three layers of food insecurity (individual, community, society), with potential for nursing impact at each level. Conclusion Nurses must work to fight food insecurity. There exists a potential for nursing impact that is currently unrealized. Nursing impact can be guided by a new conceptual model, Food Insecurity within the Nursing Paradigm. PMID:25612146
Cassibba, R; van IJzendoorn, M H; Coppola, G
The presence of limits or distortions in the children's communicative behaviours (due to a chronic illness) may interfere with the possibility to build secure attachment relationships. Moreover, the distress that the atypical chronic illness condition brings to family life may interfere the intergenerational transmission of attachment. This study evaluated the associations between maternal attachment representations, emotional availability and mother-child attachment in a clinical and in a comparison group. Forty infants (23 female) in their 14th month of life and their mothers participated in this study, 20 dyads with clinical infants (10 premature infants and 10 infants affected by atopic dermatitis) and 20 full-term and healthy comparison infants. The Adult Attachment Interview, the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS) and the Strange Situation Procedure were used to assess, respectively, the security of mothers' attachment representations, the emotional availability and the quality of mother-child attachment. We found that the two groups (clinical vs. comparison) did not differ with respect to the Adult Attachment Interview and the Emotional Availability Scales measures. A significant difference was found in the distribution of the infant-mother attachment patterns, with a higher incidence of insecure infants in the clinical group. In the typically developing group, more secure maternal attachment representations predicted more emotional availability in mother-infant interactions, which predicted more secure infant-mother attachments. However, we did not find similar support for intergenerational transmission of attachment in the clinical group. We speculate that constant concerns about the child's health condition and communicative difficulties of clinical infants may hamper or even mitigate the intergenerational transmission of attachment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G
Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan
Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.
Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro
Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Does Mother's Rather than Father's Attachment Representation Contribute to the Adolescent's Attachment Representation? Commentary on: "Maternal Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Collected During Pregnancy Predicts Reflective Functioning in AAIs from their First-Born Children 17 Years Later"
In this commentary, Spangler evaluates the Steele, Perez, Segal, and Steele report that arguede that reflective functioning in adolescence could not be predicted by quality of early infant attachment, but was associated with maternal (but not paternal) attachment representation, assessed before the adolescents' birth. Assuming that parental…
Research has shown that job insecurity affects both mental and physical health, though the effects are lower when employees are easily re-employable. The detrimental effects of job insecurity can also be partly mitigated by employers allowing greater employee participation in workplace decision-making in order to ensure fair procedures. But as job insecurity is felt by many more people than just the unemployed, the negative health effects during recessions are multiplied and extend through th...
The present study aimed to identify trauma types over the life course among adult refugees and to explore their accounts of childhood maltreatment. A sample of 43 Arabic-speaking refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) attending a treatment context in Denmark were interviewed. Using a "Trauma Coding Manual" developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information for refugee trauma treatment providers.
Davis, Cynthia R; Usher, Nicole; Dearing, Eric; Barkai, Ayelet R; Crowell-Doom, Cynthia; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mantzoros, Christos S; Crowell, Judith A
Adult attachment discourse patterns and current family relationship quality were examined as correlates of health behaviors and number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria met, and as mediators of the link between childhood adversity and these health outcomes. A sample of 215 white/European American and black/African American adults aged 35 to 55 years were examined using a cross-sectional study design. Discourse was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview, using coherence (a marker of attachment security), unresolved trauma/loss (a marker of disorganized cognitions related to trauma or loss), and idealization (minimizing stressful experiences and their impact) scores. Relationship quality, adverse childhood experiences, and current depressive symptoms were assessed, as were health behaviors of diet, exercise, and smoking. MetS includes obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Using path analysis and including childhood adversity severity and depressive symptoms in the model, both Adult Attachment Interview coherence and unresolved trauma/loss were directly linked to the number of MetS criteria (r = 0.186 and r = 0.170, respectively). Idealization was indirectly linked to MetS through poor diet (r = 0.183). The final model explained 21% of the variance in scores for the number of MetS criteria met. Insecure adult attachment is associated with increased risk of MetS.
Frosch, Cynthia A.; Cox, Martha J.; Goldman, Barbara Davis
Examined longitudinal associations between infant-parent attachment and parent/toddler behavior during storybook interaction. Found that infants with insecure-resistant attachment with mothers were less enthusiastic and focused during storybook interaction at 24 months. Mothers of insecure-resistant infants were less warm/supportive, and less…
Richard G. Erskine
Full Text Available Humans require the contactful presence of another person who is attuned and responsive to relational-needs. Insecure attachment patterns are the result of repeated disruptions in significant relationships. This article describes eight relational-needs that, when repeatedly unsatisfied, lead to insecure attachment patterns based on the fears of loss of relationship, vulnerability, violation, and invasion.The healing of insecure attachment patterns occurs through a contactful psychotherapeutic presence that occurs when the attitude, behavior and communication of the psychotherapist consistently respects and enhances the client's integrity while responding to relational-needs. The article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011.
Powell, Elisabeth M; Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Hazen, Nancy
The present study examines the hypothesis that adult attachment orientation, specifically anxious attachment, is related to children's diminished ability to self-regulate their food intake, and that this relationship is mediated by parents' persuasive-controlling feeding practices. Two hundred and sixty five mothers and fathers of preschool children completed online questionnaires that included measures of Adult Attachment Orientation, Parental Persuasive-Controlling Feeding Practices, and Child Self-Regulation of Eating. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between parental anxious attachment and child self-regulatory abilities, which was fully mediated by parental persuasive-controlling feeding. Also as predicted, parents' avoidant attachment was found to be unrelated to persuasive-controlling feeding and child self-regulated eating. Findings suggest that parents with an anxious attachment orientation may be more likely than other parents to try to use persuasive techniques to control their children's food intake, which may impair children's ability to regulate their food intake, increasing their obesity risk. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.
Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159
Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E
One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.
Meins, Elizabeth; Bureau, Jean-François; Fernyhough, Charles
Relations between maternal mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments), children's age-2 perspective-taking abilities, and attachment security at 44 (n = 165) and 51 (n = 128) months were investigated. Nonattuned comments predicted insecure preschool attachment, via insecure 15-month attachment security (44-month attachment) and poorer age-2 perspective-taking abilities (51-month attachment). With regard to attachment stability, higher perspective-taking abilities distinguished the stable secure groups from (a) the stable insecure groups and (b) children who changed from secure to insecure (at trend level). These effects were independent of child gender, stressful life events, and socioeconomic status (SES). The contribution of these findings to our understanding of stability and change in attachment security from infancy to the preschool years is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Kokkonen, Taru-Maija; Cheston, Richard I L; Dallos, Rudi; Smart, Cordet A
Past research suggests that dementia care staff are vulnerable to the development of burnout, which has implications for staff well-being and hence the quality of care for people with dementia. Studying personal vulnerability factors in burnout is important as it can guide staff training and support. Attachment theory suggests that adult attachment styles affect caregiving relationships and individuals' responses to stress, providing a framework for understanding caregivers' styles of coping. This cross-sectional survey study examined relationships between staff attachment styles, geriatric nursing self-efficacy, and approaches to dementia in burnout. Seventy-seven members of dementia care staff working on inpatient wards for older people completed self-report questionnaires. Insecure attachment, lower levels of self-efficacy, and more optimistic attitudes in staff were related to higher levels of burnout. Staff training on the role of attachment in dementia care is recommended. Further research is required to explore mediating factors between adult attachment styles and burnout. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Cassibba, Rosalinda; Castoro, Germana; Costantino, Elisabetta; Sette, Giovanna; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H
This study aims to explore whether a short-term and attachment-based video-feedback intervention, the Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting With Discussions on the Representational Level (VIPP-R; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008), might be effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and in promoting infants' attachment security in an Italian sample of dyads with primiparous mothers. Moreover, we explore whether the effectiveness of VIPP-R might be different for parents with insecure attachment representations who might be most in need of preventive intervention, as compared to parents who already have a more balanced and secure state of mind. Thirty-two infants (40% female) and their mothers participated in the study. The sample was divided into an intervention group (n = 16) and a comparison group (n = 16). At 6 and 13 months of age, the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; M. Main, N. Kaplan, & J. Cassidy, 1985) was administered. Moreover, a 30-min mother-infant play situation was videotaped and coded for maternal sensitivity with the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000). At 13 months of age, the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.D. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) was used to assess the security of mother-infant attachment. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between intervention and AAI security for infant attachment security; moreover, main effects of AAI security and intervention for maternal sensitivity were found. The VIPP-R appears effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security, although only mothers with an insecure attachment representation may benefit from the intervention. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette
The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among food bank users in many European countries is unknown. The study aims to examine FI prevalence and associated population characteristics among this particular group of disadvantaged people in Germany. Food insecurity status was assessed among 1033 adult food bank users with a mean age of 53 years (57% female, 43% male) in Germany in 2015 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). About half of the participants (55.8%) were single with no children and born in Germany. Over 37% had a self-reported BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or above and 37.4% indicated to smoke. Over 70% of the food bank users can be described as food insecure. Of those, about 35% were considered mildly food insecure. Almost 30% were categorized as moderately food insecure while over 7% were categorized as severely food insecure. Significant associations with food insecurity were found for gender, age, subjective health status, smoking, duration of food bank use, school education and family type. Among this socially disadvantaged population, food insecurity is highly prevalent and public health efforts should be focusing on this vulnerable population taken into account the identified population and behavioral characteristics associated with food insecurity.
Notzon, S; Domschke, K; Holitschke, K; Ziegler, C; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Zwanzger, P
Social anxiety has been suggested to be promoted by an insecure attachment style. Oxytocin is discussed as a mediator of trust and social bonding as well as a modulator of social anxiety. Applying a gene-environment (G × E) interaction approach, in the present pilot study the main and interactive effects of attachment styles and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variation were probed in a combined risk factor model of social anxiety in healthy probands. Participants (N = 388; 219 females, 169 males; age 24.7 ± 4.7 years) were assessed for anxiety in social situations (Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory) depending on attachment style (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS) and OXTR rs53576 A/G genotype. A less secure attachment style was significantly associated with higher social anxiety. This association was partly modulated by OXTR genotype, with a stronger negative influence of a less secure attachment style on social anxiety in A allele carriers as compared to GG homozygotes. The present pilot data point to a strong association of less secure attachment and social anxiety as well as to a gene-environment interaction effect of OXTR rs53576 genotype and attachment style on social anxiety possibly constituting a targetable combined risk marker of social anxiety disorder.
Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng
Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…
Gabbay, Nicolas; Lafontaine, Marie-France
This study tested a serial mediation model examining how dyadic trust and sexual intimacy mediate the relationship between insecure romantic attachment and perpetrated sexual violence occurring between same sex intimate partners (sexual SSIPV). A community sample of adults ( N = 310; 203 women, 107 men) involved in a committed (6 months or longer) same sex romantic relationship completed an encrypted online questionnaire package which included psychometric measures designed to assess the aforementioned variables. Controlling for gender effects, analyses conducted using bootstrapping procedures supported full mediation pathways for both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. That is, attachment anxiety and avoidance were both directly associated to the perpetration of sexual SSIPV, and these relationships were both fully mediated by dyadic trust and sexual intimacy, in that respective order.
Full Text Available Theory of attachment has radically changed the way we understand human relationships and work with people today. Understanding relationships as processes of mutual affect regulation has opened the door to a new generation of approaches to clinical work, prevention and education. Therapeutic research and practical work with clients show that providing relational safety, or a secure base, is a necessary precondition for working with vulnerable populations. In the article three fundamental shifts in our understanding of therapeutic and preventive work are presented and described with the help of examples of good practice. First, a child is dependent on adult caregivers for her/his emotional and physical well-being; second, parenting starts from the inside out, and third, family relationships are an intergenerational attachment-driven system. Designing effective interventions in cases of shame- and fear-based family systems requires paying special attention to this aspect of insecure attachment.
Hannah C. M. Niermann
Full Text Available Early life-stress, particularly maternal deprivation, is associated with long-lasting deviations in animals’ freezing responses. Given the relevance of freezing for stress-coping, translational research is needed to examine the relation between insecure infant-parent attachment and bodily freezing-like behavior in humans. Therefore, we investigated threat-related reductions in body sway (indicative of freezing-like behavior in 14-year-old adolescents (N=79, for whom attachment security was earlier assessed in infancy. As expected, insecure (versus secure attachment was associated with less body sway for angry versus neutral faces. This effect remained when controlling for intermediate life-events. These results suggest that the long-lasting effects of early negative caregiving experiences on the human stress and threat systems extend to the primary defensive reaction of freezing. Additionally, we replicated earlier work in adults, by observing a significant correlation (in adolescents assessed as securely attached between subjective state anxiety and reduced body sway in response to angry versus neutral faces. Together, this research opens venues to start exploring the role of freezing in the development of human psychopathology.
Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Common misconceptions about what attachment is and what it is not are discussed. The distinction between attachment and bonding is provided. The recognized method to assess infant-parent attachment, the Strange Situation procedure, is described. In addition, a description is provided for the four major types of infant-parent attachment, ie, secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. The antecedents and consequences of each of the four types of infant-parent attachment are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the description of disorganized attachment because of its association with significant emotional and behavioural problems, and poor social and emotional outcomes in high-risk groups and in the majority of children who have disorganized attachment with their primary caregiver. Practical applications of attachment theory and research are presented.
Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping
In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pInfants with insecure attachment collectively exhibited a significantly lower mental development index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brucker, Debra L.; Nord, Derek
People with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD) face higher levels of poverty than others, which can lead to concerns regarding areas of well-being, such as food security. Young adults with IDD who are, in many cases, transitioning from the system of educational, health care, and income supports of their youth into the adult world may…
Rush, Timothy J; Ng, Victor; Irwin, Jennifer D; Stitt, Larry W; He, Meizi
The degree of food insecurity and dietary intake was examined in adult Colombians who are new immigrants to Canada and use a food bank. In-person surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of 77 adult Colombian immigrant food bank users in London, Ontario. Degree of food insecurity was measured by the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire, food intakes by 24-hour recall, sociodemographics, and questionnaires about changes in dietary patterns before and after immigration. Thirty-six men and 41 women participated in the study. Despite being highly educated, all respondents had experienced some form of food insecurity within the previous 30 days. The degree of food insecurity seems to be inversely associated with income and length of residency in Canada. Total daily energy intake was low, with a mean value of 1,568.3 +/- 606.0 kcal (6,217.5 +/- 2,336.4 kJ). In particular, a large proportion of participants consumed a diet low in fruits and vegetables (73%) and milk and dairy products (58%). Colombian immigrant food bank users new to Canada experience various degrees of food insecurity, which is associated with inadequate food intake. Interventions are needed to assist this population with adapting to society while concurrently sustaining healthy eating patterns.
Lewis, Michael; And Others
Compares attachment relationships of infants at 12 months to their visual self-recognition at both 18 and 24 months. Individual differences in early attachment relations were related to later self-recognition. In particular, insecurely attached infants showed a trend toward earlier self-recognition than did securely attached infants. (Author/NH)
Kindsvatter, Aaron; Desmond, Kimberly J.
This article describes the use of attachment theory to address parent-child conflict. The authors propose that parent-child conflict is attributable to the unmet attachment needs of both children and parents and that attachment insecurity results in problematic patterns of attachment in parent-child relationships. Three conversational frames are…
Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret
Background: Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In…
The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra
Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.
Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A
In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the
Peeran, Syed Wali; Kumar, Naveen P G; Azaruk, Faiza Abdelkader Ahmed; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Abdalla, Khaled Awidat; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Peeran, Syed Ali
The present study was aimed to investigate the association of mental well-being and depression with periodontal clinical attachment loss among young adults in postwar urban population of Sebha city, Libya. Mental well-being and depression were assessed using Arabic versions of World Health Organization (WHO) five well-being index and major depression inventory (ICD-10), respectively. Random sample of 149 subjects were studied. Degree of periodontal attachment was measured at six sites per tooth using a rigid manual periodontal probe. A total of 59.11% of the studied samples had healthy mental well-being state, whereas 40.81% had poor mental well-being. The severity of depression was stronger in males than in females. In the present study mental well-being, depression, and all its categories did not have any significant effect on periodontal attachment loss. Further studies and health interventions can be planned based on this data.
Emily J. Tomayko
Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in
Ringer, Jamie M; Buchanan, Erin E; Olesek, Kyle; Lysaker, Paul H
Having an insecure attachment style in schizophrenia has been linked to treatment response and symptom severity in schizophrenia. This study sought to further examine whether attachment style is related to subjective indicators of recovery including hope and self-esteem, independent of symptom level and secondly, whether attachment style in schizophrenia differs from attachment style of persons facing adversity in the form of a prolonged non-psychiatric medical illness. Participants were 52 men with schizophrenia, and 26 with HIV/AIDS who had no history of experiencing severe mental illness. These groups were compared in terms of their endorsement of attachment style. All participants were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of adult attachment style. The schizophrenia group was also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to assess self-esteem, the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a measure of hope, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as an assessment of symptoms. Avoidant attachment in the schizophrenia group was linked with higher levels of hopelessness while anxious attachment was linked to lower levels of self-esteem. The association between anxious attachment and self-esteem persisted after controlling for severity of positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Compared to the HIV/AIDS group, participants with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of anxious attachment but not avoidant attachment style. Attachment style may impact attainment of key subjective domains of recovery in schizophrenia such as self-esteem, independent of symptom severity. If self-esteem and/or hopelessness are identified as a focus of treatment, focusing on attachment style may be an important treatment component. Therapist understanding of patients' attachment style may allow for a better understanding of resistance in the therapeutic relationship. Helping persons with schizophrenia to recognize and
Carranza, Laura V; Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C
This study investigated links between offsprings' attachment patterns and parent characteristics in 157 females and 62 males of parental divorce. Secure females and males reported affection, respect, and closeness toward both biological parents. Offsprings' insecure attachment pattern was associated with negative parent characteristics. Participants who perceived their same-sex parent negatively were more likely to report an insecure attachment. Our findings suggest delayed negative consequences of parental divorce for college women and men.
Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.
Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848
Full Text Available Increasing evidence has documented subtle changes in brain morphology and function in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, results of magnetic resonance imaging volumetry in patients with BPD are inconsistent. In addition, few researchers using voxel-based morphometry (VBM have focused on attachment and childhood trauma in BPD. This preliminary study was performed to investigate structural brain changes and their relationships to attachment and childhood trauma in a homogenous sample of young adults with BPD.We examined 34 young adults with BPD and 34 healthy controls (HCs to assess regionally specific differences in gray matter volume (GMV and gray matter concentration (GMC. Multiple regressions between brain volumes measured by VBM and attachment style questionnaire (ASQ and childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ scores were performed.Compared with HCs, subjects with BPD showed significant bilateral increases in GMV in the middle cingulate cortex (MCC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC/precuneus. GMC did not differ significantly between groups. In multiple regression models, ASQ insecure attachment scores were correlated negatively with GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus in HCs, HCs with more severe insecure attachment showed smaller volumes in precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus, whereas no negative correlations between insecure attachment and GMV in any region were found in BPD group. In addition, CTQ total scores were not correlated with GMV in any region in the two groups respectively.Our findings fit with those of previous reports of larger precuneus GMV in patients with BPD, and suggest that GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus is associated inversely with insecure attachment style in HCs. Our finding of increased GMV in the MCC and PCC in patients with BPD compared with HCs has not been reported in previous VBM studies.
Moghaddam Hoseini V
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.
Aceti, Franca; Baglioni, Valentina; Ciolli, Paola; De Bei, Francesco; Di Lorenzo, Flavia; Ferracuti, Stefano; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Motta, Paola; Roma, Paolo; Zaccagni, Michela; Williams, Riccardo
This study investigates the prevalence of post partum depression (PPD) in a sample of Roman women, and the role of socio-demographic variables, personality structure and maternal attachment patterns, in order to identify primary and secondary prevention strategies. Data were collected in two phases. During the third trimester of pregnancy, a sample of 453 women completed a socio-demographic data sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among the patients scoring 12 or more at EPDS, 15 entered the second phase of the study and completed SCID-II and Adult Attachment Interview. PPD diagnosis was confirmed by the SCID-I. The study group was compared with a control group. Among the 453 women who were evaluated, 92 (20.3%) scored ≥12 at EPDS, 39 has been enrolled and 15 entered the study. Presence of depressive symptoms was associated with: complications in pregnancy, previous psychiatric disorders, family and marital conflicts. 66.6% of depressed mothers showed more than one diagnosis on Axis II (particularly avoidant/dependent + borderline or histrionic + dependent). The AAI showed a prevalence of insecure (33.3%) and unresolved/disorganized (46.6%) attachment pattern in the clinical group. Our results suggest that psychological factors such as personality structure and attachment patterns are not only involved in post natal affective disorders, but have a key role in the onset and development of PPD.
Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.
This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…
Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane
Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…
Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.
Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety
Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.
Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels
Brennan, K A; Shaver, P R
Attachment theory was explored as a means of understanding the origins of personality disorders. We investigated whether adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure, and how both kinds of variables relate to family background factors, including parental death, parental divorce, and current representations of childhood relationships with parents. A nonclinical group of 1407 individuals, mostly adolescents and young adults, were surveyed about their attachment styles, parental marital status, parental mortality status, perceptions of treatment by parents in childhood, and 13 personality disorders. Results indicated substantial overlap between attachment and personality-disorder measures. Two of the personality-disorder dimensions are related to the two dimensions of the attachment space; that is, there is a two-dimensional space in which both the attachment patterns and most of the personality disorders can be arrayed. The one personality-disorder factor that is unrelated to attachment appears akin to psychopathy. Both personality disorders and attachment styles were associated with family-of-origin variables. Results are discussed in terms of encouraging further research to test the idea that insecure attachment and most of the personality disorders share similar developmental antecedents.
Mario Alberto Jurado Montelongo
Full Text Available This article reviews the importance of gathering places in strengthening the primary social groups of individuals over the age of 15 years within six families in Matamoros, Tamaulipas. The relationship between primary social groups and spaces of social interaction is contextualized in an environment of insecurity fostered by the existence and violence of criminal groups who have managed to involve themselves in a range of significant activities in the city. Together with structural factors, insecurity has helped lead to a reconfiguration of gathering places between young people and adults; private and semi-public spaces predominate, while the intensive use of certain public spaces in the city has diminished.
Karnik, Arati; Foster, Byron Alexander; Mayer, Victoria; Pratomo, Vanessa; McKee, Diane; Maher, Stacia; Campos, Giselle; Anderson, Matthew
Hunger continues to be a problem in New York City; paradoxically, the city also has disproportionally high rates of diabetes and obesity. Some research suggests that food insecurity leads to obesity. We undertook a cross-sectional "card study" in which doctors working at 8 New York City area primary care practices administered a brief, anonymous survey to patients they saw during clinic sessions. The survey included a 2-question food insecurity screen and questions about enrollment in nutrition assistance programs. Height and weight were also measured at the visit. Cards were completed for 558 patients (65.1% female; 74.7% adults; 78.5% conducted in English). Fifty-five percent of patients were receiving some form of food assistance. More than half of patients (51.7%) reported some degree of food insecurity. Of adult participants, 21.8% had normal weight, 29.1% were overweight, and 48.2% were obese. Food insecurity was significantly associated with increasing body mass index in women not receiving food assistance. There was no significant association between body mass index and food insecurity in children. In an urban population, overweight and obesity are very common as is food insecurity. We found an association between food insecurity and obesity only among women not receiving food assistance suggesting a possible protective role for food assistance. Providers should consider food insecurity in similar populations when trying to address obesity.
Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava
The aim of the present study was to examine the directionality of the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and attachment insecurities across time among indirect trauma survivors. Wives of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs), with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... that attachment anxiety might act as a risk factor for secondary traumatic reactions....
Alexander, Pamela C.
Attachment theory provides useful conceptual framework for understanding familial antecedents and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Themes associated with insecure parent-child attachment (rejection, role reversal/parentification, and fear/unresolved trauma) are frequently found in dynamics of families characterized by sexual abuse, and…
Fett, A.J.; Shergill, S.; Korver-Nieberg, N.; Yakub, F.; Gromann, P.; Krabbendam, L.
Background Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties
Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…
Rosinger, Asher Y
While 884 million people worldwide lack access to clean water, millions live in flood-prone regions. Unexpected flooding increases risk of diarrheal diseases and is expected to occur with increased frequency in the 21st century. Water insecurity is linked to mental distress in water scarce regions, yet this construct has not been examined closely among populations living in flood-prone regions. This paper examines how differences in water sources and lifestyle among Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists in lowland Bolivia are related to water insecurity after a historic flood in 2014, and in turn, how water insecurity is associated with diarrhea and dehydration. Pre-flood data come from qualitative interviews with 36 household heads, anthropometrics, participant observation, and water quality analysis between September 2013-January 2014 used to create a locally-adapted water insecurity questionnaire. Water insecurity was measured after the historic flood; no pre-flood water insecurity measures are available. Post-flood data were collected through surveys, water quality analysis, and health exams using near-exhaustive sampling in two villages, yielding 118 adults and 115 children (aged 2-12 years) in 62 households between March-April 2014. Overall, 89% of adults reported medium or high water insecurity. Only hand-pumps tested negative for pathogenic bacteria both pre- and post-flood. Tobit regressions suggest that hand-pumps (when available) and adult age were associated with lower water insecurity scores. Multiple logistic regressions suggest that adults with high water insecurity were more likely to report diarrhea than adults with low (Odds Ratio [OR] 9.2; 95% CI: 1.27-67.1). Children from households with medium (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 1.41-32.5) or high (OR: 14.0; 95% CI: 2.40-81.5) water insecurity had significantly higher odds of dehydration than children in households with low water insecurity. Catastrophic flooding may systematically increase dimensions of household
Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A
Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Bell, David C
Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.
Bell, David C.
Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.
Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.
Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi
Objective: This study examined the associations between the adequacy of childcare provided by adult caretakers and childhood undernutrition in rural Yemen, independent of household wealth and food consumption. Methods: We analyzed data of 3,549 children under the age of 5 years living in rural areas of Yemen based on the 2013 Yemen Baseline Survey of Mother and Child Health. Nutritional status was evaluated by the presence of underweight, stunting, and wasting according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. The impact of childcare including leaving children alone, putting older children into labor force, and the use of antenatal care while pregnant on child undernutrition was assessed and adjusted for food consumption by children, household composition, demographic and educational background of caretakers, and household wealth. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 46.2%, 62.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Not leaving children alone, keeping children out of the labor force, and use of antenatal care were associated with a lower risk of underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, P = 0.016; OR = 0.84, P = 0.036; and OR = 0.85, P = 0.042) and stunting (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004; OR = 0.82, P = 0.024; and OR = 0.78, P = 0.003). After further adjustment for food consumption, the associations between adequate childcare indicators and lower odds of stunting remained significant (OR = 0.73, P = 0.025; OR = 0.72, P = 0.046; and OR = 0.76, P = 0.038). Conclusions: A marked prevalence of stunting among rural children in Yemen was observed. Adequate childcare by adult caretakers in families is associated with a lower incidence of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age. Promoting adequate childcare by adult household members is a feasible option for reducing undernutrition among children in rural Yemen.
Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin
Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (ppsychotherapy, potentially supporting the clinical relevance of attachment dysfunction in this sample. The large decrease in oxytocin levels with
Vaidya, A; Bhosale, R; Sambarey, P; Suryavanshi, N; Young, S; Mave, V; Kanade, S; Kulkarni, V; Deshpande, P; Balasubramanian, U; Elf, J; Gupte, N; Gupta, A; Mathad, J S
Over 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases during pregnancy occur in India. To determine the association between household food insecurity and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in pregnancy. Pregnant women in India were administered the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) questionnaire and underwent an IFN-γ release assay. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with food insecurity. Of 538 women, 60 (11%) had household food insecurity, 47 (78%) of which were moderate or severe food insecure. After mitogen stimulation, moderate or severe food insecure women had a median IFN-γ concentration of 4.2 IU/ml (IQR 2.2-9.8) vs. 8.4 IU/ml (IQR 3.0-10) in women with no or mild food insecurity (P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, higher IFN-γ concentrations were associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (OR 1.3, 95%CI 0.51-2.1, P = 0.001), and inversely associated with moderate or severe food insecurity (OR -1.6, 95%CI -2.9 to -0.27, P = 0.02) and the number of adults in the household (OR -0.08, 95%CI -0.16 to -0.01, P = 0.03). There was no association between food insecurity and IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen. Food insecurity in pregnancy is associated with low IFN-γ levels. There was no association between food insecurity and IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis antigen, but our study was underpowered to detect this outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.
Fuhr, Kristina; Reitenbach, Ivanina; Kraemer, Jan; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas D
Cognitive factors might be the link between early attachment experiences and later depression. Similar cognitive vulnerability factors are discussed as relevant for both unipolar and bipolar disorders. The goals of the study were to test if there are any differences concerning attachment style and cognitive factors between remitted unipolar and bipolar patients compared to controls, and to test if the association between attachment style and depressive symptoms is mediated by cognitive factors. A path model was tested in 182 participants (61 with remitted unipolar and 61 with remitted bipolar disorder, and 60 healthy subjects) in which adult attachment insecurity was hypothesized to affect subsyndromal depressive symptoms through the partial mediation of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. No differences between patients with remitted unipolar and bipolar disorders concerning attachment style, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and subsyndromal depressive symptoms were found, but both groups reported a more dysfunctional pattern than healthy controls. The path models confirmed that the relationship between attachment style and depressive symptoms was mediated by the cognitive variables 'dysfunctional attitudes' and 'self-esteem'. With the cross-sectional nature of the study, results cannot explain causal development over time. The results emphasize the relevance of a more elaborate understanding of cognitive and interpersonal factors in mood disorders. It is important to address cognitive biases and interpersonal experiences in treatment of mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Increasing attention is being paid to the link between insecurity and obesity. The link is, however, still mainly described on national level as causal connections between social security and prevalence of obesity. This is the claim presented by Offer and colleges in their book Insecurity...... or individual level. In this manner, the connection also remains out of reach and hard to act upon. In the cross disciplinary field of obesity research, where biomedical world views and large scale quantitative analyzes are dominating, the sociology of health and illness have an important role to play......, Inequality and obesity where market liberal states are shown to have higher levels of insecurity compared to welfare states, such as the Nordic countries. This connection remains rather abstract: why and how this connection works are unanswered questions, especially when moving from state level to social...
Misu, Shogo; Asai, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Rei; Sawa, Ryuichi; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ando, Hiroshi; Doi, Takehiko
The heel is likely a suitable location to which inertial sensors are attached for the detection of gait events. However, there are few studies to detect gait events and determine temporal gait parameters using sensors attached to the heels. We developed two methods to determine temporal gait parameters: detecting heel-contact using acceleration and detecting toe-off using angular velocity data (acceleration-angular velocity method; A-V method), and detecting both heel-contact and toe-off using angular velocity data (angular velocity-angular velocity method; V-V method). The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the A-V and V-V methods against the standard method, and to compare their accuracy. Temporal gait parameters were measured in 10 younger and 10 older adults. The intra-class correlation coefficients were excellent in both methods compared with the standard method (0.80 to 1.00). The root mean square errors of stance and swing time in the A-V method were smaller than the V-V method in older adults, although there were no significant discrepancies in the other comparisons. Our study suggests that inertial sensors attached to the heels, using the A-V method in particular, provide a valid measurement of temporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster
Todd H Ahern
Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.
In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.
Alexander, Katherine E; Siegel, Harold I
Eating is an inherently emotional activity and the attachment system is an emotion regulation system. Individuals with attachment insecurity have less interoceptive awareness and difficulty regulating emotion. Insecurely attached individuals may eat emotionally because they misinterpret internal hunger cues, (i.e. think they are hungry when they are experiencing some other internal, attachment-related state). The current study found a positive association between attachment anxiety and emotional eating. This relationship was mediated by perceived hunger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kapulsky, Leonid; Tang, Alice M; Forrester, Janet E
Previous research has identified an association between food insecurity and depression in a variety of world regions in both healthy and HIV-infected individuals. We examined this association in 183 HIV-infected Hispanic adults from the greater Boston area. We measured depression with the Burnam depression screen and food insecurity with the Radimer/Cornell Questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed with an adapted version of the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were created with depression as the outcome variable and food insecurity as the main predictor. In bivariate analyses, food insecurity was significantly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 5.5; p = 0.03]. When we accounted for social support, food insecurity was no longer significant. We found no differences in the quality or quantity of dietary intake between the food insecure and food secure groups. Our findings highlight the importance of social support in the association between food insecurity and depression. Food insecurity may reflect social support more than actual dietary intake in this population.
Bruening, Meg; Dinour, Lauren M; Chavez, Jose B Rosales
To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations. Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being. The USA. Children and adults. Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time. Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.
Full Text Available Year-in, year-out, decades after decades and centuries upon centuries, there has continued to be recurrent calls for eradication of illiteracy globally. The experience over the years has, however, shown that no target fixed for eradication of illiteracy has ever been met. There have always been renewed calls for eradication of illiteracy at the expiration of countless number of failed decades set as targets for Education for All without meeting the target. Parts of the major causes of unrealized and unfulfilled dreams of education for all have been challenges posed by insurgency and insecurity bedeviling the entire world. The outbreak of insurgencies culminating in high level of insecurity has hampered children and adults access to all forms of education be it formal, non-formal, or adult education. Due to insurgencies, school have been physically touched, destroyed, burnt and broken down. The systems of education in many countries globally have been adversely affected. Communities scattered and destabilized, people displaced and killed. This paper therefore premised on the existing literature on insurgency and insecurity issues considers them as bane of global literacy development. The paper explores debilitating effects of insurgency and insecurity on literacy development in Africa in particular and the entire world in general. It highlights instances of insurgency in various dimensions world over, the toll it has on security and education and consequently offers suggestions on the way forward with a view to advancing the course of development that the world so much desires especially in terms of education.
I consider the concept of employment insecurity and provide new evidence for 1997 and 2005 for many countries with widely differing institutional contexts and at varying stages of development. There are no grounds for accepting that workplaces were going through a sea-change in employment insecurity. Workers in transitional economies and developing economies worried the most about insecurity. Perceived insecurity tended to be greater for women, for less-educated and for older workers. However...
McMahon, Catherine A.; Barnett, Byranne; Kowalenko, Nicholas M.; Tennant, Christopher C.
Background: Empirical studies have revealed a significant, but modest association between maternal depression and insecure mother-child attachment. Across studies, however, a substantial number of mothers with depression are able to provide a sensitive caretaking environment for their children. This paper aimed to explore whether a mother's own…
Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Hall, Yolanda Posada; Ramirez, Yolanda; Orozco, Rubi
Emerging evidence suggests chronic household food insecurity has an adverse effect on health. This study examined the prevalence, predictors and health outcomes associated with food insecurity in 100 migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) households living on the U.S.-Mexico border. Data were collected using the U.S. Food Security Scale, California Agricultural Worker's Health Survey, and objective anthropometric, clinical and biochemical indicators. Food insecurity affected 82% of households; 49% also had hunger. Household food insecurity was predicted by the presence of minor children in the home and low maternal education. Food insecure households were more likely to have at least one member affected by symptoms of depression (deprimido), nervios (an ethnospecific condition), learning disorders, and symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal infection. Although not directly associated with food insecurity, adult obesity, central body adiposity, elevated blood pressure, and blood lipid and glucose disturbances were common. These findings highlight the significant food security and health challenges faced by border area MSFW families.
Kim, Sohye; Fonagy, Peter; Allen, Jon; Martinez, Sheila; Iyengar, Udita; Strathearn, Lane
This study contrasted two forms of mother-infant mirroring: the mother's imitation of the infant's facial, gestural, or vocal behavior (i.e., “direct mirroring”) and the mother's ostensive verbalization of the infant's internal state, marked as distinct from the infant's experience (i.e., “intention mirroring”). Fifty mothers completed the Adult Attachment Interview during the third trimester of pregnancy. Mothers returned with their infants 7 months postpartum and completed a modified still-face procedure. While direct mirroring did not distinguish between secure and insecure/dismissing mothers, secure mothers were observed to engage in intention mirroring more than twice as frequently as did insecure/dismissing mothers. Infants of the two mother groups also demonstrated differences, with infants of secure mothers directing their attention toward their mothers at a higher frequency than did infants of insecure/dismissing mothers. The findings underscore marked and ostensive verbalization as a distinguishing feature of secure mothers’ well-attuned, affect-mirroring communication with their infants. PMID:25020112
Wieland, Regi Leann
Interviews with adult residents and high school students in two rural Kansas communities that had consolidated their high schools found that adults in the community that lost its high school had more negative reactions and feelings of loss than adults in the community that retained its high school. Student reactions were generally positive.…
LUECK, WILLIAM R.
TO DETERMINE WHICH COMMON TEACHING PROBLEMS CAUSE THE GREATEST CONCERN OR INSECURITY AMONG PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS, 445 JUNIORS (243 IN 1962-63 AND 205 IN 1963-64) TAKING A SECONDARY SCHOOL METHODS COURSE WERE ASKED TO RANK TWELVE MAJOR PROBLEMS IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY CAUSED CONCERN. THE PROBLEMS WERE COMPILED FROM THOSE OCCURRING FREQUENTLY IN…
dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby
, and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...
Counted, Agina Victor
The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent–child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns.
EunYoung Kim, PhD
Conclusion: The results suggest there are mediating effects of loneliness and depression in the relationship between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting smartphone addiction among university students. Future study is required to find a causal path to prevent smartphone addiction among university students.
Gerlsma, C.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mutsaers, W.C M
The relationships between attachment style, recollections of the family of origin, working model of self and others and current relational satisfaction were examined in a Dutch sample of married subjects from the general community. Measures were adapted from those developed by Hazan & Shaver (1987).
Lent, Megan D; Petrovic, Lindsay E; Swanson, Josephine A; Olson, Christine M
Little is known about the causal relationship between and the mechanisms linking depression and food insecurity. Our purpose was to examine these knowledge gaps. Chi-squared analysis of longitudinal data from 29 rural upstate New York families followed for three years and qualitative analysis of interviews were used to identify associations and mechanisms. Depressive symptoms (p=.009) and poor mental health (p=.01) in mothers limited the likelihood families would leave food insecurity. This relationship was mediated through limiting the employment of adult family members and operated in three ways: preventing the depressed household member from working, preventing a different household member from working, and limiting access to childcare for depressed children so adults could work. Poor mental health is associated with keeping families food-insecure by limiting their employment. High-quality, accessible mental health care is needed for poverty-associated food insecurity to be alleviated.
Watson, Barry; Osberg, Lars
Current literature confirms the negative consequences of contemporaneous economic insecurity for mental health, but ignores possible implications of repeated insecurity. This paper asks how much a person's history of economic insecurity matters for psychological distress by contrasting the implications of two models. Consistent with the health capital literature, the Healing model suggests psychological distress is a stock variable affected by shocks from life events, with past events having less impact than more recent shocks. Alternatively, the Breaking Point model considers that high levels of distress represent a distinct shift in life state, which occurs if the accumulation of past life stresses exceeds some critical value. Using five cycles of Canadian National Population Health Survey data (2000-2009), we model the impact of past economic insecurity shocks on current psychological distress in a way that can distinguish between these hypotheses. In our sample of 1775 males and 1883 females aged 25 to 64, we find a robust healing effect for one-time economic insecurity shocks. For males, only a recent one-time occurrence of economic insecurity is predictive of higher current psychological distress (0.19 standard deviations). Moreover, working age adults tend to recover from past accumulated experiences of economic insecurity if they were recently economically secure. However, consistent with the Breaking Point hypothesis, males experiencing three or four cycles of recent insecurity are estimated to have a level of current psychological distress that is 0.26-0.29 standard deviations higher than those who were employed and job secure throughout the same time period. We also find, consistent with other literature, distinct gender differences - for working age females, all economic insecurity variables are statistically insignificant at conventional levels. Our results suggest that although Canadians are resilient to one-time insecurity shocks, males most
Shariff, Z Mohd; Khor, G L
The study examined nutritional outcomes related to body fat accumulation of food insecurity among women from selected rural communities in Malaysia. Cross-sectional study. Rural communities (seven villages and two palm plantations) in a district with high percentage of welfare recipients. Malay (n = 140) and Indian (n = 60) women were interviewed and measured for demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and physical activity information. The women were measured for their body mass index and waist circumference (WC). Energy and nutrient intakes, food group intake and food variety score were analyzed from 24 h dietary recalls and food-frequency questionnaire. Daily physical activity of the women was examined as the number of hours spent in economic, domestic, leisure and sport activities. Using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument, 58% of the women reported some degree of food insecurity (household insecure 14%, adult insecure 9.5% and child hunger 34.5%). In general, food-insecure women had lower years of education, household income and income per capita, more children and mothers as housewives. More than 50% of food-insecure women were overweight and obese than women from food-secure households (38%). Similarly, more food-insecure women (32-47%) had at-risk WC (> or = 88 cm) than food-secure women (29%). Food-insecure women spent significantly more time in domestic and leisure activities than food-secure women. Overweight and abdominal adiposity among the women were associated with a number of independent variables, such as women as housewives, women with more children, larger household size, food insecurity, shorter time spent in economic activities, longer time spent in leisure activities and lower food variety score. After adjusting for factors that are related to both adiposity and food insecurity, women from food-insecure households were significantly more likely to have at-risk WC, but not obese. Among this sample of rural
Anderson, Sarah M; Gedo, Paul M
Caregiver-child attachment results in a cognitive-emotional schema of self, other, and self-other relationships. Significantly disrupted attachments may lead to pathogenic internal working models, which may have deleterious consequences; this indicates the need for early attachment intervention. The authors consider the therapy of a 3-year-old boy with aggressive behaviors who had lacked consistent caregiving. Attachment theory can account for the child's psychotherapeutic gains, despite his insecure attachment style. The authors discuss discrepancies between treatment and current research trends.
Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri
Children's development is assumed to be closely related to their attachment security and their personality. The authors' aim was to examine the joint contribution of attachment security and personality traits to children's adjustment by examining diverse children's outcomes (emotional symptoms, social functioning, and behavioral problems) and using various perspectives (children, parents, and teachers). The sample comprised 247 8-12-year-old children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Personality and attachment contribute to the different domains of adjustment. In cases of moderation, attachment security moderates the implications of personality traits on children's adjustment. The findings highlight the contribution of positive personality tendencies in playing down the difficulties of insecurely attached children.
Ziadni, Maisa; Hammoudeh, Weeam; Rmeileh, Niveen M.E. Abu; Hogan, Dennis; Shannon, Harry; Giacaman, Rita
This paper explores classical and war-related factors associated with human insecurity reports in the Gaza Strip following the winter 2008–09 Israeli attack. A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months after the Israeli attack with adults from 3017 households. Results demonstrate that persons with greater human capital and socioeconomic resources were somewhat protected from human insecurity associated with the attack and siege. Results also underscore the significance of including both...
This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.
Instrumental and singing teaching has previously been studied with par- particular focus on pedagogical, cognitive, technical, developmental aspects. However, the relationship and interactions that take place between the teachers and students in that setting deserve more extensive exploration. This study approaches the singing teacher-student relationship with a particular focus on the observation of personality traits and the levels of attachment identified between teacher and student. Eleve...
Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; Gundersen, Craig; de Oliveira, Claire; Kurdyak, Paul
To determine the relationship between household food insecurity status over a 12-month period and adults' use of publicly funded health care services in Ontario for mental health reasons during this period. Data for 80,942 Ontario residents, 18 to 64 years old, who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, or 2011-2012 were linked to administrative health care data to determine individuals' hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and visits to psychiatrists and primary care physicians for mental health reasons. Household food insecurity over the past 12 months was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of mental health service utilization in the past 12 months by household food insecurity status, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and prior use of mental health services. In our fully adjusted models, in comparison to food-secure individuals, the odds of any mental health care service utilization over the past 12 months were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.29) for marginally food-insecure individuals, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.42) for moderately food-insecure individuals, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.35 to 1.68) for severely food-insecure individuals. A similar pattern persisted across individual types of services, with odds of utilization highest with severe food insecurity. Household food insecurity status is a robust predictor of mental health service utilization among working-age adults in Ontario. Policy interventions are required to address the underlying causes of food insecurity and the particular vulnerability of individuals with mental illness.
V Moghaddam Hoseini
Full Text Available
Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.
Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.
Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.
Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.
Byrne, M W; Goshin, L S; Joestl, S S
Within a larger intervention study, attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure for 30 infants who co-resided with their mothers in a prison nursery. Sixty percent of infants were classified secure, 75% who co-resided a year or more and 43% who co-resided less than a year, all within the range of normative community samples. The year-long co-residing group had significantly more secure and fewer disorganized infants than predicted by their mothers' attachment status, measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, and a significantly greater proportion of secure infants than meta-analyzed community samples of mothers with low income, depression, or drug/alcohol abuse. Using intergenerational data collected with rigorous methods, this study provides the first evidence that mothers in a prison nursery setting can raise infants who are securely attached to them at rates comparable to healthy community children, even when the mother's own internal attachment representation has been categorized as insecure.
Zerach, Gadi; Tam, Elkanor
This study examined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among young adults that were evicted from their residences in Gaza settlements ("Gush Katif") as adolescents and actively participated in the resistance events. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of exposure to forced relocation on the association between attachment orientations and family functioning and PTSD symptoms. We conducted a correlative, cross-sectional study in 2013. Participants were Israeli evicted residents (ER group; N = 102), comparison groups of evicted nonresidents (ENR group; N = 27), and nonevicted nonresidents (NENR group; N = 53). All participants completed a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The ER group reported a higher number of PTSD symptoms as compared to the comparison groups. However, ER participants did not differ from ENR and NENR participants in their perception of family functioning. Importantly, the group (ER vs. NENR) moderated the association between attachment-anxiety and PTSD symptoms and between family adaptability and PTSD symptoms. Nine years after the forced relocation from Gaza settlements, young adults that were evicted from their residences as adolescents suffer from PTSD symptoms that are more related to the relocation itself than the stress entailed in the resistance events.
Outcalt, Jared; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Buck, Kelly; Chaudoin-Patzoldt, Kelly A; Kukla, Marina; Olesek, Kyle L; Lysaker, Paul H
Borderline personality disorder traits have been observed to be linked with both insecure attachment styles as well as deficits in mentalizing and metacognition. Less is known, however, about how attachment style does or does not interact with deficits in mentalizing and metacognition to create, sustain, or influence levels of borderline personality disorder traits. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems, moderates the relationship of anxious attachment style with the severity of borderline personality disorder traits. Concurrent assessments were gathered of metacognitive mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, anxious attachment style using the Experiences of in Close Relationships Scale, and borderline personality disorder traits using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders. Participants were 59 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance use disorders in a residential setting. Multiple regression revealed that metacognitive mastery moderated the relationship of anxious attachment style with the number of borderline personality disorder traits. A median split of the anxious attachment and metacognitive mastery scores was performed yielding 4 groups. An analysis of covariance revealed that participants with higher levels of anxious attachment and poorer metacognitive mastery had more borderline personality disorder traits did than the other groups after controlling for levels of psychopathology. Insecure attachment may be associated with higher number of borderline personality disorder traits in the presence of deficits in metacognitive mastery. Patients with substance use and borderline personality disorder traits may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig
Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borde......Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting...... personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. Conclusions: The current study is the first...... to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also...
Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria Annette Annelie; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille
% confidence interval = [0.31, 3.58], p = .91). In total, 17 children (36%) changed their entry status, 1 (2%) from secure to insecure attachment, while 16 (34%) changed from insecure to secure attachment. Conclusion: The experimental treatment does not seem to affect attachment competences compared......Objective: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and a parental training program on children with ADHD as measured by the children's attachment competences. Method: The SOSTRA trial is a randomized, parallel-group, outcome-assessor-blinded, superiority trial evaluating 8 weeks social......-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for 8- to 12-year old children with ADHD. Results: There were no significant differences in attachment competences at 6 months between the experimental (n = 25) and the control (n = 22) groups (odds ratio = 1.06, 95...
Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I.F.
The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy...... (cognitive–behavioural, cognitive–behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong...... inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis...
Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002
Mutambudzi, M; Javed, Z; Kaul, S; Prochaska, J; Peek, M K
Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.
Estado nutricional e insegurança alimentar de adolescentes e adultos em duas localidades de baixo índice de desenvolvimento humano Nutritional status and food insecurity of adolescents and adults in two cities with a low human development index
Juliana Souza Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a situação da (insegurança alimentar e sua relação com o estado nutricional de adolescentes e adultos em duas localidades, Gameleira, zona da mata de Pernambuco e São João do Tigre, zona semi-árida da Paraíba, ambas caracterizadas pelo baixo índice de desenvolvimento humano. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com 501 famílias em Gameleira (PE e 458 famílias, em São João do Tigre (PB, com 1 528 e 1 163 adolescentes e adultos, respectivamente. A (insegurança alimentar foi determinada pelo questionário de Cornell (Estados Unidos da América, ajustado para realidade nacional (Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar, enquanto o estado nutricional foi estabelecido pelo Índice de Massa Corporal. RESULTADOS: A insegurança alimentar foi caracterizada em quase 90,0% das famílias dos dois municípios, predominando as condições de insegurança moderada (40,2% em São João do Tigre (PB e grave (36,9% em Gameleira (PE. Nas duas localidades, a insegurança alimentar prevaleceu nas famílias com adolescentes. O baixo peso para altura (proxi de desnutrição apresentou proporções muito baixas em todos os grupos etários, enquanto a condição sobrepeso/obesidade prevaleceu entre os adultos, chegando a alcançar 58,6% das observações (>40 anos, em São João do Tigre. Não foi encontrada associação estatística entre a insegurança alimentar e suas formas moderada e grave e a desnutrição. CONCLUSÃO: A escala brasileira de avaliação da (insegurança alimentar se comporta mais como um indicador psicossocial de vulnerabilidade, não apresentando a esperada consistência com a proporção da desnutrição de adolescentes e adultos identificada por este estudo, sob o aspecto antropométrico, mesmo em populações de pobreza praticamente generalizada.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the food insecurity profile and its relationship with the nutritional status of adolescents and adults of two
Claire W. Herbert
Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine the level of security deprivation in convicted persons in different types of correctional institutions, and to determine the relation between deprivation and demographic, socio-psychological, criminal and penal characteristics. Another goal of this research was to obtain scientific information about the quality and intensity of security deprivation, as one of the consequences of imprisonment and perception differences of different categories of convicted persons. The sample consisted of 183 male convicts serving their sentence in Correctional institution for juvenile delinquents and young adults in Valjevo, Correctional institution Padinska Skela, Correctional Institution Požarevac, and County prison in Pančevo. The examinees were questioned by means of a general questionnaire for collecting data on the variables related to basic criminal, penal, and socio-psychological information, and by the Scale for testing security deprivation - SIG (Radovanović, 1992, consisting of 34 questions following the principle of the Likert scale (Cronbach's α=0,952. Research results indicate that about 15% of the examinees express low level of deprivation, about 56% increased level, and about 28% high level of deprivation. Security deprivation is significantly related to age (r=0,163; p=0,028, in a way that the level of deprivation increases with age. There is no correlation with other tested independent variables. Such situation raises questions about respecting the rules related to categorization of prisons, placing convicts in prisons, special protection of old people in prison, separating aggressive and dangerous convicts, monitoring their behavior, controlling informal groups of convicts, and similar problems related to imprisonment.
Emeka W. Dumbili
The article examines how and why the McDonaldization of banking system in Nigeria engenders job insecurity. This is imperative because it provides an explicit revelation of the root causes of job insecurity in the sector that other scholars have totally omitted. No Nigerian scholar has applied the thesis in relation to job insecurity, which is the major problem in Nigeria’s banking industry. The article based on the an...
Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...
The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2
Archer, Marc; Steele, Miriam; Lan, Jijun; Jin, Xiaochun; Herreros, Francisca; Steele, Howard
The first distribution of Chinese infant-mother (n = 61) attachment classifications categorised by trained and reliability-tested coders is reported with statistical comparisons to US norms and previous Chinese distributions. Three-way distribution was 15% insecure-avoidant, 62% secure, 13% insecure-resistant, and 4-way distribution was 13%…
Bonache, Helena; Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Krahé, Barbara
Although research on dating violence has increased in the last decades, little is known about the role of romantic attachment and conflict resolution in understanding victimization by an intimate partner among adolescents. This study examined the relationships between insecure attachment styles, destructive conflict resolution strategies, self-reported and perceived in the partner, and psychological and physical victimization by a dating partner in 1298 adolescents (49% girls). Anxious attachment was related to both forms of victimization via self-reported conflict engagement and conflict engagement attributed to the partner among boys and girls. Moreover, both insecure attachment styles were also indirectly linked to victimization via self-reported withdrawal and conflict engagement perceived in the partner, but only among boys. The implications of the findings for promoting constructive communication patterns among adolescents for handling their relationship conflicts are discussed.
Eva Z. Reininghaus
Full Text Available Substance use disorders (SUD have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19, recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20 as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20. For the behavioral assessment, we applied the Adult Attachment-Scale, the Affective Neuroscience Personality-Scale (short version and the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to investigate differences in WM neural connectivity. Analyses revealed decreased Fractional Anisotropy and decreased Mean Diffusivity in PUD patients as compared to RUC and NUC. No differences were found between RUC and NUC. Additional ROI analyses suggested that WM impairment in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and the superior corona radiata (SCR was linked to more insecure attachment as well as to more negative affectivity. No substantial correlation was observed with spirituality. These findings are mainly limited by the cross-sectional design of the study. However, our preliminary results support the idea of addiction as an attachment disorder, both at neuronal and behavioral levels. Further research might be focused on the changes of insecure attachment patterns in SUD treatment and their correlation with changes in the brain.
Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.
Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive
Insecurity and national economic development implications for Nigeria's vision 20: 2020. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... These social menace trigger off a worrisome sense of insecurity that challenge Nigeria's efforts towards national economic development and consequently its vision ...
Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A
Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dooley, Joseph M; Gordon, Kevin E; Kuhle, Stefan
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of household food insecurity in individuals reporting migraine within a large population-based sample of Canadians. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) uses a stratified cluster sample design to obtain information on Canadians ≥12 years of age. Data on household food insecurity were assessed for individuals who reported having migraine or not, providing a current point prevalence. This was assessed for stability in two CCHS datasets from four and eight years earlier. Factors associated with food insecurity among those reporting migraine were examined and a logistic regression model of food insecurity was developed. We also examined whether food insecurity was associated with other reported chronic health conditions. Of 48,645 eligible survey respondents, 4614 reported having migraine (weighted point prevalence 10.2%). Food insecurity was reported by 14.8% who reported migraine compared with 6.8% of those not reporting migraine, giving an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval 2.0-2.8%). This risk estimate was stable over the previous eight years. The higher risk for food insecurity was not unique to migraine and was seen with some, but not all, chronic health conditions reported in the CCHS. Food insecurity is more frequent among individuals reporting migraine in Canada. © International Headache Society 2015.
Cady, Clare L.
Food insecurity is a threat to student success on college campuses in the United States. It has the potential to impact academics, wellness, and behavior--all factors that have bearing on student retention and graduation rates. This article reviews the literature on food insecurity among college students, utilizing research on hunger and…
Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable…
It had been widely claimed that quantum mechanics can protect private information during public decision in, for example, the so-called two-party secure computation. If this were the case, quantum smart-cards, storing confidential information accessible only to a proper reader, could prevent fake teller machines from learning the PIN (personal identification number) from the customers' input. Although such optimism has been challenged by the recent surprising discovery of the insecurity of the so-called quantum bit commitment, the security of quantum two-party computation itself remains unaddressed. Here I answer this question directly by showing that all one-sided two-party computations (which allow only one of the two parties to learn the result) are necessarily insecure. As corollaries to my results, quantum one-way oblivious password identification and the so-called quantum one-out-of-two oblivious transfer are impossible. I also construct a class of functions that cannot be computed securely in any two-sided two-party computation. Nevertheless, quantum cryptography remains useful in key distribution and can still provide partial security in ``quantum money'' proposed by Wiesner.
With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R
The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.
Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie
Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children......’s attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano...... style in responders and non-responders in the present sample. We found a significant difference in maternal attachment anxiety scale (p=.011), with mothers of non-responders showing significantly higher attachment anxiety. Binominal logistic regression analysis was used to measure a predictive value...
Farahbakhsh, Jasmine; Ball, Geoff D C; Farmer, Anna P; Maximova, Katerina; Hanbazaza, Mahitab; Willows, Noreen D
To describe the food security status, food insecurity coping strategies, characteristics, and experiences of student clients of the Campus Food Bank (CFB) at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A convenience sample of 58 students completed a survey from April 2013 to April 2014. Food security status was determined using the "Adult Food Security Survey Module". Ninety percent of CFB student clients who participated in this study were food insecure, which included both moderately and severely food insecure groups. The most prevalent coping strategies for food insecurity included applying for a loan or bursary (86.2%), seeking employment or working more hours (84.5%), and purchasing food using a credit card (77.6%). Participants were a diverse mix of students, including graduate students (50.0%), international students (46.6%), and caregivers of children (24.1%). The most common primary sources of income were government student loans (29.3%) and research assistantships (20.7%). Most participants (82.8%) liked the food they received from the food bank. Food insecurity is highly prevalent among student clients of this university-based food bank. Students used a variety of coping strategies to increase their disposable income, highlighting the need for additional strategies to alleviate food insecurity among vulnerable students.
Berkowitz, Seth A; Basu, Sanjay; Meigs, James B; Seligman, Hilary K
To determine whether food insecurity, limited or uncertain food access owing to cost, is associated with greater health care expenditures. Nationally representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States (2011 National Health Interview Survey [NHIS] linked to 2012-2013 Medication Expenditure Panel Survey [MEPS]). Longitudinal retrospective cohort. A total of 16,663 individuals underwent assessment of food insecurity, using the 10-item adult 30-day food security module, in the 2011 NHIS. Their total health care expenditures in 2012 and 2013 were recorded in MEPS. Expenditure data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression and adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, insurance, and residence area. Fourteen percent of individuals reported food insecurity, representing 41,616,255 Americans. Mean annualized total expenditures were $4,113 (standard error $115); 9.2 percent of all individuals had no health care expenditures. In multivariable analyses, those with food insecurity had significantly greater estimated mean annualized health care expenditures ($6,072 vs. $4,208, p insecurity was associated with greater subsequent health care expenditures. Future studies should determine whether food insecurity interventions can improve health and reduce health care costs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Fafard St-Germain, Andrée-Anne; Tarasuk, Valerie
Food insecurity is a potent determinant of health and indicator of material deprivation in many affluent countries. Food insecurity is associated with compromises in food and housing expenditures, but how it relates to other expenditures is unknown. The present study described households' resource allocation over a 12-month period by food insecurity status. Expenditure data from the 2010 Survey of Household Spending were aggregated into four categories (basic needs, other necessities, discretionary, investments/assets) and ten sub-categories (food, clothing, housing, transportation, household/personal care, health/education, leisure, miscellaneous, personal insurance/pension, durables/assets). A four-level food insecurity status was created using the adult-specific items of the Household Food Security Survey Module. Mean dollars spent and budget share by food insecurity status were estimated with generalized linear models adjusted first for household size and composition, and subsequently for after-tax income quartiles. Canada. Population-based sample of households from the ten provinces (n 9050). Food-secure households had higher mean total expenditures than marginally, moderately and severely food-insecure households (P-trend insecurity increased, households spent less on all categories and sub-categories, except transportation, but they allocated a larger budget share to basic needs and smaller shares to discretionary spending and investments/assets. The downward trends for dollars spent on basic needs and other necessities became non-significant after accounting for income, but the upward trend in the budget shares for basic needs persisted. The spending patterns of food-insecure households suggest that they prioritized essential needs above all else.
Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A
The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.
London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura
Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Speltz, Matthew L.; And Others
Examined attachment classification of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and isolated cleft palate (ICP) and comparison group at 12 months of age; found no significant differences. Findings suggest that infants with clefts, despite special needs and caregiving requirements, seem not to have elevated risk for insecure attachments at the end…
Pasco Fearon, R. M.; Belsky, Jay
Background: Some contend that attachment insecurity increases risk for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children. Method: Latent-growth curve analyses were applied to data on 1,364 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to evaluate the association between early attachment and teacher-rated externalizing problems…
Han, Suejung; Lee, Soonhee
In this study we examine the mediating roles of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and binge eating behavior in college students. A total sample of 820 college students…
Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.
The general assumption has been that male batterers from clinical samples were mostly insecurely attached as compared to non-batterers. Recently, a large group was found (39.4 % of batterers in a clinical sample) whose main attachment style was secure. No previous studies have examined specifically
Costa, Rui M; Brody, Stuart
Disturbances in intimate relationships are among the risk factors for female sexual dysfunction. Insecure styles of anxious attachment (preoccupations about abandonment) and avoidant attachment (avoidance of closeness in relationships) are robustly associated with sexual problems, relationship difficulties, and several indices of poorer physical and mental health. Similar indices of poorer sexual, relationship, and health functioning are associated with impairment of orgasm triggered by penile-vaginal stimulation (vaginal orgasm), but unrelated or related to greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. However, research examining the differential association of sexual activities with insecure attachment styles has been lacking. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that insecure attachment styles are associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency, and are unrelated or directly related to greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. Seventy coitally experienced women recruited at a Scottish university completed the Revised Experience in Close Relationships scale, and reported their frequency of various sexual behaviors (and corresponding orgasms) in a recent representative month. The main outcome measures for this study are multivariate correlations of various sexual activities with insecure attachment styles, age, and social desirability response bias. Anxious attachment was associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency, but with higher frequency of vibrator and anal sex orgasms. Avoidant attachment was associated with higher frequency of vibrator orgasms. Neither anxious nor avoidant attachment was associated with lifetime number of penile-vaginal intercourse partners. The results provide evidence that inability to attain a vaginal orgasm is associated with anxious attachment, among other indices of poorer mental health and relatedness. Vaginal orgasm might be the relevant sexual activity for the maintenance of a secure attachment style with a
Full Text Available In this work relations between quality of friendship and attachment styles among adolescents were investigated. The question of the differences, among individuals of different styles of attachment in the quality of their friendly relations, both at the individual and at the dyadic level were investigated. Also, the predictive significance of attachment when it comes to the quality of friendship, were discussed. The study included 425 subjects of both genders, first grade secondary school students, aged 14 to 17 years. Following instruments were used: Friendship Quality Questionnaire, which was created for the purposes of this study, and assesses dimensions of affection, intimacy, interaction and conflicts in friendship, and a questionnaire for assessing styles of attachment UPIPAV (Nataša Hanak.Results indicate that participants of secure and insecure attachment styles differ significantly in all dimensions of quality of friendships. Secure participants have a higher level of affection, companionship, intimacy and conflict in relation to insecure subjects. Exceptions are subjects of fearful styles of attachment who have a similar level of affection in friendship to those of secure ones. When the above differences are observed at the dyadic level, the situation is as follows: couples of friends with secure styles of attachment at all dimensions of friendship have higher scores compared to couples with insecure styles. Regression analysis showed that attachment significantly contributes to the explanation of all the dimensions of friendship. The strongest individual contribution to the explanation of all dimensions of quality friendships have secure style of attachment. The results are discussed within the attachment theory perspective.
Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown an association between job insecurity and morbidity as well as mortality, however until now, knowledge about a potential association between job insecurity and overweight or obesity has been lacking. Methods In order to identify a possible association between job insecurity and overweight or obesity, we analysed data from the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP 2004/2005, a longitudinal study of private households in Germany. In this representative cohort of the German adult population, living and working conditions were observed. Data on Body Mass Index (BMI and self-perceived probability of job loss within the next 2 years were available for 10,747 adults either employed or attending training programs. Results We identified 5,216 (49% individuals as being overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2 and 1,358(13% individuals as being obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2. A total of 5,941 (55% participants reported having concerns regarding job insecurity. In the multivariate analysis - after adjustment for relevant confounders - a statistically significant association between obesity and job insecurity (100% probability for losing the job in the following two years could be observed with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-5.96. Conclusions Because of these results, we were able to conclude that overweight and obese persons perceive job insecurity more often than their normal weight counterparts in Germany and that the concurrence of obesity and job insecurity might lead employees into a vicious cycle. Further research with an emphasis on the occupational setting might be necessary in order to establish useful preventive programmes at the workplace.
Bernstein, Rosemary E; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Musser, Erica D; Measelle, Jeffery R; Ablow, Jennifer C
Adult caregivers' idealization of their parents as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview is a risk factor for the intergenerational transmission of the insecure-avoidant attachment style. This study evaluated a briefer screening approach for identifying parental idealization, testing the utility of prenatal maternal self-report measures of recalled betrayal trauma and parental care in childhood to predict observationally assessed infant attachment avoidance with 58 mother-infant dyads 18 months postpartum. In a logistic regression that controlled for maternal demographics, prenatal psychopathology, and postnatal sensitivity, the interaction between women's self-reported childhood high betrayal trauma and the level of care provided to them by their parents was the only significant predictor of 18-month infant security versus avoidance. Results suggest that betrayal trauma and recalled parental care in childhood can provide a means of identifying caregivers whose infant children are at risk for avoidant attachment, potentially providing an efficient means for scientific studies and clinical intervention aimed at preventing the intergenerational transmission of attachment problems.
Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian J
This paper describes what is currently known about attachment from the development, social-cognitive and biological literatures and outlines the impact on organisms given adverse development experiences that can have an effect upon attachment formation in childhood across these three literatures. We then describe the effects that 'insecure' attachment styles arising in childhood can affect brain chemistry and brain function and subsequently adult social/romantic relationships. In the paper, we note that a number of sexual offenders report adverse childhood experiences and that they possess attachment styles that, taken together, make it likely that they will either seek out intimate attachments in ways where they will have sex with children, perhaps confusing sex with intimacy or in aggressive ways as particularly happens with men who sexually assault adult women. The last section of the paper describes chemical treatment for sexual offenders, focusing on the use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We note evidence for the role of SSRIs in promoting more social/affiliative behaviors and speculate on the effects that SSRIs have in the treatment of sexual offenders by targeting areas of the social brain. Here, we would argue that it would be useful to carry out treatment where there is a combination of SSRI treatment (to promote more prosocial feelings and behaviors) in conjunction with therapy that typically addresses thoughts and behaviors, i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy/schema-focused therapy.
Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella
The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moreira, Helena; Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Nunes, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with
Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted
relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...
Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J
Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective data sets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban, low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD.
Rozga, Agata; Hesse, Erik; Main, Mary; Duschinsky, Robbie; Beckwith, Leila; Sigman, Marian
ABSTRACT In this short-term longitudinal study, 30 preschool-aged children with autism were first observed in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Procedure and, separately, interacting with the primary caregiver in the home. One year later, each child completed both a developmental assessment and an observational assessment of empathic responding. Behaviors typical for children with autism were distinguished from behaviors suggestive of relationally based attachment disorganization. Forty-five percent of the children were classified as securely attached. The secure group demonstrated language skills superior to those of the insecurely attached group, concurrently and during the follow-up. Compared to parents of children who were insecurely attached, parents of securely attached children were rated as more sensitive. Compared to both organized insecure and disorganized children, secure children were rated as more responsive to an examiner’s apparent distress during the follow-up relative to their ratings at intake, whereas empathy ratings of children with insecure classifications did not increase. Importantly, attachment security was associated with empathy above and beyond the contribution of children’s language level. These results indicate that the sequelae of attachment security in autism may be similar to those documented for typically developing children. PMID:28959921
understanding the concept of job insecurity as represented by two core ... commitment as a unidimensional construct based on employees' emotional .... outcomes such as increased job satisfaction, organisational commitment, motivation.
mankind and his economic activities including food production. Food is different from ... insecurity for the past four decades as a result of neglect in food production when oil .... This creates no room for stability and progress in food production.
Milberg, A; Wåhlberg, R; Jakobsson, M; Olsson, E-C; Olsson, M; Friedrichsen, M
Attachment theory has received much interest lately in relation to how adults cope with stress and severe illness. The aim of this study was using the experiences of patients and family members to explore palliative home care as a 'secure base' (a central concept within the theory). Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed with deductive qualitative content analysis. Informants expressed the relevance of sensing security during palliative home care because death and dying were threats that contributed to vulnerability. Palliative home care could foster a feeling of security and provide a secure base. This was facilitated when informants had trust in staff (e.g. due to availability and competence in providing symptom relief), felt recognised as individuals and welcomed to contact the team in times of needs. Being comfortable, informed and having an everyday life also contributed to a perception of palliative home care as a secure base. Family members stressed the importance of being relieved from responsibilities that were too heavy. The underlying meanings of experiencing palliative home care as a secure base involved gaining a sense of control and of inner peace, perceiving that despite a demanding and changed life situation, one could continue partially being oneself and having something to hope for, even if this no longer concerned cure for the ill person. Important aspects of palliative home care as providing a secure base were identified and these have implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Araújo, Melissa Luciana de; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Lopes Filho, José Divino; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
We aim to identify the prevalence of food insecurity and to ascertain the association between food insecurity and food intake. A cross-sectional survey. The study included users of a primary healthcare service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2013 to 2014. Socioeconomic, health, and food intake data were gathered using a questionnaire and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Individuals 20 years old or older (n = 2817). The prevalence of food insecurity among families with individuals under 18 years was 41.0%, and 26.4% in other households. After adjusting for potential confounders, the households in food insecurity with members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.70, 95%IC: 0.58-0.84), and fruits (RP = 0.74, 95%IC: 0.59-0.93) was lower; and consumption of beans was higher (RP = 1.49, 95%IC: 1.06-2.09) compared to those with food security. In households without members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.68, 95%IC: 0.58-0.79), fruits (RP = 0.61, 95%IC: 0.50-0.74), and beans (RP = 0.78, 95%IC: 0.63-0.97) was lower; and the consumption of tubers (RP = 1.36, 95%IC: 1.03-1.79) was higher. However, the state of food insecurity did not affect the consumption of ultra-processed foods, independently of age, sex, marital status, educational level, and employed status. Food insecurity negatively affected the fruit and vegetable consumption in both types of families tested. The consumption of beans was higher in households with children and adolescents, and the consumption of tubers was higher in households without children and adolescents. However, food insecurity did not change the intake of ultraprocessed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper addresses a relatively new phenomenon of job insecurity. It provides an analysis of the various interpretations of the phenomenon given by Russian and foreign researchers, focuses on its social economical determinants and consequences for individuals and organizations. The paper concludes with an outline of some possible ways of overcoming the negative consequences of job insecurity — as for individuals, as for organizations, as for the society as a whole.
Herbert, CW; Morenoff, JD; Harding, DJ
The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on M...
Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor
[corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.
Bekele, Tsegaye; Globerman, Jason; Watson, James; Jose-Boebridge, Murray; Kennedy, Richard; Hambly, Keith; Anema, Aranka; Hogg, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B
Up to half of people living with HIV in resource-rich settings experience moderate to severe food insecurity. Food insecurity, in turn, has been linked to adverse health outcomes including poor antiretroviral adherence, poor HIV viral suppression, frailty, and mortality. We estimated the prevalence of food insecurity among 649 adults living with HIV and recruited from community-based AIDS service organizations in Ontario, Canada. Food security was assessed using the Canadian Household Food Security module. We used logistic regression modeling to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors independently associated with food insecurity. Almost three-fourths of participants (70.3%) were food insecure and a third (31%) reported experiencing hunger. The prevalence of food insecurity in this sample is approximately six times higher than that of the general population. Factors independently associated with food insecurity were: having dependent children at home, residing in large urban areas, low annual household income (<$40,000), difficulty meeting housing-related expenses, cigarette smoking, harmful drug use, and depression. Broad, multisector interventions that address income, housing affordability, substance use and mental health issues are needed and could offset future public health expenditures.
Jewell, T.; Collyer, H.; Gardner, T.; Tchanturia, K.; Simic, M.; Fonagy, P.; Eisler, I.
OBJECTIVE: Insecure attachment and mentalizing difficulties have been associated with eating pathology in adulthood. However, it is unclear whether eating pathology is associated with attachment or mentalization in children. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature in this emerging field. METHOD: Electronic databases w