WorldWideScience

Sample records for insect rearing facility

  1. The FAO/IAEA interactive spreadsheet for design and operation of insect mass rearing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Carlos; Rendon, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    An electronic spreadsheet is described which helps users to design, equip and operate facilities for the mass rearing of insects for use in insect pest control programmes integrating the sterile insect technique. The spreadsheet was designed based on experience accumulated in the mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), using genetic sexing strains based on a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation. The spreadsheet takes into account the biological, production, and quality control parameters of the species to be mass reared, as well as the diets and equipment required. All this information is incorporated into the spreadsheet for user-friendly calculation of the main components involved in facility design and operation. Outputs of the spreadsheet include size of the different rearing areas, rearing equipment, volumes of diet ingredients, other consumables, as well as personnel requirements. By adding cost factors to these components, the spreadsheet can estimate the costs of facility construction, equipment, and operation. All the output parameters can be easily generated by simply entering the target number of sterile insects required per week. For other insect species, the biological and production characteristics need to be defined and inputted accordingly to obtain outputs relevant to these species. This spreadsheet, available under http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/ipc/index.html, is a powerful tool for project and facility managers as it can be used to estimate facility cost, production cost, and production projections under different rearing efficiency scenarios. (author)

  2. The FAO/IAEA interactive spreadsheet for design and operation of insect mass rearing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.e.caceres@aphis.usda.co [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Seibersdorf (Austria). Agency' s Labs. Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture; Rendon, Pedro [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS/CPHST), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Animal and Plant Health Inspection. Center for Plant Health Science and Technology

    2006-07-01

    An electronic spreadsheet is described which helps users to design, equip and operate facilities for the mass rearing of insects for use in insect pest control programmes integrating the sterile insect technique. The spreadsheet was designed based on experience accumulated in the mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), using genetic sexing strains based on a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation. The spreadsheet takes into account the biological, production, and quality control parameters of the species to be mass reared, as well as the diets and equipment required. All this information is incorporated into the spreadsheet for user-friendly calculation of the main components involved in facility design and operation. Outputs of the spreadsheet include size of the different rearing areas, rearing equipment, volumes of diet ingredients, other consumables, as well as personnel requirements. By adding cost factors to these components, the spreadsheet can estimate the costs of facility construction, equipment, and operation. All the output parameters can be easily generated by simply entering the target number of sterile insects required per week. For other insect species, the biological and production characteristics need to be defined and inputted accordingly to obtain outputs relevant to these species. This spreadsheet, available under http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/ipc/index.html, is a powerful tool for project and facility managers as it can be used to estimate facility cost, production cost, and production projections under different rearing efficiency scenarios. (author)

  3. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  4. Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.

    1994-06-01

    In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.

  5. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even...... with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks...... for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays...

  6. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in

  7. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I D

    2017-07-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks in mass rearing systems, ranging from simple sanitation methods to highly sophisticated methods including RNAi and transgenics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incorporation of diapause into codling moth mass rearing: Production advantages and insect quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Stephanie; Calkins, Carrol O.; Bloem, Ken A.

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a widely distributed species and the key pest of apples and pears in orchards of the Pacific Northwest. CM possesses facultative diapause and the mature 5th instar larva is the overwintering stage (Brown 1991). British Columbia, Canada, is attempting to eradicate CM using the sterile insect technique (SIT). The Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) Program began releasing sterile CM in 1994 (Dyck et al. 1993, Bloem and Bloem 1996) and results in recent years have been excellent. Despite the fact that standard rearing operations have gone extremely well, and weekly CM production has increased from 8.7 million CM per week in 1994 to 14.2 million per week in 1997, the ability to mass rear diapausing CM holds a number of advantages that are currently not available. The ability to stockpile CM larvae in diapause throughout the fall and winter months when the mass rearing facility is underutilised would: 1) provide additional CM for release during the spring/summer field season, 2) provide back-up material to guard against colony losses due to operational failures and/or pathogen outbreaks, 3) allow for a potentially more cost-effective use of the facility by maintaining production year round, 4) facilitate the development of mass rearing techniques for key parasitoids that attack the overwintering stage, 5) allow for the easy shipment (and sale) of CM to researchers around the world. Here we outline the current standard CM mass rearing procedures and discuss research that has allowed diapausing CM to be mass reared (Bloem et al. 1997). We also discuss research that suggests diapaused CM are more competitive than standard non-diapaused CM (Bloem et al. 1998)

  9. Traditional consumption of and rearing edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Dele; Carrascosa, Conrado; Oluwole, Oluwatoyin Bolanle; Nieuwland, Maaike; Saraiva, Ariana; Millán, Rafael; Raposo, António

    2018-02-15

    The traditional consumption of edible insects is common in one third of the world's population, mostly in Latin America, Africa and Asia. There are over one thousand identified species of insects eaten in some stage of their life cycle; and they play important roles in ensuring food security. The most common way to collect insects are from the wild, which is seasonal with limited availability and has an increasing demand resulting in a disruption to the ecosystem. There is a growing interest shown in rearing insects for commercial purposes, and an industrial scale production will be required to ensure steady supplies. Industrial production will need to take into account the living environment of insects, the nutritional composition of their feed and the overall efficiency of the production system. We provide a short overview on the consumption of and rearing insects in Africa, Asia and Europe. For Africa, a snapshot is given for Nigeria, Ghana, Central African Republic, Kenya and Uganda, while the following countries are reported for Asia: China, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, a list of insect species with the highest potential for food and feed in the European Union is provided with some reference to The Netherlands and Finland. The review concludes that there is need to better understand the rearing and farming procedures that will yield high quality edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe.

  10. Recent advances of rearing cabinet instrumentation and control system for insect stock culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Wawan; Kasmara, Hikmat; Melanie, Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2017-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of a serious pest of horticulture in Indonesia. Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrovirus (HaNPV) has attracted interest for many researchers as a pest control for larvae of this species. Currently, we investigating the agrochemical formulations of HaNPV by introducing nanotechnology. Thus it is required an acceptable efficiency of insect stock cultures equipped with advance instruments to resolve the difficulties on insect stock seasons dependency. In addition, it is important to improve the insect survival with the aid of artificial natural environment and gain high insect production. This paper reports the rearing cabinet used as preparation of stock culture includes air-conditioning system, lighting, i.e. day and night control, and the main principles on recent technical and procedural advances apparatus of the system. The rearing system was moveable, designed and build by allowing air-conditioned cabinet for rearing insects, air motion and distribution as well as temperature and humidity being precisely controlled. The air was heated, humidified, and dehumidified respectively using a heater and ultrasonic nebulizer as actuators. Temperature and humidity can be controlled at any desired levels from room temperature (20°C) to 40 ± 1°C and from 0 to 80% RH with an accuracy of ±3% R.H. It is concluded that the recent design has acceptable performance based on the defined requirement for insect rearing and storage.

  11. Tunisian Rearing facility a first year production constraints and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfali, M.M; Ben Salah, H.; Caceres, C.; Raies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Tunisian Medfly rearing facility is located in the north of the country in a small city named Sidi Thabet, near the capital. This facility was designed for rearing the Medfly Genetic Sexing strain (GSS). The facility has been started operations in 2003 in order to release sterile males under 6000 hectares in the north east of the country in the Cap Bon Peninsula. This programme is supported by the Tunisian government, IAEA and FAO. Male only production was not stable for the four first months, due to some constraints. The production is stabilising by the time, after the tune fine off all rearing procedures and adjustment of the environmental control system. Quality control procedures (QC) were put for each procedure of the production from eggs to adult following the procedures established in the International FAO/IAEA/USDA Fruit Flies Quality control Manual

  12. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  13. Sterile insect technique: a field evaluation of the quality of mass-reared fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    To optimize the use of the sterile insect technique it is essential to establish precise programmes for the evaluation of mass-reared flies in comparison with the natural population. This video presents a programme carried out at the island of Prosida which represents an extremely favourable habitat for the development of the flies; the flies are a new strain mass-reared in the IAEA's Laboratory at Seibersdorf, Austria. The technique employed is the Marked Release Recapture Technique, which consists of colouring a predetermined number of flies with fluorescent powder before they are released, and then recapturing them. This method provides valuable data about the flies' adaptability, orientation to the habitat, motility, sexual activity and reproduction

  14. Sterile insect technique: a field evaluation of the quality of mass-reared fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    To optimize the use of the sterile insect technique it is essential to establish precise programmes for the evaluation of mass-reared flies in comparison with the natural population. This video presents a programme carried out at the island of Prosida which represents an extremely favourable habitat for the development of the flies; the flies are a new strain mass-reared in the IAEA`s Laboratory at Seibersdorf, Austria. The technique employed is the Marked Release Recapture Technique, which consists of colouring a predetermined number of flies with fluorescent powder before they are released, and then recapturing them. This method provides valuable data about the flies` adaptability, orientation to the habitat, motility, sexual activity and reproduction

  15. Nutritional Potential of Selected Insect Species Reared on the Island of Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Anna; Mlček, Jiří; Kouřimská, Lenka; Borkovcová, Marie; Bušina, Tomáš; Adámek, Martin; Bednářová, Martina; Krajsa, Jan

    2017-05-12

    Inhabitants of the Indonesian island of Sumatra are faced with the problem of insufficient food supplies and the consequent risk of undernourishment and health issues. Edible insects as a traditional and readily available food source could be part of the solution. The nutritional value of insects depends on many factors, e.g., species, developmental stage, sex, diet, and climatic conditions. However, edible insects bred in Sumatra for human consumption have never before been assessed with regard to their nutritional value. Our study involved analyses of crude protein, chitin, fat and selected fatty acid contents of giant mealworm larvae ( Zophobas morio ), larvae of the common mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor) and nymphs of the field cricket ( Gryllus assimilis ). Crude protein content in the samples ranged from 46% to 56%. Highest (35%) and lowest (31%) amounts of fat were recorded in giant mealworm larvae and larvae of the common mealworm, respectively. Chitin amounts ranged from 6% to 13%. Based on these values, which are comparable to those known from other food insects reared in different regions of the world, the edible species bred in Sumatra could become food sources with a potential to help stave off hunger and undernourishment.

  16. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  17. Flight Muscle Development in the Males of Glossina Pallidipes Reared for the Sterile Insect Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampor, F Jr; Palosova, Z; Mancosova, L; Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, SK-845 06 (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    The project's main goal was to study the influence of laboratory conditions on the development of flight muscles and the ability to fly in males of Glossina pallidipes Austen. Flight muscles can serve as an important criterion in the quality control of mass reared tsetse flies. All experiments were performed in the research and training facility in Bratislava which provided the flies. The experiments were generally performed by comparing different age groups and groups with different flight activity. To acquire data, several approaches were employed, i.e. classical measurements (residual dry weight, thoracic surface) as well as other alternatives - flight mill, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry - to visualize and analyse muscle development. The results clearly identified differences in age groups. Slight changes in the development of flight muscles regarding different chances to fly were also detected, but these were not sufficiently significant to decrease the quality of males produced in mass rearing facilities. No distinct trends (rising or declining of amount of metabolites) in the groups studied were detected. The differences were in the amount of analysed metabolic components and the structure of the flight muscles. Our results suggest that, similar to other Glossina species, in G. pallidipes males the first days after emergence are crucial for successful muscle development. On the other hand, rearing in cages does not negatively influence the quality of males with respect to their ability to fly and actively search for females in the wild after release. We also compared the mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated males. We initiated the development of a functional walk-in field cage in which to rear a small colony of G. pallidipes under semi-natural conditions. Our work suggested that outside climatic conditions and suitable cage components, e.g. food source, limit the successful realization of using such a cage for rearing tsetse flies

  18. Metagenetic analysis of the bacterial communities of edible insects from diverse production cycles at industrial rearing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-11-16

    Despite the continuing development of new insect-derived food products, microbial research on edible insects and insect-based foods is still very limited. The goal of this study was to increase the knowledge on the microbial quality of edible insects by comparing the bacterial community composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from several production cycles and rearing companies. Remarkable differences in the bacterial community composition were found between different mealworm rearing companies and mealworm production cycles from the same company. In comparison with mealworms, the bacterial community composition of the investigated crickets was more similar among different companies, and was highly similar between both cricket species investigated. Mealworm communities were dominated by Spiroplasma and Erwinia species, while crickets were abundantly colonised by (Para)bacteroides species. With respect to food safety, only a few operational taxonomic units could be associated with potential human pathogens such as Cronobacter or spoilage bacteria such as Pseudomonas. In summary, our results implicate that at least for cricket rearing, production cycles of constant and good quality in terms of bacterial composition can be obtained by different rearing companies. For mealworms however, more variation in terms of microbial quality occurs between companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Model business plan for a sterile insect production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For over 50 years the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy which has been used for eradication, and more recently for suppression, containment and prevention, of unwanted insect pest populations. Examples of successful applications of SIT, almost always applied in conjunction with other control methods in an area-wide integrated approach, are available from around the world. The development and application of SIT has relied overwhelmingly on public or donor initiative and funding throughout its history, although the private sector has always been involved as participants, cooperators or partners in funding. The demand for SIT, and therefore the market for sterile insects, has increased in recent years. This increase coincides with the introduction of new pests through the expansion of global trade and, at the same time, widespread pressure to find alternatives to pesticides. Recent improvements in the technology supporting SIT facilitate its application and suggest lower costs can be achieved. The conditions are therefore met for a greater commercialization of the technique to bring it in line with other pest control approaches that are fully integrated into a market approach. Several challenges arise, however, in pursuing sterile insect production as a commercial venture, ranging from intellectual property protection to pricing of the product. Routine insurance requirements, for instance, are complicated by the biological aspects of the business. This report is aimed at facilitating private sector involvement in the production of sterile insects for use in pest control. It provides guidelines and tools to support the development of specific business plans for a new SIT venture. By providing an international perspective on such issues as initial capital costs and recurring operational expenditures for a sterile insect facility, it may be used to evaluate the feasibility of proceeding with the construction or expansion of a sterile insect

  20. Generic Design, Technical Guidelines and Optimal Location of Tsetse Fly Mass-Rearing Facilities. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    of these AW-IPM based efforts to create T and T free zones. It is, therefore, foreseeable that the demand for good quality sterile tsetse fly males will increase. This is already resulting in proposals to establish additional tsetse fly mass-rearing facilities in Africa. AW-IPM programmes against T and T involving a SIT component will require high investments at an early stage of programme implementation, particularly for the mass-rearing facilities. In order to realize optimum efficacy and efficiency, these programmes must be carefully planned and implemented in a consistent and flexible manner over sufficiently large areas and a rather long time frame. Decisions on the geographic location and design of rearing facilities must be objective, and based on sound assessment criteria. A meeting of expert consultants was convened in Vienna, Austria October 11-15, 2004 under the auspices of FAO/IAEA, in an effort to assist countries in planning the geographic location and in designing large tsetse fly mass-rearing facilities. With regards to assessing the suitability of (proposed) tsetse mass-rearing locations, the meeting identified a number of critical, important and desirable criteria under four (4) main categories, namely Site Characteristics, Climate and Environment, Manpower and Infrastructure and Social and Political supports. A worksheet was developed to summarize scores reached for the identified criteria, in order to ensure that the assessments are objective and verifiable. The meeting also elaborated on the concept of tsetse factory design, based on considerations regarding the involved rooms, their functions, ergonomic flow of the production process and other relevant factors. Required support services were identified and specifics were provided on aspects like controlled environment system design, desired room conditions and occupancy, air filtration and distribution and electricity supply. The consultants' recommendations underline that meeting and this

  1. Consultants Group Meeting on Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-Rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    A consultants' group met in Vienna from 23 September - 3 October 1991 to explore 'Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa'. This report is based on their observations during working visits to the Entomology Unit of the IAEA Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf, and on information supplied by the tsetse team and staff of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Insect and Pest Control Section. The consultants conducted a technical, operational and financial review of present rearing methods, equipment, philosophies and production capacities, taking into account one of the recommendations made at the 6th Session of the ''FAO Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis'' held in June 1991 in Harare, Zimbabwe. This recommendation, related to the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), states that {sup F}AO, through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, should further investigate and improve the use of sterile insects to strengthen the efficacy of tsetse surveys and, where applicable, consider teh use of the SIT to support eradication campaigns where other techniques on their own will not achieve this objective''. In investigating the potential for improved tsetse mass-rearing and analyzing the present costs of pupa/distributable sterile fly production, the consultants noted that: 1. The Seibersdorf Tsetse Unit is conducting an effective research and development programme which strives to emulate a production facility while continuing to pursue R and D. The capacity of the present facility in Seibersdorf is practically limited to a colony size of about 150,000 breeding females. The release of sterile males in an eradication campaign of economical relevance would require a colony containing more than 500,000 female flies. Such a population can only be maintained in an organizational, operational and financially justifiable manner if the rearing technology is transferred from an

  2. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S; Arnolds, L; Johnson, J [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  3. Microbiological monitoring of guinea pigs reared conventionally at two breeding facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baek, Min-Won; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong-Jae; Cho, Jung-Sik; Kim, Chuel-Kyu; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Park, Jae-Hak

    2006-10-01

    In this study, microbiological monitoring of guinea pigs reared conventionally in two facilities was performed twice in 2004, with a three-month-interval between surveys. This study was based on the recommendations of the FELASA Working Group, with some modifications. In serological tests in the first survey, some animals from facility A showed positive results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and Reovirus-3 (Reo-3); facility B showed a positive result only for E. cuniculi. The results of the second survey were similar to the first, except for the presence of Sendai virus; all animals from the two facilities were Sendai virus-negative in the second experiment. No pathogenic bacteria were cultured in the organs of any of the animals in the first survey. However, in the second survey, Bordetella bronchiseptica was cultured from the lung tissue of two 10-week-old animals from facility A. Chlamydial infection was examined by the Macchiavello method, but no animal showed positive results. Tests using fecal flotation or the KOH wet mount method showed no infection of endoparasites, protozoa, ectoparasites, or dermatophytes in any animal in both surveys. However, in the histopathological examination, an infection of protozoa-like organisms was observed in the cecum of some animals from facility A. The present study revealed that microbiological contamination was present in guinea pigs reared conventionally in two facilities in Korea, suggesting that there is a need to improve environmental conditions in order to eradicate microbial contamination.

  4. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-04-10

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  5. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Gunathilaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Methodology. Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti. Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis of variance (ANOSIM, and principal coordinates (PCO analysis. Results. Feeding rates of Ae. aegypti significantly differed among the membrane feeding techniques as suggested by one-way ANOVA (p0.05. Conclusions. Metal plate method could be recommended as the most effective membrane feeding technique for mass rearing of Ae. aegypti, due to its high feeding rate and cost effectiveness. Cattle blood could be recommended for mass rearing Ae. aegypti.

  6. Genetics and ecology of colonization and mass rearing of Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in sterile insect control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, S.H.; McCombs, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    It is critical to maintain the genetic, physiological and behavioral competence of colonized populations of insect species, such as fruit flies, which are reared for release in sterile insect and other genetic control programs. Selective pressures associated with the mass rearing process affect this competence, but the underlying mechanisms of genetic change arc largely unknown. However, competence is often an operational goal achieved by manipulating environmental factors without possessing precise genetic knowledge of alleles and their marginal effects on the desired traits. One goal of this paper is to show that the precise genetic and statistical analysis of components that determine competence in a broad sense or fitness in the narrower ecological sense, is extremely difficult. We can gel contradictory results from the different methods for estimating genetic variation in tephritid populations. We observe low levels of allozyme variation, but high levels of recessive mutants in inbred populations. We propose that genetic variability may be maintained in colonized and mass reared laboratory populations by balanced lethal systems and that the introduction of fresh genetic material may reduce, not increase, fitness. We require rigorous and precise models of directional selection in the laboratory and selective forces in the natural environment to aid our understanding of dynamic changes in courtship and mating behavior under artificial conditions. We have chosen to examine the lek model as an example of an idea whose usefulness has yet to be determined by test ing and validation. The inclusion of lek forming ability in genetic models will be depen dent on rigorously establishing the validity of the lek model for each tephritid species

  7. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Gunathilaka; Tharaka Ranathunge; Lahiru Udayanga; Wimaladharma Abeyewickreme

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Methodology Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken) were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti. Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one...

  8. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Ranathunge, Tharaka; Udayanga, Lahiru; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2017-01-01

    Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken) were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti . Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis of variance (ANOSIM), and principal coordinates (PCO) analysis. Feeding rates of Ae. aegypti significantly differed among the membrane feeding techniques as suggested by one-way ANOVA ( p feeding technique. Blood feeding rate of Ae. aegypti was higher with human blood followed by cattle and chicken blood, respectively. However, no significant difference was observed from the mosquitoes fed with cattle and human blood, in terms of fecundity, oviposition rate, and fertility as suggested by one-way ANOVA ( p > 0.05). Metal plate method could be recommended as the most effective membrane feeding technique for mass rearing of Ae. aegypti , due to its high feeding rate and cost effectiveness. Cattle blood could be recommended for mass rearing Ae. aegypti .

  9. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  10. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  11. Testing Pollen of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Maize on In vitro Reared Honey Bee Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P.; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops. PMID:22194811

  12. Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The rearing of tsetse flies for the sterile insect technique has been a laborious procedure in the past. The purpose of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes' was to develop appropriate semiautomated procedures to simplify the rearing, reduce the cost and standardize the product. Two main objectives were accomplished. The first was to simplify the handling of adults at emergence. This was achieved by allowing the adults to emerge directly into the production cages. Selection of the appropriate environmental conditions and timing allowed the manipulation of the emergence pattern to achieve the desired ratio of four females to one male with minimal un-emerged females remaining mixed with the male pupae. Tests demonstrated that putting the sexes together at emergence, leaving the males in the production cages, and using a ratio of 4:1 (3:1 for a few species) did not adversely affect pupal production. This has resulted in a standardized system for the self stocking of production cages. The second was to reduce the labour involved in feeding the flies. Three distinct systems were developed and tested in sequence. The first tsetse production unit (TPU 1) was a fully automated system, but the fly survival and fecundity were unacceptably low. From this a simpler TPU 2 was developed and tested, where 63 large cages were held on a frame that could be moved as a single unit to the feeding location. TPU 2 was tested in various locations, and found to satisfy the basic requirements, and the adoption of Plexiglas pupal collection slopes resolved much of the problem due to light distribution. However the cage holding frame was heavy and difficult to position on the feeding frame and the movement disturbed the flies. TPU 2 was superseded by TPU 3, in which the cages remain stationary at all times, and the blood is brought to the flies. The blood feeding system is mounted on rails to make it

  13. Mass rearing and radiation sterilization of tsetse flies. Part of a coordinated programme on control and eradication of tsetse flies by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offori, E.

    1980-12-01

    Studies were conducted with the tsetse flies Glossina palpalis palpalis, G.p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides to evaluate the practicality in Ghana of various laboratory and field procedures used to conduct a sterile insect release programme. Investigations revealed that in colony rearing rabbits, guinea pigs and goats could be used as host animals and that alternation of hosts had little effect on colony performance. Over 90% sterility in 10-day-old males irradiated at 12 kR was obtained with little or no effect on survival. At 15 kR, 98% sterility was obtained but with some loss in viability observed. In mating experiments, G. p. palpalis and G. p. gambiensis mated readily with each other and indicated that sterile males of one sub-species could be released with advantage into an area predominantly occupied by the other sub-species. In field tests, the moving vehicle traps proved most efficient of the various sampling techniques evaluated. It was noted that in spite of the rapid expansion of the city of Accra, tsetse flies were still present within a distance of 4 km of the city

  14. Dipping of Eggs, Use of Low Temperature and Aeration to Improve Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Mass Rearing in Sterile Insect Technique Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasution, Indah Arastuti; Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi

    2004-01-01

    In the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme a large number of homogenous age of pupae should be produced to be sterilized and released into the field. A methodology to preserve eggs which at the same time delay the egg hatch is needed in the production of a large number of pupae with homogenous age. The study on method of preserving fruit fly eggs the effect of dipping, low temperature, on the viability of eggs, the quality of larvae hatched from the eggs, and the quality of pupae produced were observed. Viability of eggs were observed as percent of egg hatch, quality of larvae as number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml of eggs when reared on artificial diet, and quality of pupae as percent of the flies number emerged and flew from the pupae. In room temperature (26 o C) dipping did not preserve fruit fly eggs and aeration did not improve the preservation. Although after one day dipping the viability of eggs only decreased from 90 % (control) to 80.5 %, (without aeration) and 81.5 % (with aeration) it decreased the number of pupae been produced from 1447 pupae (control) to 382 pupae (without aeration) and 616 pupae (with aeration). Low temperature successfully preserved the egg up to 24 hours. After 24 hour dipping in low temperature (16 o C) the viability of eggs were decreased up to 84.75 % (without aeration) and able to produce 1104 pupae. Aeration during dipping in low temperature did not improve the preservation. (author)

  15. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  16. Difficulties and Successes in the Mass Rearing of Insects in the Laboratory, and the Possibility of Autocidal Control of some Harmful Species; Trudnosti i uspekhi massovogo razvedeniya nasekomykh v laboratorii i vozmozhnosti samoistrebleniya nekotorykh vrednykh vidov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, E. M. [Rastenij, Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Zashhity Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1968-06-15

    The practical development of the sterile-male release technique, as indeed of all methods of autocidal control of harmful insects, is limited by the difficulties of mass rearing in artificial conditions. However, analysis of cases of the successful solution of this problem for a number of types of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera gives an indication of possible ways of setting up large-scale rearing of the insects required. The most difficult problem, that of ensuring a suitable food supply for the insects at any time of the year, is being successfully overcome as a result of the progress made in producing synthetic and semi- synthetic nutrient media, which have been developed both for semi-saprophytic and for herbivorous and predacious species. The choice of recipes for such nutrients is determined by correct selection of the necessary ingredients, above all vitamins, free amino acids and sterols; the proper quantitative proportion between these substances and between the basic components of the food - proteins, fats and hydrocarbons - is of the greatest importance. The amount of work involved in insect rearing depends on what means are used for sterilizing the containers and for preventing the nutrient medium from decaying. One way in which these problems have been solved is by the development of a dried nutrient medium in powder form; this has been successfully used for rearing the migratory locust in the USSR. For a number of harmful species of Lepidoptera, it has been shown possible to rear the insects in a closed, sealed container. In this case a supply of nutrient medium is provided adequate to ensure the insects' development from, the time the eggs or caterpillars are deposited until the imago of the new generation emerges. This approach greatly simplifies the whole process of mass rearing. Many species of insects can be reared on grain or plant seeds which are less subject to decay during prolonged storage. Another important problem is that of

  17. Feeding the insect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  18. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Kingsley; Caceres, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    survive the high temperature treatment. The inclusion of the wp marker enables the genetic integrity of the strain to be monitored. Current tsl strains in mass rearing include VIENNA 4/TOL-94, VIENNA 6-94 and VIENNA 7-97. These strains are based upon translocations T(Y;5) 1-61, T(Y;5) 2-22 and T(Y;5) 3-129 respectively (Kerremans and Franz 1995). GSS have developed to a high level of sexing accuracy and stability that make possible their large-scale mass rearing. However, once the strain is transferred to large operational facilities producing several million or more insects per week, the sexing strain is subjected to a new set of constraints. Stability in operational mass rearing has been shown to erode over the long term e.g., in Guatemala, for the strain VIENNA 4/Tol-94 and in Argentina, for the strain SEIB 6-96 (Taret, personal communication), currently the two largest mass production facilities for GSS. This means a loss of the sex separation mechanism, but does not necessarily indicate a decrease in quality as such. Under the stress and selection pressures of mass rearing, recombinants gain a selective advantage, accelerating their accumulation. This accelerated buildup of recombinants in large-scale mass rearing is not well understood at this time, but is probably related to colony management practices. In response to the instability in GSS mass rearing, a 'filter rearing system' (FRS) was conceived and developed in the FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf to control the buildup of recombinants. The principle of the FRS is to maintain a small standby colony of GSS, with no recombinants, which can regularly refresh the mainstream of production with new material. The key factor is that no material from the mainstream is returned to the standby colony

  19. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing

  20. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL REARING DIET ACIDITY ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY YIELD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wied.) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FOR ITS CONTROL BY STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.; EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The biological effects of larval rearing diet acidity on the developmental stages of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) were studied at the laboratory scale. Diets were formulated at five different initial pH ranging from 4.59 to 2.09 together with the control group currently used in our laboratory (5.26). These effects were evaluated on larval period, percent pupal recovery, pupal weight, percent adult emergence, percent male production and adult flight ability. The results showed that the shortest larval development occurred at pH 3.48 and 3.75, the highest pupal recovery at pH 3.75, the best pupal weight at pH 2.09, 3.48, 3.75 and 4.59, the highest percent adult emergence at pH 3.75, the highest percentage male production at pH 3.48, and the best percentage of fliers at pH 4.59. The obtained data referred to the optimizing physiochemical factors such as pH can improve the overall yield of mass reared medfly in the laboratory to be irradiated by gamma radiation and released in the field for controlling the insect

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique:Current and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALRubeai, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Key insect pests and their potential for economic and environmental impact, such species are the targets for area-wide approaches including in some cases the use of SIT. At the heart of the SIT is genetic sterility that is introduced into the target population by releasing large numbers of sterile insects . The development of an SIT package for a Key pest, involving mass rearing and aerial dispersion, as well as field monitoring and a suppression system. Losses caused by insect pests throughout the developing world will continue to be unacceptably high in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the economic feasibility of non-chemical pest control tools, including biologically -based methods such as SIT, will become increasingly apparent . This study include an overview of the basic scientific principles of SIT , is successful applications and related mass rearing and irradiation facilities over the world. (author)

  2. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent

  3. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  4. Guide for dosimetry for sterile insect release programs. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed for the radiation sterilization of live insects for use in pest management programs. The primary use of irradiated, reproductively sterile insects is in the Sterile Insect Technique, where large numbers of sterile insects are released into the field to mate with and thus control pest populations of the same species. A secondary use of sterile insects is as benign hosts for rearing insect parasitoids. The procedures outlined in this guide will help ensure that insects processed with ionizing radiation from gamma, electron, or X-ray sources receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. Information on effective dose ranges for specific applications of insect sterilization, or on methodology for determining effective dose ranges, is not within the scope of this guide. Note: Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality control program to ensure that irradiated insects are adequately sterilized and sufficiently competitive or otherwise suitable for their intended purpose. This guide covers dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for these types of irradiators: self-contained dry-storage 137 Cs or 60 Co irradiators, large-scale gamma irradiators, and electron accelerators. Additional, detailed information on dosimetric procedures to be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine product processing can be found in ISO/ASTM Practices 51608 (X-ray [bremsstrahlung] facilities), 51649 (electron beam facilities), 51702 (large-scale gamma facilities), and ASTM Practice E 2116 (self-contained dry-storage gamma facilities). The absorbed dose for insect sterilization is typically within the range of 20 Gy to 600 Gy

  5. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  6. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.

  7. Analysis of lines and breeds of sires in the breeding of the Czech warmblood horses based on grading their offspring in rearing facilities for testing young horses (RFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Černohorská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of sire and line of sire on grading of the body conformation and performance of colts of warmblood horses in rearing facilities for testing young horses (RFT. The groundwork database contained data from 2001 to 2011 from nine RFT’s. The database was processed statistically using the GLM method to assess the statistical significance of the effect of the breed of the sire and line of the sire on body conformation and performance of the colts. By multiple comparisons of the individual effects using the Tukey-B method we discovered statistically significant differences in the body conformation and performance of colts of sires among the respective breeds and lines. The performance of the offspring of Dutch warmblood, Hanoverian horse and Holsteiner horse sires is better than of the offspring of sires of the Thoroughbred, Czech warmblood and Selle Francais. The conformation of the offspring by sires of the Holsteiner horse and Hanoverian horse breeds is superior to that of offspring by sires of the Selle Francais and Czech warmblood. The mechanics of movement of the offspring of the 2300 Shagya XVIII-Báb. line is inferior to the offspring of the following lines: 3100 Adeptus xx, 67 Dark Ronald, 1000 Der Lowe xx, 3250 Dwinger 3257, 4800 Ladykiller xx, Orange Peel xx – Alme Z, 1100 Przedswit VI-Rad., 4900 Rantzau xx – Cor De La Bryere, 4600 Rittersporn xx – Ramzes 4028, 60 St. Simon and 88 Teddy. The effect of the line of the sires on the body conformation of colts has not been proved.

  8. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  9. A practical, efficient and low cost diet for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Zografou, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been artificially reared and used for the application of the sterile insect technique and other purposes, throughout the world. The larval diet used is rather expensive and it is mixed in the rearing facility. The most expensive ingredient used in this diet is yeast which is variable in composition and has a relatively short shelf life due mainly to its high nutritional value. This is particularly true for all countries like Greece which do not manufacture brewer's yeast. Also, it is widely known that the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae grow in a wide variety of fruits and artificial diets. These fruits and artificial diets, although very different in chemical/nutritional as well as physical/ecological parameters, are successfully tolerated and utilised by the larvae. These observations prompted the initiation of research into diets containing a variety of low cost ingredients widely used in the vertebrate feed industry and easily found in any country. To our knowledge, no one has tested complete diets produced by well-established feed manufacturers for larval rearing of this insect

  10. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  11. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60 Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  12. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  13. Mass rearing the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, R.J.; Hamdan bin Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    facility, the Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Australia, in collaboration with the Department of Veterinary Services Malaysia, has established an experimental insect rearing facility within the Institut Haiwan, Kluang, Johor. The facility has a nominal capacity of rearing 10 million sterile flies per week. Information gathered while operating the facility will be used to develop plans and protocols for an Australian facility with a capacity of rearing 100 to 200 million per week. During the period 1973 to 1991, Dr. Philip Spradbery and CSIRO Entomology colleagues developed procedures for mass rearing OWSWF in a facility on the outskirts of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (Spradbery 1990). Larval rearing employed the hydroponic system first developed by USDA to rear the NWSWF. Larvae were fed on a diet consisting of water and suspended/dissolved blood, egg and milk powder. During the period 1984-1991, the facility provided Australia with a response capacity if an incursion of the OWSWF occurred

  14. Studies on the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 6. Mating competitiveness between the /sup 137/Cs gamma-substerile males reared artificially and natural ones of the tobacco cutworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoku, M; Tsukuda, R [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1973-10-01

    Two different inbred lines of tobacco cutworms were used for the present experiments. One was a line reared on an artificial medium during the larval period, and the other was reared on leaves of the taro plants. Male pupae from the former medium were irradiated with 12 kR of gamma rays from /sup 137/Cs to substerilize. Other males and females from the latter were not irradiated. From one to four substerilized adults with one normal male were exposed to one normal female in a fixed mating-oviposition jar or cage for investigating the male mating competitiveness and mating behavior between substerilized and normal. In the experiments using substerilized adults less than two with one normal male were exposed to one female in the jar, the hatch percentages of eggs were more than 41.7%. It might not be fully competitive. When four substerile and one normal males were combined with one normal female, however, the percentage in the egg hatch was 5.6%. The value obtained was significantly lower than the theoretical estimation of hatch percentage, and this indicates that substerilized males had been mated more than normal. The result was considered to be fully competitive based on the percentage of egg hatch. Besides that, number of eggs laid in this combination showed a considerable reduction as compared with the control.

  15. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  16. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  17. Consuming insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a

  18. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  19. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  20. [Twenty-year surveillance of insects relevant to public health during the construction of hydroelectric facilities in Antioquia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Walter Alonso; López, Yolanda Lucía; Osorio, Lisardo; Salazar, Luis Fernando; González, Marta Claudia; Ríos, Claudia María; Wolff, Marta Isabel; Escobar, José Pablo

    2012-09-01

    Entomological studies conducted in large hydroelectric infrastructure projects are a tool for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. These diseases emerge as a consequence of changes made to the terrain that often increase the natural and artificial mosquito larval habitats. Many of these insects are of public health importance and population increases result in an increased risk of disease transmission. The culicine (mosquito) and phlebotomine (sand fly) populations were characterized in the area of the Porce II and Porce III hydroelectric projects of Antioquia between 1990 to 2009. Periodical entomological samplings were made in the area of impact, in the workers camps, and construction sites. Adult specimens were captured with nets, Shannon light traps, CDC light traps, and protected human bait. Mosquito larvae of the following species were identified: Culex coronator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex quinquefasciatus and Limatus durhami. The most frequently identifiers of larval habitats were low tanks, waste cans, tires, and aquatic plants. Aedes aegypti specimens were captured in only two rural locations from two municipalities within the area of influence. Specimens from the following mosquito genera were captured in forest areas: Aedes, Mansonia, Culex, Psorophora, Wyeomyia, Phonyomyia, Uranotaenia, Haemagogus and Sabethes. The most important mosquito found was Haemogogus janthinomis, an efficient yellow fever vector in Colombia. The area has been endemic for leishmaniasis and in the current study, 20 species of Lutzomyia sand flies, potential vectors, were identified. Among malaria vectors, the most important species found in the area were Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis. A wide variety of vectors were discovered in the area of the Porce II and Porce III hydroelectric projects, and many of these were relevant for public health. Further monitoring will be necessary to minimize disease transmission risks among the

  1. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A Augustinos

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation.

  2. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Cáceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS) for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic) to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation. PMID:26325068

  3. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  4. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control. ...

  5. Medfly Gut Microbiota and Enhancement of the Sterile Insect Technique: Similarities and Differences of Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter sp. AA26 Probiotics during the Larval and Adult Stages of the VIENNA 8D53+ Genetic Sexing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Kyritsis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a major agricultural pest worldwide. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs for this species that allows male-only sterile insects releases has boosted the effectiveness of the environmental friendly pest control method known as the sterile insect technique. The last generation of these strains, the VIENNA 7 and VIENNA 8, are currently used in all mass rearing facilities worldwide and are considered as models for such pest control applications. The sterile insect technique depends on the rearing of sufficient numbers of adequate “biological quality” laboratory flies to be released in the field. Currently, there is an increasing amount of studies focusing on the characterization of the symbiotic communities and development of probiotic diets. In our study, two bacterial isolates, an Enterobacter sp. (strain AA26 and a Klebsiella oxytoca strain, were used as probiotics in larval and adult diet. These strains have been shown to be beneficial, affecting several aspects related to the rearing efficiency and biological quality of the medfly VIENNA 8D53+ GSS. Our results demonstrate the effect of K. oxytoca on the developmental duration of the immature stages and, to some extent, on flight ability. On the other hand, our study does not support the presence of any beneficial effect of (a K. oxytoca on pupal and adult recovery and adults’ survival under stress conditions when provided as a larval diet supplement and (b K. oxytoca and Enterobacter sp. AA26 on mating competitiveness when provided as adult diet supplements. Possible explanations for inconsistencies with previous studies and the need for universalizing protocols are discussed. Our findings, combined with previous studies can support the sterile insect technique, through the improvement of different aspects of mass rearing and biological properties of laboratory reared insect pests.

  6. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In the past years it has often been pointed out that the name of the Insect and Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, and the name of this newsletter (Insect and Pest Control Newsletter) create confusion and expectations for control of rats, birds, weeds and other non-insect pests but which are not within our mandate. All work within the Subprogramme has been on insect pests, and in 1999 an external review recommended a change to Insect Pest Control Subprogramme since this is simpler, reduces confusion and retains the good recognition and high reputation that already exists. The IAEA management implemented this recommendation and consequently, as of this issue this newsletter is entitled Insect Pest Control Newsletter. There was a very constructive consultant's meeting recently held in Vienna on the development of genetic sexing strains for the codling moth, for which the demand for SIT application is significantly increasing. Based on the discussions during this meeting a real opportunity seems now to exist to move the field of Lepidoptera genetic sexing forward. The possibility of using an allele of a dominant lethal mutation, such as the temperature sensitive Notch, in the development of a genetic sexing system for codling moth is very exciting. As emerged during the meeting, if an appropriate allele of this mutation can be inserted onto the female determining chromosome of codling moth, through transformation, then it may be possible to kill female embryos with a cold temperature treatment. Another approach could be to translocate an autosomal insertion of the gene onto the female determining chromosome. If the insert of the dominant lethal mutation also included a gene expressing a fluorescent protein then the strain would also have a visible marker for the sexing procedure. This latter is very important for any use of a sexing strain in mass rearing. There appear to be few technical constraints to demonstrating 'proof of principle' for

  7. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... all life stages of insects from and around the corpse. The collected specimens are subjected to further analysis either in the field itself or in the laboratory. A forensic entomologist has three main objectives in his mind while analyzing the insect data: determination of place, time and mode of death, each of.

  8. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  9. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  10. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards

  11. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  12. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation

  13. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  14. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Fisher, K.; Rendon, P.

    2000-01-01

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  15. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  16. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  17. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... He writes popular science articles in ... science, English poetry is his area of ... A fascinating branch of insect science (ento- ... Methods in Forensic Entomology .... bullet wound to the right temple, and a substantial pooling of.

  18. Eating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...

  19. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [es

  20. Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.L.; Staten, R.T.; Roberson, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The pink bollworm moth (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) feeds almost exclusively on cotton (Gossypium spp.) and causes economic loss (Pfadt 1978). The pink bollworm (PBW) is often the key pest of cotton in Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The larvae (immature stages) bore into the developing cotton fruit, where they feed on the cotton lint and seeds, causing significant damage and dramatically reducing the yield of cotton lint (Pfadt 1978). The PBW is difficult to control with conventional means (insecticides) because it spends the destructive larval phase inside the cotton boll where it is well protected from control measures. Cultural controls, such as a short growing season, have successfully decreased the population in the Imperial Valley (Chu et al. 1992) to the point where eradication may be possible using sterile insects and genetically engineered cotton. Because the PBW is an introduced insect, with few plant hosts other than cultivated cotton, its eradication from continental USA is a desirable and economically attractive alternative to the continued use of pesticides and/or further loss to the pest. Mass releases of sterile insects began in earnest in 1970 in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in order to inhibit normal reproduction and to eradicate the pest in an environmentally responsible manner. Sterile release involves mass production and sexual sterilisation using irradiation (20 krad for PBW adults). This was accomplished by building a rearing facility in Phoenix, AZ. The facility has 6,410 square metres of permanent laboratories, rearing and irradiation chambers and insect packing rooms. The facility operates the year round but with a variable production rate, that is, maximal during the cotton growing season (May through September). Sterile insect technology is based on the monitoring of the native and sterile populations in the field and the subsequent release of appropriate numbers of sterile insects in order to

  1. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-01-01

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [es

  2. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species....... The enormous number of edible insect species may be a source of novel bioactive compounds with health benefits addressing global health challenges. However, any identified health benefits need to be confirmed in human studies or in standardised assays accepted in health research prior to making health claims....

  3. Insect Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, Pilsch address William Gibson’s use of insect imagery in to trouble the common understanding of the novel Neuromancer, its commentary on corporate culture, and its relationship to a then-emergent posthumanism. Further, he concludes by suggesting that, for Gibson, the insect hive as an image for the corporate body shows that corporate culture is, in contrast to the banal image the term brings to mind, a set of nefarious cultural techniques derived for interfacing human bodies with the corporation’s native environment in the postmodern era: the abstractions of data.

  4. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  5. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  6. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  7. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  8. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  9. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  10. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  11. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  12. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C; Condon, Kirsty C; Dafa' alla, Tarig H; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M; Nimmo, Derric D; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  13. Development of Idea leuconoe Erichson 1834 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae reared on Parsonia sp. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analyn Anzano Cabras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans are among the most ecologically and economically important insect taxon in the biosphere. However, due to habitat loss majority of these species are now threatened. Rearing and studying the life development of this insect is important in conservation especially ex-situ conservation. Idea leuconoe Erichson, 1834 which is commonly known as mangrove tree nymph, paper kite and rice paper is one of the common attractions displayed in butterfly sanctuaries and whose population in the wild is threatened due to habitat loss. This paper investigates the complete developmental life cycle (42 days of Idea leuconoe reared on the leaves of Parsonia sp. mimicking natural environmental conditions.

  14. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    guidelines for the design and equipping of fruit fly mass rearing facilities, a book and video on the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, various standard operational procedure manuals, and the first textbook on the SIT. This last one is a major project, under development for some years, that does not review SIT projects, but rather addresses all SIT components in a generic way

  15. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  16. Fitness of Mass-Reared Males of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resulting From Mating Competition Tests in Field Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo; Perales, Hugo; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena

    2017-12-05

    The sterile insect technique uses males that have been mass-reared in a controlled environment. The insects, once released in the field, must compete to mate. However, the mass-rearing condition supposes a loss of fitness that will be noticeable by wild females. To compare the fitness of wild males and mass-reared males, three competition settings were established. In setting 1, wild males, mass-reared males and wild females were released in field cages. In setting 2, wild females and wild males were released without competition, and in setting 3, mass-reared males and mass-reared females were also released without competition. Male fitness was based on their mating success, fecundity, weight and longevity. The fitness of the females was measured based on weight and several demographic parameters. The highest percentage of mating was between wild males and wild females between 0800 and 0900 h in the competition condition, while the mass-reared males started one hour later. The successful wild males weighed more and showed longer mating times, greater longevity and a higher number of matings than the mass-reared males. Although the mass-reared males showed the lowest percentage of matings, their fecundity when mating with wild females indicated a high fitness. Since the survival and fecundity of wild females that mated with mass-reared males decreased to become similar to those of mass-reared females that mated with mass-reared males, females seem to be influenced by the type of male (wild or mass-reared). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  18. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from

  19. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Yi, L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted

  20. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  1. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, L E; Klassen, W [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)

    1991-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment.

  2. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  3. Factitious foods to reduce production costs of beneficial insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of factitious foods such as Tenebrio molitor pupa, E. kuehniella eggs, Ephestia eggs, and or Artemia franciscana eggs for the rearing of beneficial insect such as Podisus maculiventris, spined soldier bug and several ladybird predators belonging to the Coccinellidae fam...

  4. Effect of laboratory rearing period to the quality of Chilo partellus as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Mutisya

    2013-07-26

    Jul 26, 2013 ... 74-76. Onyango FO, Ochieng-Odero (1994). Continuos rearing of the maize stemborer Busseola fusca on artificial diet. Entomologia. Experimentalis et Applicata. 73:139-144. Reddy SKV, Walker PT (1990). A review of the yield losses in graminaceous crops caused by Chilo spp. Insect Sci. Appl. 11:563-.

  5. Rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A few attempts were conducted to establish basic needs, materials, conditions and procedures for artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. A brief summary will be presented based on published and personal information. (author)

  6. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  7. Transforming insect biomass into consumer wellness foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; You, Lijun; Zhang, Jianan; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lukai; Gao, Jie; Dong, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Potential food shortages, human health challenges and environmental concerns, all thematically linked to growing and aging global populations, drive the search for alternative and sustainable food sources. Insects, which have been part of the human diet since antiquity though not currently widely consumed in Western societies, are rich in high quality proteins and nutrients and bioactives. Accordingly, insects could make a significant contribution to the global food supply chain in the future. This review explores the potential of entomophagy in an integrated global food network and focuses on practical approaches for transforming insect biomass into consumer food products. Carefully regulated breeding, rearing, harvesting and processing of insect bioresources are critical for realising the concept of "edible insects for human well-being". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of population genetics in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafsur, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation in natural and laboratory populations are reviewed. The application of population genetic methods and theory can help to plan and evaluate the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the sterile insect technique (SIT). Population genetic studies can play an important role in estimating dispersal rates and thus gene flow among target populations, determining if sibling species exist, establishing the origin of outbreaks or reintroductions, and supporting the quality control of mass-reared colonies. The target's population history may be examined, in terms of 'bottlenecks', range fragmentations, and expansions. Genetic methods can be helpful in distinguishing wild insects from released sterile or substerile ones, and in ascertaining, together with mating cross-compatibility studies, the compatibility of mass-reared colonies with target wild insects. (author)

  9. Development of immature tiger-fly Coenosia attenuata (Stein) reared on larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) in coir substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to rear a beneficial predatory insect is often required for its use in inoculative releases for classical biological control applications. However, affordable mass production is required before a beneficial predatory insect will be commercialized for large scale repetitive releases. The...

  10. Insects, isotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the increased use of nuclear techniques in controlling harmful insects. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which uses radiation to sexually sterilize insects and prevent reproduction, is particularly effective in eradication programmes. At the present time, there are approximately 10 species of insect pests being attacked by the SIT. Research and development is being conducted on other insect species and it is anticipated that the technology will be more widely used in the future

  11. A nuclear insect appears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Hwal

    1989-06-01

    This book is dairy of a nuclear insect in A. F. era. It consists of 6 parts, which have fun pictures and titles. The contents are the letter that is sent the Homo sapiens by insect, exodus of nuclear insect F 100 years latter. The time that a nuclear insect is attacked in F 101, the time that a nuclear dinosaur is beat in AF 102, the time that a nuclear insect struggles in AF 104 and the time that a nuclear insect drifts in AF 104.

  12. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  13. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  14. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  15. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  16. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  17. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  18. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  19. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  20. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  1. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  2. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  3. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  4. Insect barcode information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client- server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode.

  5. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F 1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused...... to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff...... rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed...

  7. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  8. Development and mass-rearing of cabbage pests (Plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis) on semisynthetic diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-07-01

    Heavy damage to cabbage plantations in Indonesia as caused by plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis furnished economic justification of research on the sterile-male approach to eradication of this species. The sterile-male technique requires a mass-production of these insects, therefore studies were initiated on rearing larvae in artificial diets. A series of media based on biochemical and biological ingredients were tested. Larvae of the second instar were kept on artificial medium up to 14 days reaching the fourth instar (prepupae). The observation was carried out on the rates pupation, adult emergence and eggs production, continuous to their progenies. No morphological damaged are found on the diet-reared insects. A complete absence of cholesterol in the diet for crocidolomia binotalis brought on the emergence of non-fecund adults.

  9. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  10. Carcass analysis to improve a meat-based diet for the artificial rearing of the predatory mirid bug Dicyphus tamaninii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Rafael; Specty, Olivier; Grenier, Simon; Febvay, Gérard; Pageaux, Jean François; Delobel, Bernard; Castañé, Cristina

    2005-10-01

    Improvement of an existing meat-based diet has been obtained for rearing the generalist predator Dicyphus tamaninii (Heteroptera: Miridae). The approach followed, different from the classical addition/deletion method, was performing biochemical analysis of adult carcasses in order to have information about the nutritional status of the predator. Comparison of total, free amino acids and lipid composition of meat-reared and conventionally reared females allowed detecting some nutritional deficiencies. A reformulated diet with new sources of proteins and lipids was tested again with the predator. Some biological parameters of bugs that were inferior in the initial meat diet when compared with those of the conventionally reared insects, such as nymphal development time and fresh weight, have been improved with the reformulated diet. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Microbial counts of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from different rearing companies and different production batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-02-02

    The rising interest in insects for human consumption and the changing regulations in Europe require a profound insight into the food safety of insects reared and sold in Western society. The microbial quality of edible insects has only been studied occasionally. This study aimed at generating an overview of intrinsic parameters (pH, water activity and moisture content) and microbial quality of fresh mealworm larvae and crickets for several rearing companies and for several batches per rearer. In total, 21 batches obtained from 7 rearing companies were subjected to analysis of intrinsic parameters, a range of plate counts and presence-absence tests for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The microbial counts of the fresh insects were generally high. Different rearing batches from a single rearing company showed differences in microbial counts which could not be explained by variations in intrinsic properties. The largest variations were found in numbers of bacterial endospores, psychrotrophs and fungi. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples. Altogether, our study shows that large variations were found between batches from individual rearers. As a consequence, no overall differences between rearers could be observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeito do bebedouro e da densidade no desempenho de frangos alojados em alta temperatura Effect of type of water facility and density on performance of broiler reared in hot-climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José H.V. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do bebedouro pendular (BP e do bebedouro alternativo (BALT, e de diferentes densidades (10 e 14 aves m-2 sobre o desempenho de 240 frangos de corte de 12 a 18, 19 a 38 e de 39 a 46 dias de idade, realizou-se este experimento em condições de temperatura média de 27,6 ºC e umidade relativa de 70,4%, no qual foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois bebedouros x duas densidades, resultando em quatro tratamentos constituídos de cinco repetições de 10 aves. O BALT foi desenvolvido com base no conceito de amplo espaço de calha circular e alta profundidade de lâmina de água (5 cm para permitir a imersão do bico e das faces da ave. Na alimentação das aves, foram utilizadas rações comerciais, cujo consumo (CR caiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar (CA melhorou, quando o BALT foi empregado de 12 a 18 dias. Não houve efeito do bebedouro sobre o CR, ganho de peso (GP e CA no período total. A D14 (14 aves m-2 afetou o GP e o CR de 19 a 38 e de 39 a 46 dias e também no período total, mas a CA não foi alterada. O BALT não afeta o desempenho de frangos de corte, podendo ser usado como opção de baixo custo ao BP. A análise econômica pelo índice de rentabilidade relativa mostrou que o BALT e a D14 oferecem 1 e 5,9% de retorno a mais que o BP e a D10, (10 aves m-2 respectivamente.The experiment was undertaken in conditions of average temperature of 27.6 ºC and relative humidity of 70.4%, with the objective to evaluate bell (BD and alternative (ALT water facility and stocking densities (SD of 10 and 14 broilers m-2 (SD10 and SD14, on performance of 240 broiler chickens of 12 to 18, 19 to 38 and 39 to 46 days of age, allotted in boxes in a completely randomized design in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two types of drinking facility and two stocking densities, resulting in four treatments, each one with five replications of ten birds. The ALT was developed based on

  13. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  14. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  15. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  16. Honey bees consider larval nutritional status rather than genetic relatedness when selecting larvae for emergency queen rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N; Lucas, Hannah M; Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Breece, Carolyn R

    2018-05-16

    In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments manipulating the nutritional status of one day old larvae by depriving them of brood food for a four-hour period, and then allowing workers to choose larvae for rearing queens from nutritionally deprived and non-deprived larvae. We simultaneously investigated the role of genetic relatedness in selection of larvae for queen rearing. In all the experiments, significantly greater numbers of non-deprived larvae than deprived larvae were selected for queen rearing irrespective of genetic relatedness. Our results demonstrate that honey bees perceive the nutritional state of larvae and use that information when selecting larvae for rearing queens in the natural emergency queen replacement process.

  17. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Parental rearing and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.

  19. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  20. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  1. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  2. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  3. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  4. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  5. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  6. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  7. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Walton, William E; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1) arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1) of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1)). Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1) of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1) arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.

  8. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Walton, William E.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l−1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g−1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142–290 ng g−1). Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g−1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l−1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies. PMID:23826344

  9. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Mogren

    Full Text Available The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1. Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.

  10. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wild-type DNA resulted in the production of adults with wing ... using conventional method of breeding and selection. .... insects, birds, and other animals .... used to derive the expression of the antibiotic, tetracycline repressible transactivator.

  11. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects (as might be the case when a nest is disturbed, or when Africanized honeybees are involved); ... test with the five commercially available venoms; honey bee, paper wasp, yellow jacket, yellow hornet and white- ...

  12. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  13. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  14. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and...

  15. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  16. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospects for the future development and application of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.; Hendrichs, J.

    2005-01-01

    Science-based modern agriculture and international trade in agricultural commodities have achieved that, even though the world population has doubled in the last 40 years, the absolute number of people in poverty and hunger has been falling steadily. The major challenge in the immediate future is to consolidate these positive gains, while simultaneously expanding environment-friendly agricultural practices. Within this context, the sterile insect technique (SIT), as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, will continue to gain momentum for application against certain key insect pests. This is in response to the demands for cleaner food and a better environment, the need to facilitate increasing international trade by overcoming pest related trade barriers to the movement of agricultural commodities, and the imperative of dealing with the increasing invasion of exotic pests. As the use of the technology increases, changes will continue to be made to improve the overall efficiency of the technique for those species where the SIT is already being used, and to expand the use of the technique to new key species. Modem biotechnology may also contribute to improving efficiency and, even though there are as yet no transgenic strains of pest insects that could be used in AW-IPM programmes, transgenic technology may eventually benefit these programmes in terms of strain marking, genetic sexing, molecular sterilization, and disease refractoriness; however, first the regulatory hurdle to allow their use will have to be overcome. There appears to be much promise in improving sterile male performance by exposing male insects to hormonal, nutritional, microbial, and semiochemical supplements. Furthermore, the management of mother colonies will be significantly improved to reduce the effects of colonization and to slow down mass-rearing effects on key behavioural parameters that often result in rapid colony deterioration. Progress will also need to be

  18. Nutritional valuse of edible coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio and Alphitobius diaperinus reared reared in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects have gained the status of highly nutritious food with high protein and fat content. However, nutritional value of insects is not constant. It could be affected by species, developmental stage, rearing technology, nutrition or sex. This study's goal is to determine the protein and fat contents of three edible beetle species (giant mealworm - larvae of Zophobas morio, mealworm - larvae of Tenebrio molitor and, lesser mealworm - larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus bred in the Czech Republic. Based on the obtained results, all investigated species could be considered as a reasonable source of lipids and two of them (mealworm and lesser mealworm are also an excellent source of protein. Crude protein content of mealworm (630 g. kg-1 DM was found to be higher than in other studies. The investigated species of lesser mealworm contained 600 g of crude protein/kg DM, which was equal to the results of other authors. Most authors report a higher content of nitrogen in the giant mealworm than were the values measured by this experiment (390 g.kg-1 DM. The lipid content in the tested samples was found in a range of 170 - 390 g.kg-1 DM. The highest lipid content was found in the larvae of giant mealworm and the lowest lipid content was found in the larvae of mealworm. The determined fat content of lesser mealworms was 290 g.kg-1. The fatty acid profiles of all samples were also determined.

  19. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  20. The development and mass-rearing of cabbage pests (Plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis) on semisynthetic diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1983-01-01

    Heavy damage to cabbage plantations in Indonesia as caused by plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis furnished economic justification of research on the sterile-male approach to eradication of this species. The sterile-male technique requires a mass-production of these insects, therefore studies were initiated on rearing larvae in artificial diets. A series of media based on biochemical and biological ingridients were tested. Larvae of the second instar were kept on artificial medium up to 14 days reaching the fourth instar (prepupae). The observation was carried out on the rates pupation, adult emergence and eggs production, continuoous to their progenies. No morphological damaged are found on the diet-reared insects. A complete absence of cholesterol in the diet for crocidolomia binotalis brought on the emergence of non-fecund adults. (author)

  1. Effect of growers transportation from rearing facility to fattening unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... Group A contained those pigs with a normal white blood cell (WBC) count, and ... were probably caused by other stressogenic factors such as transport, adaptation to a new .... multi-gas monitor (RAE Systems, San Jose, USA).

  2. Effect of growers transportation from rearing facility to fattening unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... the air, feed contaminated with mycotoxins, as well as by stress associated with ... effects of the movement of animals and management conditions on ..... These results agree with a study on poultry maintained in a confined ...

  3. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  4. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  5. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure........ Enteritidis, and C. jejuni was faster in manure with rearing of fly larvae than in manure without larvae; an 8 log10 reduction of all three test bacteria was observed within four days in manure with larvae; compared to manure without larvae where a 1 to 2 log10 was observed. We found no sign of propagation...

  6. Determination of the efficiency of diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, P A D H N; Uduwawala, U M H U; Udayanga, N W B A L; Ranathunge, R M T B; Amarasinghe, L D; Abeyewickreme, W

    2017-11-23

    Larval diet quality and rearing conditions have a direct and irreversible effect on adult traits. Therefore, the current study was carried out to optimize the larval diet for mass rearing of Aedes aegypti, for Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)-based applications in Sri Lanka. Five batches of 750 first instar larvae (L 1) of Ae. aegypti were exposed to five different concentrations (2-10%) of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended the larval diet. Morphological development parameters of larva, pupa, and adult were detected at 24 h intervals along with selected growth parameters. Each experiment was replicated five times. General Linear Modeling along with Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical treatments. Significant differences (P rate and success, sex ratio, adult success, fecundity and hatching rate of Ae. aegypti. The best quality adults can be produced at larval diet concentration of 10%. However, the 8% larval diet concentration was most suitable for adult male survival.

  7. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  8. Efficiency of two larval diets for mass-rearing of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J G Bond

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (SIT. Larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for SIT programs. We compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA diet, developed for rearing Ae. albopictus, and a standardized laboratory rodent diet (LRD, under a 14:10 h (light:dark photoperiod ("light" treatment or continuous darkness during larval rearing. Larval development was generally fastest in the IAEA diet, likely reflecting the high protein and lipid content of this diet. The proportion of larvae that survived to pupation or to adult emergence did not differ significantly between diets or light treatments. Insects from the LRD-dark treatment produced the highest proportion of male pupae (93% at 24 h after the beginning of pupation whereas adult sex ratio from the IAEA diet tended to be more male-biased than that of the LRD diet. Adult longevity did not differ significantly with larval diet or light conditions, irrespective of sex. In other aspects the LRD diet generally performed best. Adult males from the LRD diet were significantly larger than those from the IAEA diet, irrespective of light treatment. Females from the LRD diet had ~25% higher fecundity and ~8% higher egg fertility compared to those from the IAEA diet. Adult flight ability did not differ between larval diets, and males had a similar number of copulations with wild females, irrespective of larval diet. The LRD diet had lower protein and fat content but a higher carbohydrate and energetic content than the IAEA diet. We conclude that the LRD diet is a low-cost standardized diet that is likely to be suitable for mass-rearing of Ae. aegypti for area-wide SIT-based vector control.

  9. Can alien plants support generalist insect herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Tallamy; Meg Ballard; Vincent D' Amico

    2009-01-01

    Rearing experiments were conducted to address two questions relevant to understanding how generalist lepidopteran herbivores interact with alien plants. We reared 10 yellow-striped armyworms (Spodoptera ornithogalli),...

  10. Differences in behaviour and physiology between adult surrogate-reared and mother-reared Cynomolgous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to

  11. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  12. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  13. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  14. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  15. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  16. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  17. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  18. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural and...

  19. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  20. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  1. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  2. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  3. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  4. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  5. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, E.B.; McInnis, D.O.; Lance, D.R.; Carvalho, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  6. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  7. Limited mobility of target pests crucially lowers controllability when sterile insect releases are spatiotemporally biased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegawa, Yusuke; Himuro, Chihiro

    2017-05-21

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a genetic pest control method wherein mass-reared sterile insects are periodically released into the wild, thereby impeding the successful reproduction of fertile pests. In Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, the SIT has been implemented to eradicate the West Indian sweet potato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), which is a flightless agricultural pest of sweet potatoes. It is known that E. postfasciatus is much less mobile than other insects to which the SIT has been applied. However, previous theoretical studies have rarely examined effects of low mobility of target pests and variation in the spatiotemporal evenness of sterile insect releases. To theoretically examine the effects of spatiotemporal evenness on the regional eradication of less mobile pests, we constructed a simple two-patch population model comprised of a pest and sterile insect moving between two habitats, and numerically simulated different release strategies (varying the number of released sterile insects and release intervals). We found that spatially biased releases allowed the pest to spatially escape from the sterile insect, and thus intensively lowered its controllability. However, we showed that the temporally counterbalancing spatially biased releases by swapping the number of released insects in the two habitats at every release (called temporal balancing) could greatly mitigate this negative effect and promote the controllability. We also showed that the negative effect of spatiotemporally biased releases was a result of the limited mobility of the target insect. Although directed dispersal of the insects in response to habitats of differing quality could lower the controllability in the more productive habitat, the temporal balancing could promote and eventually maximize the controllability as released insects increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  9. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  10. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio, E-mail: dorozco1@prodigy.net.m [United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology; Sigma Space Corporation, MD(United States); Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  11. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  12. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  13. Exposure to increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness and increases use of three-dimensional space in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors, would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160 were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80 in an aviary and the other half (n = 80 in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by ANOVA on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis (PCA. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds had lower levels of fearfulness, compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency towards a more active behavioral response in the aviary- than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform and upper perch compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens.

  14. Temporal changes in stored-product insect populations associated with boot, pit, and load-out areas of grain elevators and feed mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial grain elevator and feed mill facilities can quickly become infested with stored-product insect pests, compromising the protection of the raw and processed cereal products stored at each facility type. Grain facilities of each type were sampled monthly for adults of stored-product insects ...

  15. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  16. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  17. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  18. Rear end collision: Causes and avoidance techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nekovee, Maziar; Bie, Jing; Naja, Rola

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collision is one of the most frequent accidents occurring on roadways. This chapter investigates how vehicle’s local parameters in a platoon of cars (i.e., perception and information collection, vehicle speed, safe distance, braking parameters) affect the global behavior of the traffic

  19. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  20. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  1. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Roffeis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of insect based feeds (IBFs promises great potential, especially in developing countries, the sustainability performance of IBF production remains widely underexplored. Drawing on experimental data from rearing trials in West Africa, three different insect production systems were modelled ex-ante. The generic models served as a basis to analyse and compare the process performances of different IBF production systems using Musca domestica and Hermetia illucens reared on different substrates. The results show that the input efficiency in the production of IBF is largely determined by the quality of rearing substrates, the larval development time and the employed inoculation practises, i.e., the method by which eggs or larvae are added to rearing substrates. The H. illucens system ranked highest for conversion efficiency (substrate input per IBF output, but showed substantially higher inputs in labour, fossil energy and output of wastewater. M. domestica systems operated at lower conversion efficiencies, which resulted in higher outputs of residue substrates, together with higher emissions, land requirements, built infrastructure and water. By offering full disclosure of generic inventory data, this study provides data and inspiration for prospect research and development activities and offers a reference to future life cycle assessments (LCAs on IBF.

  2. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is

  3. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  4. Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.L.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Manoukis, N.C.; Reyes-Flores, J.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline attempts to assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. For instance, it provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required in the intervention area so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. The calculations, for the most part, only involve high school mathematics and can be done easily with small portable computers or calculators. The guideline is intended to be a reference book, to be consulted when necessary. As such, any particular AW-IPM programme using the SIT will probably only need certain sections, and much of the book can be ignored if that is the case. For example, if the intervention area is relatively small and well isolated, then the section on dispersal can safely be ignored, as the boundedness of the area means that dispersal should not be a problem, and so the section on diffusion equations can be ignored. An overview is given in each chapter to try to let the programme manager make a decision about where to put the programme efforts. On the other hand, most SIT programmes have an information system (many of them based on GIS) that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last days or weeks but usually do not explain, or barely explain, what is expected in the following days or weeks. Current AW-IPM progammes using the SIT have produced over many years a vast amount of every-day data from the field operations and from the mass rearing facility and packing and sterile insect releasing centres. With the help of this guideline, that information can be used to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

  5. RANCIDITY DEVELOPMENT DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF FILLETS FROM GILTHEAD SEABREAM (Sparus aurata REARED IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation indices (Free Fatty Acids-FFA, Peroxide Value-PV and Thiobarbituric Acid-TBA were evaluated in frozen fillets from seabream reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons or net-cages. Statistically significant differences emerged among seabream sources for all indices. Quality loss related to rancidity seemed to have been affected by both storage time and culturing system.

  6. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  7. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  8. Rearing larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel on media containing banana or rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poramarcom, R.; Mitchell, S.

    1983-12-01

    Materials available in Thailand were substituted for some of those in the standard medium currently used in rearing larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of this study is to decrease rearing costs through medium modification in Thailand. Larvae were reared in different media: three media containing banana and the other three containing rice bran, as the main ingredient. Wheat germ flakes and torula yeast were added to at: (1) 7.2 and 3.6% (2) 7.2 and 7.2% and (3) 10.8 and 7.2% by weight respectively. The standard medium comprised the seventh medium. The results showed that higher mean pupal recovery, higher mean pupal weight, and higher mean percentage of adult eclosion were obtained from media containing banana compared to media without banana. Media containing banana, (3) and (1), resulted in a significantly (P=0.05) higher mean pupal recovery, 57.49 and 56.88% respectively. Media containing banana, (2) and (3), resulted in the highest mean pupal weight, 12 and 11.68 mg. respectively. Media containing banana produced pupae with highest percentage of adult eclosion. No significant difference was observed in fecundity and fertility of flies reared in all media. Torula yeast and/or wheat germ flakes did not increase the number or weight of pupae. This study showed that media containing banana was the most suitable media for rearing D. dorsalis larvae. All three media containing rice bran were unsuitable for rearing this insect

  9. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  10. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  11. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  12. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  13. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  14. Studies on controls of the insects infested on growing legume crops and stored grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, Y.I.; Shin, I.C.; Koh, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    Present studies were carried out to control the insect pests which infest on rice, barley, wheat, redbeam and mungbeam grains during the storage period. For application of radiation to the pest controls, life spans of indian-meal moth (Plodia interpuctella Hubner) and bean weevil (Callosobruches chinensis L.) were investigated in different rearing conditions. Eggs and adults of the bean weevil were irradiated with various doses of γ-ray to determine radiosensitivities of the insect. For the ecological control of general legume insects, screening for varietal resistance to bean weevil and beanfly were performed in the experiment field. Radioisotope, P-32, was applied to screening of soybean resistant to aphid. Also, the germinability and the seedling height were measured in γ-ray irradiated mungbean for the grain storage. (author)

  15. Insects on pig carcasses as a model for predictor of death interval in forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Wangko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic entomology has not been acknowledged in Indonesia so far. Indonesian carrion insects are very rarely reported. The aim of this study was to obtain the types of insects on pig carcasses that could be used for the estimation of post-mortem interval.Methods: Four domestic pigs sacrificed with different methods were used as a model. The carcasses were observed twice daily (around 9 a.m and 4 p.m during 15 days to assess the stages of decomposition and to collect insects, both in mature and immature stages. The immature insects were reared and the mature insects were indentified in the Laboratory of Pests and Plant Diseases, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were identified both morphologically and with deoxyribose-nucleic acid (DNA techniques.Results: Five stages of decomposition (fresh, bloated, active decay, post-decay, and skeletonization were observed. A total of 11 Diptera and 8 Coleoptera species were found during a 15-days succession study. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens colonized in all carcasses.Conclusion: Insects found on four different pig carcasses consisted mainly of widespread Diptera and Coleoptera. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens seemed to be primary candidates for the estimation of the post-mortem interval.

  16. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations from 1 ...

  17. Development of a rear wall for the KATRIN rear section and investigation of tritium compatibility of rear section components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Kerstin

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  18. Development of a Rear Wall for the KATRIN Rear Section and investigation of tritium compatibility of Rear Section components

    OpenAIRE

    Schönung, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c2 (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  19. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  20. Insect neuropeptides regulating substrate mobilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-25

    Sep 25, 1997 ... Insect flight muscles perform their work completely aerobically, and working flight musdes are ... locusts where they are involved in the control of carbohydrate ... the vertebrate hypothalamo/hypophyseal system, and it can.

  1. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  3. Atomic war on insects intensified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Intensive research work in many countries using nuclear methods aimed at reducing the immense food losses caused by insects have led to a number of important trial operations this year. Some are now in progress in Capri, the famous Italian tourist island, and in Central America. Both are directed against the Mediterranean fruit fly, which attacks most fruit in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Similar methods are also developing to combat other insect pests

  4. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  5. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... nationwide downward trend in fatalities when a passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer--neither in... total crashes. The Fatality Accident Reporting System does not list the model year of the trailer. In... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy...

  6. Effects of Irradiation on Insect Host-Parasite Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1968-06-15

    Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)

  7. Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT, are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs - and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance.

  8. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  9. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia's Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-11-10

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host's fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia's genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia's riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. Conventionally, Wolbachia has been regarded as a parasitic bacterial endosymbiont that manipulates the host insect's reproduction in a

  10. Immunocompetence of breeding females is sensitive to cortisol levels but not to communal rearing in the degu (Octodon degus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; León, Cecilia; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; Abades, Sebastian; Hayes, Loren D; Nova, Esteban; Salazar, Fabián; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Becker, María Inés

    2015-03-01

    One hypothesis largely examined in social insects is that cooperation in the context of breeding benefits individuals through decreasing the burden of immunocompetence and provide passive immunity through social contact. Similarly, communal rearing in social mammals may benefit adult female members of social groups by reducing the cost of immunocompetence, and through the transfer of immunological compounds during allonursing. Yet, these benefits may come at a cost to breeders in terms of a need to increase investment in individual immunocompetence. We examined how these potential immunocompetence costs and benefits relate to reproductive success and survival in a natural population of the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus. We related immunocompetence (based on ratios of white blood cell counts, total and specific immunoglobulins of G isotype titers) and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGC) levels of adults immunized with hemocyanin from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas to measures of sociality (group size) and communal rearing (number of breeding females). Offspring immunocompetence was quantified based on circulating levels of the same immune parameters. Neither female nor offspring immunocompetence was influenced by communal rearing or sociality. These findings did not support that communal rearing and sociality enhance the ability of females to respond to immunological challenges during lactation, or contribute to enhance offspring condition (based on immunocompetence) or early survival (i.e., to 3months of age). Instead, levels of humoral and cellular components of immunocompetence were associated with variation in glucorcorticoid levels of females. We hypothesize that this covariation is driven by physiological (life-history) adjustments needed to sustain breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rearing method of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L. (Coleoptera, Silvanidae on various wheat grain granulometry Método de criação de Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L. (Coleoptera, Silvanidae em trigo de diversas granulometrias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenara dos Santos Beckel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of most common insect pest of grains and a variety of stored products, and has been found in high numbers in almost all storage facilities. However, laboratory mass rearing of this insect for bioassays is not a simple task, mainly because of its feeding behavior, small size, and high mobility. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a simple and efficient laboratory rearing method for O. surinamensis, using wheat kernels milled into different granulometry to obtain large number and standardized population at different life stages for bioassays. The adults were collected from storage grain facilities in the southern region of Brazil and 100 specimens were placed inside glass jars with wheat kernels milled at different grades and kept at 25±0.5ºC and 65±5% relative humidity. The insects were allowed to copulate and lay eggs for 10 days and then removed. The number of eggs, larvae, and pupae was counted at five-day intervals; longevity of the second generation adults was evaluated. The kernels milled at grade 20 were the best medium for offspring production: 89% of eggs by the 5th day; 30.5% larvae by the 10th day; 43% pupae by the 30th day and 63.4% adults at the 46th day. The adults survived up to 450 days. Culturing O. surinamensis under the described conditions, transferring the parental adults by the 10th day after infestation and replacing the media when population builds up will produce enough insects of each stage for various laboratory bioassays.Oryzaephilus surinamensis é uma das espécies de insetos-praga mais comuns em grãos e outros produtos armazenados, e tem ocorrido em grandes populações em praticamente todas as unidades de armazenamento de grãos. Contudo, a criação massal deste inseto, em laboratório, para bioensaios diversos, não tem sido uma tarefa simples, em função de seu comportamento alimentar, tamanho reduzido e alta mobilidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver

  12. Comparison of several artificial diets with different protein sources for massal rearing of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mauro S.; Parra, Jose R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) was compared among four artificial diets with different protein sources based on biological characteristics and fertility life table in order to have the insect available throughout the year for research in different areas. All diets with variable protein sources (D1= bean, yeast, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2= corn flour, wheat germ, and yeast; D3= soybean protein, and wheat germ; D4= bean, yeast and wheat germ) allowed the insect to developed at 27 +- 2 deg C; RH 65 +- 10% and 14 h photophase. In all diets the insect presented four instars with several other similar biological characteristics. Since diet D2 (corn flour, wheat germ and yeast) provided the lowest development time, the highest viability, a high value of finite ratio of increase (ll), besides being of low cost and easy preparation, it can be considered as the most adequate for laboratory rearing of E. aurantiana. Balanced nutrients showed more important than the nutritional value of the components of the diet for this insect which is, for the first time, fed on artificial diet. (author)

  13. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  14. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  15. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Mrabu Jenoh

    Full Text Available Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s, the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae.The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to

  16. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  17. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Edible insects - defining knowledge gaps in biological and ethical considerations of entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Binder, Regina; Moens, Yves; Polesny, Friedrich; Monsó, Susana

    2018-04-25

    While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in the area of insect welfare, especially regarding species-specific needs, health, farming systems and humane methods of killing. Recent results from neurophysiological, neuroanatomical and behavioral sciences prompt caution when denying consciousness and therefore the likelihood of presence of pain and suffering or something closely related to it to insects. It also needs to be determined what the costs of implementing welfare standards would be, and whether we are willing to pay the price. From an animal protection point of view, these issues should be satisfyingly solved before propagating and establishing intensive husbandry systems for insects as a new type of mini-livestock factory farming.

  19. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R.E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  1. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEILA P. CARVALHO-FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  2. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which Dutch consumers, with and without insect tasting experience, are more or less willing to eat different insects. Design/methodology/approach: In a ...

  3. Effect of Rearing Periods on the Production of Hybrid Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerling production of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobanchus longifilis) was investigated over three rearing periods of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks in fertilized earthen ponds during the rainy season. At harvest, fingerling mean weight was directly related to length of rearing period, while survival rate and ...

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  5. Adolescent Coping Styles and Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth

    1994-01-01

    A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques…

  6. Improved seat and manniken models to study rear impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, A.R.; Wu, P.; Shanmugavelu, I.; Mondeau, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Occupant injury in automobile rear-end collisions is rapidly becoming one of the most aggravating traffic safety problems with high human suffering and societal costs. Recent studies in Europe, Canada and Japan have found that injury claims, in particular neck injuries due to rear impact have

  7. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.; Katsoyannos, B.

    2007-01-01

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [es

  8. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  9. Cycad Aulacaspis Scale, a Newly Introduced Insect Pest in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANGASWAMY MUNIAPPAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae is native to Thailand and Vietnam. Since the early 1990s it has been spreading around the world due to the trade in cycad plants for ornamental use. Infestation by this scale can kill cycads in only a few months. Its accidental introduction to Florida endangered the ornamental cycad-growing industry; and in Guam and Taiwan, endemic cycads (Cycas micronesica and C. taitungensis, respectively are currently threatened with extinction by cycad aulacaspis scale. In November 2011, an introduced scale was discovered damaging cycads in the Bogor Botanic Garden. Samples from Bogor were taken for identification of the scale, and the material was kept for some time to rear out any insect parasitoids that were present. Both the scale insects and parasitoids were prepared on microscope slides and studied microscopically for authoritative identification. The scale was confirmed as A. yasumatsui. The parasitoid Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Aurivillius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae and the hyperparasitoid Signiphora bifasciata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae were identified from the samples. Unless immediate remedial measures are taken, several endemic species of cycad in Indonesia may be endangered by infestation by cycad aulacaspis scale.

  10. Insect disinfestation in smoked fish by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudatis, Boonya; Banditsing, Chettachai

    1982-01-01

    The experiment on insect disinfestation in smoked fish by gamma irradiation was done by irradiating 2-day-old eggs, 28-day-old larvae, 5-day-old pupae, and 5-day-old adults, reared at 26 +- 1 degC and 75-70% RH., with doses of 0-.5, 0-20 Krad respectively for sterility dose and with doses of 0-2, 0-6, 0-60, 20-60 Krad respectively for LD 50 . The results obtained from this experiment are as follows: (1) For the study of all stages of this insect sterility doses, there was no irradiated egg hatch in all doses and only irradiated larvae with 1-5 Krad reached pupal stage but emerged as malformed adults and died. Furthermore, the sterility doses for pupal and adult stage are both at 7.5 Krad. However, the percent of egg hatch from 5 Krad pupae and 5 Krad adults are .18 and .4 respectively. (2) The LD 50 checked at different times after irradiation in each stage for 2-day-old eggs after 2 days, for 28-day-old larvae after 7 days, 5-day-old pupae after 5 days, and for 5-day-old adults after 5 days are .48, 12.85, 18.5 and 29.78 Krad respectively

  11. Microbial dynamics during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the tropical house cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, Dries; Wynants, Enya; Crauwels, Sam; Verreth, Christel; Viaene, Nikolaas; Claes, Johan; Lievens, Bart; Van Campenhout, Leen

    2018-04-06

    In this study, the microbiota during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the edible tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus , was investigated. To this end, samples were analyzed of the cricket feed, before feeding as well as taken from the cages, and the crickets during rearing, after harvest, and after processing into frozen, oven-dried, and smoked and subsequently oven-dried end products. Although the feed contained lower microbial numbers than the crickets, both were dominated by the same species-level operational taxonomic units as determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing. They corresponded, among others, to members of Porphyromonadaceae, Fusobacterium , Parabacteroides and Erwinia The harvested crickets contained high microbial numbers, but none of the investigated food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , and coagulase-positive staphylococci. However, some possible mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from the crickets. A post-harvest heat treatment, shortly boiling the crickets, reduced microbial numbers, but an endospore load of 2.4 log cfu/g remained. After processing, an increase in microbial counts was observed for dried and smoked plus dried crickets. Additionally, in the smoked plus dried crickets, a high abundance of a Bacillus sp. was observed. Considering the possible occurrence of food-pathogenic species from this genus, it is advised to apply a heat treatment which is sufficient to eliminate spores. Nevertheless, the microbial numbers remained constant over a six-month storage period, frozen (frozen end product) or at ambient temperature (oven-dried and smoked plus dried end products). Importance. The need for sustainable protein sources has led to the emergence of a new food sector, producing and processing edible insects into foods. However, insight into the microbial quality of this new food and into the microbial dynamics during rearing, processing and storage of edible insects is still

  12. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  13. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  14. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives

  15. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives.

  16. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  17. Division of labor associated with brood rearing in the honey bee: how does it translate to colony fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh R Sagili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor is a striking feature observed in honey bees and many other social insects. Division of labor has been claimed to benefit fitness. In honey bees, the adult work force may be viewed as divided between non-foraging hive bees that rear brood and maintain the nest, and foragers that collect food outside the nest. Honey bee brood pheromone is a larval pheromone that serves as an excellent empirical tool to manipulate foraging behaviors and thus division of labor in the honey bee. Here we use two different doses of brood pheromone to alter the foraging stimulus environment, thus changing demographics of colony division of labor, to demonstrate how division of labor associated with brood rearing affects colony growth rate. We examine the effects of these different doses of brood pheromone on individual foraging ontogeny and specialization, colony level foraging behavior, and individual glandular protein synthesis. Low brood pheromone treatment colonies exhibited significantly higher foraging population, decreased age of first foraging and greater foraging effort, resulting in greater colony growth compared to other treatments. This study demonstrates how division of labor associated with brood rearing affects honey bee colony growth rate, a token of fitness.

  18. Economic Analysis for Commingling Effects of Insect Activity in the Elevator Boot Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Dennis R; Casada, Mark E; Langemeier, Michael R; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model were developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects of insect activity in the boot area. Modified pilot-scale bucket elevator legs, containing residual wheat or corn, were infested with varying insect pest densities prior to clean grain transfers. Appropriate grain discounts were applied to grain samples obtained from clean grain transfers over either: 1) insect-free and untreated boots, 2) infested and untreated boots, or 3) infested and chemical-treated (β-cyfluthrin) boots. The insect-free boots simulated performing clean-out of the boot area. Partial budget analysis and stochastic dominance modeling indicated that boot sanitation (cleanout) about every 30 d, avoiding costly grain discounts from insect commingling, is the preferred choice. Although chemical spray treatments of the empty boot may reduce insect populations of some boot residual grains, boot cleanout always had lower and usually zero insect pest populations in the boot residual grain, providing higher facility operational net income without the use of chemicals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  20. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  1. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…

  2. NIR detects, destroys insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    What’s good for Georgia peanuts may also be good for Kansas wheat. An electric eye that scans all food-grade peanuts for visual defects could one day do the same for wheat kernels. For peanuts, it’s a proven method for monitoring quality. In wheat, scanning with near-infrared (NIR) energy can reveal hidden insect infestations that lower wheat quality. ARS entomologists James E. Throne and James E. Baker and ARS agricultural engineer Floyd E. Dowell are the first to combine NIR with an automated grain-handling system to rapidly detect insects hidden in single wheat kernels

  3. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  4. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  5. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  6. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  7. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  8. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  9. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  10. Social insects and selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F

    2001-10-01

    Sometimes science advances because of a new idea. Sometimes, it's because of a new technique. When both occur together, exciting times result. In the study of social insects, DNA-based methods for measuring relatedness now allow increasingly detailed tests of Hamilton's theory of kin selection.

  11. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  12. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  13. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  14. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  15. Determining host suitability of pecan for stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufran, A A; Mulder, P G; Payton, M E; Shufran, K A

    2013-04-01

    A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); and rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Fifty adults of each beetle species or 10 reproductive pairs of P. interpunctella adults were placed in 0.5-liter containers with either whole-shell pecans, cracked-shell pecans, randomly selected in-shell pecans, pecan nutmeats, cracked wheat, or glass beads and held at 28 degrees C, 60-70% relative humidity, and 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. Four replications of each insect-diet-interval combination were performed. Larvae of P. interpunctella, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, and adult P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis developed on cracked and nutmeat pecan diets. R. dominica did not complete reproduction on pecans. Knowledge that these pests can reproduce on stored pecan will assist pecan growers, accumulators, and storage facilities in preventing insect outbreaks on their product.

  16. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  17. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose

  18. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available.

  19. How Insects Survive Winter in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how insects cope with cold temperatures can not only help entomologists more accurately forecast when and where insects are active, but it may also help us understand how climate change will influence insect pests. This newsletter article provides a comprehensive overview of how Midwes...

  20. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  1. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  2. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  3. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  4. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  5. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; McInnis, D.; Shelly, T.; Jang, E.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [es

  6. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and expression of the transgene in six selected T0 transgenic wheat lines were confirmed at the molecular level. Accumulation of avidin protein was detected in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants. Avidin transgene was stably integrated, transcribed and translated as indicated by Southern blot, ELISA, and dot blot analyses, with a high level of expression in transgenic wheat seeds. However, no expression was detected in untransformed wheat seeds. Functional integrity of avidin was confirmed by insect bioassay. The results of bioassay using transgenic wheat plants challenged with wheat weevil revealed 100 % mortality of the insects reared on transgenic plants after 21 days. Transgenic wheat plants had improved resistance to Sitophilus granarius.

  7. A novel method for rearing first-feeding larval zebrafish: polyculture with Type L saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jason; Adatto, Isaac; Cockington, Jason; James, Althea; Lawrence, Christian

    2010-09-01

    Promoting high rates of growth and survival can be a major challenge in zebrafish culture, especially during the first-feeding stage. Here we describe a new rearing technique in which zebrafish larvae are polycultured in static tanks with Type "L" saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) for the first 5 days of feeding (days 5-9 postfertilization). To demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted rearing trials using fish from two different strains: AB and nacre. Growth, survival, water quality, and rotifer density were assayed daily through the polyculture phase (days 5-9), and during the transition to standard rearing conditions (days 10-12). After that point, once the fish were fully integrated onto recirculating systems, parameters were measured once per week out to day 30. In all trials, the fish displayed high rates of growth and survival throughout the three phases (polyculture, transition, and recirculating flow), indicating that this method may be employed during the critical first-feeding stage to help improve rearing performance in zebrafish facilities. Additionally, water quality parameters observed during the polyculture phase of the trials reveal that early zebrafish larvae are much more tolerant of elevated levels of ammonia and salinity than previously believed.

  8. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    The population size, generic diversity and potential to produce hydrolytic enzymes of heterotrophic bacteria associated with pond reared Penaeus indicus was worked out following standard bacteriological procedures. Chitinoclastic vibrios were found...

  9. Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared in ... Economic importance of morphometric parameters such as live weight and body ... (R2) value of 60.30 included forecast indices such as BL, WS, WL, TL, BG and SL.

  10. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...

  12. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Child-rearing values : The impact of intergenerational class mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study contrasts two theoretical perspectives on the relationship between intergenerational class mobility and child-rearing values. According to the dissociative thesis, which describes social mobility as a disruptive experience leading to insecurity, social isolation, stress and frustration,

  14. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  15. The microbiota of marketed processed edible insects as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Cardinali, Federica; Aquilanti, Lucia; Riolo, Paola; Ruschioni, Sara; Isidoro, Nunzio; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Entomophagy has been linked to nutritional, economic, social and ecological benefits. However, scientific studies on the potential safety risks in eating edible insects need to be carried out for legislators, markets and consumers. In this context, the microbiota of edible insects deserves to be deeply investigated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the microbial species occurring in some processed marketed edible insects, namely powdered small crickets, whole dried small crickets (Acheta domesticus), whole dried locusts (Locusta migratoria), and whole dried mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), through culture-dependent (classical microbiological analyses) and -independent methods (pyrosequencing). A great bacterial diversity and variation among insects was seen. Relatively low counts of total mesophilic aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens spores, yeasts and moulds in all of the studied insect batches were found. Furthermore, the presence of several gut-associated bacteria, some of which may act as opportunistic pathogens in humans, were found through pyrosequencing. Food spoilage bacteria were also identified, as well as Spiroplasma spp. in mealworm larvae, which has been found to be related to neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. Although viable pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected, the presence of Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. (with low abundance) was also found through pyrosequencing. The results of this study contribute to the elucidation of the microbiota associated with edible insects and encourage further studies aimed to evaluate the influence of rearing and processing conditions on that microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-xia Hu; Eric T. T. Wong

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoi...

  17. Methods for culturing saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) for rearing larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Sanders, Erik; Henry, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The saltwater rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, is widely used in the aquaculture industry as a prey item for first-feeding fishes due to its ease of culture, small size, rapid reproductive rate, and amenability to enrichment with nutrients. Despite the distinct advantages of this approach, rotifers have only been sporadically utilized for rearing larval zebrafish, primarily because of the common misconception that maintaining cultures of rotifers is difficult and excessively time-consuming. Here we present simple methods for maintaining continuous cultures of rotifers capable of supporting even the very largest zebrafish aquaculture facility, with minimal investments in materials, time, labor, and space. Examples of the methods' application in one large, existing facility is provided, and troubleshooting of common problems is discussed.

  18. An experiment using neutron activation analysis and a rare earth element to mark cotton plants and two insects that feed on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showler, Allan T. [USDA-ARS IFNRRU, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 East Highway 83, Weslaco, TX 78596 (United States)]. E-mail: ashowler@weslaco.ars.usda.gov; James, William D. [Elemental Analysis Laboratory, 3144 Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3144 (United States); Armstrong, John S. [USDA-ARS BIRU, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 East Highway 83, Weslaco, TX 78596 (United States); Westbrook, John K. [USDA-ARS APMRU, 2771 F and B Road, College Station, TX 77845-4966 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Studies on insect dispersal and other behaviors can benefit from using markers that will not alter flight and fitness. Rare earth elements, such as samarium (Sm), have been used as ingested markers of some insects and detected using neutron activation analysis (NAA). In this study, samarium nitrate hexahydrate was mixed into artificial diet for boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at different dosages and in water used to irrigate cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Samarium was detected in adult boll weevils fed on the samarium-labeled diet, but not after 5 or 10 days of being switched to non-labeled diet, even if the insects were given labeled diet for as long as 7 consecutive days. Introduced in irrigation water, 1% samarium (m/m) was detectable in cotton squares and leaf tissue. However, boll weevil adults fed samarium-labeled squares did not retain detectable levels of samarium, nor did boll weevil adults reared to adulthood from samarium-labeled squares. Fourth instar beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), fed on samarium-labeled cotton leaves obtained enough samarium for NAA detection, but adult moths reared from them did not have detectable amounts of samarium. Although samarium can be useful as a marker when insects are presented with a continuous pulse of the label, elements that are assimilated by the insect would be more useful if a continuous infusion of the marker cannot be provided.

  19. Phase Coexistence in Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2017-10-01

    Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them. We further define a pressure and chemical potential to describe these phases, extending theories of active matter to aggregations of macroscopic animals and laying the groundwork for a thermodynamic description of collective animal groups.

  20. Audiovisual Interactions in Front and Rear Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Montagne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human visual and auditory systems do not encode an entirely overlapped space when static head and body position are maintained. While visual capture of sound source location in the frontal field is known to be immediate and direct, visual influence in the rear auditory space behind the subject remains under-studied. In this study we investigated the influence of presenting frontal LED flashes on the perceived location of a phantom sound source generated using time-delay-based stereophony. Our results show that frontal visual stimuli affected auditory localization in two different ways – (1 auditory responses were laterally shifted (left or right toward the location of the light stimulus and (2 auditory responses were more often in the frontal field. The observed visual effects do not adhere to the spatial rule of multisensory interaction with regard to the physical proximity of cues. Instead, the influence of visual cues interacted closely with front–back confusions in auditory localization. In particular, visually induced shift along the left–right direction occurred most often when an auditory stimulus was localized in the same (frontal field as the light stimulus, even when the actual sound sources were presented from behind a subject. Increasing stimulus duration (from 15-ms to 50-ms significantly mitigated the rates of front–back confusion and the associated effects of visual stimuli. These findings suggest that concurrent visual stimulation elicits a strong frontal bias in auditory localization and confirm that temporal integration plays an important role in decreasing front–back errors under conditions requiring multisensory spatial processing.

  1. Nuclear energy against insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-15

    The paper presents the main topics discussed at the scientific symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, held in Athens last April, jointly organized by IAEA and FAO with the co-operation of the Greek Government. The sterile male technique is discussed in details and some results from the applications are given

  2. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  3. Circadian organization in hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji; Abdelsalam, Salaheldin

    2004-12-01

    The circadian system of hemimetabolous insects is reviewed in respect to the locus of the circadian clock and multioscillatory organization. Because of relatively easy access to the nervous system, the neuronal organization of the clock system in hemimetabolous insects has been studied, yielding identification of the compound eye as the major photoreceptor for entrainment and the optic lobe for the circadian clock locus. The clock site within the optic lobe is inconsistent among reported species; in cockroaches the lobula was previously thought to be a most likely clock locus but accessory medulla is recently stressed to be a clock center, while more distal part of the optic lobe including the lamina and the outer medulla area for the cricket. Identification of the clock cells needs further critical studies. Although each optic lobe clock seems functionally identical, in respect to photic entrainment and generation of the rhythm, the bilaterally paired clocks form a functional unit. They interact to produce a stable time structure within individual insects by exchanging photic and temporal information through neural pathways, in which serotonin and pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved as chemical messengers. The mutual interaction also plays an important role in seasonal adaptation of the rhythm.

  4. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Mittal, R

    2011-01-01

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 μN mm -1 h -1 . For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm -1 . (communication)

  5. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  6. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  8. Oral dosing of chemical indicators for in vivo monitoring of Ca2+ dynamics in insect muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinandus

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a remarkably facile staining protocol to visually investigate dynamic physiological events in insect tissues. We attempted to monitor Ca2+ dynamics during contraction of electrically stimulated living muscle. Advances in circuit miniaturization and insect neuromuscular physiology have enabled the hybridization of living insects and man-made electronic components, such as microcomputers, the result of which has been often referred as a Living Machine, Biohybrid, or Cyborg Insect. In order for Cyborg Insects to be of practical use, electrical stimulation parameters need to be optimized to induce desired muscle response (motor action and minimize the damage in the muscle due to the electrical stimuli. Staining tissues and organs as well as measuring the dynamics of chemicals of interest in muscle should be conducted to quantitatively and systematically evaluate the effect of various stimulation parameters on the muscle response. However, existing staining processes require invasive surgery and/or arduous procedures using genetically encoded sensors. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and remarkably facile method for staining, in which chemical indicators can be orally administered (oral dosing. A chemical Ca2+ indicator was orally introduced into an insect of interest via food containing the chemical indicator and the indicator diffused from the insect digestion system to the target muscle tissue. We found that there was a positive relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the indicator and the frequency of electrical stimulation which indicates the orally dosed indicator successfully monitored Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle tissue. This oral dosing method has a potential to globally stain tissues including neurons, and investigating various physiological events in insects.

  9. Oral dosing of chemical indicators for in vivo monitoring of Ca2+ dynamics in insect muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinandus; Arai, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Suzuki, Madoka; Sato, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a remarkably facile staining protocol to visually investigate dynamic physiological events in insect tissues. We attempted to monitor Ca2+ dynamics during contraction of electrically stimulated living muscle. Advances in circuit miniaturization and insect neuromuscular physiology have enabled the hybridization of living insects and man-made electronic components, such as microcomputers, the result of which has been often referred as a Living Machine, Biohybrid, or Cyborg Insect. In order for Cyborg Insects to be of practical use, electrical stimulation parameters need to be optimized to induce desired muscle response (motor action) and minimize the damage in the muscle due to the electrical stimuli. Staining tissues and organs as well as measuring the dynamics of chemicals of interest in muscle should be conducted to quantitatively and systematically evaluate the effect of various stimulation parameters on the muscle response. However, existing staining processes require invasive surgery and/or arduous procedures using genetically encoded sensors. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and remarkably facile method for staining, in which chemical indicators can be orally administered (oral dosing). A chemical Ca2+ indicator was orally introduced into an insect of interest via food containing the chemical indicator and the indicator diffused from the insect digestion system to the target muscle tissue. We found that there was a positive relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the indicator and the frequency of electrical stimulation which indicates the orally dosed indicator successfully monitored Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle tissue. This oral dosing method has a potential to globally stain tissues including neurons, and investigating various physiological events in insects.

  10. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Morrison, Neil I; Walker, Adam S; Marubbi, Thea; Yao, Ju; Collins, Hilda L; Gorman, Kevin; Davies, T G Emyr; Alphey, Nina; Warner, Simon; Shelton, Anthony M; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-16

    Development and evaluation of new insect pest management tools is critical for overcoming over-reliance upon, and growing resistance to, synthetic, biological and plant-expressed insecticides. For transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ('Bt crops') emergence of resistance is slowed by maintaining a proportion of the crop as non-Bt varieties, which produce pest insects unselected for resistance. While this strategy has been largely successful, multiple cases of Bt resistance have now been reported. One new approach to pest management is the use of genetically engineered insects to suppress populations of their own species. Models suggest that released insects carrying male-selecting (MS) transgenes would be effective agents of direct, species-specific pest management by preventing survival of female progeny, and simultaneously provide an alternative insecticide resistance management strategy by introgression of susceptibility alleles into target populations. We developed a MS strain of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a serious global pest of crucifers. MS-strain larvae are reared as normal with dietary tetracycline, but, when reared without tetracycline or on host plants, only males will survive to adulthood. We used this strain in glasshouse-cages to study the effect of MS male P. xylostella releases on target pest population size and spread of Bt resistance in these populations. Introductions of MS-engineered P. xylostella males into wild-type populations led to rapid pest population decline, and then elimination. In separate experiments on broccoli plants, relatively low-level releases of MS males in combination with broccoli expressing Cry1Ac (Bt broccoli) suppressed population growth and delayed the spread of Bt resistance. Higher rates of MS male releases in the absence of Bt broccoli were also able to suppress P. xylostella populations, whereas either low-level MS male releases or Bt broccoli

  11. Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 gerações em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório.

  12. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  13. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  14. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  15. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  16. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  17. Aquacultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Possess a Large Core Intestinal Microbiota That Is Resistant to Variation in Diet and Rearing Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandi; Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven; Davidson, John; Barrows, Frederic; Kenney, P. Brett; Welch, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D.; Snekvik, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    As global aquaculture fish production continues to expand, an improved understanding of how environmental factors interact in fish health and production is needed. Significant advances have been made toward economical alternatives to costly fishmeal-based diets, such as grain-based formulations, and toward defining the effect of rearing density on fish health and production. Little research, however, has examined the effects of fishmeal- and grain-based diets in combination with alterations in rearing density. Moreover, it is unknown whether interactions between rearing density and diet impact the composition of the fish intestinal microbiota, which might in turn impact fish health and production. We fed aquacultured adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishmeal- or grain-based diets, reared them under high- or low-density conditions for 10 months in a single aquaculture facility, and evaluated individual fish growth, production, fin indices, and intestinal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that the intestinal microbiotas were dominated by a shared core microbiota consisting of 52 bacterial lineages observed across all individuals, diets, and rearing densities. Variations in diet and rearing density resulted in only minor changes in intestinal microbiota composition despite significant effects of these variables on fish growth, performance, fillet quality, and welfare. Significant interactions between diet and rearing density were observed only in evaluations of fin indices and the relative abundance of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus. These results demonstrate that aquacultured rainbow trout can achieve remarkable consistency in intestinal microbiota composition and suggest the possibility of developing novel aquaculture strategies without overtly altering intestinal microbiota composition. PMID:23770898

  18. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Insect Immunity: The Post-Genomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Bangham, Jenny; Jiggins, Frank; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Insects have a complex and effective immune system, many components of which are conserved in mammals. But only in the last decade have the molecular mechanisms that regulate the insect immune response--and their relevance to general biology and human immunology--become fully appreciated. A meeting supported by the Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique (France) was held to bring together the whole spectrum of researchers working on insect immunity. The meeting addressed diverse aspects...

  20. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Adámek; Anna Adámková; Marie Borkovcová; Jiří Mlček; Martina Bednářová; Lenka Kouřimská; Josef Skácel; Michal Řezníček

    2017-01-01

    Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manusc...

  1. Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Shuisong Ye; Yan Fang; Kai Li

    2013-01-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural–city center gradient (RCG), ...

  2. Parental rearing practices from the perspective of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuković Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of parenting in families with adolescents. Special emphasis is placed on the exploration of the concept of parenting rearing practices through the dimensions of parental emotional warmth, control and monitoring. Based on that, starting from the standpoint about the importance of child's perception of parental behaviour, this paper presents the results of the research aimed at examining adolescents' view of parental rearing practices. The instrument used in the research consisted of three subscales (emotional warmth, monitoring, control, as well as the questions about socio-demographic variables. The sample included 154 second grade students of secondary school, i.e. adolescents. The findings have shown that adolescents perceived parental warmth as the most present and parental monitoring and control as less present parental rearing practice. Mother's parental rearing practices were perceived as significantly more present compared to those of the father. Also, it was found that the gender of respondents is a significant variable in the perception of parental rearing practices, while family characteristics (family social status, family structure, parent's educational level and the number of children in the family have not been proved as statistically significant variables. The concluding part emphasizes the need for further research of the factors that determine father's role in the family with adolescents, and the need to develop parent's awareness of the benefits related to adolescent's self-disclosure in the process of parental monitoring.

  3. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-01-01

    The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be traine...

  4. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  5. Predicting the potential establishment of two insect species using the simulation environment INSIM (INsect SIMulation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerik, Lia; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Degree-day models have long been used to predict events in the life cycle of insects and therewith the timing of outbreaks of insect pests and their natural enemies. This approach assumes, however, that the effect of temperature is linear, whereas developmental rates of insects are non-linearly

  6. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  7. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  8. Effect of a fungicide and spray adjuvant on queen-rearing success in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M; Percel, Eric G

    2013-10-01

    Commercial producers of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) have reported unexplained loss of immature queens during the larval or pupal stage. Many affected queen-rearing operations are situated among the almond orchards of California and report these losses in weeks after almond trees bloom. Almond flowers are a rich foraging resource for bees, but are often treated with fungicides, insecticides, and spray adjuvants during bloom. Anecdotal reports by queen producers associate problems in queen development with application of the fungicide Pristine (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) and spray adjuvants that are tank-mixed with it. To test the effect of these compounds on queen development, a new bioassay was developed in which queens are reared in closed swarm boxes for 4 d, until capping, with nurse bees fed exclusively on artificially contaminated pollen. Pollen was treated with four concentrations of formulated Pristine (0.4, 4, 40, and 400 ppm), a spray adjuvant (Break-Thru, 200 ppm), the combination of Pristine and spray adjuvant (400:200 ppm), the insect growth regulator insecticide diflubenzuron (100 ppm) as a positive control, or water as negative control. Chemical analysis revealed that low concentrations of pyraclostrobin (50 ppb), but no boscalid, were detectable in royal jelly secreted by nurse bees feeding on treated pollen. No significant difference in queen development or survival was observed between any of the experimental treatments and the negative control. Only diflubenzuron, the positive control, caused a substantial reduction in survival of immature queens.

  9. Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens was concentrated at the rear of the typhoon Soudelor in Eastern China in August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Ye-Chen; Hu, Yan-Yue; Lu, Ming-Hong; Wan, Gui-Jun; Chen, Fa-Jun; Liu, Wan-Cai; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Hu, Gao

    2017-03-28

    Sometimes, extreme weather is vital for the population survival of migratory insects by causing sudden population collapse or outbreak. Several studies have shown that rice planthopper migration was significantly influenced by typhoons in eastern Asia. Most typhoons occur in the summer, especially in August. In August, brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) migrates northward or southward depending on wind direction, and thus typhoons can potentially influence its migration process and population distribution. However, this has not yet been studied. This paper reported a case study on the effects of Typhoon Soudelor on the summer migration of N. lugens in eastern China in 2015. The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of a typhoon by calculating the trajectories and migration events in eight counties of the Yangtze River Valley region with ancillary information. Trajectory modelling showed that most migrants took short distance migrations (less than 200 km) under the influence of the Typhoon Soudelor. Numerous N. lugens migrants were concentrated and deposited at the rear of the typhoon during the last 5 days of Typhoon Soudelor on August 9-13 due to horizontal convergence, and this led to an outbreak population. These results indicated that the N. lugens population was redistributed by the typhoon in the summer and that the population dynamics at the rear of a typhoon should be kept under close surveillance. This study provided insight into migratory organisms adapting to atmospheric features. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersema JSC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  11. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-09-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  12. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  13. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  14. Comparative demography of the exotic Harmonia axyridis with other aphidophagous coccinellids reared on artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare biological aspects and life table parameters of the coccinellids Harmonia axyridis, Cycloneda sanguinea and Hippodamia convergens. Insects were fed eggs of Anagasta kuehniella, and reared at 24.5±1ºC, 70±10% relative humidity, with a 12 hour photophase. Hippodamia convergens took about 1.6 day to complete development, longer than H. axyridis, and 2.4 day longer than C. sanguinea. At immature stages, H. axyridis exhibited the highest survival percentage (49.2%, in comparison to the other coccinellids. For mean adult longevity, H. convergens was deficient, in comparison with the other species. Mean period of pre oviposition was the longest in C. sanguinea; the longest oviposition time occurred for H. axyridis; and the post oviposition period was similar between the coccinellids. Considering the reproductive parameters, H. axyridis showed the best performance in all aspects. For life table, the values of H. convergens were higher than, although close, to those of H. axyridis. Nevertheless, the high net reproductive rate of H. axyridis showed this species potential to increase population size. The biological characteristics of the exotic H. axyridis favors its invasion and establishment in Brazil, corroborating results noticed in other countries.

  15. Comparison of fatty acid profile of wild and farm reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lingam

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... essential to promote successful maturation and spawning which in turn enable ... random selection of brooders by hatchery, improper .... n-6/n-3 ratio. 2.01. 0.817 .... organisms such as worms, insect larvae, small mollusks,.

  16. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  17. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, Srisan

    1978-06-15

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  20. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, James L; Kearney, Michael R

    2015-11-22

    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg(-1)) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  2. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  3. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  9. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  10. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  12. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  14. Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food culture and food systems around the world. While insect farming for both food and feed is rapidly increasing in popularity around the world, the ro...

  15. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  16. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  17. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  18. The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture has evolved independently in three insect orders: once in ants, once in termites, and seven times in ambrosia beetles. Although these insect farmers are in some ways quite different from each other, in many more ways they are remarkably similar, suggesting convergent evolution. All pr...

  19. Management of insect pests using semiochemical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroffio, C. A.; Guibert, V.; Richoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders...

  20. Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E

    2015-01-07

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests.

  1. Dance Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Dudley, Ed.; Irey, Charlotte, Ed.

    This booklet represents an effort to assist teachers and administrators in the professional planning of dance facilities and equipment. Three chapters present the history of dance facilities, provide recommended dance facilities and equipment, and offer some adaptations of dance facilities and equipment, for elementary, secondary and college level…

  2. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M [Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release.

  3. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakid, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  4. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F 1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F 1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  5. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  6. 40 CFR 161.590 - Nontarget insect data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollinators (4) CR CR CR CR CR CR TEP TEP 141-5 Nontarget insect testing—aquatic insects Acute toxicity to aquatic insects (5) 142-1 Aquatic insect life-cycle study (5) 142-1 Simulated or actual field testing for aquatic insects (5) 142-3 Nontarget insect testing—predators and parasites (5) 143-1thru 143-3 Key: CR...

  7. Smads and insect hemimetabolan metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina G; Fernandez-Nicolas, Ana; Belles, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In contrast with Drosophila melanogaster, practically nothing is known about the involvement of the TGF-β signaling pathway in the metamorphosis of hemimetabolan insects. To partially fill this gap, we have studied the role of Smad factors in the metamorphosis of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. In D. melanogaster, Mad is the canonical R-Smad of the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway, Smox is the canonical R-Smad of the TGF-β/Activin branch and Medea participates in both branches. In insects, metamorphosis is regulated by the MEKRE93 pathway, which starts with juvenile hormone (JH), whose signal is transduced by Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which stimulates the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) that acts to repress E93, the metamorphosis trigger. In B. germanica, metamorphosis is determined at the beginning of the sixth (final) nymphal instar (N6), when JH production ceases, the expression of Kr-h1 declines, and the transcription of E93 begins to increase. The RNAi of Mad, Smox and Medea in N6 of B. germanica reveals that the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway regulates adult ecdysis and wing extension, mainly through regulating the expression of bursicon, whereas the TGF-β/Activin branch contributes to increasing E93 and decreasing Kr-h1 at the beginning of N6, crucial for triggering adult morphogenesis, as well as to regulating the imaginal molt timing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FRESHNESS QUALITY OF GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata REARED UNDER DIFFERENT FARMING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and physico-chemical freshness indices (QI score, Torrymeter readings, pH and WHC were evaluated in gilthead sea bream of commercial size reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons and net-cages. Fish were stored under ice for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 days: at each sampling time analyses were performed to determine the evolution of each freshness index within sea bream sources. Significant differences emerged among farming conditions following the application of the Quality Index Method. Torrymeter readings gradually decreased with the number of days of ice storage. pH values remained practically constant over the 16 days of storage. For WHC the effect of both time of storage and farming conditions was statistically significant.

  9. Ecology of Arcobacter species in chicken rearing and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A; Hillman, T J; Helps, C R; Allen, V M; Corry, J E L

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether Arcobacter spp. colonize the poultry-rearing environment or whether they are contaminants acquired during transportation and/or from the processing plant. Samples were collected on poultry farms and in the processing plant during slaughter and dressing. Two cultural methods of detection were used. Isolates were identified to species level using a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method, either on the initial suspensions, or after enrichment, or on pure cultures of isolates. Of the 62 samples examined from poultry farms, arcobacters were found only outside the rearing sheds (in effluent sludge and stagnant water). Thirty-four samples were examined from the processing plant and 26 were positive for arcobacters. All the isolates were Arcobacter butzleri. Arcobacters were not found in any sample by direct plating nor by m-PCR on the initial suspensions, thus it was concluded that numbers were very low. Arcobacter spp. were not found in samples from the live birds and their immediate environment, but A. butzleri was found in effluent sludge and stagnant water outside the rearing sheds. However, A. butzleri is common in poultry abattoirs, and it appears that poultry carcasses are contaminated during processing. Arcobacters are not found inside poultry-rearing sheds, but are contaminants in the processing environment.

  10. Economics of young stock rearing decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensiveness of agriculture has contributed to environmental pollution through a higher production of waste materials. The environmental and economic pressures mean that it is nowadays important that milk is produced in a more sustainable way. The young stock rearing enterprise also

  11. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  12. Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Petro

    1961-01-01

    The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection…

  13. Production performance of pigs reared in different systems and fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental material comprised 90 growing-finishing pigs, divided into six groups of 15 animals that were diverse in terms of rearing (with or without free access to outdoor runs) and feeding systems (fed increased metabolizable energy (ME) content diets with or without green alfalfa). Different feeding regimes and ...

  14. Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf goats fed pulverized biofibre wastes based diets. ... packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), while goats on PMC/CsP/BG had significantly increased (p<0.05) white blood cell (WBC).

  15. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  16. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  17. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  18. Meat quality characteristics of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...

  19. Improving yaw dynamics by feedforward rear wheel steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Veldhuizen, T.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Active rear wheel steering can be applied to improve vehicle yaw dynamics. In this paper two possible control algorithms are discussed. The first method is a yaw rate feedback controller with a reference model, which has been reported in a similar form previously in literature. The second controller

  20. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  1. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  2. Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... farm reared periwinkles from brackish water earthen pond Buguma, Nigeria ... the enumeration of indicator organisms and other pathogens as well as their total counts. ... The boiled shell-on periwinkle sample had the highest level of microbial growth.

  3. Disruption of behavior and brain metabolism in artificially reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; Porras, Mercedes G; Parra, Leticia; González-Ríos, Jacquelina; Garduño-Torres, Dafne F; Albores-García, Damaris; Avendaño, Arturo; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Melo, Angel I; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Mendoza-Garrido, Ma Eugenia; Toriz, César; Diaz, Daniel; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Early adverse life stress has been associated to behavioral disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial rearing on the open field and burial behavioral tests and on GFAP, c-Fos immunoreactivity, and glucose metabolism measured in anxiety-related brain areas. Artificial rearing of male rats was performed by supplying artificial milk through a cheek cannula and tactile stimulation, mimicking the mother's licking to rat pups from the fourth postnatal day until weaning. Tactile stimulation was applied twice a day, at morning and at night, by means of a camel brush on the rat anogenital area. As compared to mother reared rats, greater aggressiveness, and boldness, stereotyped behavior (burial conduct) was observed in artificially reared rats which occurred in parallel to a reduction of GFAP immunoreactivity in somatosensory cortex, c-Fos immunoreactivity at the amygdala and primary somatosensory cortex, and lower metabolism in amygdala (as measured by 2-deoxi-2-[ 18 fluoro]-d-glucose uptake, assessed by microPET imaging). These results could suggest that tactile and/or chemical stimuli from the mother and littermates carry relevant information for the proper development of the central nervous system, particularly in brain areas involved with emotions and social relationships of the rat. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1413-1429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Child-Rearing Practices of Two Generations of Punjabi Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…

  5. Broiler breeders should not be reared on long photoperiods | Lewis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial compared the responses of four broiler breeder genotypes to a typical lighting programme advocated for birds in lightproof housing with the provision of 14-h photoperiods to 20 weeks and 16 h in lay. The long-day rearing resulted in a 26-d delay in sexual maturation, seven fewer eggs to 60 weeks, a 2.5-g ...

  6. Positive Adjustment in Parents Rearing Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2000-01-01

    Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…

  7. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  8. Looking for a similar partner: host plants shape mating preferences of herbivorous insects by altering their contact pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselhardt, Sven; Otte, Tobias; Hilker, Monika

    2012-09-01

    The role of phenotypical plasticity in ecological speciation and the evolution of sexual isolation remains largely unknown. We investigated whether or not divergent host plant use in an herbivorous insect causes assortative mating by phenotypically altering traits involved in mate recognition. We found that males of the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae preferred to mate with females that were reared on the same plant species to females provided with a different plant species, based on divergent cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that serve as contact pheromones. The cuticular hydrocarbon phenotypes of the beetles were host plant specific and changed within 2 weeks after a shift to a novel host plant species. We suggest that plant-induced phenotypic divergence in mate recognition cues may act as an early barrier to gene flow between herbivorous insect populations on alternative host species, preceding genetic divergence and thus, promoting ecological speciation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  11. Community-Based Child-Rearing Support for Families : Based on an Investigation in Sapporo, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Haruka

    2017-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a high proportion of mothers who take care of their children at home and the problem of child-rearing anxiety and social isolation among them, the Japanese government has currently expanded child-rearing support via the Community-based Child-rearing Support Centers (CCSCs). They are open spaces for infants and parents in the community, where they can gather freely, communicate with each other, and share their anxieties and worries related to child rearing. ...

  12. Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenhout, Saskia A; Oshima, Kenro; Ammar, El-Desouky; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Kingdom, Heather N; Namba, Shigetou

    2008-07-01

    Superkingdom Prokaryota; Kingdom Monera; Domain Bacteria; Phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C, Gram-positive eubacteria); Class Mollicutes; Candidatus (Ca.) genus Phytoplasma. Ca. Phytoplasma comprises approximately 30 distinct clades based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of approximately 200 phytoplasmas. Phytoplasmas are mostly dependent on insect transmission for their spread and survival. The phytoplasma life cycle involves replication in insects and plants. They infect the insect but are phloem-limited in plants. Members of Ca. Phytoplasma asteris (16SrI group phytoplasmas) are found in 80 monocot and dicot plant species in most parts of the world. Experimentally, they can be transmitted by approximately 30, frequently polyphagous insect species, to 200 diverse plant species. In plants, phytoplasmas induce symptoms that suggest interference with plant development. Typical symptoms include: witches' broom (clustering of branches) of developing tissues; phyllody (retrograde metamorphosis of the floral organs to the condition of leaves); virescence (green coloration of non-green flower parts); bolting (growth of elongated stalks); formation of bunchy fibrous secondary roots; reddening of leaves and stems; generalized yellowing, decline and stunting of plants; and phloem necrosis. Phytoplasmas can be pathogenic to some insect hosts, but generally do not negatively affect the fitness of their major insect vector(s). In fact, phytoplasmas can increase fecundity and survival of insect vectors, and may influence flight behaviour and plant host preference of their insect hosts. The most common practices are the spraying of various insecticides to control insect vectors, and removal of symptomatic plants. Phytoplasma-resistant cultivars are not available for the vast majority of affected crops.

  13. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  14. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  15. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  16. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent...

  17. Captive rearing initiative for Salmon River chinook salmon; Report period: January 1998-January 1999; Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassemer, Peter; Kline, Paul; Heindel, Jeff; Plaster, Kurtis

    1999-01-01

    The IDFG initiated a captive rearing program for populations at high risk of extinction to maintain metapopulation structure. Captive rearing is a short-term approach to species preservation. The main goal of the captive rearing approach is to avoid demographic and environmental risks of cohort extinction; maintaining the genetic identity of the breeding unit is an important but secondary objective

  18. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  19. Prey partitioning and use of insects by juvenile sockeye salmon and a potential competitor, threespine stickleback, in Afognak Lake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Natura; Beaudreau, Anne H.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Finkle, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater growth of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) depends upon the quality and quantity of prey and interactions with potential competitors in the foraging environment. To a large extent, knowledge about the ecology of lake-rearing juvenile sockeye salmon has emerged from studies of commercially important runs returning to deep nursery lakes, yet information from shallow nursery lakes (mean depth ≤ 10 m) is limited. We examined seasonal and ontogenetic variation in diets of juvenile sockeye salmon (N = 219, 30–85 mm) and an abundant potential competitor, threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus; N = 198, 42–67 mm), to understand their foraging ecology and potential trophic interactions in a shallow Alaska lake. This study revealed that adult insects made up 74% of all sockeye salmon diets by weight and were present in 98% of all stomachs in Afognak Lake during the summer of 2013. Diets varied temporally for all fishes, but small sockeye salmon (insects in late summer. We found significant differences in diet composition between sockeye salmon and threespine stickleback and the origin of their prey indicated that they also separated their use of habitat on a fine scale; however, the two species showed overlap in size selectivity of zooplankton prey. Considering that aquatic insects can be a primary resource for juvenile sockeye salmon in Afognak Lake, we encourage the development of nursery lake carrying capacity models that include aquatic insects as a prey source for sockeye salmon.

  20. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  2. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  3. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  4. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  5. Alpha particle radiography of small insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingshen Su

    1993-01-01

    Radiographies of ants, mosquitoes, cockroaches and small bugs have been done with a radioisotope 244 Cm alpha source. Energy of alpha particles was varied by attenuating the 5.81 MeV alpha particles with adjustable air spacings from the source to the sample. The LR-115 was used to register radiographs. The image of the insect registered on the LR-115 was etched out in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at 52 o C for certain minutes, depending on various irradiation conditions for the insects. For larger insects, a scanning device for the alpha particle irradiation has been fabricated to take the radiograph of whole body of the insect, and the scanning period can be selected to give desired irradiation dosage. A CCDTV camera system connected to a microscope interfaced to an IBM/AT computer is used to register the microscopic image of the radiograph and to print it out with a video copy processor. (Author)

  6. Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning. Larval herbivores employ habituation and sensitization-strategies useful in their less variable environments. Exceptions to these patterns based on habitats, mobility, and life history provide critical tests of current theory. Relevant plant traits should be under selection to be easily learned and remembered in pollinators and difficult to learn in herbivores. Insect learning thereby has the potential to have an important, yet largely unexplored, role in plant-insect coevolution.

  7. Most Costly Insects & Diseases of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; J. D. Solomon

    1987-01-01

    Insect borers, especially carpenter worms and red oak borers, cause degrade in oaks, an average of $45 per thousand board feet, and an annual loss of $112 million in the 2.5 billion board feet of oaks cut annually.

  8. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/stinging-insect-allergy.aspx. Accessed Jan. 9, 2018. LoVecchio F. ...

  9. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  10. Harnessing Insect-Microbe Chemical Communications To Control Insect Pests of Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Vannette, Rachel L

    2017-01-11

    Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission. We suggest that these aspects of microbial volatile emission may make these compounds ideal for use in agricultural applications, as they may be more specific or enhance methods currently used in insect control or monitoring. Our survey of microbial volatiles in insect-plant interactions suggests that these emissions not only signal host suitability but may indicate a distinctive time frame for optimal conditions for both insect and microbe. Exploitation of these host-specific microbe semiochemicals may provide important microbe- and host-based attractants and a basis for future plant-insect-microbe chemical ecology investigations.

  11. Synthesis of model compounds derived from natural clerodane insect antifeedants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Gebbinck, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Insect antifeedants are compounds with the ability to reduce or inhibit insect feeding without directly killing the insect. Such compounds offer a number of properties that are highly desirable in environmentally friendly crop protection agents. Although the principle of insect control

  12. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  13. Social insect symbionts: evolution in homeostatic fortresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Pierce, Naomi E; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    The massive environmentally buffered nests of some social insects can contain millions of individuals and a wide variety of parasites, commensals and mutualists. We suggest that the ways in which these homeostatic fortress environments affect the evolution of social insect symbionts are relevant...... in these nests. We hypothesize that biodiversity gradients in these hotspots might be less affected by abiotic latitudinal clines than gradients in neighboring 'control' habitats. We suggest several research lines to test these ideas....

  14. Insect Cells as Hosts for Recombinat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Murwani, Retno

    1997-01-01

    Since the development of recombinant baculovirus expression system, insect cell culture has rapidly gain popularity as the method of choice for production of a variety of biologically active proteins. Up to date tens of recombinant protein have been produced by this method commercially or non-commercially and have been widely used for research. This review describes the basic concept of baculovirus expression vector and the use of insect cells as host for recombinant proteins. Examples of the...

  15. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  16. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  17. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  18. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Physico- chemical study of Ceratitis capitata rearing diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sghiri, Mohamed Ali; Maddouri Fakri

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of the microbial growth in the rearing diet of ceratitis capitata made it possible to increase the productivity in pupae. The follow-up of the microbial load and the physicochemical parameters of the diets used with varous microbial inhibitors (potassium sorbate in combination with sodium benzoate with varous amounts, on the one hand, and of another share, nipagine in combination with sodium benzoate also with varous amounts) during a rearing of ceratitis capitata on the laboratory scale made it possible to select the diet D as being the most favorable diet. Indeed, a stability of the physico chemical parameters as well as a weak evolution of the microbial load are noted in this diet. (author). 16 refs

  20. Design of a rear anamorphic attachment for digital cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, A.; Valles, A.

    2008-09-01

    Digital taking systems for HDTV and now for the film industry present a particularly challenging design problem for rear adapters in general. The thick 3-channel prism block in the camera provides an important challenge in the design. In this paper the design of a 1.33x rear anamorphic attachment is presented. The new design departs significantly from the traditional Bravais condition due to the thick dichroic prism block. Design strategies for non-rotationally symmetric systems and fields of view are discussed. Anamorphic images intrinsically have a lower contrast and less resolution than their rotationally symmetric counterparts, therefore proper image evaluation must be considered. The interpretation of the traditional image quality methods applied to anamorphic images is also discussed in relation to the design process. The final design has a total track less than 50 mm, maintaining the telecentricity of the digital prime lens and taking full advantage of the f/1.4 prism block.

  1. Rearing of germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Kaneuchi, Choji.

    1977-01-01

    A method of rearing germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator was developed, Hatchability of eggs was higher than 95% when eggs were sterilized in a 1.5% mercuric chloride solution on the 2nd day before hatching. Sterility was 93% when 5 to 10 chicks were reared in a vinyl isolator for 2 weeks. Depression of body weight gain was observed in chicks fed diet irradiated at higher than 4 Mrad. However, no effects of irradiation on chick growth were observed when fat and the other components were sterilized separately and mixed before feeding. The growth rates of germfree chicks were higher than those of the conventional chicks which were supplied a diluted solution of fresh cecum feces of young hens with a normal intestinal flora pattern at the first feeding. (auth.)

  2. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  3. Role of population and behavioural ecology in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Yamamura, K.

    2005-01-01

    The principles of population and behavioural ecology in relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for eradication of a pest are explained. These include: (1) a logistic population model for estimation of the population fluctuation of target animals and the number of sterile males to be released for successful eradication, (2) mark-recapture estimations of density and mortality rate of the target population, especially for remote areas, where repeated releases and recaptures are difficult, (3) models of dispersal to assess dispersal distance of target animals, and (4) equations for estimating the decrease of sexual competitiveness of mass-reared strains under field conditions. The method to estimate dispersal distance curves when attraction areas of traps are overlapping, and changes in mate-choice of wild females resulting from inadvertent selection when the SIT is applied, are explained. The necessity of field estimation of sexual competitiveness of released sterile males is also emphasized. (author)

  4. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.

  5. Attention-like processes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek

    2016-11-16

    Attention is fundamentally important for sensory systems to focus on behaviourally relevant stimuli. It has therefore been an important field of study in human psychology and neuroscience. Primates, however, are not the only animals that might benefit from attention-like processes. Other animals, including insects, also have to use their senses and select one among many stimuli to forage, avoid predators and find mates. They have evolved different mechanisms to reduce the information processed by their brains to focus on only relevant stimuli. What are the mechanisms used by insects to selectively attend to visual and auditory stimuli? Do these attention-like mechanisms achieve the same functions as they do in primates? To investigate these questions, I use an established framework for investigating attention in non-human animals that proposes four fundamental components of attention: salience filters, competitive selection, top-down sensitivity control and working memory. I discuss evidence for each of these component processes in insects and compare the characteristics of these processes in insects to what we know from primates. Finally, I highlight important outstanding questions about insect attention that need to be addressed for us to understand the differences and similarities between vertebrate and insect attention. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Tomographic reconstruction of neopterous carboniferous insect nymphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Garwood

    Full Text Available Two new polyneopteran insect nymphs from the Montceau-les-Mines Lagerstätte of France are presented. Both are preserved in three dimensions, and are imaged with the aid of X-ray micro-tomography, allowing their morphology to be recovered in unprecedented detail. One-Anebos phrixos gen. et sp. nov.-is of uncertain affinities, and preserves portions of the antennae and eyes, coupled with a heavily spined habitus. The other is a roachoid with long antennae and chewing mouthparts very similar in form to the most generalized mandibulate mouthparts of extant orthopteroid insects. Computer reconstructions reveal limbs in both specimens, allowing identification of the segments and annulation in the tarsus, while poorly developed thoracic wing pads suggest both are young instars. This work describes the morphologically best-known Palaeozoic insect nymphs, allowing a better understanding of the juveniles' palaeobiology and palaeoecology. We also consider the validity of evidence from Palaeozoic juvenile insects in wing origin theories. The study of juvenile Palaeozoic insects is currently a neglected field, yet these fossils provide direct evidence on the evolution of insect development. It is hoped this study will stimulate a renewed interest in such work.

  7. The evolution of plant-insect mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Judith L; Alarcón, Ruben; Geber, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Mutualisms (cooperative interactions between species) have had a central role in the generation and maintenance of life on earth. Insects and plants are involved in diverse forms of mutualism. Here we review evolutionary features of three prominent insect-plant mutualisms: pollination, protection and seed dispersal. We focus on addressing five central phenomena: evolutionary origins and maintenance of mutualism; the evolution of mutualistic traits; the evolution of specialization and generalization; coevolutionary processes; and the existence of cheating. Several features uniting very diverse insect-plant mutualisms are identified and their evolutionary implications are discussed: the involvement of one mobile and one sedentary partner; natural selection on plant rewards; the existence of a continuum from specialization to generalization; and the ubiquity of cheating, particularly on the part of insects. Plant-insect mutualisms have apparently both arisen and been lost repeatedly. Many adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain these transitions, and it is unlikely that any one of them dominates across interactions differing so widely in natural history. Evolutionary theory has a potentially important, but as yet largely unfilled, role to play in explaining the origins, maintenance, breakdown and evolution of insect-plant mutualisms.

  8. Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insects are for many nations and ethnic groups an indispensable part of the diet. From a nutritional point of view, insects have significant protein content. It varies from 20 to 76% of dry matter depending on the type and development stage of the insect. Fat content variability is large (2–50% of dry matter and depends on many factors. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids' content may be up to 70% of total fatty acids. Carbohydrates are represented mainly by chitin, whose content ranges between 2.7 mg and 49.8 mg per kg of fresh matter. Some species of edible insects contain a reasonable amount of minerals (K, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and P as well as vitamins such as B group vitamins, vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. However their content is seasonal and dependent on the feed. From the hygienic point of view it should be pointed out that some insects may produce or contain toxic bioactive compounds. They may also contain residues of pesticides and heavy metals from the ecosystem. Adverse human allergic reactions to edible insects could be also a possible hazard. Keywords: Chitin, Entomophagy, Fat, Minerals, Proteins, Vitamins

  9. Predation on hatchery-reared lobsters released in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meeren, Gro

    2000-01-01

    Predation on hatchery-reared lobsters (Homarus gammarus) in the wild was studied in order to identify predators in southwestern Norway on rocky and sandy substrates in winter and summer. Lobsters of 12–15 mm carapace length were tagged with magnetic microtags. About 51 000 juvenile lobsters were released on 10 occasions at three locations. Predator samplings were by trammel nets, eel traps, and videorecordings during the 24 h immediately following the releases. In summer, loss to ...

  10. Positive Child Rearing Practices: Parents training for reduce bullying

    OpenAIRE

    González, Brenda; Cabrera, Francisco; Martínez, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a positive child rearing program with parents for reducing bullying and incrementing pro-social behavior of their children. Participants were eight couples and two single parents of 10 children identified as bullies. Half of the parents were assigned to a control group and the other half were trained to identify aggressive and pro-social behaviors of their children, as well as their antecedents and consequences. During eight weekly sessions pa...

  11. Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days, influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

  12. Laboratory Rearing of the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Maruca vitrata is a major pest of mung bean (Vigna mungo) (Zahid et al.,. 2008) which is locally ... eggs were placed in a plastic container for hatching to provide the first laboratory ... (10.1 + 0.2). A sex ratio (M: F) of 1:1 was observed in both diets. .... because the success in rearing of M. vitrata in laboratory relies heavily on.

  13. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  15. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  16. Stress Biomarkers in Vanaraja Chicken Maintained Under Various Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is of major concern for poultry industry because it exerts deleterious effects on different parameters like feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weight gain, etc. In present study various enzymatic viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and non-enzymatic components like reduced glutathione (GSH, hemoglobin and stress induced cellular damage i.e. lipid peroxidation was estimated to access the stress level in Vanaraja chickens reared under various rearing systems during summer. Significantly (p<0.05 increased activities of CAT and SOD was observed in deep litter system as compared to cage and semi-intensive rearing system. However, non-significant change in CAT and significantly increased activity of SOD was observed as the age progress. GSH-Px activity significantly lower (p<0.05 in the deep litter as compared to other systems, however, the activity increases significantly (p<0.05 at 8th wks as compared to 4th wks. GSH level was found maximum in cage system compared to deep litter and semi-intensive system. Non-significant changes were observed in hemoglobin concentration during study both between age groups as well as the age progresses. Observations of the study suggested that cage system is better than deep litter and semi-intensive system in handling the stress induced by different environmental factors.

  17. Wholesomeness studies with a full diet of irradiated dates, using the insect ephestia Cautella: 1. Disinfestation doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hakkak, Z.S.; Ali, S.R.; Ahmed, M.S.H.; Al-Maliky, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The study deals with the effect of feeding irradiated dates as a whole diet on some biological parameters of the fig moth ephestia cautella. Statistical analyses of the results indicated that the differences in the undermentioned parameters were insignificant when measured and compared with insects reared wholly either on irradiated or on unirradiated dry dates fruits. 1. Average numbers of larvae and pupae produced out of 400 seeded eggs after 30 days of incubation. 2. Average percentage of adult survival and their sex-ratio. 3. Mating frequency (average number of spermatophores per female) of the survived adults. 4. Average number of eggs laid per female. 5. Average percentage of eggs hatchability. 6. Mating frequency, average number of eggs per female and average percentage of egg hatchability of F1 progeny adults produced from insect parents reared on 100% diet of irradiated as well as on unirradiated dates. Therefore it could be concluded that disinfestation of date fruits by such a range of doses (50-100 krad) of gamma radiation might not have any adverse effect on the fig moth

  18. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Caparros Megido; Sandrine Desmedt; Christophe Blecker; François Béra; Éric Haubruge; Taofic Alabi; Frédéric Francis

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crick...

  19. Effect of head rotation in whiplash-type rear impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge is increasing about the electromyographic and kinematic response of the neck muscles to rear impact, and also recent information is available on the effect of a rear impact offset to the left (posterolateral). The effect of head rotation, however, at the time of rear impact is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of head rotation to the left and right on the cervical muscle response to increasing low-velocity posterolateral impacts. Twenty healthy volunteers were subjected to rear impacts of 4.7, 8.3, 10.9 and 13.7 m/s2 acceleration, offset by 45 degrees to the subject's left, with head rotation to right and left. Bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii and splenii capitis were recorded. Triaxial accelerometers recorded the acceleration of the sled, torso at the shoulder level, and head of the participant. With the head rotated to the right, at an acceleration of 13.7 m/s2, the left sternocleidomastoid generated 59% and the right sternocleidomastoid 20% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) electromyogram (EMG). Under these conditions, the remaining muscles (both splenii capitis and trapezius) generated 25% or less of their MVC. With the head rotated to the left, at an acceleration of 13.7 m/s2, the right sternocleidomastoid generated 65% and the left sternocleidomastoid only 11% of the MVC EMG. Under these conditions, again the remaining muscles had low EMG activity (27% or less) with the exception of the left trapezius which generated 47% of its MVC. Electromyographic variables were significantly affected by the levels of acceleration (pfactor in determining the muscle response to whiplash, but head rotation at the time of impact is also important in this regard. More specifically, when a rear impact is left posterolateral, it results in increased EMG generation mainly in the contralateral sternocleidomastoid, as expected, but head rotation at the same time in this type of impact reduces the EMG

  20. Diversity and Petrogenesis of Bonin Rear-Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.; Gill, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu Bonin subduction zone has a history of abundant rhyolite production that is relevant to the development of intermediate to silicic middle crust. This study presents major and trace elemental compositions (via electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) of unaltered volcanic glass and phenocrysts from select medium- to high-K tephra intervals from IODP Site 1437 (Expedition 350, Izu Bonin Rear Arc). These data provide a time-resolved record of regional explosive magmatism ( 4.4Ma to present). Tephra from Site 1437 is basaltic to rhyolitic glass with accompanying phenocrysts, including hornblende. Glass compositions form a medium-K magmatic series with LREE enrichment (LaN/YbN = 2.5-6) whose trace element ratios and isotopic compositions are distinct from magmas with similar SiO2 contents in the main Izu Bonin volcanic front. Other workers have shown progressive enrichment in K and other trace element ratios moving from volcanic front westwards through the extensional region to the western seamounts in the rear arc. The <4.4 Ma rear-arc rhyolites from Site 1437 show pronounced negative Eu anomalies, high LaN/SmN (2-3.5), Ba/La <25 and Th of 1.5-4 ppm. These rhyolites show the highest variability for a given SiO2 content among all rear-arc magmas (rhyolites have 1.5-3.5 wt% K2O, Zr/Y of 1-8, LaN of 5-9 ppm) consistent with variability in literature reports of other rhyolite samples dredged from surrounding seamounts. Rhyolites have been dredged from several nearby seamounts with other high-K rhyolites dredged as close as nearby Meireki Seamount ( 3.8 Ma) and further afield in the Genroku seamount chain ( 1.88 Ma), which we compare to Site 1437 rhyolites. An extremely low-K rhyolite sill (13.6 Ma) was drilled lower in the section at Site U1437, suggesting that the mechanism for producing rhyolites in the Western Seamounts region changed over time. Rhyolites are either produced by differentiation of mafic magmas, by melting of pre-existing arc crust (as hypothesized in

  1. Blood Collection from Local Abattoirs for Mass Production of Tsetse Flies to be used in the Sterile Insect Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamungu, M B; Kiimbisa, B; Matembo, S; Mashenga, G [Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, P.O. Box 1026, Tanga (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The mass production of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires a supply of quality blood. For some years already cattle blood has been used as food for laboratory reared flies. The blood is collected from an abattoir using standard procedures. The collection procedures, handling and storage require aseptic conditions to avoid contamination of the blood, which could be fatal to the flies. Fly mortality caused by low quality blood endangers the success of mass rearing. To rear healthy flies with good survival and production the blood should be of good quality - free of contamination and with a packed cell volume (PCV) above 25%. The present work involved the seasonal collection of blood from abattoirs in the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanga, Arusha, Dodoma, Dar-es-salaam). Dodoma was identified as having the best conditions for blood collection. To assess the quality of the blood as a diet for tsetse, blood was screened for the presence of bacteria, and the pathogens were identified. Protocols were developed for blood quality assurance. (author)

  2. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  3. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, B.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  4. Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Moula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile

  5. Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Otterstatter

    Full Text Available The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the 'ecosystem services' they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, 'Colony Collapse Disorder'; yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (Bombus spp. have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen 'spillover' from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of C. bombi infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35-100% of wild Bombus, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of C. bombi near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed C. bombi to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild Bombus in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even

  6. Rearing and gamma radiation effects on mature pupae of pink bollworm and their F1 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Ahmed, N.; Hussain, T.

    1993-01-01

    Pink bollworm larvae were successfully reared in captivity on a casein wheat germ diet. The substitution of casein with soyflour, corn-cob grit and wheat germ, and casein for peanut flour, resulted in delayed development, reduced pupal recovery and fecundity of the adult moths. This reduction was more drastic in corn-cob grit and peanut flour diets. The irradiation of mature pupae at 50-200 Gy resulted in decreased adult emergence with increased gamma radiation doses, and more deformed moths were recorded at a dose of 200 Gy. Adults following irradiation of mature pupae when crossed with untreated males or females or treated individuals crossed to treated exhibited reduced fecundity and fertility with the increasing doses. This reduction was more pronounced when treated males were crossed with treated females. Females were relatively more sensitive to gamma radiation, as a reduced number of eggs was obtained when treated females were crossed with untreated males. At 200 Gy, no F 1 progeny were obtained from any cross involving treated parents. The fecundity and fertility were reduced significantly when F 1 males or F 1 females from male parents irradiated as mature pupae were mated with untreated insects at both 100 and 150 Gy. However, inherited sterility was more pronounced when F 1 males were crossed with untreated females than when F 1 females were crossed with untreated males. Similarly reduced fecundity and fertility in F 1 progeny from female parents irradiated as mature pupae, both at 100 and 150 Gy, were also recorded in crosses as described for male F 1 progeny. The fecundity and fertility were the lowest in F 1 progeny of both male and female parents irradiated as mature pupae when compared with the F 1 progeny of male or female irradiated parents separately. (author). 28 refs, 7 tabs

  7. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorka, K. M. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Copeland, E. K. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Winterhalter, W. E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-07-18

    To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments.

  8. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  9. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  10. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  12. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  13. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.; Cockburn, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal

  14. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, J A; Cockburn, Andrew F [Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1989-08-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal.

  15. Seasonal Patterns of Stored-Product Insects at a Rice Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Tanja; White, Amanda L; Starkus, Laura A; Arthur, Frank H; Campbell, James F

    2017-06-01

    The temporal and spatial patterns in flight activity outside of a rice mill were evaluated for the lesser grain borer [Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)], warehouse beetle [Trogoderma variabile Ballion], cigarette beetle [Lasioderma serricorne (F.)], and Indian meal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hüϋbner)] to determine critical times of year when the mill would be vulnerable to invasion. Insect activity was monitored using pheromone-baited glue traps (N = 99) from June 2008 to October 2010. Traps were placed along exterior walls of all major buildings and along the fence around the perimeter of the facility. Trogoderma variabile was the most abundant species, with flight activity between mid-March and November. No activity of T. variabile was observed during December through March. Rhyzopertha dominica was also abundant, with activity in mid-April through October. A few adult R. dominica were captured in traps during winter months in the first year of study. Trap captures for all four species increased with an increase in temperature and can be described by linear equations. Knowing seasonal patterns in insect activity allows rice facilities to better understand when facilities are most vulnerable to pest activity. However, this study demonstrates that more research is needed to address how insects are immigrating and emigrating within and around a rice mill. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J Guillermo; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Marina, Carlos F; Ulloa, Armando; Orozco-Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz, Miguel; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-22

    The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Oviposition sites were sampled during 2-3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H' = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 1.61) and Michoacán (H' = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H' = 1.93), Colima (H' = 1.95), Sinaloa (H' = 1.99) and Jalisco (H' = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H' = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico's National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection.

  17. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies; Praktische Anwendung insektenparasitischer Nematoden und sterilisierter Fliegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, F. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Muenchen (Germany); Loosjes, M. [De Groene Vlieg, Nieuwe Tonge (Netherlands)

    1987-07-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars.

  18. Facilities Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Robert V.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for physical facilities management written 17 years ago is still worth following today. Each of the steps outlined for planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and evaluating must be accomplished if school facilities are to be properly planned and constructed. However, lessons have been learned about energy consumption and proper…

  19. Effects of food diets on insect development and its sensitivity to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U.; Azhar, A.; Shahid, M.

    2004-01-01

    Taking red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as a study case, studies on the effect of different food diets on insect development and losses and its sensitivity to gamma radiation, were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results revealed that all the three major parameters (development, losses and sensitivity) varied significantly (P< 0.05) with respect to fed diet. Developmental period was highest (43.5 days) in wheat starch and lowest (22 days) in wheat flour + 5% yeast (Standard diet). A significantly highest progeny (948) was produced in barley and lowest (105.3) in wheat starch. Maximum adult weight (37.35 mg/20 adults) was recorded in sorghum and minimum (33.4) in starch. Percent weight loss was highest (21.25) in barley and lowest (8.0) in starch. Barley flour was found as the most preferred diet. Radiosensitivity in relation to diet indicated that adults reared on wheat starch were most sensitive. Comparing the dose response, insect mortality was dose, diet and post irradiation duration dependent. However, 2.5kGy proved quite lethal. No significant effect of radiation was observed on moisture and protein contents of the diets, except reducing sugars. (author)

  20. EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FORMULATIONS ON THE ADULT INSECT TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (COL., TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Popovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored product pests such as Tribolium castaneum ( Herbst, 1979 are a major problem. Adult insects were obtained from laboratory cultures maintained in the dark in incubators at 25 1C and 70 80percent r.h., reared on wheat flour and fed with flour disks containing a known concentration of essential oil of 9 plants. The chemical components of essential oil of 3 plants, collected on the area of Montenegro, were also identified using GC-MS analysis. The results of insecticidal effect of essential oils were discussed. Also, mortality rate of adult insects was tested. In this research, the essential oils of C. glandulosa which were rich in monoterpene alcohols carvacrol and contained ketonic component showed strong insecticidal and fumigant activity against adults of T. castaneum. Less toxic effect showed essential oils of Satureja montana which had a lower carvacrol and ketonic content. On the other hand, essential oils of Teucrium polium which did not contain ketonic component did not show any activity. Therefore, it was observed that essential oils of C. glandulosa with concentration of 1.14% showed powerful toxic and repellent effect, with very high mortality rate after 24h (56,67%.

  1. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  2. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification.

  3. Unraveling navigational strategies in migratory insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Christine; Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

    2012-04-01

    Long-distance migration is a strategy some animals use to survive a seasonally changing environment. To reach favorable grounds, migratory animals have evolved sophisticated navigational mechanisms that rely on a map and compasses. In migratory insects, the existence of a map sense (sense of position) remains poorly understood, but recent work has provided new insights into the mechanisms some compasses use for maintaining a constant bearing during long-distance navigation. The best-studied directional strategy relies on a time-compensated sun compass, used by diurnal insects, for which neural circuits have begun to be delineated. Yet, a growing body of evidence suggests that migratory insects may also rely on other compasses that use night sky cues or the Earth's magnetic field. Those mechanisms are ripe for exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parametric structural modeling of insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R

    2009-01-01

    Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.

  5. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena; Chouaia, Bessem; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Bourtzis, Kostas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  6. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  7. Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrejola, Elias; Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50±0.06) μm/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

  8. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  10. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  12. Chemistry and biology of insect bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colepicolo Neto, P.; Bechara, E.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Basic aspects on the Chemistry and Biology of bioluminescence are reviewed, with emphasis on insects. Data from the investigation of Lampyridae (fireflies) are collected from literature. With regard to Elateridae (click beetles) and Phengodidae (rail road worms), the least explored families of luminescent insects, new data are presented on the following aspects: (i) 'in vivo' emission spectra, (ii) chemical nature of the luciferin, (iii) conection between bioluminescence and 'oxygen toxicity' as a result of molecular oxygen storage and (iv) the role of light emission by larvae and pupae. (Author) [pt

  13. Control strategy for viral diseases of salmonid fish, flounders and shrimp at hatchery and seed production facility in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimizu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Salmonid fish are important species for hatchery reared and released fish. Flounders and shrimp are also important species for seed production and sea-farming in Japan. Viral disease is one of the limitations of successful propagation of these species. Methods currently used to control viral diseases are 1) hygiene and sanitation in facilities, 2) disinfection of rearing and waste water using U. V. irradiation, ozonization and electrolyzation, 3) selection of pathogen-free brood stock by cell...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT REAR KNEE ANGLES ON KINEMATICS IN THE SPRINT START

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milanese

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the rear knee angle range in the set position that allows sprinters to reach greater propulsion on the rear block during the sprint start. Eleven university-track team sprinters performed the sprint start using three rear knee angle conditions: 90°, 115° and 135°. A motion capture system consisting of 8 digital cameras (250 Hz was used to record kinematic parameters at the starting block phase and the acceleration phase. The following variables were considered: horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (COM, COM height, block time, pushing time on the rear block, percentage of pushing time on the rear block, force impulse, push-off angle and length of the first two strides. The main results show that first, horizontal block velocity is significantly greater at 90° vs 115° and 135° rear knee angle (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively at block clearance and the first two strides; second, during the pushing phase, the percentage of pushing time of the rear leg is significantly greater at 90° vs 135° rear knee angle (p<0.01. No significant difference was found for block time among the conditions. These results indicate that block velocity is the main kinematic parameter affected by rear knee angle during the starting block phase and acceleration phase. Furthermore, the 90° rear knee angle allows for a better push-off of the rear leg than larger angles at the set position. The findings of this study provide some direction and useful practical advice in defining an efficient rear leg biomechanical configuration at the set position.

  15. The sterile insect technique in the integrated pest management of whitefly species in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, M.; Remotti, P.C.; Cirio, U.

    2000-01-01

    Insect pests commonly known as whiteflies are Hemiptera belonging to the family of Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (greenhouse whitefly) and the B-biotype of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (=Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) are pests whose economic importance is constantly increasing within the European agriculture. The B-biotype of B. tabaci, in particular, has become more problematic by causing damage over a wide range, from the temperate climates of Californian squash fields to European greenhouses and field crops. In the absence of valid alternatives, many growers have resorted to intensive application of insecticides to control these pests, creating a severe environmental and health hazard. Several new environmentally safe technologies are currently available and have opened up new opportunities in the integrated pest management (IPM) of whiteflies under greenhouse conditions. In particular, biological or biologically-based control means, including a number of fungi, insects, and compounds have been recently developed. However, the limitation of whitefly population outbreaks in greenhouses is a problem that needs to be solved. The idea to extend the use of sterile insect technique (SIT) to a confined environment against whitefly species is novel, and especially when we consider that the target species undergo arrhenotoky (unfertilised females generate only male progenies). The possibility to join this approach to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of the whitefly species in the greenhouse may open new perspectives in the safe application of nuclear technology for pest control. The present work reviews recent advances in research and practice related to the development of SIT for the control of whiteflies in greenhouses. Explanations on whitefly radiation biology, with data on Bemisia spp. radio-sterilisation, methods for whitefly mass rearing and collection, and the definition of a complete SIT procedure tested against the greenhouse

  16. Anti-insect potential of lectins from Arisaema species towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Kuljinder; Rup, Pushpinder J; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-11-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), also known as melon fruit fly, is one of the major insect pests of cucurbits in several parts of Asia, Africa and Pacific. In the present investigation, effect of lectins from two sources i.e. Arisaema intermedium Blume and Arisaema wallichianum Hook f. (Family-Araceae) has been studied on the development of second instar larvae of melon fruit fly. The lectins were incorporated separately in artificial diet at a concentration of 10 to 160 microg ml(-1) and fed adlibitum to the second instar larvae. Both the lectins were found to prolong the development period and significantly inhibited the pupation and emergence in a dose dependent manner. Total development period was found to be prolonged by 3.5 and 2.3 days in case of larvae fed on artificial diet containing A. intermedium (AIL) and A. wallichianum (AWL), respectively. LC50 values calculated on the basis of adult emergence came out to be 32.8 and 29 microg ml(-1) for AIL and AWL, respectively. Both the lectins tested, were found to increase the activity of esterases as larvae proceeded from 24 to 72 hr of treatment. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly in larvae reared on diet containing LC50 of AIL, while in case of AWL significant decrease was observed only at 72 hr of treatment. Alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly on treatment with both of these lectins. These results showed that AIL and AWL have promising anti-insect potential. So, lectin gene/s from either of these species can be cloned and subsequently can be employed to develop transgenics to control melon fruit flies specifically and insect pests in general. This approach could be used as a part of Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.

  17. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia’s Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host’s fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia’s genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia’s riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. PMID:26556278

  18. Sterile insect technique for the management of the oriental fruit fly in Guimaras iasland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golez, H.; Manoto, E.

    1996-01-01

    Mango is an important fruit crop in the country as shown by increasing demand for the fruit both in local and domestic markets. In particular, the island of Guimaras is now being developed as the mango province of the country since the soil and climate are highly suitable for its growth and development. Today, there are more than 250,000 trees grown in the island and the local government plans to plant more than 1 million trees by the year 2000. The production of quality fruits is however, hampered by the presence of fruit flies. A new strategy in fruit fly control is the sterile insect technique which will be implemented in the island of Guimaras. SIT involves mass rearing, sterilization and release of sterile fruit flies in target areas to stop native flies from reproducing. Preparatory phase of the project include campaigns launched to inform growers, government officials and private sectors on the objectives and mechanics of SIT through press releases, workshops and meetings. Basic ecological studies which involved determination of host fruits, degree of fruit infestation, population dynamics and fruit fly dispersal are presented. Estimates of fruit fly population showed that more insects were present in natural vegetation as compared to mix plantation and low population was recorded in pure orchards. Preliminary results of male annihilation technique using a bait consisting of methyl eugenol and malathion placed in fiber boards also revealed that male populations were reduced to low levels, provided that wide area approach is considered. Otherwise, reinfestation of limited areas by flies will occur. Continuous monitoring of flies in the whole island is now being undertaken. Sterile insect technique was demonstrated in the small islet of Naoay, south west of the main island of Guimaras. Results of several releases showed that no unmarked flies were captured from monitoring traps, indicating that sterile flies suppressed the population of wild flies in the area

  19. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  20. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  1. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  2. Silicon-Rich Silicon Carbide Hole-Selective Rear Contacts for Crystalline-Silicon-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Gizem; Stuckelberger, Josua; Wyss, Philippe; Jeangros, Quentin; Allebé, Christophe; Niquille, Xavier; Debrot, Fabien; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Löper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-28

    The use of passivating contacts compatible with typical homojunction thermal processes is one of the most promising approaches to realizing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In this work, we investigate an alternative rear-passivating contact targeting facile implementation to industrial p-type solar cells. The contact structure consists of a chemically grown thin silicon oxide layer, which is capped with a boron-doped silicon-rich silicon carbide [SiC x (p)] layer and then annealed at 800-900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the thin chemical oxide layer disappears upon thermal annealing up to 900 °C, leading to degraded surface passivation. We interpret this in terms of a chemical reaction between carbon atoms in the SiC x (p) layer and the adjacent chemical oxide layer. To prevent this reaction, an intrinsic silicon interlayer was introduced between the chemical oxide and the SiC x (p) layer. We show that this intrinsic silicon interlayer is beneficial for surface passivation. Optimized passivation is obtained with a 10-nm-thick intrinsic silicon interlayer, yielding an emitter saturation current density of 17 fA cm -2 on p-type wafers, which translates into an implied open-circuit voltage of 708 mV. The potential of the developed contact at the rear side is further investigated by realizing a proof-of-concept hybrid solar cell, featuring a heterojunction front-side contact made of intrinsic amorphous silicon and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon. Even though the presented cells are limited by front-side reflection and front-side parasitic absorption, the obtained cell with a V oc of 694.7 mV, a FF of 79.1%, and an efficiency of 20.44% demonstrates the potential of the p + /p-wafer full-side-passivated rear-side scheme shown here.

  3. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  4. Attitudes toward child rearing in female clinical nurses working in three shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The balance between child-rearing and work may be one of the most challenging issues facing female clinical nurses, particularly those who work in three shifts. This study aimed to identify attitudes toward child-rearing in this particular cohort, female clinical nurses working three shifts. Q methodology, a research method concerned with individuals' subjective points of view, was used. Thirty-five selected Q statements from 51 participants were divided into a normal distribution using a nine-point bipolar scale, and the collected data were analyzed using the QUANL program. Three discrete factors emerged: Factor I: child-rearing is natural work (child-rearing and work are separate); Factor II: child-rearing is hard work (child-rearing and work are in conflict); and Factor III: child-rearing requires help from someone (child-rearing and work are balanced). The subjective viewpoints of the three identified factors can be applied to develop diverse strategies to support child-rearing in female clinical nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    OpenAIRE

    E. Supriyono; E. Purwanto; N.B.P. Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere...

  6. ACP Facility Safety Surveillance System Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Kook, D. H.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; You, G. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO 2 into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, α-γ type new hotcell was built in the IMEF basement. All facilities which treat radioactive materials must manage CCTV system which is under control of Health Physics department. Three main points (including hotcell rear door area) have each camera, but operators who are in charge of facility management need to check the safety of the facility immediately through the network in his office. This needs introduce additional network cameras installation and this new surveillance system is expected to update the whole safety control ability with existing system

  7. [Parent's perspective on child rearing and corporal punishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Miguir Terezinha Vieccelli; Ricas, Janete

    2009-02-01

    To describe parents' current perception of corporal punishment associated to child rearing and its practices. There were studied 31 family members whose children were warded due to child abuse complaints (12) and not warded (19) at a health care unit and a local social service unit in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil) in 2006. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and speech analysis was performed grouped by subjects and categories. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSE: There was limitation of the respondents' speeches based on their production means. There was a diversity of conceptions on child rearing and its practices and corporal punishment was reported by all parents, even among those who expressed strong disapproval of this practice. Speeches were characterized by heterogeneity and polyphony with emphasis on the tradition speech, the religious speech and the popular scientific speech. Respondents did not express concepts of legal interdiction of corporal punishment or its excesses. The culture of corporal punishment of children is changing; tradition approving it has weakened and prohibition has been slowly adopted. Reinforcing legal actions against this practice can contribute to speed up the process to end corporal punishment of children.

  8. Effect of rear end spoiler angle of a sedan car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashud, Mohammad; Das, Rubel Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Automotive vehicle's performance, safety, maneuverability can be influenced by multi-disciplinary factors such as car engine, tires, aerodynamics, and ergonomics of design. With the recent years, inflation in the fuel prices & the demand to have reduced greenhouse emissions has played a significant role in redefining the car aerodynamics. The shape of the vehicle uses about 3% of fuel to overcome the resistance in urban driving, while it takes 11% of fuel for the highway driving. This considerable high value of fuel usage in highway driving attracts several design engineers to enhance the aerodynamics of the vehicle using minimal design changes. Besides, automotive vehicles have become so much faster experiencing uplift force which creates unexpected accidents. This brings the idea of using external devices, which could be attached to the present vehicle without changing the body. This paper is based on the design, developments and numeral calculation of the effects of external device, which will be spoiler that mounted at the rear side of the sedan car to make the present vehicles more aerodynamically attractive. The influence of rear spoiler on the generated lift, drag, and pressure distributions are investigated and reported using commercially available Autodesk Simulation CFD software tool.

  9. Jamaican child-rearing practices: the role of corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    The family is the most prominent social group that exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental violence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like the United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, child-rearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines the child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being.

  10. Current research progresses on calf rearing and nutrition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Qi-yu; ZhAng Rong; Tu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Calves are the reserve forces for dairy cattle. Scientific rearing strategy of calves is the basis of efficient cattle breeding. However, many problems exist in current rearing systems of calves and restrict the sustainable development of dairy cattle in China. The absence of basic research is the most highlighted problem among them. Recent researches on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical indices and rumen development in calves were summarized in this paper. Additionally, the optimal levels of energy and protein in milk replacer and starter diets for calves were indicated, and limiting amino acids for calves fed different diets were discussed. A variety of additives, such as acidifiers, probiotics and polysaccharides, are regarded as promising alternatives to antibiotics to reduce disease in calves. Dietary supplementations of these additives have positive effects on growth and health of calves. However, studies on the nutrition of vitamins and minerals in calves have been seldom done, and deserve our further researches. To sum up, the postnatal period is one of the most critical "windows" for rumen manipulation and epigenetic regulation. Any changes from environments, especially early nutrition, may produce long-term effects on growth, health and milk yields in adult cattle.

  11. Floodplain farm fields provide novel rearing habitat for Chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob V E Katz

    Full Text Available When inundated by floodwaters, river floodplains provide critical habitat for many species of fish and wildlife, but many river valleys have been extensively leveed and floodplain wetlands drained for flood control and agriculture. In the Central Valley of California, USA, where less than 5% of floodplain wetland habitats remain, a critical conservation question is how can farmland occupying the historical floodplains be better managed to improve benefits for native fish and wildlife. In this study fields on the Sacramento River floodplain were intentionally flooded after the autumn rice harvest to determine if they could provide shallow-water rearing habitat for Sacramento River fall-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Approximately 10,000 juvenile fish (ca. 48 mm, 1.1 g were reared on two hectares for six weeks (Feb-March between the fall harvest and spring planting. A subsample of the fish were uniquely tagged to allow tracking of individual growth rates (average 0.76 mm/day which were among the highest recorded in fresh water in California. Zooplankton sampled from the water column of the fields were compared to fish stomach contents. The primary prey was zooplankton in the order Cladocera, commonly called water fleas. The compatibility, on the same farm fields, of summer crop production and native fish habitat during winter demonstrates that land management combining agriculture with conservation ecology may benefit recovery of native fish species, such as endangered Chinook salmon.

  12. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  13. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  14. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  15. The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Bodenheimer, 1951). Hundreds of ... developed among the cultivators of the forest region. It is .... Proximate analysis (%) of commonly eaten dried insects in south western Nigeria. Insects.

  16. Molecular determinants of odorant receptor function in insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-20

    Jul 20, 2014 ... other host-odor responsive receptors from vector insect spe- cies would .... those that mediate host-seeking behaviour in insect disease vectors and ... receptors are transmitted and processed via olfactory circuits. (Vosshall ...

  17. Comparison of several artificial diets with different protein sources for massal rearing of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); Comparacao de dietas artificiais, com fontes proteicas variaveis, para criacao de Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mauro S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia

    1999-06-15

    The development of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) was compared among four artificial diets with different protein sources based on biological characteristics and fertility life table in order to have the insect available throughout the year for research in different areas. All diets with variable protein sources (D1= bean, yeast, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2= corn flour, wheat germ, and yeast; D3= soybean protein, and wheat germ; D4= bean, yeast and wheat germ) allowed the insect to developed at 27 +- 2 deg C; RH 65 +- 10% and 14 h photophase. In all diets the insect presented four instars with several other similar biological characteristics. Since diet D2 (corn flour, wheat germ and yeast) provided the lowest development time, the highest viability, a high value of finite ratio of increase (ll), besides being of low cost and easy preparation, it can be considered as the most adequate for laboratory rearing of E. aurantiana. Balanced nutrients showed more important than the nutritional value of the components of the diet for this insect which is, for the first time, fed on artificial diet. (author)

  18. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgeorge

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Transgenic crops engineered for enhanced levels of resistance to insect ... this background that research work targeting other candidate genes such as ... nisms, and potential deleterious environmental effects. ... The global market value of biotech crops was esti- .... located in repeat 11.

  19. Insects: Little Things That Run the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Insects are easily the most abundant and diverse group of animals, with over 24,000 species in the UK alone. They can be found in almost every habitat on Earth and are fundamentally important to ecology, conservation, food production, animal and human health, and biodiversity. They are a prominent feature of almost every food web in the UK and…

  20. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of