WorldWideScience

Sample records for insect control

  1. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  2. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control. ...

  3. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F 1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F 1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  4. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  9. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  10. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  12. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  14. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  15. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.; Cockburn, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal

  16. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, J A; Cockburn, Andrew F [Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1989-08-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal.

  17. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  19. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  20. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  1. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  2. Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Essam Abdel-Salam; Canyon, Deon V

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

  3. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This newsletter lists the FAO/IAEA meetings in the field of pest control held between September 1990 and February 1991 and provides very brief summaries of their contents. It also features a special report on the New World Screwworm in North Africa. An eradication programme, organized by the IAEA and the FAO and based on the sterile insect technique, was implemented, and as a result it is expected that the area will be declared free of the pest during autumn 1991

  4. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  5. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, L E; Klassen, W [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)

    1991-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment.

  6. Insects control in soybean flour by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Fraga, R.; Andújar, G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on disinfestation of soy meal and on important chemical compounds of this product, and the organoleptic quality of hamburgers made with irradiated soy meal were studied in this paper. The results showed that the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy meal during its storage and total proteins, fat, and moisture of product did not change by irradiation. The organoleptic quality of hamburgers with irradiated soy meal was the same as the quality of the product made with untreatment meal [es

  7. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 has again been a very intense period for all of us working at the Insect Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture Programme. This issue reports normative activities, and the application of area-wide control and SIT. One that stands out during 2003 is the recent publication of 'Trapping Guidelines for Area-wide Fruit Fly Programmes', which responds to the request by Member States to harmonize internationally trapping procedures for Tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. These pest insects have a major impact on the international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and the guidelines provide strategic guidance and direction to NPPOs, RPPOs and industry on where and how to implement fruit fl y surveys. Using these guidelines in the implementation of surveys will support FAO and IAEA Member States in obtaining international recognition of their fruit fly control and quarantine activities. A new project is a world-directory of fruit fly workers. A tremendous amount of information is made available each year on Tephritid fruit flies: new technologies developed, new information on their biology and ecology; new control methods made available, new species identified, new outbreaks recorded and new operational control programmes launched. This site will attempt to collate this information and allow Tephritid fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. Another activity has been the development of more scientific methods for determining when an area achieves a pest-free status. A consultants meeting focused on this topic and a generic procedure has been developed for declaring an area to be 'pest-free' following an eradication campaign against an insect pest. This involves a probability model to deal with null trapping results and also a growth model to help verify that pest specimen were not present when control was stopped. Other normative and promotional activities under development include

  8. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, B.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  9. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In the past years it has often been pointed out that the name of the Insect and Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, and the name of this newsletter (Insect and Pest Control Newsletter) create confusion and expectations for control of rats, birds, weeds and other non-insect pests but which are not within our mandate. All work within the Subprogramme has been on insect pests, and in 1999 an external review recommended a change to Insect Pest Control Subprogramme since this is simpler, reduces confusion and retains the good recognition and high reputation that already exists. The IAEA management implemented this recommendation and consequently, as of this issue this newsletter is entitled Insect Pest Control Newsletter. There was a very constructive consultant's meeting recently held in Vienna on the development of genetic sexing strains for the codling moth, for which the demand for SIT application is significantly increasing. Based on the discussions during this meeting a real opportunity seems now to exist to move the field of Lepidoptera genetic sexing forward. The possibility of using an allele of a dominant lethal mutation, such as the temperature sensitive Notch, in the development of a genetic sexing system for codling moth is very exciting. As emerged during the meeting, if an appropriate allele of this mutation can be inserted onto the female determining chromosome of codling moth, through transformation, then it may be possible to kill female embryos with a cold temperature treatment. Another approach could be to translocate an autosomal insertion of the gene onto the female determining chromosome. If the insert of the dominant lethal mutation also included a gene expressing a fluorescent protein then the strain would also have a visible marker for the sexing procedure. This latter is very important for any use of a sexing strain in mass rearing. There appear to be few technical constraints to demonstrating 'proof of principle' for

  10. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  11. Harnessing Insect-Microbe Chemical Communications To Control Insect Pests of Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Vannette, Rachel L

    2017-01-11

    Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission. We suggest that these aspects of microbial volatile emission may make these compounds ideal for use in agricultural applications, as they may be more specific or enhance methods currently used in insect control or monitoring. Our survey of microbial volatiles in insect-plant interactions suggests that these emissions not only signal host suitability but may indicate a distinctive time frame for optimal conditions for both insect and microbe. Exploitation of these host-specific microbe semiochemicals may provide important microbe- and host-based attractants and a basis for future plant-insect-microbe chemical ecology investigations.

  12. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In October 2004 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture celebrated 40 years of existence. The creation in October 1964 of this Division, which includes the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, marked the beginning of what is certainly a unique and arguably the best example of inter-agency cooperation within the whole UN family. The goal was to join the talents and resources of both organizations to obtain better cooperation and less duplication of efforts in assisting their Member States in applying nuclear techniques for providing people with more, better and safer food and other agricultural products, while sustaining the natural resources base. The complete press release is included under 'Special News and Reports'

  13. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flyin...

  14. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 73, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation field projects, coordinated research projects and research coordination meetings, developments at the Entomology Unit Seibersdorf, training courses offered on insect pest control as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section

  15. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 71, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  16. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 66, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  17. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 72, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  18. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 69, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  19. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 68, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  20. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 70, January 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  1. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 67, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  2. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 73, July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation field projects, coordinated research projects and research coordination meetings, developments at the Entomology Unit Seibersdorf, training courses offered on insect pest control as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section.

  3. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The Second International Conference on Areawide Insect Pest Control sponsored by FAO and IAEA will be held from 9 to 13 May, 2005 in Vienna, Austria. This conference will provide a forum for the presentation of scientific papers dealing with areawide insect management programmes, including those applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and will include significant time for plenary discussion. The framework of the conference is being developed and the announcement with details of the Conference can be found under http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Meetings2005.asp. It is planned to hold several Research Coordination Meetings in conjunction with this meeting. The Interregional Training Course on The Use of the Sterile Insect and Related Techniques for the Integrated Areawide Management of Insect Pests, was held from 4 May to 1 June 2004 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. This is a unique course that provides participants with a complete overview of all aspects related to areawide and SIT operational programmes. Both USA and external lecturers participated with an adequate balance between theory and practical laboratory and field exercises. Third, the SIT programme in Madeira is in negotiations with a private company regarding some type of partnership to ensure sustainability of the programme when EC funding comes to an end. These developments have been followed very closely by the sub-programme and we have been involved in providing advice, developing collaborative links and interacting at the R and D and technology transfer levels. There will be ample scope for further collaboration when these initiatives become fully realized. The fifth meeting of the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere (WGFFWH) took place in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, from 16 to 21 May 2004 and more than 200 participants attended. The meeting has a very unique format where scientists, action programme managers and the industry interact, greatly encouraging discussions and

  4. Transforming insect electromyograms into pneumatic muscle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Brandon; Mu, Laiyong; Ritzmann, Roy; Quinn, Roger

    2006-05-01

    Robots can serve as hardware models for testing biological hypotheses. Both for this reason and to improve the state of the art of robotics, we strive to incorporate biological principles of insect locomotion into robotic designs. Previous research has resulted in a line of robots with leg designs based on walking and climbing movements of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. The current version, Robot V, uses muscle-like Braided Pneumatic Actuators (BPAs). In this paper, we use recorded electromyograms (EMGs) to drive robot joint motion. A muscle activation model was developed that transforms EMGs recorded from behaving cockroaches into appropriate commands for the robot. The transform is implemented by multiplying the EMG by an input gain thus generating an input pressure signal, which is used to drive a one-way closed loop pressure controller. The actuator then can be modeled as a capacitance with input rectification. The actuator exhaust valve is given a leak rate, making the transform a leaky integrator for air pressure, which drives the output force of the actuator. We find parameters of this transform by minimizing the difference between the robot motion produced and that observed in the cockroach. Although we have not reproduced full-amplitude cockroach motion using this robot, results from evaluation on reduced-amplitude cockroach angle data strongly suggest that braided pneumatic actuators can be used as part of a physical model of a biological system.

  5. Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  6. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F 1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  7. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    deal with invasions of exotic Lepidoptera is the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Pyralidae). Once the best example of successful classical biological control of weeds, solving a major cactus problem in Australia, it invaded Florida in 1989 and has been spreading along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. There is grave concern that this pest will eventually reach the cactus-rich Western U.S.A., Mexico, and Central America, threatening the biodiversity of the Opuntia-based native ecosystems and adversely impacting the important food and fodder Opuntia industry. Currently, the pheromone is being developed as a monitoring tool, mass rearing methods are being refined in South Africa and the radiation biology of the cactus moth is being studied to determine the optimum dose of radiation. An SIT programme is being considered to prevent further geographical expansion of this moth, but the use F1 sterility is also being assessed as a tool to determine the eventual host and geographical range and to study the rate of spread of this invading insect. To raise awareness of this major environmental threat and the potential of SIT to address alien species, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division recently hosted a planning and coordination meeting, that included representatives of some environmental organizations, to assess the role SIT/F1 Sterility can play in addressing the cactus moth invasion as a model of invasive pests affecting not only agriculture, but that are also of environmental concern (see report of a cactus moth Consultants Meeting on page 28). We foresee an increased role in developing SIT for potential alien invasive species to help FAO and IAEA Member States deal with incipient outbreaks of such pest species

  8. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    deal with invasions of exotic Lepidoptera is the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Pyralidae). Once the best example of successful classical biological control of weeds, solving a major cactus problem in Australia, it invaded Florida in 1989 and has been spreading along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. There is grave concern that this pest will eventually reach the cactus-rich Western U.S.A., Mexico, and Central America, threatening the biodiversity of the Opuntia-based native ecosystems and adversely impacting the important food and fodder Opuntia industry. Currently, the pheromone is being developed as a monitoring tool, mass rearing methods are being refined in South Africa and the radiation biology of the cactus moth is being studied to determine the optimum dose of radiation. An SIT programme is being considered to prevent further geographical expansion of this moth, but the use F1 sterility is also being assessed as a tool to determine the eventual host and geographical range and to study the rate of spread of this invading insect. To raise awareness of this major environmental threat and the potential of SIT to address alien species, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division recently hosted a planning and coordination meeting, that included representatives of some environmental organizations, to assess the role SIT/F1 Sterility can play in addressing the cactus moth invasion as a model of invasive pests affecting not only agriculture, but that are also of environmental concern (see report of a cactus moth Consultants Meeting on page 28). We foresee an increased role in developing SIT for potential alien invasive species to help FAO and IAEA Member States deal with incipient outbreaks of such pest species.

  9. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  10. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Tsetse and trypanosomosis are at the root of low agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa and the removal of this factor would be a major contributor for large- scale poverty reduction in this region. Whilst removal of the disease would allow other constraining issues to become priorities such as the presence of other disease, lack of feed, poor husbandry skills and lack of markets for dairy products, without the removal of the threat of trypanosomosis there can be no progress, and for many in this region, no way out of staying hungry. Significantly though, during the past five years there has been an increasing awareness that the final elimination of the tsetse fly from areas can be achieved through the integrated use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Reduction of tsetse fly populations has always been achievable but not sustainable. The area-wide application of SIT offers a realistic, affordable and environmentally acceptable way to complete the task by eliminating the final remaining flies. Although the effective use of SIT for fly elimination requires a reduction of fly populations by around 95%, this has often been achieved but not sustained due to the recurrent cost and logistics of fly control. The fact that use of SIT can achieve final eradication of the fly and hence the disease has been dramatically demonstrated on the island of Zanzibar. Recognizing this fact and in response to the increasing problem of African trypanosomosis, the Heads of African States and Governments, at their 36 th Summit Meeting in Lome, Togo, 10-12 July 2000, adopted a Decision on Proposal for Eradication of Tsetse Flies on the African Continent. In this decision, AHG/Dec.156 (XXXVI), the Assembly of countries that have initiated the application of the SIT for their pioneering effort, and invited the OAU to lead the establishment of a Pan- African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). The Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT), which is a

  12. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as travel, transport and tourism. An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on 'Risk Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods' to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of transgenic insect technology. An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them in their efforts to

  13. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    M Wojciechowska; P Stepnowski; M Gołębiowski

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resi...

  14. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  15. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, A W

    1963-10-01

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  17. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Analysis and implications of the meeting on 'Status and Risk Assessment of the Use of Transgenic Arthropods in Plant Protection' that took place at FAO headquarters in Rome in April 2002 are discussed in this issue. This very timely meeting was jointly organized by FAO/IAEA and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) secretariat and chaired by Alan Robinson. Experts in both the technology of transformation as well as regulatory procedures and risk assessment participated. Transgenic technology is now almost routinely used in many insect species and currently arthropod transgenesis is mainly concerned with the stability and fitness of these strains. These topics will probably be the main issues to be addressed in a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP), is being proposed for initiation in 2003. From the regulatory point of view, risk assessment is mainly focused on horizontal transmission and the impact on biodiversity, and these concerns will need to be addressed when moving on a case-by-case basis, from the laboratory through field cages to open field release. Regulatory approval in the USA for the first field cage release of genetically transformed arthropod (pink bollworm) provided a timely background for the meeting. The proceedings of the meeting should provide the basis for the rational development of the use of transgenic arthropods. Following resolutions by IAEA and also FAO governing bodies in support of the PATTEC initiative, that was launched by African Heads of State (reported in previous issues), several press releases and media reports have been issued on this topic. Of particular importance is a press release issued jointly by FAO, IAEA, OAU and WHO (text given inside this newsletter) at the beginning of the World Food Summit - Five Years Later, recently held in Rome in June 2002. This joint press release acknowledges the magnitude of the tsetse problem in tsetse-infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa, where about 85 percent of the poor

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Analysis and implications of the meeting on 'Status and Risk Assessment of the Use of Transgenic Arthropods in Plant Protection' that took place at FAO headquarters in Rome in April 2002 are discussed in this issue. This very timely meeting was jointly organized by FAO/IAEA and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) secretariat and chaired by Alan Robinson. Experts in both the technology of transformation as well as regulatory procedures and risk assessment participated. Transgenic technology is now almost routinely used in many insect species and currently arthropod transgenesis is mainly concerned with the stability and fitness of these strains. These topics will probably be the main issues to be addressed in a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP), is being proposed for initiation in 2003. From the regulatory point of view, risk assessment is mainly focused on horizontal transmission and the impact on biodiversity, and these concerns will need to be addressed when moving on a case-by-case basis, from the laboratory through field cages to open field release. Regulatory approval in the USA for the first field cage release of genetically transformed arthropod (pink bollworm) provided a timely background for the meeting. The proceedings of the meeting should provide the basis for the rational development of the use of transgenic arthropods. Following resolutions by IAEA and also FAO governing bodies in support of the PATTEC initiative, that was launched by African Heads of State (reported in previous issues), several press releases and media reports have been issued on this topic. Of particular importance is a press release issued jointly by FAO, IAEA, OAU and WHO (text given inside this newsletter) at the beginning of the World Food Summit - Five Years Later, recently held in Rome in June 2002. This joint press release acknowledges the magnitude of the tsetse problem in tsetse-infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa, where about 85 percent of the poor

  19. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives

  20. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives.

  1. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  2. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 88, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    In our NL 84, we reported on the ground-breaking for the ReNuAL project (Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories), which includes the FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratories. The laboratories are unique within the United Nations system in providing Member States with direct access to scientific training, technology and analytical services. ReNuAL is getting under way with the construction of a new Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL), pictured on the previous page, due for completion by the end of 2017. In 2016, we also reported on the increasing demands from our FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our focus from developing and transferring the SIT for major crop and livestock insect pests to major disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Looking to the year ahead, we are organizing the Third FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-wide Management of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 22–26 May 2017. The programme that is being prepared looks very promising and will cover relevant current scientific and applied topics. A number of prominent speakers have been invited to debate new developments and trends. We expect around 400 scientists from all continents and look forward to a successful conference and your active participation.

  3. The basic principles of the application of sterile insect technique for area-wide insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2006-01-01

    Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a new insect pest control technique, potential, and compatible to other techniques. This technique includes irradiation of insect colony in the laboratory using gamma, n, or x-rays and then release them in the field periodically to obtain the increase of sterility probability level from the first generation to the dependence as the result the decrease of the fertility level in the field. The effect the release of sterile insects ( 9:1 ratio to the male indigenous and reproductive potential every single female of each generation reproduce 5 females ) to the insect reduction population model is conceptually discussed. From one million of the female parental decrease to be 26, 316; 1,907; 10; and 0 insects at the first, second, third, and the forth progeny respectively. Then if sterile insect technique integrated with chemical technique (insecticide) 90% kill, it will be much more effective compared to the application sterile insect technique only. From the number of one million population of insects will decrease to be 2,632; 189; and 0 insects at the first, second, and the third progeny respectively. In the Lepidoptera insects was found a phenomenon of inherited sterility. According to Knipling (1970) the inherited sterility in the first offspring caused by chromosome translocation in the gamete . In the individual of heterozygote will be die and in the homozygotes is still alive. Interspecific hybrid sterility first time was found by Laster (1972) from a cross between males Heliothis virescens (F) and females Heliothis subflexa Guenee. Male moths of the first offspring from the cross between H. virescens and H. subflexa is sterile and the females still remain fertile. If the female moths of the first offspring back crossed with male H. virescens the phenomenon of sterility always found will same situation as mention earlier the male offspring is sterile and the females is fertile ( the male F2 will be sterile and the females will

  4. Application of benefit/cost analysis to insect pest control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Before embarking on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes involving eradication, exclusion, or suppression of insect pests using the sterile insect technique (SIT), and/or other area-wide control measures, not only their technical but also their economic feasibility needs to be assessed. They may require significant initial capital investments to achieve long-term returns in subsequent periods, and may raise questions about the distribution of benefits or the justification of public or private pest control efforts. A consistent and transparent system is needed to analyse the benefits and costs of such programmes and to demonstrate their value, or in some cases to assess appropriate contributions to the costs by the various stakeholders who gain the benefits. Benefit/cost analysis (BCA) provides such a framework, and has been applied to many AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT, in which it has been used to demonstrate the expected value of area-wide eradication, exclusion or suppression. This chapter outlines the process of BCA in which itemized future costs and benefits are compared in terms of present values. It also provides a review and examples of the application of BCA to the SIT. A checklist of BCA inputs, and some examples of benefit/cost outputs, are also presented. (author)

  5. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

  6. Synthetic analogues of natural semiochemicals as promising insect control agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujvary, Istvan; Toth, Miklos; Guerin, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    After decades of research and development, insect pheromones and other semiochemicals became indispensable tools of ecologically based agricultural pest and disease vector management programmes with main uses as: 1) detection and population monitoring of emerging and migrating insects, 2) mass trapping of insects, 3) combined formulation of semiochemicals and insecticides ('lure-and-kill'), and 4) mating disruption with specially formulated pheromone components. In spite of their demonstrated safety and biodegradability, the direct application of these semiochemicals for pest control has not fulfilled initial expectations. Nonetheless considerable field experience has been accumulated (Carde and Minks 1995). Evidently, two important factors limit the practical potential of these substances: 1) inherent in their particular mode of action, semiochemicals, especially pheromones, are effectively cleared by specific enzymes in the insect antennae, and 2) some of these compounds contain labile functional moieties that are prone to degradation (oxidation, isomerisation and polymerisation) under field conditions. Appropriate chemical modifications of these natural compounds, however, can circumvent these problems by providing synthetic analogues (sometimes also called parapheromones or antipheromones; for early studies, see Roelofs and Comeau 1971, Payne et al. 1973) which in ideal cases are not only more potent and environmentally acceptable but more economical as well. It should also be mentioned that many effective attractants have been discovered through the empirical screening of synthetic chemicals, some of which have actually turned out to be structural relatives of natural semiochemicals of the particular insect. In this paper, selected case studies of analogues of sex pheromones and kairomones will be presented. The examples from our work include nitrile bioisosteres of labile aldehyde pheromone components of the cranberry girdler moth, Chrysoteuchia topiaria

  7. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia; Harder, Marcia N.C.

    2015-01-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  9. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 87, July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    A year ago, in NL 85, we reported on the increasing demands from our FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our focus from developing and transferring the sterile insect technique (SIT) for major crop and livestock insect pests to major disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Since the mid-2000s, there have been several IAEA General Conference resolutions requesting the Joint FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Subprogramme to develop a complete “SIT package” for major mosquito species to be used as a component of area-wide integrated vector management (IVM) approaches. The first resolutions focussed on the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, but since 2010, also the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were included. In view that the traditional chemical-based vector control strategies were facing serious challenges due to increased resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides and increased public concern of insecticide use in urban areas, there was a clear need for novel methods and complementary approaches to manage mosquito populations in an effective and more environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Furthermore, due to the absence of effective vaccines and drugs against some of these diseases, vector suppression approaches are widely seen as the most effective means to reduce these mosquito-transmitted diseases that pose an enormous economic and social burden, and whose incidence has increased drastically in recent years with the spread to new regions.

  10. Neural and Hormonal Control of Postecdysial Behaviors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin H.; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    The shedding of the old exoskeleton that occurs in insects at the end of a molt (a process called ecdysis) is typically followed by the expansion and tanning of a new one. At the adult molt, these postecdysial processes include expanding and hardening the wings. Here we describe recent advances in understanding the neural and hormonal control of wing expansion and hardening, focusing on work done in Drosophila where genetic manipulations have permitted a detailed investigation of postecdysial processes and their modulation by sensory input. To place this work in context, we briefly review recent progress in understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of ecdysis, which appears to be largely conserved across insect species. Investigations into the neuroendocrine networks that regulate ecdysial and postecdysial behaviors, will provide insights into how stereotyped, yet environmentally-responsive, sequences are generated, as well as into how they develop and evolve. PMID:24160420

  11. Hype or opportunity? Using microbial symbionts in novel strategies for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arinder K; Douglas, Angela E

    2017-11-01

    All insects, including pest species, are colonized by microorganisms, variously located in the gut and within insect tissues. Manipulation of these microbial partners can reduce the pest status of insects, either by modifying insect traits (e.g. altering the host range or tolerance of abiotic conditions, reducing insect competence to vector disease agents) or by reducing fitness. Strategies utilizing heterologous microorganisms (i.e. derived from different insect species) and genetically-modified microbial symbionts are under development, particularly in relation to insect vectors of human disease agents. There is also the potential to target microorganisms absolutely required by the insect, resulting in insect mortality or suppression of insect growth or fecundity. This latter approach is particularly valuable for insect pests that depend on nutrients from symbiotic microorganisms to supplement their nutritionally-inadequate diet, e.g. insects feeding through the life cycle on vertebrate blood (cimicid bugs, anopluran lice, tsetse flies), plant sap (whiteflies, aphids, psyllids, planthoppers, leafhoppers/sharpshooters) and sound wood (various xylophagous beetles and some termites). Further research will facilitate implementation of these novel insect pest control strategies, particularly to ensure specificity of control agents to the pest insect without dissemination of bio-active compounds, novel microorganisms or their genes into the wider environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite

  13. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.; Ferro, D.N.; Hagstrum, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil (S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer (R. dominica) and the red flour beetle (T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those 'protected' life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kVx200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60 Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated

  14. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  15. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  16. Insect vectors of Leishmania: distribution, physiology and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umakant; Singh, Sarman

    2008-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a deadly vector-borne disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Mediterranean regions. The causative agent of leishmaniasis is transmitted from man to man by a tiny insect called sandfly. Approximately, 600 species of sandflies are known but only 10% of these act as disease vectors. Further, only 30 species of these are important from public health point. Fauna of Indian sub-zone is represented by 46 species, of these, 11 belong to Phlebotomine species and 35 to Sergentomyia species. Phlebotomus argentipes is the proven vector of kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis in India. This review gives an insight into the insect vectors of human leishmaniasis, their geographical distribution, recent taxonomic classification, habitat, and different control measures including indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), environmental management, biological control, and emerging resistance to DDT. Role of satellite remote sensing for early prediction of the disease by identifying the sandflygenic conditions cannot be undermined. The article also underlines the importance of synthetic pheromones which can be used in near future for the control of these vectors.

  17. Male-killing bacteria as agents of insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berec, Ludek; Maxin, Daniel; Bernhauerová, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    1. Continual effort is needed to reduce the impact of exotic species in the context of increased globalization. Any innovation in this respect would be an asset. 2. We assess the potential of combining two pest control techniques: the well-established sterile insect technique (SIT) and a novel male-killing technique (MKT), which comprises inoculation of a pest population with bacteria that kill the infected male embryos. 3. Population models are developed to assess the efficiency of using the MKT for insect pest control, either alone or together with the SIT. We seek for conditions under which the MKT weakens requirements on the SIT. 4. Regarding the SIT, we consider both non-heritable and inherited sterility. In both cases, the MKT and SIT benefit one another. The MKT may prevent the SIT from failing when not enough sterilized males are released due to high production costs and/or uncertainty on their mating ability following a high irradiation dose. Conversely, with already established SIT, pest eradication can be achieved after introduction of male-killing bacteria with lower vertical transmission efficiency than if the MKT was applied alone. 5. For tephritid fruit flies with non-heritable sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved when the released males are fully sterile. Conversely, for lepidopterans with inherited sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved for intermediate irradiation doses. In both cases, increasing vertical transmission efficiency of male-killing bacteria benefits the SIT; high enough vertical transmission efficiency allows for pest eradication where the SIT is absent or induces only pest suppression when used alone. 6. Synthesis and applications. While both techniques can suppress or eliminate the pest on their own, combined application of the male-killing technique and the sterile insect technique substantially increases pest control efficiency. If male-killing bacteria are already established in the pest, any assessment of

  18. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  19. Nano-particles - A recent approach to insect pest control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... It is now known that many insects possess ferromagnetic materials in the head ... nanoparticles in insects and their potential for use in insect pest management. ... often synthesized using chemical methods. ..... opacus termite: FMR characterization.

  20. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 76, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    During the last twelve months the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme hosted an international symposium and co-sponsored another one; organized five research coordination meetings, four regional training courses, three consultants meetings and two workshops; participated in many interesting and successful research activities; provided technical support to over thirty technical cooperation projects in FAO and IAEA Member States, and actively contributed to a number of other international events, panels and advisory committees. In this newsletter you will find information and details about some of the activities enumerated above. These reflect not only our growing commitments and increasing research and normative responsibilities, but also our expanding involvement with additional pest species, although our budget and staff have not increased in proportion. The success of the subprogramme has historically been guaranteed by its focussed approach on a few major pest problems which allowed us to provide our Member States the best support in terms of research, normative assistance and implementation of operational programmes. Despite the continuous demand of FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our support and include more pest insects, we remain conscious that diluting our human and financial resources may jeopardise the high quality service that our Member States deserve

  1. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 76, January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    During the last twelve months the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme hosted an international symposium and co-sponsored another one; organized five research coordination meetings, four regional training courses, three consultants meetings and two workshops; participated in many interesting and successful research activities; provided technical support to over thirty technical cooperation projects in FAO and IAEA Member States, and actively contributed to a number of other international events, panels and advisory committees. In this newsletter you will find information and details about some of the activities enumerated above. These reflect not only our growing commitments and increasing research and normative responsibilities, but also our expanding involvement with additional pest species, although our budget and staff have not increased in proportion. The success of the subprogramme has historically been guaranteed by its focussed approach on a few major pest problems which allowed us to provide our Member States the best support in terms of research, normative assistance and implementation of operational programmes. Despite the continuous demand of FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our support and include more pest insects, we remain conscious that diluting our human and financial resources may jeopardise the high quality service that our Member States deserve

  2. Structure elucidation of some insect pheromones : a contribution to the development of selective pest control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of pheromones is one of the methods currently being investigated intensively as an alternative method of insect control. The various ways in which pheromones might be used in insect control programmes are briefly discussed in Chapter 1.

    Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of the

  3. An insect with selective control of egg coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2015-08-03

    The color and patterning of animal eggs has important consequences for offspring survival. There are examples of between-species and polymorphic differences in egg coloration in birds and amphibians [1-3], as well as cases of birds and insects whose nutritional status or age can cause within-individual variation in egg pigmentation [4-6]. However, no studies to date have demonstrated that individual animals can selectively control the color of their eggs. Here, we show that individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris can control the pigmentation of their eggs during oviposition, as a response to environmental conditions. The color of egg masses produced by individual females can range from pale yellow to dark black/brown. Females tend to lay darker eggs, which are more resistant to UV radiation, on the upper surface of leaves where UV exposure is highest in nature. Conversely, they lay lighter eggs on the undersides of leaves. However, egg color is not determined by the intensity of UV radiation falling on the surface where they are laid. Rather, female stink bugs appear to use a visual assessment of oviposition substrate reflectance to determine egg color. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed that the egg pigment is not melanin, the most ubiquitous light-absorbing pigment in animals. Our study offers the first example of an animal able to selectively control the color of its eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heritable strategies for controlling insect vectors of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are causing a substantial burden of mortality, morbidity and economic loss in many parts of the world, despite current control efforts, and new complementary approaches to controlling these diseases are needed. One promising class of new interventions under development involves the heritable modification of the mosquito by insertion of novel genes into the nucleus or of Wolbachia endosymbionts into the cytoplasm. Once released into a target population, these modifications can act to reduce one or more components of the mosquito population's vectorial capacity (e.g. the number of female mosquitoes, their longevity or their ability to support development and transmission of the pathogen). Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). Several successful field trials have now been performed with Aedes mosquitoes, and such trials are helping to define the appropriate developmental pathway for this new class of intervention.

  5. The role of nuclear techniques in the control of agricultural pests and stored grains insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture in general, and pest control specifically, are very numerous. Although this field of science is over a century old, its rapid developments occurred only in the last few decades. In fact, the contribution of nuclear techniques to insect pest control during the last half century is one of the most important developments in this science. This article is devoted to discuss the most important and widely used applications of nuclear techniques, particularly ionizing radiation, in insect pest control. In particular, it deals with the subject of sterilizing insects for the purpose of insect pest control and/or eradication in the field and storage, irradiation disinfestation of sorted products, particularly cereals and pulses, facilitating international trade by avoiding quarantine barriers and its role in biological control of insect pests. (author)

  6. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-02-01

    Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

  7. Pest control of ligniperdous insects by means of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Koehler, W.

    1983-01-01

    Wooden objects of art and monuments are endangered by wood-destroying insects. The treatment of these objects with ionizing radiation is one way to control these pests. For this purpose the portable HWK-3 high-dose irradiation device was developed. In July 1979, a radiation experiment was made under field conditions in Potsdam-Sanssouci in order to gain experience in the operation and effectiveness of the new device. During the following 18 months the results of this experiment were evaluated by means of the SM 231 vibration measuring instrument. It became evident that a total dose of over 3 kGy would kill all of the death-watch beetles (Anobium punctatum de Geer) and doses down to 0.55 kGy would largely diminish the population, with future damages caused by death-watch beetles being highly unlikely. Delayed damages in the larvae caused by low total doses still add to the effectiveness of the pest control. (author)

  8. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  9. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  10. Developing Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a tool Mosquito Control Districts can use for integrated Aedes aegypti control

    Science.gov (United States)

    New tools are clearly needed for integrated mosquito management of Ae. aegypti. We describe the sterile insect technique (SIT) that we are developing as a method to control Ae. aegypti by partnering with two prominent Florida mosquito control districts (MCD) and the FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Sub...

  11. Limited mobility of target pests crucially lowers controllability when sterile insect releases are spatiotemporally biased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegawa, Yusuke; Himuro, Chihiro

    2017-05-21

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a genetic pest control method wherein mass-reared sterile insects are periodically released into the wild, thereby impeding the successful reproduction of fertile pests. In Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, the SIT has been implemented to eradicate the West Indian sweet potato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), which is a flightless agricultural pest of sweet potatoes. It is known that E. postfasciatus is much less mobile than other insects to which the SIT has been applied. However, previous theoretical studies have rarely examined effects of low mobility of target pests and variation in the spatiotemporal evenness of sterile insect releases. To theoretically examine the effects of spatiotemporal evenness on the regional eradication of less mobile pests, we constructed a simple two-patch population model comprised of a pest and sterile insect moving between two habitats, and numerically simulated different release strategies (varying the number of released sterile insects and release intervals). We found that spatially biased releases allowed the pest to spatially escape from the sterile insect, and thus intensively lowered its controllability. However, we showed that the temporally counterbalancing spatially biased releases by swapping the number of released insects in the two habitats at every release (called temporal balancing) could greatly mitigate this negative effect and promote the controllability. We also showed that the negative effect of spatiotemporally biased releases was a result of the limited mobility of the target insect. Although directed dispersal of the insects in response to habitats of differing quality could lower the controllability in the more productive habitat, the temporal balancing could promote and eventually maximize the controllability as released insects increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  13. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia{sub S}I/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  14. Distributed power and control actuation in the thoracic mechanics of a robotic insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finio, Benjamin M; Wood, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of biological flight have inspired roboticists to create flapping-wing vehicles on the scale of insects and small birds. While our understanding of the wing kinematics, flight musculature and neuromotor control systems of insects has expanded, in practice it has proven quite difficult to construct an at-scale mechanical device capable of similar flight performance. One of the key challenges is the development of an effective and efficient transmission mechanism to control wing motions. Here we present multiple insect-scale robotic thorax designs capable of producing asymmetric wing kinematics similar to those observed in nature and utilized by dipteran insects to maneuver. Inspired by the thoracic mechanics of dipteran insects, which entail a morphological separation of power and control muscles, these designs show that such distributed actuation can also modulate wing motion in a robotic design.

  15. Distributed power and control actuation in the thoracic mechanics of a robotic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finio, Benjamin M; Wood, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of biological flight have inspired roboticists to create flapping-wing vehicles on the scale of insects and small birds. While our understanding of the wing kinematics, flight musculature and neuromotor control systems of insects has expanded, in practice it has proven quite difficult to construct an at-scale mechanical device capable of similar flight performance. One of the key challenges is the development of an effective and efficient transmission mechanism to control wing motions. Here we present multiple insect-scale robotic thorax designs capable of producing asymmetric wing kinematics similar to those observed in nature and utilized by dipteran insects to maneuver. Inspired by the thoracic mechanics of dipteran insects, which entail a morphological separation of power and control muscles, these designs show that such distributed actuation can also modulate wing motion in a robotic design.

  16. Potentials of two bio-pesticides in the control of some field insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the predominate order of insects associated with Bambara groundnut and to compare the efficacy of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), used as bio-pesticides in controlling some field insect pests of Bambara ...

  17. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles Herrero, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  18. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 74, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    I would like to thank all our collaborators in many parts of the world, as well as our staff and colleagues in Vienna and Seibersdorf for a fruitful year 2009. Besides our participation and support to many events and interesting research, field, and knowledge management activities, the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme has been involved in a number of external reviews and is undergoing change as part of a major reform process at FAO and also important restructurings and new leadership at IAEA. It is now 45 years ago that FAO and IAEA joined forces in a partnership through a Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, the oldest example of institutionalized interagency cooperation in the United Nations system. The Joint Division has been developing and is building on the synergies that exist between the mandates of FAO, as the lead agency in food security, agriculture and rural development, and the IAEA, as the global forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nevertheless, during the past two years, as a result of the above reform process, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been subject to a period of much uncertainty about the future of this partnership. I am now very pleased to be able to inform that following an exchange of formal notes between the senior management of FAO and IAEA in mid 2009, the Arrangements between the Directors General of FAO and IAEA for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture remain in force. This is a confirmation of the strong support that has been received from Member States of both FAO and IAEA during the last two years requesting the continuation of the successful partnership between both organizations

  19. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 84, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    On 29 September 2014, a ceremony was held in Seibersdorf, Austria to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, as well as the ground-breaking for the renovation of the IAEA’s Nuclear Sciences and Applications laboratories at Seibersdorf – including the FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratories. The enormous contributions of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division during the past 50 years were also honoured, serving stakeholders worldwide to meet the changing needs of Member States through the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies based on the shared goals of our two parent organizations and the five strategic objectives of FAO. Established on 1 October 1964, this FAO/IAEA partnership still remains unique, with its key strengths based on interagency cooperation within the United Nations family. It is a tangible joint organizational entity with a fusion of complementary mandates, common targets, a joint programme, co-funding and coordinated management geared to demand- driven and results-based services to its Members and to the international community at large. The mission of the Joint Division has proactively evolved to address new challenges in Member States and nuclear applications continue to provide added value to conventional approaches in addressing a range of agricultural problems and issues, including food safety, animal production and health, crop improvement, insect pest control and sustainable use of finite natural resources. Over the past 50 years, this partnership has brought countless successes with distinct socio-economic impact at country, regional and global levels in Member States. The 50 year anniversary was taken as an opportunity to highlight examples of tangible, sustainable results derived out of this unique partnership – beneficial to Member States of both parent organizations – and to share these with our many stakeholders around the world

  20. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 85, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    Despite the amazing progress made in science and technology during the last hundred years, humankind still faces significant challenges in combating pest insects, such as mosquitoes that are the vectors of major pathogens (arboviruses and bacterial as well as eukaryotic microorganisms). These pathogenic microorganisms cause infectious diseases resulting in severe morbidity or lethality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are over 200 million cases of malaria resulting in more than 600 000 deaths annually, mainly very young children. The great majority of malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, malaria transmission occurs in about 100 countries putting about 3.4 billion people at risk (World Malaria Report, 2013). Similarly, around 400 million people contract every year a dengue infection of which about 500 000, mainly children require hospitalization; it is estimated that 2.5% of them die. Dengue has spread globally during the last years and currently over 3 billion people are at risk in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific. The majority of dengue cases are reported in American, Southeast Asian and the Western Pacific regions. Recently another viral mosquito-borne disease, chikungunya, has been spreading rapidly. It is a disease that causes severe chronic joint pain in patients across the globe. In the absence of effective vaccines and drugs, these mosquito- transmitted diseases pose an enormous economic and social burden worldwide and their incidence has increased drastically in recent years. In addition, the traditional chemical- based vector control strategies are facing serious challenges due to increased resistance of mosquitoes to the used insecticides and increased public concern of insecticide use in urban areas. Based on these facts, novel methods and complementary approaches are required to manage mosquito populations in an effective and more

  1. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 74, January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    I would like to thank all our collaborators in many parts of the world, as well as our staff and colleagues in Vienna and Seibersdorf for a fruitful year 2009. Besides our participation and support to many events and interesting research, field, and knowledge management activities, the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme has been involved in a number of external reviews and is undergoing change as part of a major reform process at FAO and also important restructurings and new leadership at IAEA. It is now 45 years ago that FAO and IAEA joined forces in a partnership through a Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, the oldest example of institutionalized interagency cooperation in the United Nations system. The Joint Division has been developing and is building on the synergies that exist between the mandates of FAO, as the lead agency in food security, agriculture and rural development, and the IAEA, as the global forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nevertheless, during the past two years, as a result of the above reform process, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been subject to a period of much uncertainty about the future of this partnership. I am now very pleased to be able to inform that following an exchange of formal notes between the senior management of FAO and IAEA in mid 2009, the Arrangements between the Directors General of FAO and IAEA for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture remain in force. This is a confirmation of the strong support that has been received from Member States of both FAO and IAEA during the last two years requesting the continuation of the successful partnership between both organizations

  2. Control of anoplophora glabripennis by releasing sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Wang Endong; Lu Daguang

    2003-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of released sterile insects on reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was conducted at a 30-hectare poplar tree forest in Ying County of Shanxi Province from July 10 to August 29, 2001. Though the releasing ratio was only about 2-5, results from different methods showed that the reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was suppressed effectively by releasing sterile insects, and that hatch ratio of eggs laid by parent generation was about 20% and survival ratio of F1 progeny about 27%. (authors)

  3. A study on feasibility of insect-control with γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huifen Feng; Jingren Li; Xin Hu

    1993-01-01

    Insect-control with Co-γ-ray is a method for conserving archives, books, cotton textiles, historical relics, wood structured houses and furniture. The temporary and residual effects of γ-ray on irradiated objects and the biological effects on insects are presented in this report. Our study shows that there is no obvious harmful effect on irradiated objects when the radiation dose is below 870 Gy, while there is obvious deterioration to the objects when the dose is above 870 Gy. On the other hand, a dose below 870 Gy is strong enough for the insects to be affected. At the dose of 43.5 - 130.5 Gy, the irradiated insects' reproductive function could be damaged or insects killed. (author)

  4. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  5. Laser system for identification, tracking, and control of flying insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flying insects are common vectors for transmission of pathogens and inflict significant harm on humans in large parts of the developing world. Besides the direct impact to humans, these pathogens also cause harm to crops and result in agricultural losses. Here, we present a laser-based system that c...

  6. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  7. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 80, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    On November 28, 2012, with the participation of representatives from Member States and the press, the IAEA commemorated 50 years of IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria. At a ceremony to mark the anniversary, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said the Laboratories in Seibersdorf have improved, in the 50 years since they opened, the lives of millions of people through work using nuclear echniques. At the eight nuclear applications laboratories, which include the five FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories, scientists carry out research and development, provide technical services to Member States and host fellows and scientific visitors. He stated that work at the laboratories has made a difference in controlling animal diseases and insect pests in many countries, contributed to more sustainable soil and water management technologies and the development of hardier and more nutritious crops. Scientists at the laboratories have helped communities dentify the best sources of underground water and ensure that this scarce resource is used effectively. They have worked on safe ways to preserve food, and provided vital echnical support for cancer treatment and other medical uses of nuclear technology. New challenges abound in the present and the future, Director General Yukiya Amano said. 'Member States want us to do more in almost all areas of nuclear applications'. He referred to the positive feedback received, reinforcing the critical nature of the services provided by the laboratories, and his announcement to carry out a complete modernization of the Laboratories. His proposal was supported in a resolution of the 56th General Conference, which called upon the IAEA to establish state-of-the-art facilities and equipment at Seibersdorf. The goal, according to the resolution, must be o 'ensure that maximum benefits in terms of capacity-building and technology enhancement are made available to Member States, particularly developing countries.' He pledged

  8. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 80, January 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    On November 28, 2012, with the participation of representatives from Member States and the press, the IAEA commemorated 50 years of IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria. At a ceremony to mark the anniversary, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said the Laboratories in Seibersdorf have improved, in the 50 years since they opened, the lives of millions of people through work using nuclear echniques. At the eight nuclear applications laboratories, which include the five FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories, scientists carry out research and development, provide technical services to Member States and host fellows and scientific visitors. He stated that work at the laboratories has made a difference in controlling animal diseases and insect pests in many countries, contributed to more sustainable soil and water management technologies and the development of hardier and more nutritious crops. Scientists at the laboratories have helped communities dentify the best sources of underground water and ensure that this scarce resource is used effectively. They have worked on safe ways to preserve food, and provided vital echnical support for cancer treatment and other medical uses of nuclear technology. New challenges abound in the present and the future, Director General Yukiya Amano said. 'Member States want us to do more in almost all areas of nuclear applications'. He referred to the positive feedback received, reinforcing the critical nature of the services provided by the laboratories, and his announcement to carry out a complete modernization of the Laboratories. His proposal was supported in a resolution of the 56th General Conference, which called upon the IAEA to establish state-of-the-art facilities and equipment at Seibersdorf. The goal, according to the resolution, must be o 'ensure that maximum benefits in terms of capacity-building and technology enhancement are made available to Member States, particularly developing countries.' He pledged

  9. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  10. Combination of Methoprene and Controlled Aeration to Manage Insects in Stored Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Arthur, Frank H; VanGundy, Douglas; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-06-17

    A commercial formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene was applied to wheat stored in small bins either alone or in combination with controlled aeration of the bins, to lower grain temperature for insect pest management of stored wheat. Grain temperatures were monitored and modified by a computer-controlled thermocouple system that also activated the aeration system at programmed set-points to move cool ambient air through the grain mass to lower grain temperature. Results from sampling insect populations in experimental storage bins along with laboratory mortality bioassays of insects placed on wheat taken from the bins over the course of the storage period showed that methoprene was very effective in controlling infestation by the externally-feeding stored grain insects Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), the Indian meal moth Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), the rusty grain beetle, and also for the internal-feeding pest Rhyzopertha dominica( Fauvel), the lesser grain borer. Methoprene did not give good control of the internal-feeding pest Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the rice weevil. Aeration alone was somewhat effective in suppressing insect population development, while methoprene alone or when combined with aeration greatly enhanced insect control. Commercial grain grading for industry quality standards at the end of the storage period confirmed the impact of insect suppression on maintaining high quality of the stored wheat. This field experiment shows that methoprene combined with aeration to cool grain can be effective for pest management of stored wheat in the southern plains of the United States of America.

  11. Combination of Methoprene and Controlled Aeration to Manage Insects in Stored Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A commercial formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene was applied to wheat stored in small bins either alone or in combination with controlled aeration of the bins, to lower grain temperature for insect pest management of stored wheat. Grain temperatures were monitored and modified by a computer-controlled thermocouple system that also activated the aeration system at programmed set-points to move cool ambient air through the grain mass to lower grain temperature. Results from sampling insect populations in experimental storage bins along with laboratory mortality bioassays of insects placed on wheat taken from the bins over the course of the storage period showed that methoprene was very effective in controlling infestation by the externally-feeding stored grain insects Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, the Indian meal moth Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, the red flour beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens, the rusty grain beetle, and also for the internal-feeding pest Rhyzopertha dominica( Fauvel, the lesser grain borer. Methoprene did not give good control of the internal-feeding pest Sitophilus oryzae (L., the rice weevil. Aeration alone was somewhat effective in suppressing insect population development, while methoprene alone or when combined with aeration greatly enhanced insect control. Commercial grain grading for industry quality standards at the end of the storage period confirmed the impact of insect suppression on maintaining high quality of the stored wheat. This field experiment shows that methoprene combined with aeration to cool grain can be effective for pest management of stored wheat in the southern plains of the United States of America.

  12. Recent advances of rearing cabinet instrumentation and control system for insect stock culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Wawan; Kasmara, Hikmat; Melanie, Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2017-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of a serious pest of horticulture in Indonesia. Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrovirus (HaNPV) has attracted interest for many researchers as a pest control for larvae of this species. Currently, we investigating the agrochemical formulations of HaNPV by introducing nanotechnology. Thus it is required an acceptable efficiency of insect stock cultures equipped with advance instruments to resolve the difficulties on insect stock seasons dependency. In addition, it is important to improve the insect survival with the aid of artificial natural environment and gain high insect production. This paper reports the rearing cabinet used as preparation of stock culture includes air-conditioning system, lighting, i.e. day and night control, and the main principles on recent technical and procedural advances apparatus of the system. The rearing system was moveable, designed and build by allowing air-conditioned cabinet for rearing insects, air motion and distribution as well as temperature and humidity being precisely controlled. The air was heated, humidified, and dehumidified respectively using a heater and ultrasonic nebulizer as actuators. Temperature and humidity can be controlled at any desired levels from room temperature (20°C) to 40 ± 1°C and from 0 to 80% RH with an accuracy of ±3% R.H. It is concluded that the recent design has acceptable performance based on the defined requirement for insect rearing and storage.

  13. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in insect research and control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Isotopes are commonly used in agricultural research in developed countries, but because of a lack of both training and equipment isotopic techniques are not frequently used in developing countries. This manual has been prepared with the aim of helping entomologists and others responsible for the control of insects in developing countries become familiar with the potential uses of isotopes and radiation in solving some of their research and insect control problems. After chapters dealing with radiation safety, the general properties of radiation and isotopes (especially those used by entomologists), and radiation detection and assay of radioactivity, two further chapters discuss applications to entomological problems and the sterile insect technique. Numerous case studies are described, and the final chapter also includes a description of eight laboratory exercises to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and chemosterilants on insects. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and Hydroprene applied to wood, metal, and concrete for control of stored-product insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on...

  15. From the Cover: Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects.

  16. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R.E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C; Adrianos, Sherry L; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-09-19

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  19. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey C. Perkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  20. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  1. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change

  2. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n = 192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control.

  3. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 86, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 we concluded the six-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade”. The objective of the CRP was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, conducting coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, with an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. One of the scientific outputs of the CRP was the accurate alignment of some biological species with taxonomic names. The resolution of some of these controversial issues has important applied implications for FAO and IAEA Member States, both in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and in facilitating international agricultural trade

  4. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  5. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  6. Studies on controls of the insects infested on growing legume crops and stored grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, Y.I.; Shin, I.C.; Koh, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    Present studies were carried out to control the insect pests which infest on rice, barley, wheat, redbeam and mungbeam grains during the storage period. For application of radiation to the pest controls, life spans of indian-meal moth (Plodia interpuctella Hubner) and bean weevil (Callosobruches chinensis L.) were investigated in different rearing conditions. Eggs and adults of the bean weevil were irradiated with various doses of γ-ray to determine radiosensitivities of the insect. For the ecological control of general legume insects, screening for varietal resistance to bean weevil and beanfly were performed in the experiment field. Radioisotope, P-32, was applied to screening of soybean resistant to aphid. Also, the germinability and the seedling height were measured in γ-ray irradiated mungbean for the grain storage. (author)

  7. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  8. Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This interactive tutorial CD entitled 'Using GPS Instruments and GIS Techniques in Data Management for Insect Pest Control Programs' was developed by Micha silver of the Arava Development Co., Sapir, Israel, and includes step-by-step hands on lessons on the use of GPS/GIS in support of area-wide pest control operations

  9. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  10. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  11. Effect of irradiation and insect pest control on rots and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus Degeer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is associated with rots in stored yam tubers. The current study was designed to assess the effect of irradiation and other insect pest control strategies on rots and sensory quality of stored yams. 450 tubers each of two varieties of white yam ...

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry is one of the most valuable hardwood species for cabinetry, furniture, and veneer. The goal of this study was to develop transgenic black cherry plants with reproductive sterility and enhanced insect resistance. Black cherry TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PsTFL1) was overexpressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in black cherry via

  13. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  14. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  15. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  16. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  17. Specific Midgut Region Controlling the Symbiont Population in an Insect-Microbe Gut Symbiotic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Kim, Na Hyang; Jang, Ho Am; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kim, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Many insects possess symbiotic bacteria that affect the biology of the host. The level of the symbiont population in the host is a pivotal factor that modulates the biological outcome of the symbiotic association. Hence, the symbiont population should be maintained at a proper level by the host's control mechanisms. Several mechanisms for controlling intracellular symbionts of insects have been reported, while mechanisms for controlling extracellular gut symbionts of insects are poorly understood. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a betaproteobacterial extracellular symbiont of the genus Burkholderia in the midgut symbiotic organ designated the M4 region. We found that the M4B region, which is directly connected to the M4 region, also harbors Burkholderia symbiont cells, but the symbionts therein are mostly dead. A series of experiments demonstrated that the M4B region exhibits antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial activity is specifically potent against the Burkholderia symbiont but not the cultured Burkholderia and other bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the M4B region was detected in symbiotic host insects, reaching its highest point at the fifth instar, but not in aposymbiotic host insects, which suggests the possibility of symbiont-mediated induction of the antimicrobial activity. This antimicrobial activity was not associated with upregulation of antimicrobial peptides of the host. Based on these results, we propose that the M4B region is a specialized gut region of R. pedestris that plays a critical role in controlling the population of the Burkholderia gut symbiont. The molecular basis of the antimicrobial activity is of great interest and deserves future study. PMID:24038695

  18. The Current Status of Baculovirus and Their Implication for Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Baculovirus have been promoted as the promising bioinsecticides for their pest control potential for more than half a century. But only a few have been successful as biological control agent, and almost none has been proven as commercial success, or widely used for large-scale insect pest control. The bioinsecticides currently represent only a small fraction of the world pesticide market. The successful of the Bt crop marked a special achievement in the bioinsecticide market growth. How about the baculoviruses? The main hurdle for baculovirus to be developed as bioinsecticide is its poor performance compare to synthetic chemical ones, include the speed of kill, and host range. It is important to understand the nature of baculovirus, and explore the possibilities to develop new way in applying the baculovirus as bioinsecticides. Key words: current status, baculovirus, insect control

  19. Transgenesis and paratransgenesis to control insect-borne diseases: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Insect-borne diseases cause significant human morbidity and mortality. Current control and preventive methods against vector-borne diseases rely mainly on insecticides. The emergence of insecticide resistance in many disease vectors highlights the necessity to develop new strategies to control these insects. Vector transgenesis and paratransgenesis are novel strategies that aim at reducing insect vectorial capacity, or seek to eliminate transmission of pathogens such as Plasmodium sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Dengue virus currently being developed. Vector transgenesis relies on direct genetic manipulation of disease vectors making them incapable of functioning as vectors of a given pathogen. Paratransgenesis focuses on utilizing genetically modified insect symbionts to express molecules within the vector that are deleterious to pathogens they transmit. Despite the many successes achieved in developing such techniques in the last several years, many significant barriers remain and need to be overcome prior to any of these approaches become a reality. Here, we highlight the current status of these strategies, pointing out advantages and constraints, and also explore issues that need to be resolved before the establishment of transgenesis and paratransgenesis as tools to prevent vector-borne diseases. PMID:19819346

  20. RF and microwave dielectric properties of stored-grain insects and their implications for potential insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.; Bartley, P.G. Jr.; Lawrence, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The permittivities of bulk samples of adult insects of the rice weevil, red flour beetle, sawtoothed grain beetle, and lesser grain borer were measured at single frequencies of 9.4 and 11.7 Ghz in X-band waveguide at about 23 degrees C, and permittivities of homogenized samples of the same species were measured from 0.2 to 20 GHz at temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. Sample densities for the coaxial-line probe measurements were determined from the X-band measurements with a linear relationship between the cube root of the dielectric constant and sample bulk density determined from permittivity measurements on bulk samples of the adult insects in a waveguide sample holder taken with the short-circuited line technique. Since linearity of the cube root of the dielectric constant with bulk density is consistent with the Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga dielectric mixture equation, this equation was used to calculate estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects from measured permittivities and volume fractions determined from measured bulk density and adult insect density determined by air-comparison pycnometer measurements. Estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects are presented graphically for temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C, and tabulated data are provided for range information and comparative purposes

  1. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....147 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... any commercial pest control service, if one is utilized, a specially designated employee should be...

  2. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests.

  3. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Leyla V.; Wright, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in H...

  4. The Role of Vision and Mechanosensation in Insect Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    domestica) and the nocturnal bee ( Megalopta genalis) as our model animals. Megalopta are interesting model animals because they fly in the complex...controlling flight in the complex environment of a dark rainforest. The relatively low ground speed of Megalopta suggests that these bees use temporal...the centre of holes). Megalopta , rather surprisingly, has developed a different strategy for avoiding nearby obstacles. This novel and so far unknown

  5. Impact of environmental manipulation for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald control on aquatic insect communities in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J G; Quiroz-Martínez, H; Rojas, J C; Valle, J; Ulloa, A; Williams, T

    2007-06-01

    Extraction of filamentous algae from river pools is highly effective for the control of Anophelespseudopunctipennis in southern Mexico. We determined the magnitude of changes to the aquatic insect community following single annual perturbations performed over two years. In 2001, algae were manually removed from all the pools in a 3 km long section of the River Coatán, Mexico, while an adjacent section was left as an untreated control. In 2002, the treatments of both zones were switched and algal extraction was repeated. The abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae + pupae was dramatically reduced by this treatment and remained depressed for two to three months. A total of 11,922 aquatic insects from ten orders, 40 families, and 95 genera were collected in monthly samples taken over five months of each year. Algal extraction did not reduce the overall abundance of aquatic insects in river pools, but a greater abundance and a greater richness of taxa were observed in 2002 compared to the previous year. This was associated with reduced precipitation and river discharge in 2002 compared to 2001. Shannon diversity index values were significantly depressed following algal extraction for a period of three months, in both years, before returning to values similar to those of the control zone. However, differences between years were greater than differences between treatments within a particular year. When insects were classified by functional feeding group (FFG), no significant differences were detected in FFG densities between extraction and control zones over time in either year of the study. Similarly, percent model affinity index values were classified as "not impacted" by the extraction process. Discriminant function analysis identified two orders of insects (Diptera and Odonata), water temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity, and river volume (depth, width, and discharge) as being of significant value in defining control and treatment groups in both years

  6. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2017-07-07

    The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in Hawaii to validate a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedure for non-target impacts. We use data on known host range and habitat use in the place of origin of the parasitoids to determine whether contemporary levels of non-target parasitism could have been predicted using PRA. Our results show that reasonable predictions of potential non-target impacts may be made if comprehensive data are available from places of origin of biological control agents, but scant data produce poor predictions. Using apparent mortality data rather than marginal attack rate estimates in PRA resulted in over-estimates of predicted non-target impact. Incorporating ecological data into PRA models improved the predictive power of the risk assessments.

  7. Assessing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approaches for Insect Biological Control Introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla V. Kaufman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of biological control agents to new environments requires host specificity tests to estimate potential non-target impacts of a prospective agent. Currently, the approach is conservative, and is based on physiological host ranges determined under captive rearing conditions, without consideration for ecological factors that may influence realized host range. We use historical data and current field data from introduced parasitoids that attack an endemic Lepidoptera species in Hawaii to validate a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA procedure for non-target impacts. We use data on known host range and habitat use in the place of origin of the parasitoids to determine whether contemporary levels of non-target parasitism could have been predicted using PRA. Our results show that reasonable predictions of potential non-target impacts may be made if comprehensive data are available from places of origin of biological control agents, but scant data produce poor predictions. Using apparent mortality data rather than marginal attack rate estimates in PRA resulted in over-estimates of predicted non-target impact. Incorporating ecological data into PRA models improved the predictive power of the risk assessments.

  8. Insects, isotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the increased use of nuclear techniques in controlling harmful insects. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which uses radiation to sexually sterilize insects and prevent reproduction, is particularly effective in eradication programmes. At the present time, there are approximately 10 species of insect pests being attacked by the SIT. Research and development is being conducted on other insect species and it is anticipated that the technology will be more widely used in the future

  9. Advances in insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    The sterile male technique has been successfully used in the control or eradication of at least eight species of insects in experimental or field trials. In view of the importance of the method the IAEA convened a Panel of experts in July 1964 to review the progress made in research on the application of the technique and to suggest future actions. The findings of the Panel are published in this Technical Report. 52 refs, 10 figs, 10 tabs.

  10. Thematic Plan for Fruit Fly Control Using the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This thematic plan for fruit flies is the summation of ideas and recommendations put forth by a group of experts composed of fruit fly program managers and workers, stakeholders from the affected industry, a commodity specialist from the FAO, and technical, planning and policy specialists from the IAEA and the FAO. This document provides strategic guidance and direction on how and where the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can most effectively be applied to control or eradicate fruit flies in the future.

  11. Controlled release of insect sex pheromones from paraffin wax and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterholt, C A; Delwiche, M J; Rice, R E; Krochta, J M

    1999-02-22

    Paraffin wax and aqueous paraffin emulsions can be used as controlled release carriers for insect sex pheromones for mating disruption of orchard pests. Paraffin can be applied at ambient temperature as an aqueous emulsion, adheres to tree bark or foliage, releases pheromone for an extended period of time, and will slowly erode from bark and biodegrade in soil. Pheromone emulsions can be applied with simple spray equipment. Pheromone release-rates from paraffin were measured in laboratory flow-cell experiments. Pheromone was trapped from an air stream with an adsorbent, eluted periodically, and quantified by gas chromatography. Pheromone release from paraffin was partition-controlled, providing a constant (zero-order) release rate. A typical paraffin emulsion consisted of 30% paraffin, 4% pheromone, 4% soy oil, 1% vitamin E, 2% emulsifier, and the balance water. Soy oil and vitamin E acted as volatility suppressants. A constant release of oriental fruit moth pheromone from paraffin emulsions was observed in the laboratory for more than 100 days at 27 degreesC, with release-rates ranging from 0.4 to 2 mg/day, depending on the concentration and surface area of the dried emulsion. The use of paraffin emulsions is a viable method for direct application of insect pheromones for mating disruption. Sprayable formulations can be designed to release insect pheromones to the environment at a rate necessary for insect control by mating disruption. At temperatures below 38 degreesC, zero-order release was observed. At 38 degreesC and higher, pheromone oxidation occurred. A partition-controlled release mechanism was supported by a zero-order pheromone release-rate, low air/wax partition coefficients, and pheromone solubility in paraffin.

  12. Advances in insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The sterile male technique has been successfully used in the control or eradication of at least eight species of insects in experimental or field trials. In view of the importance of the method the IAEA convened a Panel of experts in July 1964 to review the progress made in research on the application of the technique and to suggest future actions. The findings of the Panel are published in this Technical Report. 52 refs, 10 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Strain improvement of fungal insecticides for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weiguo; Azimzadeh, Philippe; St Leger, Raymond J

    2012-06-01

    Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling insect pests. However, few have been successfully commercialized due to low virulence and sensitivity to abiotic stresses that produce inconsistent results in field applications. These limitations are inherent in most naturally occurring biological control agents but development of recombinant DNA techniques has made it possible to significantly improve the insecticidal efficacy of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions, including UV. These advances have been achieved by combining new knowledge derived from basic studies of the molecular biology of these pathogens, technical developments that enable very precise regulation of gene expression, and genes encoding insecticidal proteins from other organisms, particularly spiders and scorpions. Recent coverage of genomes is helping determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. In future, such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies and host ranges to be used for different ecosystems, and that will avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance. With increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides, these new types of biological insecticides offer a range of environmental-friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinbingol, B.

    2001-01-01

    Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot, raisin and hazelnut. One of main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. Using MB is very effective for controlling stored product insects in Turkey. MB has also listed as an ozone depleting substance and worldwide production will be phased out in the near future, than Turkey will be faced very serious problem for export dry fruits and hazelnut. Use of irradiation to disinfest agricultural products has obvius advantages, most of which are influenced by environmental, cultural, economic, commercial and govermental factors. The first two factors, effectiveness and economy, are adressed principally. Research conducted world-wide in the past four decades have shown that radiation processing is an effective and safe method for controlling insect pests of stored products. Irradiation offers an effective alternative quarantine treatment which is more environmentally friendly and sustainable as compared to fumigants. In view of the phasing out of the currently used post harvest chemical fumigants, irradiation either alone or in conjuction with other post-harvest procedures can contribute towards the goals of achieving food security in developing and less developed countries by effectively reducing post-harvest losses

  16. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Morrison, Neil I; Walker, Adam S; Marubbi, Thea; Yao, Ju; Collins, Hilda L; Gorman, Kevin; Davies, T G Emyr; Alphey, Nina; Warner, Simon; Shelton, Anthony M; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-16

    alone did not. These results support theoretical modeling, indicating that MS-engineered insects can provide a powerful pest population suppressing effect, and could effectively augment current Bt resistance management strategies. We conclude that, subject to field confirmation, MS insects offer an effective and versatile control option against P. xylostella and potentially other pests, and may reduce reliance on and protect insecticide-based approaches, including Bt crops.

  17. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  18. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  19. Recombinant entomopathogenic agents: a review of biotechnological approaches to pest insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabörklü, Salih; Azizoglu, Ugur; Azizoglu, Zehra Busra

    2017-12-18

    Although the use of chemical pesticides has decreased in recent years, it is still a common method of pest control. However, chemical use leads to challenging problems. The harm caused by these chemicals and the length of time that they will remain in the environment is of great concern to the future and safety of humans. Therefore, developing new pest control agents that are safer and environmentally compatible, as well as assuring their widespread use is important. Entomopathogenic agents are microorganisms that play an important role in the biological control of pest insects and are eco-friendly alternatives to chemical control. They consist of viruses (non-cellular organisms), bacteria (prokaryotic organisms), fungi and protists (eukaryotic organisms), and nematodes (multicellular organisms). Genetic modification (recombinant technology) provides potential new methods for developing entomopathogens to manage pests. In this review, we focus on the important roles of recombinant entomopathogens in terms of pest insect control, placing them into perspective with other views to discuss, examine and evaluate the use of entomopathogenic agents in biological control.

  20. Neuromechanism study of insect-machine interface: flight control by neural electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhao

    Full Text Available The insect-machine interface (IMI is a novel approach developed for man-made air vehicles, which directly controls insect flight by either neuromuscular or neural stimulation. In our previous study of IMI, we induced flight initiation and cessation reproducibly in restrained honeybees (Apis mellifera L. via electrical stimulation of the bilateral optic lobes. To explore the neuromechanism underlying IMI, we applied electrical stimulation to seven subregions of the honeybee brain with the aid of a new method for localizing brain regions. Results showed that the success rate for initiating honeybee flight decreased in the order: α-lobe (or β-lobe, ellipsoid body, lobula, medulla and antennal lobe. Based on a comparison with other neurobiological studies in honeybees, we propose that there is a cluster of descending neurons in the honeybee brain that transmits neural excitation from stimulated brain areas to the thoracic ganglia, leading to flight behavior. This neural circuit may involve the higher-order integration center, the primary visual processing center and the suboesophageal ganglion, which is also associated with a possible learning and memory pathway. By pharmacologically manipulating the electrically stimulated honeybee brain, we have shown that octopamine, rather than dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, plays a part in the circuit underlying electrically elicited honeybee flight. Our study presents a new brain stimulation protocol for the honeybee-machine interface and has solved one of the questions with regard to understanding which functional divisions of the insect brain participate in flight control. It will support further studies to uncover the involved neurons inside specific brain areas and to test the hypothesized involvement of a visual learning and memory pathway in IMI flight control.

  1. Neuromechanism study of insect-machine interface: flight control by neural electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huixia; Zheng, Nenggan; Ribi, Willi A; Zheng, Huoqing; Xue, Lei; Gong, Fan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Fuliang

    2014-01-01

    The insect-machine interface (IMI) is a novel approach developed for man-made air vehicles, which directly controls insect flight by either neuromuscular or neural stimulation. In our previous study of IMI, we induced flight initiation and cessation reproducibly in restrained honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) via electrical stimulation of the bilateral optic lobes. To explore the neuromechanism underlying IMI, we applied electrical stimulation to seven subregions of the honeybee brain with the aid of a new method for localizing brain regions. Results showed that the success rate for initiating honeybee flight decreased in the order: α-lobe (or β-lobe), ellipsoid body, lobula, medulla and antennal lobe. Based on a comparison with other neurobiological studies in honeybees, we propose that there is a cluster of descending neurons in the honeybee brain that transmits neural excitation from stimulated brain areas to the thoracic ganglia, leading to flight behavior. This neural circuit may involve the higher-order integration center, the primary visual processing center and the suboesophageal ganglion, which is also associated with a possible learning and memory pathway. By pharmacologically manipulating the electrically stimulated honeybee brain, we have shown that octopamine, rather than dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, plays a part in the circuit underlying electrically elicited honeybee flight. Our study presents a new brain stimulation protocol for the honeybee-machine interface and has solved one of the questions with regard to understanding which functional divisions of the insect brain participate in flight control. It will support further studies to uncover the involved neurons inside specific brain areas and to test the hypothesized involvement of a visual learning and memory pathway in IMI flight control.

  2. Gamma-radiation control of the Sitophilus-orizae insect pest in the wheat grain storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    Insects produce very important grain lost in the cereal storage. This lost is highly variable according to the type of cereal and the stored time. The principal pest among coleopters is Sitophilus orizae which attacks wheat grains. Ionizing radiation allowed us to develope an alternative control method to the chemical insecticides which have serious disadvantages. Our results expressed as the DL 50 , showed a considerable reduction of adult life spanning from 250 Gy. Post-irradiation adquired sterility was observed in the stored grain due to the absence of descendents. (Autor) [es

  3. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests

  4. Soil application of neonicotinoid insecticides for control of insect pests in wine grape vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Timmeren, Steven; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2012-04-01

    Soil application of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides can provide opportunities for long-term control of insect pests in vineyards, with minimal risk of pesticide drift or worker exposure. This study compared the effectiveness of neonicotinoid insecticides applied via irrigation injection on key early-season and mid-season insect pests of vineyards in the eastern United States. On vines trained to grow on drip irrigation, early-season application of imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran provided high levels of control against the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. Protection of vines against Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, and grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana, was also observed after mid-season applications. Efficacy was poor in commercial vineyards when treatments were applied to the soil before irrigation or rain, indicating that vines must be grown with an irrigation system for efficient uptake of the insecticide. In drip-irrigated vineyards, soil-applied neonicotinoids can be used to provide long residual control of either early-season or mid- to late-season foliage pests of vineyards. This approach can reduce the dependence on foliar-applied insecticides, with associated benefits for non-target exposure to workers and natural enemies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Kang, Chang-kwon; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ravi, Sridhar; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    There are nearly a million known species of flying insects and 13 000 species of flying warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals, birds and bats. While in flight, their wings not only move forward relative to the air, they also flap up and down, plunge and sweep, so that both lift and thrust can be generated and balanced, accommodate uncertain surrounding environment, with superior flight stability and dynamics with highly varied speeds and missions. As the size of a flyer is reduced, the wing-to-body mass ratio tends to decrease as well. Furthermore, these flyers use integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic forces, muscles to move the wings, and sensing and control systems to guide and manoeuvre. In this article, recent advances in insect-scale flapping-wing aerodynamics, flexible wing structures, unsteady flight environment, sensing, stability and control are reviewed with perspective offered. In particular, the special features of the low Reynolds number flyers associated with small sizes, thin and light structures, slow flight with comparable wind gust speeds, bioinspired fabrication of wing structures, neuron-based sensing and adaptive control are highlighted. PMID:27118897

  6. Control of dengue vector by the sterile insect technique considering logistic recruitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteva, L.; Yang, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model to assess the effects of irradiated male insects introduction in a previously infested region, taking into account the logistic recruitment of sterile male insects. The release of sterile male insects aims to displace gradually the natural (or wild) insect from the habitat. We discuss the suitability of this release technique when applied to peridomestic adapted Aedes aegypyti mosquitoes which are transmitters of Yellow Fever and Dengue disease. (author)

  7. Control of dengue vector by the sterile insect technique considering logistic recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteva, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Matematicas; Lab-Epifisma, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Yang, H.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Ciencia da Computacao. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Lab-Epifisma, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    We propose a mathematical model to assess the effects of irradiated male insects introduction in a previously infested region, taking into account the logistic recruitment of sterile male insects. The release of sterile male insects aims to displace gradually the natural (or wild) insect from the habitat. We discuss the suitability of this release technique when applied to peridomestic adapted Aedes aegypyti mosquitoes which are transmitters of Yellow Fever and Dengue disease. (author)

  8. Survey for potential insect biological control agents of Ligustrum sinense (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Z Zhang; J.L. Hanula; J. Sun

    2008-01-01

    A systematic survey of Chinese privet foliage, stems, seeds, and roots for associated phytophagous insects was conducted in China during 2005 and 2006 in order to establish basic information about the insect communities that Chinese privet harbors and to evaluate the abundance and damage caused by these insects. A total of 170...

  9. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluate its extent and suggest a proper control strategy, a detailed survey was performed inside the Mosque complex and in its immediate surroundings. The entomological inspection, performed in the dry-cold season, allowed to detect signs of insect damage in most of the wooden elements, even in the recently replaced beams, but also in walls, pillars and the precious decorated panels. Damages in the wood elements could be attributed to Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae, Bostrychoplites zycheli Marseuli (Bostrichidae and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae, which were collected alive on site. Injures in the walls and decorated panels appeared to be performed by hymenopterans such as “plasterer bees” (Colletidae and Sphecidae. From the evaluation of the type and extent of damage in relation to the architecture and materials used in its construction and decoration, the most serious pest and the worse threat for the mosque is represented by termites. Control and preventive measures, in the view of a sustainable, long-lasting integrated management are suggested.

  10. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-07

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  11. Control for small-speed lateral flight in a model insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanlai; Sun Mao

    2011-01-01

    Controls required for small-speed lateral flight of a model insect were studied using techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control (the stability and control derivatives were computed by the method of computational fluid dynamics). The main results are as follows. (1) Two steady-state lateral motions can exist: one is a horizontal side translation with the body rolling to the same side of the translation by a small angle, and the other is a constant-rate yaw rotation (rotation about the vertical axis). (2) The side translation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the stroke amplitudes of the contralateral wings, and/or an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having equal change. The constant-rate yaw rotation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having differential change. (3) For the control of the horizontal side translation, control input required for the steady-state motion has an opposite sign to that needed for initiating the motion. For example, to have a steady-state left side-translation, the insect needs to increase the stroke amplitude of the left wing and decrease that of the right wing to maintain the steady-state flight, but it needs an opposite change in stroke amplitude (decreasing the stroke amplitude of the left wing and increasing that of the right wing) to enter the flight.

  12. Control for small-speed lateral flight in a model insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Controls required for small-speed lateral flight of a model insect were studied using techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control (the stability and control derivatives were computed by the method of computational fluid dynamics). The main results are as follows. (1) Two steady-state lateral motions can exist: one is a horizontal side translation with the body rolling to the same side of the translation by a small angle, and the other is a constant-rate yaw rotation (rotation about the vertical axis). (2) The side translation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the stroke amplitudes of the contralateral wings, and/or an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having equal change. The constant-rate yaw rotation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having differential change. (3) For the control of the horizontal side translation, control input required for the steady-state motion has an opposite sign to that needed for initiating the motion. For example, to have a steady-state left side-translation, the insect needs to increase the stroke amplitude of the left wing and decrease that of the right wing to maintain the steady-state flight, but it needs an opposite change in stroke amplitude (decreasing the stroke amplitude of the left wing and increasing that of the right wing) to enter the flight.

  13. Use of radiation disinfestation in the control of rice insect pests during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaeneum), saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis), and flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) are commonly found in Egyptian stored rice. The aim of this project is to carry out a study of a pilot-scale radiation disinfestation of these rice insect pests in an amount large enough to extrapolate data for later commercial practice. Fumigation treatments with phostoxin, methyl bromide and a combination treatment (methyl bromide + 7.5 krad) were also performed as a comparison to reveal the most effective way to control these rice pests. The most effective of all treatments tested was the 50-krad treatment. Complete sterility for the adults of these pests was obtained after treating rice directly, while complete mortality was reached within 30-60 days. Regarding fumigation treatments - phostoxin, methylbromide and combined treatment (methylbromide + 7.5 krad), the living stages of the four insect pests in rice varied during the storage period. However, the combination treatment gave the best results. Adults of the three Coleopteran species appeared in rice after four months because the 7.5-krad dose was not enough to kill the eggs which might have been laid by young females before being killed by fumigants. (author)

  14. Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Libersat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host. Such parasite–host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions. To name just a few examples, some worms induce crickets and other terrestrial insects to commit suicide in water, enabling the exit of the parasite into an aquatic environment favorable to its reproduction. In another example of behavioral manipulation, ants that consumed the secretions of a caterpillar containing dopamine are less likely to move away from the caterpillar and more likely to be aggressive. This benefits the caterpillar for without its ant bodyguards, it is more likely to be predated upon or attacked by parasitic insects that would lay eggs inside its body. Another example is the parasitic wasp, which induces a guarding behavior in its ladybug host in collaboration with a viral mutualist. To exert long-term behavioral manipulation of the host, parasite must secrete compounds that act through secondary messengers and/or directly on genes often modifying gene expression to produce long-lasting effects.

  15. RNA interference: a new strategy in the evolutionary arms race between human control strategies and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Galan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between humans and the insect pests of cultivated plants may be considered to be an indirect coevolutionary process, i.e., an arms race. Over time, humans have developed several strategies to minimize the negative impacts of insects on agricultural production. However, insects have made adaptive responses via the evolution of resistance to insecticides, and more recently against Bacillus thuriengiensis. Thus, we need to continuously invest resources in the development of new strategies for crop protection. Recent advances in genomics have demonstrated the possibility of a new weapon or strategy in this war, i.e., gene silencing, which involves blocking the expression of specific genes via mRNA inactivation. In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy in the control of different species of insects. However, several technical difficulties need to be overcome to transform this potential into reality, such as the selection of target genes, the concentration of dsRNA, the nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA, the length of dsRNA, persistence in the insect body, and the life stage of the target species where gene silencing is most efficient. This study analyzes several aspects related to the use of gene silencing in pest control and it includes an overview of the inactivation process, as well as the problems that need to be resolved to transform gene silencing into an effective pest control method.

  16. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura de bajo impacto ambiental demanda nuevos pesticidas que deben ajustarse a las exigentes normativas internacionales. Parte de la búsqueda de nuevos productos bio-racionales se desarrolla por fuera del marco de la síntesis orgánica, explorando diferentes sustancias de origen natural como extractos vegetales, aceites insecticidas e insecticidas inorgánicos. Los polvos insecticidas representan el grupo más antiguo de sustancias utilizadas por el hombre para el control de plagas, cuya eficacia se basa principalmente en fenómenos físicos. Con el advenimiento de los insecticidas de síntesis, los polvos insecticidas fueron relegados por casi cinco décadas a la función de carriers de principios activos dentro de los insecticidas formulados. Con el desarrollo del caolín hidrófobo en la década de los 90´, los polvos inorgánicos resurgieron como insecticidas "per se", y, recientemente, a partir del descubrimiento de los nanoinsecticidas, afloran nuevas alternativas para expandir el espectro de aplicaciones de los polvos inorgánicos. El desarrollo y registro de nuevos productos a partir de nanomateriales manufacturados se basa en el paradigma "lo mismo pero diferente", ya que éstos difieren de las sustancias con idéntica estructura y composición química respecto de algunas propiedades como reactividad,área especifica, efectos cuánticos, carga eléctrica, etc. Estas sustancias con nuevas propiedades también se destacan como herramientas muy prometedoras para la protección de cultivos y la producción de alimentos y abren nuevas fronteras para el manejo de plagas con nanoinsecticidas. La alúmina nanoestructurada exhibe varias de las propiedades del insecticida ideal, ya que se trata de un producto natural desde el punto de vista químico, no reactivo, económico, con reducidas probabilidades de provocar resistencia en los insectos y su eficacia es mayor que la de otros polvos insecticidas como el caolín o la tierra de

  17. Respiratory control in aquatic insects dictates their vulnerability to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bilton, David T

    2013-10-23

    Forecasting species responses to climatic warming requires knowledge of how temperature impacts may be exacerbated by other environmental stressors, hypoxia being a principal example in aquatic systems. Both stressors could interact directly as temperature affects both oxygen bioavailability and ectotherm oxygen demand. Insufficient oxygen has been shown to limit thermal tolerance in several aquatic ectotherms, although, the generality of this mechanism has been challenged for tracheated arthropods. Comparing species pairs spanning four different insect orders, we demonstrate that oxygen can indeed limit thermal tolerance in tracheates. Species that were poor at regulating oxygen uptake were consistently more vulnerable to the synergistic effects of warming and hypoxia, demonstrating the importance of respiratory control in setting thermal tolerance limits.

  18. Impact of fruit fly control programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the impact of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, that use the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control fruit fly pests of economic significance, is complex. These programmes affect practically the whole horticultural food chain. In this chapter, the impact of the programmes is assessed by focusing only on the benefits generated to producers and traders of horticultural products, the direct beneficiaries. This is done first by describing the types of benefits accrued from these programmes, second by explaining the factors that shape programme benefits, and finally by presenting several examples to illustrate how the SIT technology, when properly applied for eradication, containment, suppression, or prevention purposes, can generate substantial direct and indirect benefits to the horticulture industry. (author)

  19. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene applied to wood, metal and concrete for control of stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Frank H; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Baige; Phillips, Thomas W

    2009-07-01

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on wood, metal and concrete surfaces. Pyriproxyfen was applied to the surfaces at 1.15 and 2.3 mg active ingredient [AI] m(-2), while hydroprene was applied at the label rate of 19 mg AI m(-2). Late-instar larvae of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, T. castaneum (Herbst), Oryzaephilus surinamenis L., Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were exposed with a food source on the treated surfaces. Residual testing was conducted at 1, 28 and 56 days post-treatment. Hydroprene was least persistent on concrete and generally most persistent on metal. Pyriproxyfen gave greater residual persistence than hydroprene, and there was no consistent difference in efficacy among the three surfaces. Efficacy varied among the five insect species, but generally P. interpunctella was the most tolerant species to both IGRs. Pyriproxyfen gave effective residual control of primary stored-product insect species by inhibiting adult emergence of exposed larvae. Results show that pyriproxyfen can be a useful addition for pest management programs in mills, warehouses and food storage facilities. (c) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Simultaneous exposure of nematophagous fungi, entomopathogenic nematodes and entomopathogenic fungi can modulate belowground insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Pallero, Francisco Ángel; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Dionísio, Lídia; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2018-05-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and fungi (EPF) are well known biological control agents (BCAs) against insect pests. Similarly, the nematophagous fungi (NF) are considered good BCA candidates for controlling plant parasitic nematodes. Because NF can employ EPNs as food and interact with EPF, we speculate that the simultaneous application of EPNs and EPF might result in higher insect mortality, whereas the triple species combination with NF will reduce the EPN and EPF activity by predation or inhibition. Here we evaluated single, dual (EPN + EPF, EPF + NF, EPN + NF) and triple (EPN + EPF + NF) combinations of one EPN, Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), one EPF, Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and two NF, Arthrobotrys musiformis (Orbiliales: Orbiliaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) under laboratory conditions. First, we showed that EPF reduced the growth rate of NF and vice versa when combined in both rich and limiting media, suggesting a negative interaction when combining both fungi. Three different fungal applications (contact with mycelia-conidia, immersion in conidial suspension, and injection of conidial suspension) were tested in single, dual and triple species combinations, evaluating Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larval mortality and time to kill. When mycelia was presented, the EPF appeared to be the dominant in combined treatments, whereas in immersion exposure was the EPN. In both types of exposure, NF alone did not produce any effect on larvae. However, when A. musiformis was injected, it produced larval mortalities >70% in the same time span as EPN. Overall, additive effects dominated the dual and triple combinations, with the exception of injection method, where synergisms occurred for both NF species combined with EPN + EPF. This study illustrates how differences in species combination and timing of fungal arrival can modulate the action

  2. Biological control in agro-systems by means of the handling of entomophagous insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Clara Ines; Altieri, Miguel A

    1998-01-01

    From several decades ago the importance of natural enemies of the noxious organisms has been recognized. Unfortunately the introduction of the biological control has not had the desired dimension. The indiscriminate use of biocides products has altered the biodiversity of the agro-ecosystem. The parasitoids and predators have suffered the noxious effects of the plaguicides. These natural enemies of the plagues play a momentous paper in the regulation of noxious insects population. The predators of the insecta class register in diverse orders and the abundance of species is impressive. But the knowledge of their importance is only partial. In many countries the kindness of these organisms has not been specified and does not protect them. In the case of parasitoids something similar occurs. It is say that their biotic diversity is incalculable but very few species are exploited. In these two groups rest the classic biological control projects. The successes in projects of biological control are recognized and they are enlarging in several countries but more impulse is required. Due to demands of a sustainable agricultural production it should support the biological control of plagues. In this document general looks on the topic are expounded

  3. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  4. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental......-test analyses show that weaver ant treatment is superior over conventional agricultural practices. The study concludes that weaver ant treatment was economically feasible and financially undertaking. Further field experimental trials will be repeated in the next two growing seasons to confirm results obtained...

  5. Methods of noxious insects control by radiation on example of 'Stegobium paniceum L.'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, A.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation method of disinfestation on example of 'Stegobium paniceum L.' has been described. The different stadia of insect growth have been irradiated. Their radiosensitivity have been estimated on the base of dose-response relationship. Biological radiation effects have been observed as insect procreation limitation. 26 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of s...

  7. Seed treatments for the control of insects and diseases in sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate insect and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxa...

  8. Gene disruption technologies have the potential to transform stored product insect pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, ...

  9. The trends and future of biotechnology crops for insect pest control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotech crops, including those that are genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins for insect resistance, have been cultivated commercially and adopted in steadily increasing numbers of countries over the past 14 years. This review discusses the current status of insect resistant transgenic crops and ...

  10. Impacts of insect biological control on soil N transformations in Tamarix-invaded ecosystems in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the impacts of insect biological control of Tamarix spp. on soil nitrogen (N) transformations is important because changes to N supply could alter plant community succession. We investigated short-term and longer-term impacts of herbivory by the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda cari...

  11. Biological control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., at low temperatures : a systems analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, is an important pest in ornamentals and nursery stock in The Netherlands. The larvae, which feed on the root system of the plant, can be controlled by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis for biological control programs that target insects pests of eucalypts in urban landscapes of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.D. Paine; J.G. Millar; L.M. Hanks; J. Gould; Q. Wang; K. Daane; D.L. Dahlsten; E.G. McPherson

    2015-01-01

    As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have targeted these pests....

  13. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment

  14. Role of plants and plant based products towards the control of insect pests and vectors: A novel review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests bear harmful effects causing great loss to the agricultural crops, stored agricultural products and vector mosquitoes can cause diseases to human. Plants possess an array of vast repository of phytochemicals and have been used to cure many diseases and to control the infestation of insect pests from time immemorial. Plants are easily biodegradable and ecologically safe for treating on the stored or on the field crops against pests to prevent from further damage or loss of stored products or preventing human from mosquito bites, thus preventing the spreading of dreadful diseases such as chikungunya and malaria. Hence, this review can give a clear insecticidal, pesticidal and mosquitocidal property of several plants against the insect pests and vectors.

  15. Insect and Pest Control Section newsletter and information circular on radiation techniques and their application to insect pests. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Information Circular presents preliminary reports of research and development activities in the application of nuclear energy for entomological problems and related aspects. Radiation sterilization and isotope-aided studies are stressed, however, articles relating to practical pest control or eradication are also within the scope of the Information Circular

  16. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  17. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier; Poulsen

    2000-07-01

    Wheat infested with grain mites (Acari) and Sitophilus granarius, and maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus, were exposed to hot air in a CIMBRIA HTST Microline toaster((R)). Inlet temperatures of the hot air were in the range of 150-750 degrees C decreasing to outlet temperatures in the range of 100-300 degrees C during the exposure period. A rotating drum, connected to a natural-gas burner was fed with grain which was in constant movement along the drum and thereby mixed thoroughly during the process. The capacity of the toaster was 1000 kg per hour.Complete control of grain mites and adult S. granarius in wheat was obtained with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average residence time in the drum of 6 s. More than 99% mortality was obtained for all stages of S. granarius with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average exposure period of 40 s. For control of P. truncatus in maize, an inlet temperature of 700 degrees C resulted in a complete disinfestation when the exposure time was 19 s.The reduction in grain moisture content was 0.5-1% at treatments giving 100% control. Germination tests indicate that it is possible to choose a combination of inlet temperatures and exposure periods which effectively kills mites and insects in small grains, without harming the functional properties of the grain.Economy of the method was considered to be competitive with fumigation using phosphine.

  18. Computational and biological characterization of fusion proteins of two insecticidal proteins for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Shaista; Naz, Sehrish; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Mansoor, Shahid

    2018-03-19

    Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector. The HL fusion protein was found to be more effective against P. solenopsis, with an 83% mortality rate, as compared to the LH protein, which caused 65% mortality. Hvt and lectin alone caused 42% and 45%, respectively, under the same conditions. Computational studies of both fusion proteins showed that the HL protein is more stable than the LH protein. Together, these results demonstrate that translational fusion of two insecticidal proteins improved the insecticidal activity relative to each protein individually and could be expressed in transgenic plants for effective control of sucking pests.

  19. Chloroplast localization of Cry1Ac and Cry2A protein- an alternative way of insect control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Muzaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed that Cry1Ac and Cry2A were successfully cloned in the correct orientation. The appearance of a blue color in sections of infiltrated leaves after 72 hours confirmed the successful expression of the construct in the plant expression system. The overall transformation efficiency was calculated to be 0.7%. The amplification of Cry1Ac-Cry2A and Tp2 showed the successful integration of target genes into the genome of cotton plants. A maximum of 0.673 μg/g tissue of Cry1Ac and 0.568 μg/g tissue of Cry2A was observed in transgenic plants. We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. CONCLUSION: Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. The results of this study will also be of great value from a biosafety point of view.

  20. A study of the healthy standard for radiation controlling insect of almond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Wang Weiguo; Li Fengmei

    1992-01-01

    The result of healthy standard research for disinfestation insects of almond by γ-ray irradiation is described. The mortality of insects is more effective by using 1.0 kGy dose. The comparison of good product rate between irradiated and un-irradiated has been studied. Result indicates that good product rate of irradiated sample is 20% higher than unirradiated. In addition, there are no significant difference between irradiated and unirradiated samples on nutrition and chemical parameters

  1. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Complex Outcomes from Insect and Weed Control with Transgenic Plants: Ecological Surprises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bøhn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is fundamental for human survival through food production and is performed in ecosystems that, while simplified, still operate along ecological principles and retain complexity. Agricultural plants are thus part of ecological systems, and interact in complex ways with the surrounding terrestrial, soil, and aquatic habitats. We discuss three case studies that demonstrate how agricultural solutions to pest and weed control, if they overlook important ecological and evolutionary factors, cause “surprises”: (i the fast emergence of resistance against the crop-inserted Bt-toxin in South Africa, (ii the ecological changes generated by Bt-cotton landscapes in China, and (iii the decline of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, in North America. The recognition that we work with complex systems is in itself important, as it should limit the belief in reductionist solutions. Agricultural practices lacking eco-evolutionary understanding result in “surprises” like resistance evolution both in weeds and pest insects, risking the reappearance of the “pesticide treadmill”—with increased use of toxic pesticides as the follow-up. We recommend prioritization of research that counteracts the tendencies of reductionist approaches. These may be beneficial on a short term, but with trade-off costs on a medium- to long-term. Such costs include loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, long-term soil productivity, pollution, and reduced food quality.

  3. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective

  4. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo [INTA La Consulta, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective.

  5. Study of entomophatogenic fungus to control vector insect of citrus tristeza virus on citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiastuti M.E.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV disease is a silent killer, which threatens to decrease productivity, quality and even death of citrus plants and the erosion of genetic resources. Spreading in the field very quickly by the intermediate insect vector pest, aphid (Toxoptera citricida, T. Aurantii and A. Gosypii. The microbes studied for potential biopesticide candidates are: Beauveria bassiana and Hirsutella citriformis, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch Sorokin previously reported to control Diaphorina citri pests resulting effectiveness of > 25% and was able to suppress yield loss up to 10%. The objectives of the study examined the effectiveness of entomopathogen in controlling the pest of CTV vector, Toxoptera citricida, in the laboratory and screen house, to findout the physiological, biochemical and molecular physiology of entomopathogen. The results showed that the best entomopathogen suspension concentration was B.bassiana 106 followed by H. citriformis 106 and M. anisopliae 106. Entomopatogen B. bassiana and H. citriformis effectively controled the CTV vector pest in the laboratory. In the semi-field experiments at the screen house, the most effective result was H.citriformis 106 and the combination of H.citriformis 106 + B.bassiana 106, killing up to 50% and 100% on day 7th H.citriformis had the most physiological character, was able to develop optimally at a temperature of 20-400C and humidity between 60-80%. The biochemical character of the entomopathogenic fungus B.bassiana contained cellulase enzyme and phosphate solvent and IAA hormone, at most compared to the others. H.citriformis had not been found to contain enzymes and hormones. The molecular biochemical characterization of entomopathogenic fungi using FS1 and NS2 primers more clearly distinguished isolates and entomopathogenic species.

  6. Can topical insect repellents reduce malaria? A cluster-randomised controlled trial of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Chen-Hussey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito vectors of malaria in Southeast Asia readily feed outdoors making malaria control through indoor insecticides such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying more difficult. Topical insect repellents may be able to protect users from outdoor biting, thereby providing additional protection above the current best practice of LLINs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A double blind, household randomised, placebo-controlled trial of insect repellent to reduce malaria was carried out in southern Lao PDR to determine whether the use of repellent and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs could reduce malaria more than LLINs alone. A total of 1,597 households, including 7,979 participants, were recruited in June 2009 and April 2010. Equal group allocation, stratified by village, was used to randomise 795 households to a 15% DEET lotion and the remainder were given a placebo lotion. Participants, field staff and data analysts were blinded to the group assignment until data analysis had been completed. All households received new LLINs. Participants were asked to apply their lotion to exposed skin every evening and sleep under the LLINs each night. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases were actively identified by monthly rapid diagnostic tests. Intention to treat analysis found no effect from the use of repellent on malaria incidence (hazard ratio: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01, p = 0.868. A higher socio-economic score was found to significantly decrease malaria risk (hazard ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90, p = 0.004. Women were also found to have a reduced risk of infection (hazard ratio: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.92, p = 0.020. According to protocol analysis which excluded participants using the lotions less than 90% of the time found similar results with no effect from the use of repellent. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised controlled trial suggests that topical repellents are not a suitable intervention in addition to

  7. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  8. Handling of vegetable biodiversity and the biological control of insect-plague: Case of an organic vineyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Clara I

    2000-01-01

    In the handling of plagues it is feasible to increase natural enemies, populations diversifying the habitat. In the agro ecosystems the importance of the marginal vegetation is recognized for the parasitoids survival and predators. In commercial cultivations of vineyards, managed organically, was ahead this work, corridors of 65 different species from plants with flowers were settled down. The covering cultivations were sowed in array for half every year. The vineyards received 2 tons of compost on average for hectare. For the control of illnesses it was used sulfur preventively. It sought to be necessary if the corridor 200 meters long could increase the biological control of insect's plague in the vineyard. It was evaluated the contribution of the corridor like supplier of alternative nutritious resources, consistent, abundant and well distributed of natural enemies. It was proven the utility of the corridor to increase the populational levels of beneficent insects

  9. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  10. Consuming insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a

  11. A Southwide Rate Test of Azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for Cone and Seed Insect Control In Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Mangini; L.R. Barber; R.S. Cameron; G.L. DeBarr; G.R. Hodge; J.B. Jett; W.L. Lowe; J.L. McConnell; J. Nord; J.W. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    A southwide efficiency test of reduced rates of azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for control of seed and cone insects in loblolly pine seed orchards was conducted in 1992. In each of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed orchards, an untreated (no protection) check and two of five possible rates of Guthion® (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 lb ai/ac/...

  12. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, ...

  13. Insects control in soybean flour by irradiation; Control de insectos en la harina de soja por irradiación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Fraga, R.; Andújar, G.

    1996-07-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on disinfestation of soy meal and on important chemical compounds of this product, and the organoleptic quality of hamburgers made with irradiated soy meal were studied in this paper. The results showed that the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy meal during its storage and total proteins, fat, and moisture of product did not change by irradiation. The organoleptic quality of hamburgers with irradiated soy meal was the same as the quality of the product made with untreatment meal [Spanish] En el trabajo se estudio el efecto de la irradiacion con dosis de 0,5 y 1,0 kGy en la desinfestacion de la harina de soja y en diferentes componentes quimicos de importancia en este producto; ademas, se evaluo la calidad sensorial de hamburguesas elaboradas con harina de soja irradiada. Los resultados mostraron la efectividad de las dosis aplicadas en el control de plagamiento por insectos de la harina de soja durante su almacenamiento y los contenidos de proteinas totales, grasa y humedad no se alteraron por la irradiacion. La calidad sensorial de las hamburguesas con harina irradiada fue similar a la de las elaboradas con harinas sin tratar.

  14. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL - AS A MEANS TO CONTROL INSECT PESTS IN AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Mamedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundreds and twenty species parasites and predators of pests of various agricultures are revealed in Azerbaijan. The complex of entomophages of certain pests of agricultures is studied: 48 species of parasites and predators of Chloridea obsoleta 21 species of entomophages of Pectinophora malvella Hb., over 160 species of entomophages of pests of ozehards and vegetables, 34 species of entomophages of pests of forests. The hundreds species of entomophages and some entomophogenous microbes and antagonists are revealed. Biology and ecology of over 60 species of entomophages and useful microorganisims which are prospective as biological control agents are studied.

  15. Differential physiological responses of dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica L. Miller, to injury from two insect biological control agents: Implications for decision-making in biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert K. D. Peterson; Sharlene E. Sing; David K. Weaver

    2005-01-01

    Successful biological control of invasive weeds with specialist herbivorous insects is predicated on the assumption that the injury stresses the weeds sufficiently to cause reductions in individual fitness. Because plant gas exchange directly impacts growth and fitness, characterizing how injury affects these primary processes may provide a key indicator of...

  16. Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-09-15

    Since the pioneer work of the United States Department of Agriculture in the application of radiation and radioisotopes in the control of insect pests to cattle, many countries and organizations have pursued the advantages which might be gained in this field. Two years ago the IAEA organized the first international symposium in Bombay to study this problem, since when a considerable amount of basic research on the application of nuclear science in entomology and insect pest control has been undertaken. The potential gain of these studies, which would be in the form of an increased output of better food, is obvious to all Governments; hence the extensive international interest in the subject of this present Symposium, which was attended by 100 participants from 26 countries and 5 international organizations. The proceedings consist of 37 papers presented by experts from 10 countries, together with a record of the discussions, and cover the use of radioisotopes in the study of the ecology of insects, such as their dispersal, migration and life-cycle. The application of radioisotopes to insecticides covers such subjects as labelling, application, uptake, translocation, metabolism, mode of action, and the determination' of residues in plants and animals. The present position on the effects of radiation on insects is dealt with, including mutation, sterilization and the use of the sterile-male technique for the control and eradication of insect pests, and the need is emphasized for integration of chemical, biological, radiation and other methods of insect control. The emphasis of this Symposium has been mainly on aspects of crop protection and it is hoped that the next symposium will also deal with aspects of livestock protection.

  17. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  18. Low cost production of nematodes for biological control of insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are produced in two ways: in artificial media using liquid or solid fermentation methods (in vitro) or by mass producing insect hosts to be artificially exposed to mass infection by nematodes (in vivo). The yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a good host for in vivo nema...

  19. Recent advances in fumigation for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States agricultural industries are facing, with increasing frequency, environmental and pest-related food safety requirements that are fundamentally difficult to balance. Failure to properly disinfest commodities in trade and marketing channels can result in insect- and microbial-derived dam...

  20. A phosphoproteomics approach to elucidate neuropeptide signal transduction controlling insect metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim F; Larsen, Martin R; Lobner-Olesen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In insects, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) stimulates production of ecdysone (E) in the prothoracic glands (PGs). E is the precursor of the principal steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), that is responsible for eliciting molting and metamorphosis. In this study, we used...

  1. The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Baosheng; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jun; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-07-14

    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO ( BmFOXO ) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. The BmFOXO mutant (FOXO-M) exhibited growth delays from the first larval stage and showed precocious metamorphosis, pupating at the end of the fourth instar (trimolter) rather than at the end of the fifth instar as in the wild-type (WT) animals. However, different from previous reports on precocious metamorphosis caused by juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency in silkworm mutants, the total developmental time of the larval period in the FOXO-M was comparable with that of the WT. Exogenous application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or of the JH analog rescued the trimolter phenotype. RNA-seq and gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in JH degradation but not in JH biosynthesis were up-regulated in the FOXO-M compared with the WT animals. Moreover, we identified several FOXO-binding sites in the promoter of genes coding for JH-degradation enzymes. These results suggest that FOXO regulates JH degradation rather than its biosynthesis, which further modulates hormone homeostasis to control growth and development in B. mori In conclusion, we have uncovered a pivotal role for FOXO in regulating JH signaling to control insect development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Lemonds, Thomas R; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M [Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release.

  4. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakid, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  5. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [es

  6. IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4 - June 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized

  7. Potential impact of tsetse fly control involving the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.; Dyck, V.A.; Mattioli, R.C.; Jannin, J.

    2005-01-01

    Hunger and poverty persist in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Many affected communities could produce enough food for themselves, and even for sale, if they had the basics - livestock and crops. In most of these communities, the presence of tsetse flies and the disease they vector, trypanosomosis, prevents optimal productive livestock-keeping and mixed farming, resulting in inadequate local food production. Since a vast majority of the rural communities depends on agriculture, the removal of a key development problem like tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) will permit increased local agricultural production, socio-economic and market development, and alleviate hunger and poverty. A sustained alleviation, if possible a complete, lasting removal of the T and T problem, is therefore considered a prerequisite to rural self-sufficient agriculture, in which productive livestock can provide milk, meat, draught power to cultivate the land, and eventually generate higher income and market opportunities. Hence the removal of such a key problem would catalyse overall development in rural areas. However, the poverty and food security status of communities in Africa is rather heterogeneous, and reflects the impact of various constraining factors, including T and T on the current agricultural production process and human well-being, as well as on the overall development potential. Correspondingly, the benefits to sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD), resulting from an elimination of the T and T problem, will also vary from area to area. In view of the substantial finding required over the next decades to address this key problem, and the need for early 'success stories' that show tangible benefits, it is important that the initial T and T control areas are carefully selected according to technical feasibility, and to the predicted potential in the context of SARD. Trypanosomosis is a major, but technically solvable, development problem, and the effectiveness of the

  8. A biological micro actuator: graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cao

    Full Text Available In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect-machine hybrid legged robot.

  9. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  10. Steroidal compounds as carriers of juvenile hormone bioanalogues applicable in environmentally safe insect pest control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Bennettová, Blanka; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, Suppl. 1 (2007), A131-A132 ISSN 1738-2297. [International Congress of Insect Biotechnology and Industry. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Daegu] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : juvenile hormone bioanalogues * juvenoid * juvenogen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Insect eggs exert rapid control over an oxygen–water tradeoff

    OpenAIRE

    Zrubek, Brandy; Woods, H. Arthur

    2005-01-01

    In terrestrial environments, the exchange of respiratory gases exacts a water cost: obtaining oxygen or carbon dioxide requires losing water. Insect eggs should be especially sensitive to this tradeoff—because they are unable to forage for water, have high surface area-to-volume ratios, and experience large temperature-driven changes in oxygen demand. Previous work from our laboratory, on eggs of a common hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, has shown that, during development, metabolic rate and water lo...

  12. Status of Biological Control of Waterlettuce in Louisiana and Texas Using Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    reduce recreational uses. Waterleett’je can block water intake valves where industrial and local municipalities receive water supplies. Water losses...to impact aquatic or semiaquatic agri- culture, includi g rice (Bua-ngam and Mercado 1975). Distinct changes in water quality have been documented in...1981. "An Introduction to the Study of Insects," Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, PA. Bua-ngam, T., and Mercado , B. L. 1975. "The Life Cycle

  13. Application of the sterile-insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in Israel under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburov, S.S.; Yawetz, A.

    1975-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment, carried out in 1973 in Israel, employing the sterile-insect technique against the Mediterranean fruit fly and conducted over a 10 000 dunam area containing commercial citrus groves, is discussed. The release area was surrounded by a 500-m-wide low-volume (LV) bait spray barrier. Sterile flies were released from the ground and by air twice weekly. Results indicate successful control of the wild fly population for several months only and a clear suppression until July; thereafter, wild fertile females immigrated into the release area through the LV barrier. (author)

  14. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... all life stages of insects from and around the corpse. The collected specimens are subjected to further analysis either in the field itself or in the laboratory. A forensic entomologist has three main objectives in his mind while analyzing the insect data: determination of place, time and mode of death, each of.

  15. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  16. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  17. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards

  18. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  19. Self-control of insect pests: a nuclear application that is friendly to the environment in the field of combat and eradicate of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, insect control methods depend primarily on insecticides, and the world consumption of insecticides is increasing by about 5% every year. Unfortunately, however, these chemicals pollute the environment, leave residues on agricultural products, and kill beneficial organisms leading to secondary pest problems and insecticide resistance. Ecological and environmental concerns have lead to new tactics in insect pest control. These tactics put more emphasis on cultural, physical and biological control methods including autocidal control where insects are used to destroy their own natural population. This article discusses the subject of autocidal control, its history, philosophy, basics, advantages, how to use it and where. It also gives an idea about its current use and future outlook. (author)

  20. Neural Control and Adaptive Neural Forward Models for Insect-like, Energy-Efficient, and Adaptable Locomotion of Walking Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Parlitz, Ulrich; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2013-01-01

    such natural properties with artificial legged locomotion systems by using different approaches including machine learning algorithms, classical engineering control techniques, and biologically-inspired control mechanisms. However, their levels of performance are still far from the natural ones. By contrast...... on sensory feedback and adaptive neural forward models with efference copies. This neural closed-loop controller enables a walking machine to perform a multitude of different walking patterns including insect-like leg movements and gaits as well as energy-efficient locomotion. In addition, the forward models...... allow the machine to autonomously adapt its locomotion to deal with a change of terrain, losing of ground contact during stance phase, stepping on or hitting an obstacle during swing phase, leg damage, and even to promote cockroach-like climbing behavior. Thus, the results presented here show...

  1. [Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects. An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Benintende, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological pesticide used to control insects that affect agriculture and forestry and which transmit human and animal pathogens. During the past decades B. thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of their pesticidal crystal proteins. As a result, a coherent picture of these relationships has emerged. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins and their performance in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  2. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  3. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  4. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... He writes popular science articles in ... science, English poetry is his area of ... A fascinating branch of insect science (ento- ... Methods in Forensic Entomology .... bullet wound to the right temple, and a substantial pooling of.

  5. Eating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...

  6. The effects of insect biological control on a Tamarix invaded ecosystem: ecosystem water and carbon fluxes and plant-level responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Questions / Methods: Tamarix spp. (saltcedar) has invaded many river systems in the western United States with detrimental impacts to flora and fauna. Traditional methods of invasive plant control have been ineffective or costly. Therefore, insect biological control of Tamarix with Di...

  7. Standardized methods to verify absorbed dose in irradiated food for insect control. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Irradiation to control insect infestation of food is increasingly accepted and applied, especially as a phytosanitary treatment of food as an alternative to fumigation. However, unlike other processes for insect control, irradiation does not always result in immediate insect death. Thus, it is conceivable that fresh and dried fruits and tree nuts, which have been correctly irradiated to meet insect disinfestation/quarantine requirements, may still contain live insects at the time of importation. There is, however, a movement by plant quarantine authorities away from inspecting to ensure the absence of live insects in imported consignments towards examining through administrative procedures that a treatment required by law has been given. Nevertheless, there is a need to provide plant quarantine inspectors with a reliable objective method to verify that a minimum absorbed dose of radiation was given to supplement administrative procedures. Such an objective method is expected to bolster the confidence of the inspectors in clearing the consignment without delay and to facilitate trade in irradiated commodities. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project (CRP) in 1994 to generate data on the verification of absorbed dose of irradiation in fresh, dried fruits and tree nuts for insect disinfestation/quarantine purposes. A standardized label dose indicator available commercially was used to verify the minimum/maximum absorbed dose of the irradiated commodities for these purposes as required by regulations in certain countries. It appears that such a label dose indicator with certain modifications could be made available to assist national authorities and the food industry to verify the absorbed dose of irradiation to facilitate trade in such irradiated commodities. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of this co-ordinated research project and includes the papers presented by the participants

  8. Use of steril insect technique to control the medfly Ceratitis capitata wiedmann (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhel, Selma

    2005-01-01

    The autocide struggle against fruit fly consists in making a raising in mass of the stump to genetic sexing of the fruit fly, to radiate males with gamma rays and then to set free them in orchards of citrus fruits. This technique permitted a reduction of the rate of stings of 50% in relation to the witness although its production of pupae in 2004, either enough feeble, not passing the 9 millions of pupae per week. But, it remains even efficient in relation to the chemical struggle (respectively 12% and 7%). One preliminary survey of the profitability of autocide struggle and the chemical struggle (rate of profitability to 181.020) is more profitable than autocide struggle (rate of profitability to 43.450) for the first year to release. This relativity weak profitability for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the consequence of a bad interview of citrus fruits and unconsciousness of farmer of the importance of built in struggle technique . However, autocide struggle permits to preserve the quality of fruit, to reduce the toxics residues and to preserve parasitoides. therefore, there is increase of selling prices of the product. (author). 12 refs

  9. Enhanced haemolymph circulation by insect ventral nerve cord: hormonal control by Pseudaletia unipuncta allatotropin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koladich, P M; Tobe, S S; McNeil, J N

    2002-10-01

    The ventral diaphragm (VD) in many insects is a muscular membrane that essentially partitions a perineural sinus from the rest of the abdomen. In the true armyworm moth Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) we describe how the VD is characterized by a series of aliform muscles inserted into a tissue matrix that is fused to the dorsal surface of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) itself. Because of this arrangement, the abdominal VNC can attain high rates of lateral oscillation, and is capable of directing haemolymph flow. We have previously demonstrated Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT)-like immunoreactivity throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in P. unipuncta, and that both Manse-AT and serotonin (5-HT) are dose-dependent stimulators of the dorsal vessel. Here we describe both Manse-AT- and 5-HT-like immunoreactivity associated with the VD. Furthermore, both Manse-AT and 5-HT are dose-dependent stimulators of the rates of VNC oscillation, and together are capable of maintaining highly elevated rates of VNC oscillation for extended periods of time. These data indicate that both the dorsal vessel and the VD/VNC are similarly modulated by both Manse-AT and 5-HT, and that VNC oscillations play a more active role in overall haemolymph circulation than previously recognized.

  10. Study of Various Extracts of Ayapana triplinervis for their Potential in Controlling Three Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalljee, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical groups of Ayapana triplinervis, extracted successively with hexane, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform: methanol (1:1, and chloroform: methanol (4:1 were studied for their effects on Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia binotalis and Myzus persicae, three serious pests of horticultural crops in Mauritius. The most bioactive extracts were further fractionated into groups using Thin Layer Chromatography, and seven of those exhibiting strongest activity were tested on each of the three test insects. Results showed that the alkaloids and tannins exhibited greatest feeding deterrence in P. xylostella and C. binotalis, followed by phenols and flavonoids. In the case of M. persicae, A. triplinervis extracts disrupted growth and development of the nymphs, had significant pest control properties, and were good candidates for further study on their potential as botanical pesticides, in the context of an organic farming/ sustainable agriculture system, as an environmentallyfriendly alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  11. [Anti-infective defence strategies and methods of escape from entomologic pathogens under immunologic control of insects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, J

    1996-01-01

    Insect immunity comprises a complex of several distinct systems, both haemocytic and humoral in nature, that cooperate together in a more or less coordinated way to provide protection of the body cavity from invading microorganisms. Insects can respond to infections by a selective synthesis of haemolymph immune proteins that are responsible for antibacterial immunity. Antibacterial activity of insect blood is attributable to innate compounds such as lysozome, and to induced polypeptides or small basic proteins absent in non-immunized insects. The cecropins and attacins in Lepidoptera, and diptericins in Diptera are the inducible antibacterial immune proteins well defined biochemically. Bacterial pathogens and some parasites of insects, preferably entomogenous rhabditid nematodes, have developed the mechanism by which they may counteract insect immunity. This phenomenon is realized either by escaping immune reactions or by degrading antimicrobial factors of haemolymph in an active process. Passive resistance of parasites to insect immunity is a result of a strong evolutionary pressure on parasites to develop mechanisms to escape insect immune reactions or to minimize their effectiveness through changes in the parasite itself. Active resistance to the insect non-self response system involves a partial or total destruction of immune proteins by extracellular proteinases released during parasitism.

  12. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot). PMID:25140875

  13. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo; Nascimento, Antonio Souza do; Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo; Sampaio, Raimundo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2008-01-01

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  14. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  15. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species....... The enormous number of edible insect species may be a source of novel bioactive compounds with health benefits addressing global health challenges. However, any identified health benefits need to be confirmed in human studies or in standardised assays accepted in health research prior to making health claims....

  16. Insect Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, Pilsch address William Gibson’s use of insect imagery in to trouble the common understanding of the novel Neuromancer, its commentary on corporate culture, and its relationship to a then-emergent posthumanism. Further, he concludes by suggesting that, for Gibson, the insect hive as an image for the corporate body shows that corporate culture is, in contrast to the banal image the term brings to mind, a set of nefarious cultural techniques derived for interfacing human bodies with the corporation’s native environment in the postmodern era: the abstractions of data.

  17. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  18. Diversity and impact of herbivorous insects on Brazilian peppertree in Florida prior to release of exotic biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of insect herbivores on the performance of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Anacardiaceae), was evaluated at two locations in Florida using an insecticide exclusion method. Although several species of insect herbivores were collected on the invasive tree, there was no...

  19. Efficacy of a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid and beta-cyfluthrin alone for control of stored-product insects on concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insecticidal effect of Temprid®, a formulation that contains beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, was tested on concrete for control of seven stored-product insect species: the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens); the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); the ...

  20. Effects of temperature and nonionizing ultraviolet radiation treatments of eggs of five host insects on production of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control against insect pests, attacking eggs of over 200 species. Eggs of Spodoptera litura, Corcyra cephalonica, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were tested to consider the effect of temperature and radiation on parasitization, emergence of...

  1. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  2. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  3. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages......, nut quality and yield were compared among: (i) trees with weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille), (ii) trees where weaver ants were fed sugar, (iii) IPM trees with weaver ants combined with GF-120 (a natural insecticide), and (iv) control trees receiving no control measures. RESULTS: Thrips...... damages on nuts were higher than other damage symptoms and significantly lower on control trees compared to other treatments. Percentage of first quality nuts was higher in the control compared to ants treatments, but not different from the IPM-treatment. However, compared to the control treatment, ants...

  4. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  5. Neural Control and Adaptive Neural Forward Models for Insect-like, Energy-Efficient, and Adaptable Locomotion of Walking Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poramate eManoonpong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Living creatures, like walking animals, have found fascinating solutions for the problem of locomotion control. Their movements show the impression of elegance including versatile, energy-efficient, and adaptable locomotion. During the last few decades, roboticists have tried to imitate such natural properties with artificial legged locomotion systems by using different approaches including machine learning algorithms, classical engineering control techniques, and biologically-inspired control mechanisms. However, their levels of performance are still far from the natural ones. By contrast, animal locomotion mechanisms seem to largely depend not only on central mechanisms (central pattern generators, CPGs and sensory feedback (afferent-based control but also on internal forward models (efference copies. They are used to a different degree in different animals. Generally, CPGs organize basic rhythmic motions which are shaped by sensory feedback while internal models are used for sensory prediction and state estimations. According to this concept, we present here adaptive neural locomotion control consisting of a CPG mechanism with neuromodulation and local leg control mechanisms based on sensory feedback and adaptive neural forward models with efference copies. This neural closed-loop controller enables a walking machine to perform a multitude of different walking patterns including insect-like leg movements and gaits as well as energy-efficient locomotion. In addition, the forward models allow the machine to autonomously adapt its locomotion to deal with a change of terrain, losing of ground contact during stance phase, stepping on or hitting an obstacle during swing phase, leg damage, and even to promote cockroach-like climbing behavior. Thus, the results presented here show that the employed embodied neural closed-loop system can be a powerful way for developing robust and adaptable machines.

  6. Controlling Aedes aegypti population as DHF vector with radiation based-sterile insect technique in Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Nurhayati; Bambang Yunianto; Tri Ramadhani; Bina Ikawati; Budi Santoso; Ali Rahayu

    2013-01-01

    The control program of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia is still a problem due to the incomplete integrated handling. Sterile insect technique (SIT) for Aedes aegypti as DHF vector was considered as a potential strategy for controlling the DHF. A preliminary survey was carried out to determine the characteristic of A aegypti population in the study site before the implementation of SIT. The implementation of radiation based-SIT was carried out in Krandegan and Kutabanjar Villages of Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java which involved 99 houses. One hundred gamma rays irradiated male mosquitoes were released to each house up to five times. The eggs, larvae and adult mosquitoes were collected using ovitrap and weekly observed. The initial population density of A. aegypti in the studied area was obtained to be 6 mosquitoes per house with the mean index of house was 15.86% and the mean sterility of sterilized mosquitoes was 79.16%. The SIT effectively reduced A. aegypti population after the fifth release of irradiated mosquitoes into the houses. It can be assumed that the SIT was effective in controlling DHF vector in the studied area, nevertheless, it will be more effective if it is combined with other handling techniques. (author)

  7. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  8. Modelling approach for biological control of insect pest by releasing infected pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yuanshun; Chen Lansun

    2009-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interactions between a predator and a prey. Here we have extended the classical epidemic model to include a continuous and impulsive pest control strategies by releasing the infected pests bred in laboratory. For the continuous model, the results imply that the susceptible pest goes to extinct if the threshold condition R 0 0 > 1, the positive equilibrium of continuous model is globally asymptotically stable. Similarly, the threshold condition which guarantees the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution is obtained for the model with impulsive control strategy. Consequently, based on the results obtained in this paper, the control strategies which maintain the pests below an acceptably low level are discussed by controlling the release rate and impulsive period. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the efficiency of two control strategies are also discussed

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF BEST ACTION, FURADAN, AND NEEM EMULSION IN THE CONTROL OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments to determine the efficacy of Best Action (30g/litre cypermethrine plus 250g/litre dimethoate as water emulsifiable concentrates, Furadan 10G (carbofuran, Neem emulsion (Azadiracta indica as insecticide treatments in the control of major insect pests of cowpea were conducted in two agro-environments simultaneously in Enugu Area, South Eastern Nigeria in 2014 cropping season using two cowpea varieties (Ife brown, and Potiskum as test crops. The experimental design was a split plot in a randomized compete block (RCB replicated three times. Best Action was more effective in controlling cowpea insect pests, followed by Furandan 10G, and Neem emulsion respectively and their effectiveness was not affected by climatic factors variations in the two agro-environments (Nsukka and Agbani. Ife brown and Potiskum did not significantly resist the attack of major insect pests of cowpea. Insecticides and cowpea varieties did not have a significant interaction effect on the control of major insect pests of cowpea.

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Biological Control Programs That Targeted Insect Pests of Eucalypts in Urban Landscapes of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, T D; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M; Gould, J; Wang, Q; Daane, K; Dahlsten, D L; Mcpherson, E G

    2015-12-01

    As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have targeted these pests. Independent estimates of the total number of eucalypt street trees in California ranged from a high of 476,527 trees (based on tree inventories from 135 California cities) to a low of 190,666 trees (based on 49 tree inventories). Based on a survey of 3,512 trees, the estimated mean value of an individual eucalypt was US$5,978. Thus, the total value of eucalypt street trees in California ranged from more than US$1.0 billion to more than US$2.8 billion. Biological control programs that targeted pests of eucalypts in California have cost US$2,663,097 in extramural grants and University of California salaries. Consequently, the return derived from protecting the value of this resource through the biological control efforts, per dollar expended, ranged from US$1,070 for the high estimated number of trees to US$428 for the lower estimate. The analyses demonstrate both the tremendous value of urban street trees, and the benefits that stem from successful biological control programs aimed at preserving these trees. Economic analyses such as this, which demonstrate the substantial rates of return from successful biological control of invasive pests, may play a key role in developing both grass-roots and governmental support for future urban biological control efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Plant population structure and insect herbivory on Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae in southern Brazil: a support to biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Mari Barboza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae, a native Brazilian shrub, has become naturalized and invasive in several countries. In South Africa, where invasions are severe, herbivorous insects that attack S. mauritianum in its native area have been considered for introduction as biological control agents. To assess the action of such herbivores on the plant, studies were carried out on a population of S. mauritianum in an area undergoing regeneration in southern Brazil. An analysis of the structure of that population was performed, as well as of herbivory by insects, in particular of Anthonomus (Curculionidae. The population structure showed an "inverted J" pattern in diameter classes, but not in height classes. Individual plants showed an aggregate distribution. The damage caused by Anthonomus did not amount to the loss of a large leaf area, but since it was inflicted on young leaves and in a large proportion, could lead to the survival decrease.Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae, um arbusto endêmico do sul do Brasil, naturalizou-se e tornou-se invasor em vários países do mundo. Na África do Sul, onde as invasões são severas, insetos fitófagos associados à planta no país de origem têm sido considerados para introdução como agentes de controle biológico. Para avaliar a ação de tais insetos no ambiente natural, foram conduzidos estudos em uma população de S. mauritianum em uma área em regeneração no sul do Brasil. Foi realizada análise da estrutura populacional, bem como da herbivoria causada por insetos, em particular para uma espécie do gênero Anthonomus (Curculionidae, para subsidiar o trabalho sobre controle biológico. A estrutura da população mostrou um padrão "J invertido" nas classes de diâmetro, mas não nas classes de altura; a distribuição espacial dos indivíduos era agregada. O dano causado por Anthonomus sp. não refletiu na perda real de grande área foliar. No entanto, uma vez que foi detectada uma

  12. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  13. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  14. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  15. Construction of a recombinant Bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Xu, Hong Guang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Je, Yeon Ho

    2009-10-01

    To construct a new recombinant strain of Bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a B. thuringiensis expression vector (pHT1K-1Ac) was generated that contained the B. thuringiensis cry1Ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT1K). This vector was introduced into a B. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities against several plant diseases, including rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea), rice sheath blight (Rhizotonia solani), tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), and wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), by electroporation. The recombinant B. velezensis strain was confirmed by PCR using cry1Ac-specific primers. Additionally, the recombinant strain produced a protein approximately 130 kDa in size and parasporal inclusion bodies similar to B. thuringiensis. The in vivo antifungal activity assay demonstrated that the activity of the recombinant B. velezensis strain was maintained at the same level as that of wild-type B. velezensis. Furthermore, it exhibited high insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran pest, Plutella xylostella, although its activity was lower than that of a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain, whereas wild-type B. velezensis strain did not show any insecticidal activity. These results suggest that this recombinant B. velezensis strain can be used to control harmful insect pests and fungal diseases simultaneously in one crop.

  16. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents

  17. Effects of vacuum and controlled atmosphere treatments on insect mortality and lettuce quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2003-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of vacuum and controlled atmosphere on mortality of aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and leafminer, Liriomyza langei Frick, and on the visual quality of iceberg lettuce at three different temperatures. Vacuum at 50 mbar and controlled atmosphere with 6% CO2 were effective in controlling aphids and leafminer larvae. Complete control of N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae was achieved with vacuum treatments and 6% CO2 CA treatments at 5 degrees C in 4 d. Mortality was >96% when leafminer larvae were treated with vacuum and 6% CO2 CA treatments for 4 d. However, leafminer pupae were more tolerant to the treatments and highest mortality was close to 60% in 4 d with CO2 under vacuum. None of the treatments had negative effects on visual quality of iceberg lettuce. Results from this study are encouraging and warrant further and large-scale research.

  18. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is

  19. Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kergunteuil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests.

  20. Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Bakhtiari, Moe; Formenti, Ludovico; Xiao, Zhenggao; Defossez, Emmanuel; Rasmann, Sergio

    2016-11-29

    Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests.

  1. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  2. Bioactivities of Ketones Terpenes: Antifungal Effect on F. verticillioides and Repellents to Control Insect Fungal Vector, S. zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzolitto, Romina P.; Herrera, Jimena M.; Zaio, Yesica P.; Dambolena, Jose S.; Zunino, Maria P.; Gallucci, Mauro N.; Zygadlo, Julio A.

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one the most important staple foods in the world. However, numerous pests, such as fungal pathogens, e.g., Fusarium verticillioides, and insects, such as Sitophlilus zeamais, attack maize grains during storage. Many F. verticillioides strains produce fumonisins, one of the most important mycotoxin that causes toxic effects on human and animal health. This situation is aggravated by the insect fungal vector, Sitophlilus zeamais, which contributes to the dispersal of fungal spores, and...

  3. Comparison of cauliflower-insect-fungus interactions and pesticides for cabbage root fly control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Controlled atmospheres against insect pests in museums: a review and some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Berzolla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmospheres using nitrogen represent a safe and effective method for both objects and human health. The use of this technique against pests in museums has received an increasing amount of interest during the last twenty years. This paper looks at the researches into anoxic treatments that use nitrogen from the late ‘80s until now. At the moment, the recommended protocol suggests an oxygen percentage below 1% for at least three weeks. Considering that the major practical problems of controlled atmospheres are connected to treatment time and low oxygen percentage, it is very important to develop more flexible protocols that consider higher oxygen percentages or shorter treatment times, exploiting temperature and/or relative humidity. At oxygen percentage higher than those commonly used, temperature and relative humidity are very critical to insects’ development and success. Preliminary data (unpublished show that it is possible to adapt the application of the controlled atmospheres to different situations, taking advantage of favorable conditions already present in the considered situation and at the same time to use the other parameters at more favorable levels.

  5. Advances in RNA interference technology and its impact on nutritional improvement, disease and insect control in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Rajan; Thakur, Neelam

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the advances in the knowledge of RNA interference (RNAi) and discusses recent progress on the functionality of different components RNAi machinery operating in the organisms. The silencing of genes by RNA interference has become the technology of choice for investigation of gene functions in different organisms. The refinement in the knowledge of the endogenous RNAi pathways in plants along with the development of new strategies and applications for the improvement of nutritional value of important agricultural crops through suppression of genes in different plants have opened new vistas for nutritional security. The improvement in the nutritional status of the plants and reduction in the level of toxins or antinutrients was desired for long, but the available technology was not completely successful in achieving the tissue specific regulation of some genes. In the recent years, a number of economically important crop plants have been tested successfully for improving plant nutritional value through metabolic engineering using RNAi. The implications of this technology for crop improvement programs, including nutritional enrichment, reduction of antinutrients, disease, and insect control have been successfully tested in variety of crops with commercial considerations. The enhancement of the nutraceutical traits for the desired health benefits in common crop plants through manipulation of gene expression has been elaborated in this article. The tremendous potential with RNAi technology is expected to revolutionize the modern agriculture for meeting the growing challenges is discussed.

  6. Disentangling the effects of predator hunting mode and habitat domain on the top-down control of insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ben A; Heard, Matthew S

    2011-03-01

    1. Polyphagous predatory invertebrates play a key role in the top-down control of insect herbivores. However, predicting predation risk for herbivores is not a simple function of predator species richness. Predation risk may be reduced or enhanced depending on the functional characteristics predator species. We predict that where predator species spatially overlap this will reduce predation risk for herbivores by allowing negative inter-specific interaction between predators to occur. Where increased predation risk occurs, we also predict that this will have a cascading effect through the food chain reducing plant growth. 2. We used a substitutive replicated block design to identify the effect of similarity and dissimilarity in predator hunting mode (e.g. 'sit and wait', 'sit and pursue', and 'active') and habitat domain (e.g. canopy or ground) on the top-down control of planthoppers in grasslands. Predators included within the mesocosms were randomly selected from a pool of 17 local species. 3. Predation risk was reduced where predators shared the same habitat domain, independent of whether they shared hunting modes. Where predators shared the same habitat domains, there was some evidence that this had a cascading negative effect on the re-growth of grass biomass. Where predator habitat domains did not overlap, there were substitutable effects on predation risk to planthoppers. Predation risk for planthoppers was affected by taxonomic identity of predator species, i.e. whether they were beetles, spiders or true bugs. 4. Our results indicated that in multi-predator systems, the risk of predation is typically reduced. Consideration of functional characteristics of individual species, in particular aspects of habitat domain and hunting mode, are crucial in predicting the effects of multi-predator systems on the top-down control of herbivores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  7. Novel polymeric micelles for insect pest control: encapsulation of essential oil monoterpenes inside a triblock copolymer shell for head lice control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oil components (EOCs are molecules with interesting application in pest control, these have been evaluated against different insect pest from more than 100 years, but their practical use is rather limited. Thus, the enhancement of their bioavailability and manageability due to their dispersion in water can open new perspective for the preparation of formulations for the control of insect pest. In this work, we studied the encapsulation of different monoterpenes in a poloxamer shell in order to prepare aqueous formulations that can be used for the development of platforms used in pest control. Methods Micellar systems containing a 5 wt% of poloxamer 407 and 1.25 wt% of the different monoterpenes were prepared. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS experiments were carried out to characterize the dispersion of the EOCs in water. The pediculicidal activity of these micellar systems was tested on head lice using an ex vivo immersion test. Results The poloxamers allowed the dispersion of EOCs in water due to their encapsulation inside the hydrophobic core of the copolymer micelles. From this study, we concluded that it is possible to make stable micellar systems containing water (>90 wt%, 1.25 wt% of different monoterpenes and a highly safe polymer (5wt% Poloxamer 407. These formulations were effective against head lice with mortality ranging from 30 to 60%, being the most effective emulsions those containing linalool, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, thymol, eugenol, geraniol and nonyl alcohol which lead to mortalities above 50%. Discussion Since these systems showed good pediculicidal activity and high physicochemical stability, they could be a new route for the green fabrication of biocompatible and biosustainable insecticide formulations.

  8. Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E

    2015-01-07

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests.

  9. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gamma Radiation to Increase Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis Thai Strain for Insect Pets Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanpaisaeng, Jariya; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Piadang, Nattaya; Tephan, Prakai; Keawchingduang, Wannapa

    2006-09-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates JCPT16 and JCPT68 were gamma-irradiated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy. The efficiency of these Bt isolates on S. litura control was also undertaken. It was found that the 4 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had lowest LC 50 of 6.6x10 3 spore/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT 16 isolate had LC 50 of 6.2x10 3 spore/ml. Whereas the irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 8 kGy was noticed to have the lowest LC 50 of 2.7 x 10 3 spores/ml, the non-irradiated JCPT68 had LC 50 of 1.8x10 3 spores/ml. The efficiency test of B. thuringiensis isolate on S. exigua showed that the 2 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had the lowest LC 50 of 2.52x10 4 spores/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT16 isolate had LC 50 of 6.04x10 3 spores/ml. The irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 4 kGy had the lowest LC 50 of 5.41x10 4 spores/ml, the non irradiated JCPT68 had LC 50 of 1.51x10 4 spores/ml. According to LC 50 values, there were no significant differences of efficiency on S. litura and S. exigua control among Bt isolates irradiated at various concentrations. The isolate JCPT16, JCPT35, JCPT50 and JCPT68 irradiated at dose of 10 kGy showed higher UV tolerance. After expose by UV ray, most of irradiated isolates still displayed high efficiency of controlling S. litura, S. exigua and Plutella xylostell.

  11. Structure and dynamics of the oribatid mite communities (Acari, Oribatida in some Quercus forests, in relation with the treatments used in the control of defoliating insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the context of some complex researches concerning the effects of long standing use of the pesticides in the control of the defoliating insects, in forest ecosystems. These investigations showed that the structural parameters of the oribatid mites' communities are obviously influenced by the stands biotic and abiotic factors, alongside some varied anthropogenic factors, such as: treatments, industrial pollution, some management measures etc. This paper includes a comparative analysis of the research results obtained in two forest stands placed in the Moldavian Plateau (Ciurea Forest District, Iasi county: Tomesti-Poieni (integrated control of the defoliating insects and Santa (chemical control. The analysis of the faunistic material collected in these two forests has shown that, in the first stand (the control perimeter, the density, the number of species, and also the specific diversity have higher values compared to the second station. In unfavourable climatic conditions (e. g. during the winter season it was observed a more increased decline of these parameters in the Santa forest, related to the control station. In such conditions (low temperatures, deficit of humidity etc. the change of the vertical distribution of the effectives was observed in both stands, and a massive migration of the oribatid mites in the deeper, humiferous layer of the soil. The results gathered during the project emphasize that the chemical treatments used against the defoliating insects enhance the negative effects of some natural factors, representing an additional stressing factor on the edaphic microarthropods' communities.

  12. Madeira-Med, a sterile insect technique programme for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Barbosa, A.; Silva, N.; Caldeira, J.; Dantas, L.; Pacheco, J.

    2000-01-01

    The islands of Madeira are located 980 km west-southwest from mainland Portugal and have a population of approximately 255,000. The islands are volcanic with very little level land suitable for large agricultural production. Approximately 47% of the land area is above 700 m. Thus the area likely to require Medfly control is about half of the islands. Agricultural production is on small scale, frequently part-time and mostly terraced because of the volcanic nature of the land. Grapes for wine and bananas are the predominant fruit crops. Neither are primary Medfly hosts. Citrus and tropical fruits are not produced in large quantities and are generally not of high quality. This is, to a large extent, because intensive Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), attack has prevented the establishment of citrus and tropical fruit production. Medflies are present the year round on land below 300 m, resulting in the necessity of continuous control measures, usually insecticide bait sprays. Current annual losses from the Medflies in Madeira are estimated at US$3 million. In 1992, the agricultural officials of Madeira applied for an European Union (EU) grant to eliminate the Medfly from Madeira using the sterile insect technique (SIT). After extensive discussions, the project was changed from eradication to control and approved in late 1993 with EU support of about 8 million ECU over a 7-year period. Subsequently, the Madeira officials applied for, and received, a technical assistance project from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA support is primarily for training and consultant services. Sterile female Medflies puncture fruits when they try to lay eggs. These punctures, called 'sterile stings', result in a reduced crop value. For this reason, the Madeira-Med programme will use only sterile male Medflies in its SIT programme. This not only eliminates the sterile sting problem but also increases the efficacy of the sterile males from

  13. Effect of Pet Insects on the Psychological Health of Community-Dwelling Elderly People: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae-Jin; Youn, Chang-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hyun; Kim, So-Yun

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that animal-assisted therapy has positive effects on mental health, especially in elderly people. Caring for insects is easy, relatively inexpensive, and does not require much space. The aim of this 8-week randomized, controlled, single-blinded study was to investigate the effect of pet insects on the psychological health of community-dwelling elderly people. Elderly subjects (≥65 years old) attending a community center in Daegu, Korea, were enrolled in the study between April and May 2014 and randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive insect therapy and health advice or only health advice. The insect group received 5 crickets in a cage with sufficient fodder and a detailed instruction manual. At baseline and at 8 weeks, all subjects underwent psychometric tests via a direct interview [Beck Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Insomnia Severity Index, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument] and laboratory analyses of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, biological antioxidant potential, and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites). The insect-caring (n = 46) and control (n = 48) groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. The insect-caring group had significantly lower GDS-15 scores at week 8 (3.20 vs. 4.90, p = 0.004) and, after adjustment for baseline values, a significantly greater change in GDS-15 scores relative to baseline (-1.12 vs. 0.20, p = 0.011). They also had a significantly greater change in MMSE scores relative to baseline (1.13 vs. 0.31, p = 0.045). The two groups did not differ in terms of other psychometric and laboratory tests. No serious risks or adverse events were reported. Caring for insects, which is cost-effective and safe, was associated with a small to medium positive effect on depression and cognitive function in community

  14. Insect neuropeptides regulating substrate mobilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-25

    Sep 25, 1997 ... Insect flight muscles perform their work completely aerobically, and working flight musdes are ... locusts where they are involved in the control of carbohydrate ... the vertebrate hypothalamo/hypophyseal system, and it can.

  15. Structure and dynamics of the oribatid mite communities (Acari, Oribatida in some Quercus forests, in relation with the treatments used in the control of defoliating insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Ivan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the context of some complex researches concerning the effects of long standing use of the pesticides in the control of the defoliating insects, in forest ecosystems. These investigations showed that the structural parameters of the oribatid mites' communities are obviously influenced by the stands biotic and abiotic factors, alongside some varied anthropogenic factors, such as:treatments, industrial pollution, some management measures etc. This paper includes a comparative analysis of the research results obtained in two forest stands placed in the Moldavian Plateau (Ciurea Forest District, Iasi county: Tomesti-Poieni (integratedcontrol of the defoliating insects and ªanta (chemical control. The analysis of the faunistic material collected in these two forests has shown that, in the first stand (the control perimeter, the density, the number of species, and also the specific diversity have higher values compared to the second station. In unfavourable climatic conditions(e. g. during the winter season it was observed a more increased decline of these parameters in the ªanta forest, related to the control station. In such conditions (low temperatures, deficit of humidity etc. the change of the vertical distribution of the effectives was observed in both stands, and a massive migration of the oribatid mites in the deeper, humiferous layer of the soil. The results gathered during the project emphasize that the chemical treatments used against the defoliating insects enhance the negative effects of some natural factors, representing an additional stressing factor on the edaphic microarthropods' communities.

  16. Design and stable flight of a 21 g insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle with angular rates feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Kang, Taesam; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2017-04-04

    An insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) without feedback control eventually becomes unstable after takeoff. Flying an insect-like tailless FW-MAV is more challenging than flying a bird-like tailed FW-MAV, due to the difference in control principles. This work introduces the design and controlled flight of an insect-like tailless FW-MAV, named KUBeetle. A combination of four-bar linkage and pulley-string mechanisms was used to develop a lightweight flapping mechanism that could achieve a high flapping amplitude of approximately 190°. Clap-and-flings at dorsal and ventral stroke reversals were implemented to enhance vertical force. In the absence of a control surface at the tail, adjustment of the location of the trailing edges at the wing roots to modulate the rotational angle of the wings was used to generate control moments for the attitude control. Measurements by a 6-axis load cell showed that the control mechanism produced reasonable pitch, roll and yaw moments according to the corresponding control inputs. The control mechanism was integrated with three sub-micro servos to realize the pitch, roll and yaw controls. A simple PD feedback controller was implemented for flight stability with an onboard microcontroller and a gyroscope that sensed the pitch, roll and yaw rates. Several flight tests demonstrated that the tailless KUBeetle could successfully perform a vertical climb, then hover and loiter within a 0.3 m ground radius with small variations in pitch and roll body angles.

  17. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from

  18. Structure and dynamics of the oribatid mite communities (Acari, Oribatida) in some Quercus forests, in relation with the treatments used in the control of defoliating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Otilia Ivan

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in the context of some complex researches concerning the effects of long standing use of the pesticides in the control of the defoliating insects, in forest ecosystems. These investigations showed that the structural parameters of the oribatid mites' communities are obviously influenced by the stands biotic and abiotic factors, alongside some varied anthropogenic factors, such as: treatments, industrial pollution, some management measures etc. This paper includes a ...

  19. Insecticidal, repellent, antimicrobial activity and phytotoxicity of essential oils: With special reference to limonene and its suitability for control of insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. IBRAHIM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the use of monoterpenes for insect pest and pathogen control originates from the need for pesticide products with less negative environmental and health impacts than highly effective synthetic pesticides. The expanding literature on the possibility of the use of these monoterpenes is reviewed and focused on the effects of limonene on various bioorganisms. Limonene is used as insecticide to control ectoparasites of pet animals, but it has activity against many insects, mites, and microorganisms. Possible attractive effects of limonene to natural enemies of pests may offer novel applications to use natural compounds for manipulation of beneficial animals in organic agriculture. However, in few cases limonene-treated plants have become attractive to plant damaging insects and phytotoxic effects on cultivated plants have been observed. As a plant-based natural product limonene and other monoterpenes might have use in pest and weed control in organic agriculture after phytotoxicity on crop plants and, effects on non-target soil animals and natural enemies of pest have been investigated

  20. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.

    1976-12-15

    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  1. Solutions to the cocktail party problem in insects: selective filters, spatial release from masking and gain control in tropical crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne K D Schmidt

    Full Text Available Insects often communicate by sound in mixed species choruses; like humans and many vertebrates in crowded social environments they thus have to solve cocktail-party-like problems in order to ensure successful communication with conspecifics. This is even more a problem in species-rich environments like tropical rainforests, where background noise levels of up to 60 dB SPL have been measured.Using neurophysiological methods we investigated the effect of natural background noise (masker on signal detection thresholds in two tropical cricket species Paroecanthus podagrosus and Diatrypa sp., both in the laboratory and outdoors. We identified three 'bottom-up' mechanisms which contribute to an excellent neuronal representation of conspecific signals despite the masking background. First, the sharply tuned frequency selectivity of the receiver reduces the amount of masking energy around the species-specific calling song frequency. Laboratory experiments yielded an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of -8 dB, when masker and signal were broadcast from the same side. Secondly, displacing the masker by 180° from the signal improved SNRs by further 6 to 9 dB, a phenomenon known as spatial release from masking. Surprisingly, experiments carried out directly in the nocturnal rainforest yielded SNRs of about -23 dB compared with those in the laboratory with the same masker, where SNRs reached only -14.5 and -16 dB in both species. Finally, a neuronal gain control mechanism enhances the contrast between the responses to signals and the masker, by inhibition of neuronal activity in interstimulus intervals.Thus, conventional speaker playbacks in the lab apparently do not properly reconstruct the masking noise situation in a spatially realistic manner, since under real world conditions multiple sound sources are spatially distributed in space. Our results also indicate that without knowledge of the receiver properties and the spatial release mechanisms the

  2. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  3. Synthesis of model compounds derived from natural clerodane insect antifeedants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Gebbinck, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Insect antifeedants are compounds with the ability to reduce or inhibit insect feeding without directly killing the insect. Such compounds offer a number of properties that are highly desirable in environmentally friendly crop protection agents. Although the principle of insect control

  4. Developing methods of measuring competitiveness of sterilized laboratory insects. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of Lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay-Marzso, L.

    1978-08-01

    Optical and acoustical equipment were developed and tested for measuring insect activity, one of the parameters used to assess insect quality. The acoustical equipment which recorded the sound generated by moving insects performed well in the laboratory but was either unsuitable to measure the activity of populations as opposed to pairs or was unsuitable under field conditions. The optical equipment, however, based on light interception, performed well in the field also. In other studies the fitness of insects receiving various treatments was assessed on the basis of release-recapture experiments, number of matings and percentage sperm transfer. These methods proved very sensitive but were more laborious compared to automated recordings

  5. Formulation of A Novel Phytopesticide PONNEEM and its Potentiality to control generalist Herbivorous Lepidopteran insect pests, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera (H übner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susaimanickam Maria Packiam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the deterrence of oviposition potentiality of a novel phytopesticide PONNEEM against the generalist herbivorous lepidopteran insect pests Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Methods: Different phytopesticidal formulations were prepared at different ratio to evaluate the deterrence of oviposition activity against S. litura and H. armigera at 5, 10, 15, and 20毺 L/L concentrations. Results: The newly formulated different phytopesticides exhibited good results of oviposition deterrent activity against these two polyphagous insect pests. At 20毺 L/L concentration of PONNEEM, 77.48% of the maximum deterrence of oviposition activity was recorded, followed by formulation A (49.23%. And 68.12% was observed against H. armigera followed by A (49.52%. PONNEEM exhibited statistically significant oviposition deterrent activity compared to all other treatments. Conclusions: The newly formulated PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the adult of S. litura and H. armigera due to the synergistic effect of biomolecules such as azadirachtin and karanjin. This is the first report of PONNEEM which was patented under the government of India. The potential use of this novel phytopesticide could be an agent of controlling the adults of lepidopteran insect pests which can be applied in the integrated pest management programme.

  6. Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m. The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were as follows: T1 - control (without application of products, T2 - Neem oil ( applied to 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after planting - DAP, T3 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Acephate (30 DAP + Imidacloprid (40 DAP + Acephate (50 DAP, T4 - Acephate (20 DAP + Imidacloprid (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAP + Imidacloprid (50 DAP T5 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Oil nim (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAE + neem oil (50 DAP. It measured the number of plants located in the middle row with symptoms of pest attack, and the calculation of the percentage of plants attacked. It was found that all treatments were effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, the best treatments for control of Chalcodermus bimaculatus were those who had been cunning application of neem oil, that the treatment using only the neem oil was effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, Bemisia tabaci, Empoasca kraemeri and the Chalcodermus bimaculatus. The treatments used in this study were not effective to control the Cerotoma arcuatus.

  7. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs.

  9. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  10. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  11. Aquatic Insect from Iran for Possible Use of Biological Control of Main Vector-Borne Disease of Malaria and Water Indicator of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Saeidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran has a wide variety of zoogeographical regions and different seasons. Here are some important mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes normally live in waters. Its aquatic insect fauna is highly unexplored. To being resolved this faunal gap, a variety of literature records from previous century in different parts of Iran was reviewed. In some southern and southeastern foci in Iran, Malaria is still a main endemic disease which is unstable with two seasonal spring and autumn peaks even though Iran is lunching Malaria elimination. This review article showed the wide variety of aquatic insects throughout the country. Researchers can discuss water pollutant and its quality by using aquatic insect fauna as well as biological control for vectors. Types of aquatic in­sects and macroinvertebrates sampling can be useful for water quality monitoring as indicators. Looking at aquatic insects’ life in water could be one of the most cost-effective and the easiest method to assess the water contaminations by different pollutants and will provide a guideline for scientific communities and environmental agencies for decision making.

  12. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Caparros Megido; Sandrine Desmedt; Christophe Blecker; François Béra; Éric Haubruge; Taofic Alabi; Frédéric Francis

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crick...

  13. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uraisakul, Kanok [Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi Phranakhonsiayathaya, Hantra Campus, Phranakhonsiayathaya (Thailand); Piadang, Nattaya [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2006-09-15

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  14. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraisakul, Kanok; Piadang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  15. 'More than two': integrating biological control and sterile insects, from factory to field, and the possibility of its implementation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Viscarret, Mariana M.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Pietrek, Alejandro [Instituto de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Castelar (Argentina). Inst. de Genetica; Soria, M. Alejandra; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (PROIMI/CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industrials Microbiolo

    2006-07-01

    No single control measure is able to provide full control of a pest. Integration of techniques like the sterile insect (SIT) with biological control practices (BC) should be intensively sough for. This possibility is revised here in connection with the fruit fly pest problems in Argentina. Theoretical reasons as well as practical conveniences for this integration are reviewed in this paper, the intention of which is to promote a discussion on how to approach the experimental study of the SIT+CB integration problem, i.e. how to measure the effects of each separate control measure as well as that of both acting together, in a repeatable manner. Arguments are advanced in favor of the joint production and releases of sterile fruit flies and parasitoids. (author)

  16. 'More than two': integrating biological control and sterile insects, from factory to field, and the possibility of its implementation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Viscarret, Mariana M.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Pietrek, Alejandro; Soria, M. Alejandra; Ovruski, Sergio M.

    2006-01-01

    No single control measure is able to provide full control of a pest. Integration of techniques like the sterile insect (SIT) with biological control practices (BC) should be intensively sough for. This possibility is revised here in connection with the fruit fly pest problems in Argentina. Theoretical reasons as well as practical conveniences for this integration are reviewed in this paper, the intention of which is to promote a discussion on how to approach the experimental study of the SIT+CB integration problem, i.e. how to measure the effects of each separate control measure as well as that of both acting together, in a repeatable manner. Arguments are advanced in favor of the joint production and releases of sterile fruit flies and parasitoids. (author)

  17. Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.

    1994-06-01

    In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.

  18. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  19. A nuclear insect appears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Hwal

    1989-06-01

    This book is dairy of a nuclear insect in A. F. era. It consists of 6 parts, which have fun pictures and titles. The contents are the letter that is sent the Homo sapiens by insect, exodus of nuclear insect F 100 years latter. The time that a nuclear insect is attacked in F 101, the time that a nuclear dinosaur is beat in AF 102, the time that a nuclear insect struggles in AF 104 and the time that a nuclear insect drifts in AF 104.

  20. Enhancing Heat Treatment Efficacy for Insect Pest Control: A Case Study of a CFD Application to Improve the Design and Structure of a Flour Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of the indoor environment of flour mills is an alternative technique to chemical fumigation for controlling insect pests. The aim of this research was to assess temperature distribution inside a flour mill during a heat treatment for insect pest control by computational fluid dynamics (CFD modelling and simulation. The model was validated by using the average values of experimental data acquired during a heat treatment carried out in a flour mill, which is representative of the building materials and techniques used in the milling industry of South Italy. Simulations were carried out in steady-state conditions, and simulated data were validated by the average values of air and wall temperature measurements. Since the modelled temperature distribution in the mill fit the real one with a good accuracy (maximum error equal to 2.57 °C, the CFD model was considered reliable to simulate other operating conditions. Since it was observed that the internal surface temperatures of the mill were much lower than the value required for the success of the heat treatment, equal to 45 °C, the CFD model could be used for improving the effectiveness of heat treatments in the flour mill. Application of the proposed CFD model in the simulation of specific interventions could be aimed at improving both building performance and fan heaters’ localisatio,n in order to find the best configuration.

  1. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  2. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  3. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  4. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  5. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  6. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  7. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  8. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  10. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  11. Insect barcode information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client- server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode.

  12. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  13. The Potential of the Sterile Insect Technique and other Genetic Methods for Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report updates information provided by a 1993 consultant group on the use of genetic methods for control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Human malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are exclusively transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Where these two groups co-exist, the transmission of the parasite to humans can create a major health problem. Malaria currently causes 2 million deaths world-wide and approximately 400 million clinical cases annually. There are ca. 15 major vector species and 30-40 vectors of lesser importance. This report considers the practicality of developing the sterile insect technique (SIT) or other genetic mechanisms in order to eradicate mosquito vectors from specific areas. This would interrupt transmission and eliminate malaria in those areas.

  14. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  15. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L; Fairhall, Adrienne L

    2015-04-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  16. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sponberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in

  17. Dual Dimensionality Reduction Reveals Independent Encoding of Motor Features in a Muscle Synergy for Insect Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L.; Fairhall, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  18. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  19. Genetics and ecology of colonization and mass rearing of Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in sterile insect control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, S.H.; McCombs, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    It is critical to maintain the genetic, physiological and behavioral competence of colonized populations of insect species, such as fruit flies, which are reared for release in sterile insect and other genetic control programs. Selective pressures associated with the mass rearing process affect this competence, but the underlying mechanisms of genetic change arc largely unknown. However, competence is often an operational goal achieved by manipulating environmental factors without possessing precise genetic knowledge of alleles and their marginal effects on the desired traits. One goal of this paper is to show that the precise genetic and statistical analysis of components that determine competence in a broad sense or fitness in the narrower ecological sense, is extremely difficult. We can gel contradictory results from the different methods for estimating genetic variation in tephritid populations. We observe low levels of allozyme variation, but high levels of recessive mutants in inbred populations. We propose that genetic variability may be maintained in colonized and mass reared laboratory populations by balanced lethal systems and that the introduction of fresh genetic material may reduce, not increase, fitness. We require rigorous and precise models of directional selection in the laboratory and selective forces in the natural environment to aid our understanding of dynamic changes in courtship and mating behavior under artificial conditions. We have chosen to examine the lek model as an example of an idea whose usefulness has yet to be determined by test ing and validation. The inclusion of lek forming ability in genetic models will be depen dent on rigorously establishing the validity of the lek model for each tephritid species

  20. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eAbrieux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, and dopamine (DA, present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors.

  1. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OUDA, S.M.; EL-AKHDAR, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3 rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3 rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  2. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred m...

  3. Methods of noxious insects control by radiation on example of `Stegobium paniceum L.`; Metody zwalczania szkodliwych owadow przy uzyciu radiacji na przykladzie zywiaka chlebowca (Stegobium paniceum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, A [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The radiation method of disinfestation on example of `Stegobium paniceum L.` has been described. The different stadia of insect growth have been irradiated. Their radiosensitivity have been estimated on the base of dose-response relationship. Biological radiation effects have been observed as insect procreation limitation. 26 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  4. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  5. Seed Treatment Combined with a Spot Application of Clothianidin Granules Prolongs the Efficacy of Controlling Piercing-Sucking Insect Pests in Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Yao; Li, Beixing; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Mu, Wei

    2017-09-13

    Seed treatments can directly protect cotton from early season piercing-sucking insect Aphis gossypii Glover but hardly provide long-term protection against Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür). Therefore, the efficacy of clothianidin seed treatments combined with spot applications of clothianidin granules at the bud stage of cotton was evaluated to control piercing-sucking pests during the entire cotton growing season. Clothianidin seed treatments (at the rate of 4 g ai/kg seed) combined with a clothianidin granular treatment (even at low rate of 0.9 kg ai/ha) at the bud stage can effectively suppress A. gossypii and A. lucorum infestations throughout the seedling and blooming stages after planting and can improve cotton yield. The spot application of clothianidin granules also reduced the population densities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The dynamic changes of clothianidin residues demonstrated that the control efficacy of clothianidin against A. gossypii and A. lucorum might be related to the residues of this neonicotinoid in cotton leaves. This pest management practice provided long-term protection against cotton piercing-sucking pests for the entire growing season of cotton plants and could supplement the short-term control efficiency of clothianidin used as a seed treatment.

  6. Three-way interaction between biological control insects, a congener and their shared parasitoid: Evidence of biotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants are one of the strongest drivers of species extinctions. Weed biological control offers a sustainable and safe means of long-term population reduction of their target. Herbivores introduced for the control of invasive plants interact with the native community in addition to the top-d...

  7. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  8. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  9. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  10. Insects and Related Pests of Trees, Shrubs, and Lawns. MP-25R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Everett W.; Lawson, Fred A.

    This document discusses identification and control of the pests of trees and shrubs. The insects are grouped according to feeding habits and the type of damage caused to plants. Categories include the sucking insects and mites, leaf eating insects, pests attacking trunks and branches, and gall causing insects. (CS)

  11. Nuclear energy against insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-15

    The paper presents the main topics discussed at the scientific symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, held in Athens last April, jointly organized by IAEA and FAO with the co-operation of the Greek Government. The sterile male technique is discussed in details and some results from the applications are given

  12. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  13. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  14. Control of Insects in Slash Pine Cones with Trunk Implantations of Bidrin® Systemic Insecticide - First-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward P. Merkel

    1969-01-01

    Initial experiments with the implantation of the systemic insecticide Bidrin® into the trunks of slash pines in a seed production area resulted in various degrees of control of coneworms, Dioryctria spp., and the pine seed-worm, Laspeyresia anaronjada Miller, depending on dosage rates and time of application. When applied in early...

  15. Social insect symbionts: evolution in homeostatic fortresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Pierce, Naomi E; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    The massive environmentally buffered nests of some social insects can contain millions of individuals and a wide variety of parasites, commensals and mutualists. We suggest that the ways in which these homeostatic fortress environments affect the evolution of social insect symbionts are relevant...... in these nests. We hypothesize that biodiversity gradients in these hotspots might be less affected by abiotic latitudinal clines than gradients in neighboring 'control' habitats. We suggest several research lines to test these ideas....

  16. Ecological genomics of Boechera stricta: Identification of a QTL controlling the allocation of methionine- vs branched-chain amino acid-derived glucosinolates and levels of insect herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schranz, M.E.; Manzaneda, A.J.; Windsor, A.J.; Clauss, M.; Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Brassicaceae, glucosinolates influence the feeding, reproduction and development of many insect herbivores. Glucosinolate production and effects on herbivore feeding have been extensively studied in the model species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, both of which constitutively

  17. Control of grasshoppers by combined application of Paranosema locustae and an insect growth regulator (IGR) (cascade) in rangelands in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; An, Zhao; Shi, Wangpeng

    2012-12-01

    The relatively low direct mortality caused by Paranosema locustae (Canning) has limited its application for controlling grasshopper when densities are high, and this study sought to determine if the simultaneous use of this pathogen and the IGR, Flufenoxuron (Cascade) could provide effective control. Nine treatments were tested: 45% Malathion EC at 1500 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 150 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 75 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 37.5 ml/ha, P. locustae at 7.5 x 10(9) spores/ha, combinations of 5% Cascade at 75 ml/ha and P. locustae at 7.5 x 10(9) spores/ha, applied in different rations (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) in the same plot, the untreated control. P. locustae was applied on nonoverlapping plots with the IGR. The different in-plot combinations of P. locustae and Cascade in different ratios provided significantly better overall control of grasshoppers (all species) than the treatment of 5% Cascade of 150 ml/ha after 5d, but combinations were not significantly different from the other concentrations of Cascade after 12 and 31 d. When results were examined separately for specific species of grasshoppers, reduction of Dasyhippus harbipes (Fischer-Waldheim), was higher than that of Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubovsky). While combinations showed significant differences in the infection of different grasshopper species at 5 and 12 d posttreatment, no significant differences in rate of infection among the primary species (M. palpalis, D. harbipes, and Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko) were detected 31 d posttreatment. Our study found that P. locustae by itself could control grasshopper populations at medium densities but the combined application of P. locustae and Cascade at a ratio of 1:2 was more effective against high-density grasshopper populations.

  18. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  19. Using gamma radiation to control microorganisms and insects on paper as a preservation method of bibliographic materials in danger of deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Ana Maria

    2003-01-01

    The conservation of bibliographic materials involves three stages that could be named primary prevention related to the control of factors intervening in the deteriorating processes, secondary prevention associated to the early detection of deteriorating factors and finally tertiary prevention, necessary when a serious problem has been detected and the actions are destined to minimize consequences. Among the processes historically employed in the last case, radiation has been investigated with dissimilar results. This purpose of this work was to contribute to the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of gamma radiation as a tool for the treatment of fungus or insect contaminated paper. The principal objective was to examine the extent to which the physical-mechanical properties of paper are affected by irradiation when it its employed to treat papers damaged by biological contamination. To this objective, seven kinds of paper, namely permanent paper, tracing paper, light and heavy cardboard, photo quality ink jet paper and two different brands of paper for photocopying were selected and irradiated with doses in the range from 5 to 50 kGy. Applied doses cover and surpass the range needed to destroy or inactivate insects and microorganisms. Mechanical, chemical, microscopic tests and accelerated aging were performed on irradiated specimens of the chosen paper samples. In addition, some infected copies of books and magazines were irradiated and tested in the same way, after having ascertained their successful decontamination. The results obtained showed that the behavior on irradiation depends on the kind of paper. However, some general results can be stated: with the dose of 20 kGy only the tracing and the photo quality ink jet paper showed an appreciable diminution in their mechanical properties. Lower doses did not affect the samples of paper here tested. The higher dose, 50 kGy, affected all of the paper samples to different degrees, with the exception of

  20. Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenhout, Saskia A; Oshima, Kenro; Ammar, El-Desouky; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Kingdom, Heather N; Namba, Shigetou

    2008-07-01

    Superkingdom Prokaryota; Kingdom Monera; Domain Bacteria; Phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C, Gram-positive eubacteria); Class Mollicutes; Candidatus (Ca.) genus Phytoplasma. Ca. Phytoplasma comprises approximately 30 distinct clades based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of approximately 200 phytoplasmas. Phytoplasmas are mostly dependent on insect transmission for their spread and survival. The phytoplasma life cycle involves replication in insects and plants. They infect the insect but are phloem-limited in plants. Members of Ca. Phytoplasma asteris (16SrI group phytoplasmas) are found in 80 monocot and dicot plant species in most parts of the world. Experimentally, they can be transmitted by approximately 30, frequently polyphagous insect species, to 200 diverse plant species. In plants, phytoplasmas induce symptoms that suggest interference with plant development. Typical symptoms include: witches' broom (clustering of branches) of developing tissues; phyllody (retrograde metamorphosis of the floral organs to the condition of leaves); virescence (green coloration of non-green flower parts); bolting (growth of elongated stalks); formation of bunchy fibrous secondary roots; reddening of leaves and stems; generalized yellowing, decline and stunting of plants; and phloem necrosis. Phytoplasmas can be pathogenic to some insect hosts, but generally do not negatively affect the fitness of their major insect vector(s). In fact, phytoplasmas can increase fecundity and survival of insect vectors, and may influence flight behaviour and plant host preference of their insect hosts. The most common practices are the spraying of various insecticides to control insect vectors, and removal of symptomatic plants. Phytoplasma-resistant cultivars are not available for the vast majority of affected crops.

  1. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  2. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  3. Notes on some insect galls associated with Solanum plants in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-12-18

    . Received 10 ... in press) related to the biological control of Solanum weed species. During ... in the Albany Museum (Natural History) and the National ..... identifying insect specimens. MJ. ... insects imported for weed control.

  4. Use of Plant Hydraulic Theory to Predict Ecosystem Fluxes Across Mountainous Gradients in Environmental Controls and Insect Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Reed, D. E.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Naithani, K. J.; Mitra, B.; Mackay, D. S.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    While mountainous areas are critical for providing numerous ecosystem benefits at the regional scale, the strong gradients in environmental controls make predictions difficult. A key part of the problem is quantifying and predicting the feedback between mountain gradients and plant function which then controls ecosystem cycling. The emerging theory of plant hydraulics provides a rigorous yet simple platform from which to generate testable hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem pools and fluxes. Plant hydraulic theory predicts that plant controls over carbon, water, energy and nutrient fluxes can be derived from the limitation of plant water transport from the soil through xylem and out of stomata. In addition, the limit to plant water transport can be predicted by combining plant structure (e.g. xylem diameters or root-to-shoot ratios) and plant function (response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit or root vulnerability to cavitation). We evaluate the predictions of the plant hydraulic theory by testing it against data from a mountain gradient encompassing sagebrush steppe through subalpine forests (2700 to 3400 m). We further test the theory by predicting the carbon, water and nutrient exchanges from several coniferous trees in the same gradient that are dying from xylem dysfunction caused by blue-stain fungi carried by bark beetles. The common theme of both of these data sets is a change in water limitation caused by either changing precipitation along the mountainous gradient or lack of access to soil water from xylem-occluding fungi. Across all of the data sets which range in scale from individual plants to hillslopes, the data fit the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Namely, there was a proportional tradeoff between the reference canopy stomatal conductance to water vapor and the sensitivity of that conductance to vapor pressure deficit that quantitatively fits the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Incorporating this result into

  5. Feeding the insect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  6. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wild-type DNA resulted in the production of adults with wing ... using conventional method of breeding and selection. .... insects, birds, and other animals .... used to derive the expression of the antibiotic, tetracycline repressible transactivator.

  7. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects (as might be the case when a nest is disturbed, or when Africanized honeybees are involved); ... test with the five commercially available venoms; honey bee, paper wasp, yellow jacket, yellow hornet and white- ...

  8. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  9. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  10. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and...

  11. The use of radiation induced sterility for the control of the codling moth. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jermy, T.

    1977-12-01

    Studies were conducted from 1973 - 1977 in Hungary to obtain background information necessary for the implementation of sterile insect techniques (SIT) and pest management systems. The flight of the codling moth (CM), monitored by sex-pheromone traps, lasted from May to September. The two peaks (corresponding to the two generations per year) and the break between the two flights appeared blurred, i.e. control measures should be carried out nearly continuously during the whole season. The number of CM pairs was estimated by the release-recapture method as 100 to 500 per ha in mid-summer in an untreated orchard. Such naturally occurring low population levels could help initiating successful SIT against the CM even in not thoroughly treated apple stands. Mixed house gardens containing abandoned host trees have to be considered in Hungary as the main reservoir of the supposed ''semiwild type'' CM. Oak forests proved to harbour autonomous ''wild type'' CM populations on wild apple and sorb trees. The chemically well treated apple orchards have generally very low ''farm type'' CM populations. Natural occurrence of the CM granulosis virus in larvae developing in wild apples has been found. Transmission of the virus in laboratory rearings by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae was detected. Spraying with virus suspensions fully protected apples against the CM; however, no spread of the virus to neighbouring untreated trees was observed. Surveys for other major insect pests (Lepidoptera, aphids and scales) of apples were also made and the high population levels of several species in the untreated apple stands have been found indicating that (1) natural control generally cannot reduce these populations to an economically acceptable level, and (2) the SIT against the CM must be combined with chemical treatments or with selective methods against these species. Based on a theoretical analysis of economic aspects of the SIT for codling moth control, it was found that in Hungary

  12. Viral Delivery of dsRNA for Control of Insect Agricultural Pests and Vectors of Human Disease: Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kolliopoulou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RNAi is applied as a new and safe method for pest control in agriculture but efficiency and specificity of delivery of dsRNA trigger remains a critical issue. Various agents have been proposed to augment dsRNA delivery, such as engineered micro-organisms and synthetic nanoparticles, but the use of viruses has received relatively little attention. Here we present a critical view of the potential of the use of recombinant viruses for efficient and specific delivery of dsRNA. First of all, it requires the availability of plasmid-based reverse genetics systems for virus production, of which an overview is presented. For RNA viruses, their application seems to be straightforward since dsRNA is produced as an intermediate molecule during viral replication, but DNA viruses also have potential through the production of RNA hairpins after transcription. However, application of recombinant virus for dsRNA delivery may not be straightforward in many cases, since viruses can encode RNAi suppressors, and virus-induced silencing effects can be determined by the properties of the encoded RNAi suppressor. An alternative is virus-like particles that retain the efficiency and specificity determinants of natural virions but have encapsidated non-replicating RNA. Finally, the use of viruses raises important safety issues which need to be addressed before application can proceed.

  13. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insect control in socialist China and the corporate United States: the act of comparison, the tendency to forget, and the construction of difference in 1970s U.S.-Chinese scientific exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Sigrid

    2013-06-01

    In 1975, a delegation of U.S. entomologists traveled to socialist China to observe Chinese insect control science. Their overwhelmingly positive reports highlighted in relief the pernicious effects of pesticide corporations on U.S. agriculture; some entomologists hoped this would goad the United States to catch up to China in environmentally sensible insect control practices. Of course, insect control in socialist China carried its own political baggage, some of which-for example, mass mobilization and self-reliance--the state made highly visible to visitors, and some of which--for example, harsh treatment of scientists--it sought to obscure. For both the U.S. and the Chinese participants, the act of comparison itself was of primary significance in the exchange, allowing them to construct socialist Chinese science as refreshingly different from U.S. science. At the same time, however, this construction of difference meant forgetting the much longer transnational history in which U.S. and Chinese entomology had been intertwined.

  16. Attention-like processes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek

    2016-11-16

    Attention is fundamentally important for sensory systems to focus on behaviourally relevant stimuli. It has therefore been an important field of study in human psychology and neuroscience. Primates, however, are not the only animals that might benefit from attention-like processes. Other animals, including insects, also have to use their senses and select one among many stimuli to forage, avoid predators and find mates. They have evolved different mechanisms to reduce the information processed by their brains to focus on only relevant stimuli. What are the mechanisms used by insects to selectively attend to visual and auditory stimuli? Do these attention-like mechanisms achieve the same functions as they do in primates? To investigate these questions, I use an established framework for investigating attention in non-human animals that proposes four fundamental components of attention: salience filters, competitive selection, top-down sensitivity control and working memory. I discuss evidence for each of these component processes in insects and compare the characteristics of these processes in insects to what we know from primates. Finally, I highlight important outstanding questions about insect attention that need to be addressed for us to understand the differences and similarities between vertebrate and insect attention. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Use of habitat odour by host-seeking insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Ben; Cardé, Ring T

    2017-05-01

    Locating suitable feeding or oviposition sites is essential for insect survival. Understanding how insects achieve this is crucial, not only for understanding the ecology and evolution of insect-host interactions, but also for the development of sustainable pest-control strategies that exploit insects' host-seeking behaviours. Volatile chemical cues are used by foraging insects to locate and recognise potential hosts but in nature these resources usually are patchily distributed, making chance encounters with host odour plumes rare over distances greater than tens of metres. The majority of studies on insect host-seeking have focussed on short-range orientation to easily detectable cues and it is only recently that we have begun to understand how insects overcome this challenge. Recent advances show that insects from a wide range of feeding guilds make use of 'habitat cues', volatile chemical cues released over a relatively large area that indicate a locale where more specific host cues are most likely to be found. Habitat cues differ from host cues in that they tend to be released in larger quantities, are more easily detectable over longer distances, and may lack specificity, yet provide an effective way for insects to maximise their chances of subsequently encountering specific host cues. This review brings together recent advances in this area, discussing key examples and similarities in strategies used by haematophagous insects, soil-dwelling insects and insects that forage around plants. We also propose and provide evidence for a new theory that general and non-host plant volatiles can be used by foraging herbivores to locate patches of vegetation at a distance in the absence of more specific host cues, explaining some of the many discrepancies between laboratory and field trials that attempt to make use of plant-derived repellents for controlling insect pests. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  19. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  20. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-01-01

    Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests...

  1. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  2. Landscape and Local Controls of Insect Biodiversity in Conservation Grasslands: Implications for the Conservation of Ecosystem Service Providers in Agricultural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas O. Crist

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of biodiversity in intensively managed agricultural landscapes depends on the amount and spatial arrangement of cultivated and natural lands. Conservation incentives that create semi-natural grasslands may increase the biodiversity of beneficial insects and their associated ecosystem services, such as pollination and the regulation of insect pests, but the effectiveness of these incentives for insect conservation are poorly known, especially in North America. We studied the variation in species richness, composition, and functional-group abundances of bees and predatory beetles in conservation grasslands surrounded by intensively managed agriculture in Southwest Ohio, USA. Characteristics of grassland patches and surrounding land-cover types were used to predict insect species richness, composition, and functional-group abundance using linear models and multivariate ordinations. Bee species richness was positively influenced by forb cover and beetle richness was positively related to grass cover; both taxa had greater richness in grasslands surrounded by larger amounts of semi-natural land cover. Functional groups of bees and predatory beetles defined by body size and sociality varied in their abundance according to differences in plant composition of grassland patches, as well as the surrounding land-cover diversity. Intensive agriculture in the surrounding landscape acted as a filter to both bee and beetle species composition in conservation grasslands. Our results support the need for management incentives to consider landscape-level processes in the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  3. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruca vitrata is a polyphagous insect pest on a wide variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis mitochondrial cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata c...

  4. Status of Irradiation Control of Insects in Grain; Radiodesinsection des Cereales; Sostoyanie bor'by s hasekomymi-vreditelyami zerna putem oblucheniya; Radiodesinsectacion de Cereales Almacenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, P. B. [Rentokil Laboratories Ltd., East Grinstead, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    Research into the uses of ionizing radiations for the control of insects infesting stored foodstuffs has demonstrated the technical feasibility of irradiation for the treatment of grain. Studies in radiation entomology have established the susceptibilities of the principal grain storage insects and the extent to which environmental factors may modify the efficacy of treatment. Investigations into chemical and physical properties of irradiated grain have shown no adverse effects on organoleptic and manufacturing properties at the dose level required for disinfestation. Work on the wholesomeness of irradiated grain has shown no loss in nutritional adequacy, with the result that clearance has been given in the United States for the human consumption of irradiated wheat and wheat products. Engineering considerations suggest that irradiation is an economic competitor to chemical methods for the treatment of grain at large exporting or collecting centres. With bulk storage and automated conveying systems now established as the most expedient method of handling grain between producers and consumers, it can be wisely predicted that implementation of radiation disinfestation into the grain handling industry will follow in the foreseeable future. Information on infestation problems and the grain-handling industries of various countries is used to illustrate the likely future potential of irradiation for the treatment of grain on an international scale. (author) [French] Les recherches sur l'emploi des rayonnements ionisants pour la desinsection des denrees alimentaires emmagasinees ont demontre qu'il est techniquement possible d'utiliser l'irradiation pour le traitement des cereales. Les etudes de radioentomologie ont permis d'etablir les sensibilites des principaux insectes infestant les cereales stockees et la mesure dans laquelle les-facteurs inherents au milieu ambiant peuvent modifier l'efficacite du traitement. Les recherches sur les proprietes chimiques et physiques

  5. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  6. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  7. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  8. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  9. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  10. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  11. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  12. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  13. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural and...

  14. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  16. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  17. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  18. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study provides information on the incidence of major insect pests of cowpea as well as the minimum insecticide control intervention necessary for effectively reducing cowpea yield losses on the field. Two insecticide spray regimes (once at flowering and podding) significantly reduced insect population ...

  19. Toxicity of the insect growth regulator lufenuron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metarhizium anisopliae has been considered a promising alternative with low environmental impacts for the biological control of a variety of insect-pests. Another alternative is the use of biological pesticides such as insect growth regulators, including lufenuron. An assessment of the potential impact of fungicides on M.

  20. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    A survey of 337 cotton farmers in the three northern regions of Ghana was ... five applications were made during the season. ... Keywords: cotton, farmer knowledge and perception, insect pest control, Ghana. .... bordered on tests of farmers' knowledge of cotton insect pests, their damage ..... Agricultural Experiment Station.

  1. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  2. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  3. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  4. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  6. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  7. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena; Chouaia, Bessem; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Bourtzis, Kostas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  8. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  9. Guide for dosimetry for sterile insect release programs. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed for the radiation sterilization of live insects for use in pest management programs. The primary use of irradiated, reproductively sterile insects is in the Sterile Insect Technique, where large numbers of sterile insects are released into the field to mate with and thus control pest populations of the same species. A secondary use of sterile insects is as benign hosts for rearing insect parasitoids. The procedures outlined in this guide will help ensure that insects processed with ionizing radiation from gamma, electron, or X-ray sources receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. Information on effective dose ranges for specific applications of insect sterilization, or on methodology for determining effective dose ranges, is not within the scope of this guide. Note: Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality control program to ensure that irradiated insects are adequately sterilized and sufficiently competitive or otherwise suitable for their intended purpose. This guide covers dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for these types of irradiators: self-contained dry-storage 137 Cs or 60 Co irradiators, large-scale gamma irradiators, and electron accelerators. Additional, detailed information on dosimetric procedures to be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine product processing can be found in ISO/ASTM Practices 51608 (X-ray [bremsstrahlung] facilities), 51649 (electron beam facilities), 51702 (large-scale gamma facilities), and ASTM Practice E 2116 (self-contained dry-storage gamma facilities). The absorbed dose for insect sterilization is typically within the range of 20 Gy to 600 Gy

  10. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane... insects, the Arundo scale and the Arundo wasp as biological control agents for the non-native and invasive... [[Page 71584

  11. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  12. Insect transgenesis: current applications and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Malcolm J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the genomes of many insects has become a practical reality over the past 15 years. This has been led by the identification of several useful transposon vector systems that have allowed the identification and development of generalized, species-specific, and tissue-specific promoter systems for controlled expression of gene products upon introduction into insect genomes. Armed with these capabilities, researchers have made significant strides in both fundamental and applied transgenics in key model systems such as Bombyx mori, Tribolium casteneum, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Limitations of transposon systems were identified, and alternative tools were developed, thus significantly increasing the potential for applied transgenics for control of both agricultural and medical insect pests. The next 10 years promise to be an exciting time of transitioning from the laboratory to the field, from basic research to applied control, during which the full potential of gene manipulation in insect systems will ultimately be realized. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  14. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  15. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  16. Suppressing Resistance to Bt Cotton with Sterile Insect Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabashnik, B E [Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Sisterson, M S [USDA-ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA (United States); Ellsworth, P C [Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely for pest control. However, insect adaptation can reduce the toxins' efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide susceptible insects to mate with resistant insects. Variable farmer compliance is one of the limitations of this approach. Here we report the benefits of an alternative strategy where sterile insects are released to mate with resistant insects and refuges are scarce or absent. Computer simulations show that this approach works in principle against pests with recessive or dominant inheritance of resistance. During a largescale, four-year field deployment of this strategy in Arizona, resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) to Bt cotton did not increase. A multitactic eradication program that included the release of sterile moths reduced pink bollworm abundance by >99%, while eliminating insecticide sprays against this key invasive pest. (author)

  17. ENTOMOLOGY - INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS IN FIELD CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Entomology - Insects and other pests in field crops, describes the most important pests of field crops supported by many photographs. The textbook encompasses 15 chapters. Importance of entomology in intensive plant production is discussed in introductory chapter, in terms of increased threat of insects and other pests. Morphology, anatomy and physiology are given in the second and third chapter, while ways and phases of insect development are elaborated in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter, overview of insect systematic is given. Polyphagous insects are described from the sixth to fourteenth chapter, as follows: pests of cereals, maize, sugar beet, sunflower, oil seed rape, soybean, forage crops and stored products. In the last chapter, principles of integrated pest management are described due to proper application of all control measures to obtain healthier food production.

  18. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  19. Difficulties and Successes in the Mass Rearing of Insects in the Laboratory, and the Possibility of Autocidal Control of some Harmful Species; Trudnosti i uspekhi massovogo razvedeniya nasekomykh v laboratorii i vozmozhnosti samoistrebleniya nekotorykh vrednykh vidov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, E. M. [Rastenij, Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Zashhity Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1968-06-15

    The practical development of the sterile-male release technique, as indeed of all methods of autocidal control of harmful insects, is limited by the difficulties of mass rearing in artificial conditions. However, analysis of cases of the successful solution of this problem for a number of types of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera gives an indication of possible ways of setting up large-scale rearing of the insects required. The most difficult problem, that of ensuring a suitable food supply for the insects at any time of the year, is being successfully overcome as a result of the progress made in producing synthetic and semi- synthetic nutrient media, which have been developed both for semi-saprophytic and for herbivorous and predacious species. The choice of recipes for such nutrients is determined by correct selection of the necessary ingredients, above all vitamins, free amino acids and sterols; the proper quantitative proportion between these substances and between the basic components of the food - proteins, fats and hydrocarbons - is of the greatest importance. The amount of work involved in insect rearing depends on what means are used for sterilizing the containers and for preventing the nutrient medium from decaying. One way in which these problems have been solved is by the development of a dried nutrient medium in powder form; this has been successfully used for rearing the migratory locust in the USSR. For a number of harmful species of Lepidoptera, it has been shown possible to rear the insects in a closed, sealed container. In this case a supply of nutrient medium is provided adequate to ensure the insects' development from, the time the eggs or caterpillars are deposited until the imago of the new generation emerges. This approach greatly simplifies the whole process of mass rearing. Many species of insects can be reared on grain or plant seeds which are less subject to decay during prolonged storage. Another important problem is that of

  20. Combination of diatomaceous earth and powder deltamethrin for insect control in stored corn Combinação de terra de diatomácea e deltametrina em pó para o controle de insetos em milho armazenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Cristina Ceruti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of diatomaceous earth (DE is a very efficient insect control measure in stored grain IPM due to its low cost, easy application, reduction of active ingredient residues, lower environmental contamination and operator safety. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of different dosages of DE mixed with powder deltamethrin for controlling Sitophilus zeamais in stored corn. Samples of 100 g of clean and dry corn, in three replicates, were submitted to the following treatments: DE (Keepdry®, at the dosages of 500, 750 and 1000 g/t; powder deltamethrin (K-Obiol® at 0,5 g a.i. /t and 1,0 g a.i. /t; and combinations of the lowest and highest DE dosages with the two dosages of deltamethrin. Thirty adults of S. zeamais were placed in each vial with the treated grains and kept in environment chambers at 25ºC. Mortality was evaluated from the 1st to the 28th day. In the treatments mixing DE with deltamethrin or deltamethrin alone, the mortalyti was registered since the first day. In the treatments using only DE, the first dead insects were recorded after the 3rd day, especially in the highest dosages. After the 7th day, however, there was no statistical difference among all treatments, except for the lowest dosage of DE which reached a satisfactory control level only by the 14th day. It was concluded that treatments using DE combined with low dosages of powder deltamethrin represent an efficient control measure against S. zeamais in stored corn because insect mortality is faster than in treatments using DE alone and residues of active ingredients are much lower than using the insecticide in high dosages.O uso de terra de diatomácea (TD representa uma medida de controle importante em programas de MIP de armazenamento devido ao baixo custo, facilidade de aplicação, redução do nível de resíduos de ingrediente ativo e da contaminação ambiental e maior segurança para o operador. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a

  1. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  2. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control; Perspectiva de utilizacao da Tecnica do Inseto Esteril para lagarta da maca Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e lagarta do velho mundo Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na cultura do algodoeiro como um metodo alternativo de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  4. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  5. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adámek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manuscript describes the phases of edible insect culinary treatment and methods of distinguishing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and giant mealworm (Zophobas morio using simple electronic nose. These species were measured in the live stage, after killing with boiling water, after drying and after inserting into the chocolate.The sensing device was based on the Arduino Mega platform with the ability to store the recorded data on the SD memory card, and with the possibility to communicate via internet. Data analysis shows that even a simple, cheap and portable electronic nose can distinguish between the different steps of culinary treatment (native samples, dried samples, samples enriched with chocolate for cooking and selected species. Another benefit of the electronic nose could be its future introduction into the control mechanisms of food security systems (e.g. HACCP.

  6. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe; Béra, François; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  7. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  8. Molecular Genetics of Beauveria bassiana Infection of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Keyhani, N O

    2016-01-01

    Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages. Beauveria bassiana is a broad host range insect pathogen that has the ability to form intimate symbiotic relationships with plants. Indeed, there is an increasing realization that the latter may be the predominant environmental interaction in which the fungus participates, and that insect parasitism may be an opportunist lifestyle evolved due to the carbon- and nitrogen-rich resources present in insect bodies. Here, we will review progress on the molecular genetics of B. bassiana, which has largely been directed toward identifying genetic pathways involved in stress response and virulence assumed to have practical applications in improving the insect control potential of the fungus. Important strides have also been made in understanding aspects of B. bassiana development. Finally, although increasingly apparent in a number of studies, there is a need for progressing beyond phenotypic mutant characterization to sufficiently investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying B. bassiana's unique and diverse lifestyles as saprophyte, insect pathogen, and plant mutualist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapathrudu Kanakala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. The identification of such candidates poses a major challenge for increasing the role of RNAi in pest control. Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists.

  10. Optimal barrier zones for stopping the invasion of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes via transgenic or sterile insect techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. Seirin; Baker, Ruth E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; White, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal), for controlling invasion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a spatial stage-structured mathematical model. In particular, we explore the use of a barrier zone of sterile/transgenic insects to prevent

  11. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  12. Interactions between parasites and insects vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.

  13. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  14. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  15. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  16. Quality in mass-produced insects: definition and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The insect that is mass-produced and released in a control programme is in effect a biological bullet, a self-guided missile designed to deliver a beneficial effect against a pest insect. The ability of the released insect to achieve this objective may be influenced in many ways. The control of the quality of mass-produced insects must include an understanding of the behavioural components critical to their success and an evaluation of their performance based upon these behavioural components. The paper discusses some of the principles and techniques being used and developed to study behavioural performance and quality. Included are discussions of tests of: vigour, irritability, activity, sound production, response thresholds, reproductive preference and drive, biotic potential, and others. (author)

  17. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-05-12

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse.

  18. Mass rearing and radiation sterilization of tsetse flies. Part of a coordinated programme on control and eradication of tsetse flies by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offori, E.

    1980-12-01

    Studies were conducted with the tsetse flies Glossina palpalis palpalis, G.p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides to evaluate the practicality in Ghana of various laboratory and field procedures used to conduct a sterile insect release programme. Investigations revealed that in colony rearing rabbits, guinea pigs and goats could be used as host animals and that alternation of hosts had little effect on colony performance. Over 90% sterility in 10-day-old males irradiated at 12 kR was obtained with little or no effect on survival. At 15 kR, 98% sterility was obtained but with some loss in viability observed. In mating experiments, G. p. palpalis and G. p. gambiensis mated readily with each other and indicated that sterile males of one sub-species could be released with advantage into an area predominantly occupied by the other sub-species. In field tests, the moving vehicle traps proved most efficient of the various sampling techniques evaluated. It was noted that in spite of the rapid expansion of the city of Accra, tsetse flies were still present within a distance of 4 km of the city

  19. Community and species-specific responses of wild bees to insect pest control programs applied to a pollinator-dependent crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Wild bee conservation is regarded as essential for sustainable production of pollinator-dependent crops, yet little is known about the effects on wild bee communities of typical insect pest management programs used postbloom. We developed an insecticide program risk (IPR) index to quantify the relative risk to wild bees of insecticide programs applied to blueberry fields. This was used to determine the relationship between IPR and the abundance, diversity, and richness of wild bee communities sampled during three successive flowering seasons. In 2 of 3 yr, bee abundance and species richness declined with increasing IPR. Bee diversity declined with IPR in one of 3 yr. These results indicate that wild bee communities are negatively affected by increasingly intensive chemical pest management activities in crop fields and that interyear variability in bee populations has the potential to mask such effects in short-term studies. When several wild bee species were analyzed separately, two of three solitary and one of three social blueberry-foraging species declined with increasing IPR values, suggesting that different life histories and nesting habits may help some bee populations escape the negative effects of insecticides applied after bloom. Pollinator conservation programs aimed strictly at reducing insecticide use may have varying success, depending on the biology of the target bee species. The IPR index provides a standard method to compare pest management programs for their potential effect on wild bee communities, with broad application for use in other agricultural systems.

  20. Arriving at the age of pest insect transgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Peter W.; O'Brochta, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Technologies that enable the stable genetic transformation of insects other than the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, have been sought since D. melanogaster was initially transformed using the P transposable element (Rubin and Spradling 1982). D. melanogaster transformation can now be achieved by using Type II eukaryotic transposable elements such as P, hobo, Hermes, mariner, Minos and piggyBac (Blackman et al. 1989, Lidholm et al. 1993, Loukeris et al. 1995a, O'Brochta et al. 1996, Rubin and Spadling 1982, A. M. Handler, personal communication). The success of this strategy led to many attempts to extend it into non-drosophilid insects and this approach has recently been successful with the use of four different transposable elements to transform two non-drosophilid insect species, the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Coates et al. 1998, Handler et al. 1998, Jasinskiene et al. 1998, Loukeris et al. 1995b). The generation of these transgenic insects has, in part, arisen through the adoption of two approaches. One has been the isolation of new transposable elements from non-drosophilid insects. The second has been the implementation of mobility assays that have quickly enabled the mobility properties of these new elements in the target pest species to be determined. The success of these approaches will most likely be extended to other pest insect species over the next five years and will increase our ability to use modern genetic techniques to develop new strategies to control pest insects

  1. RNAi Technology for Insect Management and Protection of Beneficial Insects from Diseases: Lessons, Challenges and Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, M J; Smagghe, G

    2015-06-01

    The time has passed for us to wonder whether RNA interference (RNAi) effectively controls pest insects or protects beneficial insects from diseases. The RNAi era in insect science began with studies of gene function and genetics that paved the way for the development of novel and highly specific approaches for the management of pest insects and, more recently, for the treatment and prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The slight differences in components of RNAi pathways are sufficient to provide a high degree of variation in responsiveness among insects. The current framework to assess the negative effects of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health is adequate for RNAi-based GM plants. Because of the mode of action of RNAi and the lack of genomic data for most exposed non-target organisms, it becomes difficult to determine the environmental risks posed by RNAi-based technologies and the benefits provided for the protection of crops. A better understanding of the mechanisms that determine the variability in the sensitivity of insects would accelerate the worldwide release of commercial RNAi-based approaches.

  2. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  3. Insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Insect infestation is a major cause of post-harvest food loss. Use of chemical pesticides is one of the main methods of controlling storage losses caused by insects. Decades of research conducted worldwide on radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products have shown that this method could be an alternative to the chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of irradiation processing include no undesirable residues in the foods, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the physicochemical properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. This volume contains the proceedings of the final Research Co-ordination Meeting on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation, held in May 1987. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Photorhabdus luminescens genes induced upon insect infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kirsten

    2008-05-01

    to regulate the expression of toxin genes, including tccC1 (encoding an insecticidal toxin complex, and others encoding putative toxins. A comparably high number of metabolic genes or operons were observed to be induced upon infection; among these were eutABC, hutUH, and agaZSVCD, which encode proteins involved in ethanolamine, histidine and tagatose degradation, respectively. The results reflect rearrangements in metabolism and the use of other metabolites available from the insect. Furthermore, enhanced activity of promoters controlling the expression of genes encoding enzymes linked to antibiotic production and/or resistance was observed. Antibiotic production and resistance may influence competition with other bacteria, and thus might be important for a successful infection. Lastly, several genes of unknown function were identified that may represent novel pathogenicity factors. Conclusion We show that a DFI screen is useful for identifying genes or operons induced by chemical stimuli, such as diluted insect homogenate. A bioinformatics comparison of motifs similar to known promoters is a powerful tool for identifying regulated genes or operons. We conclude that signals for the regulation of those genes or operons induced in P. luminescens upon insect infection may represent a wide variety of compounds that make up the insect host. Our results provide insight into the complex response to the host that occurs in a bacterial pathogen, particularly reflecting the potential for metabolic shifts and other specific changes associated with virulence.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test (LSOMT) of Insects and Pathogens for Control of Waterhyacinth in Louisiana. Volume 1. Results for 1979-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    and cucumber produced no evidence of disease symptoms. Cercospora rodmanii produced disease symptoms on only two varieties of lettuce in field tests...1978). He concluded that waterhyacinth is successful in eliminating water- lettuce because the larger leaves of waterhyacinth give it a competitive...adapted for 40 entomophily, pollination by insects has rarely been observed and self- pollination is the general rule (Penfound and Earle 1948). 32

  6. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review | George | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect pests cause significant damage to crops world-wide. This is despite integrated pest management strategies combining such control measures as chemical control, use of resistant varieties and other measures. Other control measures such as use of genetically modified crops are being adopted. Transgenic crops ...

  7. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangan, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  9. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  10. Atomic war on insects intensified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Intensive research work in many countries using nuclear methods aimed at reducing the immense food losses caused by insects have led to a number of important trial operations this year. Some are now in progress in Capri, the famous Italian tourist island, and in Central America. Both are directed against the Mediterranean fruit fly, which attacks most fruit in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Similar methods are also developing to combat other insect pests

  11. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  12. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.; Mehta, K.

    2007-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [es

  13. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  14. Model business plan for a sterile insect production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For over 50 years the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy which has been used for eradication, and more recently for suppression, containment and prevention, of unwanted insect pest populations. Examples of successful applications of SIT, almost always applied in conjunction with other control methods in an area-wide integrated approach, are available from around the world. The development and application of SIT has relied overwhelmingly on public or donor initiative and funding throughout its history, although the private sector has always been involved as participants, cooperators or partners in funding. The demand for SIT, and therefore the market for sterile insects, has increased in recent years. This increase coincides with the introduction of new pests through the expansion of global trade and, at the same time, widespread pressure to find alternatives to pesticides. Recent improvements in the technology supporting SIT facilitate its application and suggest lower costs can be achieved. The conditions are therefore met for a greater commercialization of the technique to bring it in line with other pest control approaches that are fully integrated into a market approach. Several challenges arise, however, in pursuing sterile insect production as a commercial venture, ranging from intellectual property protection to pricing of the product. Routine insurance requirements, for instance, are complicated by the biological aspects of the business. This report is aimed at facilitating private sector involvement in the production of sterile insects for use in pest control. It provides guidelines and tools to support the development of specific business plans for a new SIT venture. By providing an international perspective on such issues as initial capital costs and recurring operational expenditures for a sterile insect facility, it may be used to evaluate the feasibility of proceeding with the construction or expansion of a sterile insect

  15. Forest habitat conservation in Africa using commercially important insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Suresh Kumar; Kioko, Esther; Zethner, Ole; Wren, Susie

    2011-01-01

    African forests, which host some of the world's richest biodiversity, are rapidly diminishing. The loss of flora and fauna includes economically and socially important insects. Honey bees and silk moths, grouped under commercial insects, are the source for insect-based enterprises that provide income to forest-edge communities to manage the ecosystem. However, to date, research output does not adequately quantify the impact of such enterprises on buffering forest ecosystems and communities from climate change effects. Although diseases/pests of honey bees and silk moths in Africa have risen to epidemic levels, there is a dearth of practical research that can be utilized in developing effective control mechanisms that support the proliferation of these commercial insects as pollinators of agricultural and forest ecosystems. This review highlights the critical role of commercial insects within the environmental complexity of African forest ecosystems, in modern agroindustry, and with respect to its potential contribution to poverty alleviation and pollination services. It identifies significant research gaps that exist in understanding how insects can be utilized as ecosystem health indicators and nurtured as integral tools for important socioeconomic and industrial gains.

  16. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  17. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  18. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  19. Impact of Ultraviolet-Blocking Plastic Films on Insect Vectors of Virus Diseases Infesting Crisp Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Desani, Beatriz M.; Biurrun, R.; Moreno, Aránzazu; Nebreda, Miguel; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did...

  20. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL REARING DIET ACIDITY ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY YIELD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wied.) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FOR ITS CONTROL BY STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.; EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The biological effects of larval rearing diet acidity on the developmental stages of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) were studied at the laboratory scale. Diets were formulated at five different initial pH ranging from 4.59 to 2.09 together with the control group currently used in our laboratory (5.26). These effects were evaluated on larval period, percent pupal recovery, pupal weight, percent adult emergence, percent male production and adult flight ability. The results showed that the shortest larval development occurred at pH 3.48 and 3.75, the highest pupal recovery at pH 3.75, the best pupal weight at pH 2.09, 3.48, 3.75 and 4.59, the highest percent adult emergence at pH 3.75, the highest percentage male production at pH 3.48, and the best percentage of fliers at pH 4.59. The obtained data referred to the optimizing physiochemical factors such as pH can improve the overall yield of mass reared medfly in the laboratory to be irradiated by gamma radiation and released in the field for controlling the insect

  1. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which Dutch consumers, with and without insect tasting experience, are more or less willing to eat different insects. Design/methodology/approach: In a ...

  2. Farmer's knowledge and perception of horticultural insect pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst 89% were aware of insect pest problems, only 35% used chemical treatment even though about 79% thought that pest damage ranged from mild to severe. Majority of the farmers adopt diverse number of traditional methods in pest control. Key words: Farmers, pests, horticultural crops, vegetable, control

  3. How to collect and process large polyhedral viruses of insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Rollinson; F. B. Lewis

    1962-01-01

    Polyhedral viruses have proved highly effective and very practical for control of certain pine sawflies; and a method of collecting and processing the small polyhedra (5 microns or less) characteristic of sawflies has been described. There is experimental evidence that the virus diseases of many Lepidopterous insects can be used similarly for direct control. The...

  4. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  5. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  6. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  7. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  8. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Peveling, R.

    2005-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  9. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    A method for quantitative measurement of 3-monochlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine in insect cuticles is described, and it is used for determination of their distribution in various cuticular regions in nymphs and adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The two chlorinated tyrosine......, not-yet sclerotized cuticle of adult femur and tibia, the amounts increased rapidly during the first 24 h after ecdysis and more slowly during the next two weeks. Control analyses using stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry have confirmed that the chlorinated tyrosines are not artifacts formed...

  10. An insect out of control? The potential for spread and establishment of the gypsy moth in new forest areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max W. McFadden; Michael E. McManus

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was introduced from Europe into North America near Boston, Massachusetts, in 1869, and is now well established as a serious defoliator of forest, shade, and fruit trees over much of the eastern United States. Despite substantial efforts to eradicate, contain, or control this pest, the gypsy moth has persisted and...

  11. Ecological turmoil in evolutionary dynamics of plant-insect interactions: defense to offence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manasi; Lomate, Purushottam R; Joshi, Rakesh S; Punekar, Sachin A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2015-10-01

    Available history manifests contemporary diversity that exists in plant-insect interactions. A radical thinking is necessary for developing strategies that can co-opt natural insect-plant mutualism, ecology and environmental safety for crop protection since current agricultural practices can reduce species richness and evenness. The global environmental changes, such as increased temperature, CO₂ and ozone levels, biological invasions, land-use change and habitat fragmentation together play a significant role in re-shaping the plant-insect multi-trophic interactions. Diverse natural products need to be studied and explored for their biological functions as insect pest control agents. In order to assure the success of an integrated pest management strategy, human activities need to be harmonized to minimize the global climate changes. Plant-insect interaction is one of the most primitive and co-evolved associations, often influenced by surrounding changes. In this review, we account the persistence and evolution of plant-insect interactions, with particular focus on the effect of climate change and human interference on these interactions. Plants and insects have been maintaining their existence through a mutual service-resource relationship while defending themselves. We provide a comprehensive catalog of various defense strategies employed by the plants and/or insects. Furthermore, several important factors such as accelerated diversification, imbalance in the mutualism, and chemical arms race between plants and insects as indirect consequences of human practices are highlighted. Inappropriate implementation of several modern agricultural practices has resulted in (i) endangered mutualisms, (ii) pest status and resistance in insects and (iii) ecological instability. Moreover, altered environmental conditions eventually triggered the resetting of plant-insect interactions. Hence, multitrophic approaches that can harmonize human activities and minimize their

  12. NIR detects, destroys insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    What’s good for Georgia peanuts may also be good for Kansas wheat. An electric eye that scans all food-grade peanuts for visual defects could one day do the same for wheat kernels. For peanuts, it’s a proven method for monitoring quality. In wheat, scanning with near-infrared (NIR) energy can reveal hidden insect infestations that lower wheat quality. ARS entomologists James E. Throne and James E. Baker and ARS agricultural engineer Floyd E. Dowell are the first to combine NIR with an automated grain-handling system to rapidly detect insects hidden in single wheat kernels

  13. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  14. Using insect traps to increase weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda) prey capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynegaard, Gina; Offenberg, Joachim; Fast, Thora

    2014-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are managed in plantations to control insect pests and are sometimes harvested as a protein rich food source. In both cases, the amount of insect prey caught by the ants is imperative for returns, as more prey leads to more effective biocontrol and to a higher...... by O. longinoda under natural conditions (without traps), potentially increasing to 14% if ants learn to extract all insects. Thus, prey intake may be increased with 5-14% per 3.9 USD invested in traps. These numbers increased to 38 and 78%, respectively, when light was used to attract insects during...

  15. Potentiality of botanical agents for the management of post harvest insects of maize: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya, P Lakshmi; Sekhar, J C; Kumar, P; Sunil, N; Prasad, Ch Vara; Mallavadhani, U V

    2016-05-01

    Natural products derived from plants are emerging as potent biorational alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the integrated management of post harvest insects of maize. In this paper, effectiveness of botanicals including plant extracts, essential oils, their isolated pure compounds, plant based nano formulations and their mode of action against storage insects have been reviewed with special reference to maize. Plant based insecticides found to be the most promising means of controlling storage insects of maize in an eco friendly and sustainable manner. This article also throws light on the commercialization of botanicals, their limitations, challenges and future trends of storage insect management.

  16. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  17. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  18. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  19. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  20. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  1. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  2. Search for new amounts of Irrdiation in order to improve the efficacy of the steril insect technique in the control of medfly in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ibrahim, Hatem; Ben Abdallah, Ali

    2006-01-01

    This survey has for objective to look for a dose of irradiation appropriate and susceptible to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the males radiated in order to make currently moe efficient the sterile bug technique associated in a national program of controlled struggle against the ceratite. For that to make, eight doses of irradiations (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130Gy) have been tried in comparison with a non exposed witness and a witness treated by the dose currently used in the national center of nuclear sciences and technology (145Gy). The quality control of the sterile males has been made in return for tests of emergence, of faculty to the flight, barrenness, longevity and wandering. The last test has been valued after releasing males radiated in orchards of citrus fruits in the region of Hammamet. This work allowed us to clear a dose of 110GY has to improve the quality of the exposed males even and that would be released. This dose permitted to get the best rates of emergence (about 82%), of faculty to the flight (76%), of longevity (65% (about 35% of flies died after 12 hours of observation)) and distribution (8 flies by trap) without affecting the barrenness (about 97% that are considered in the norms of the AIEA). (author). 12 refs

  3. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  4. Social insects and selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F

    2001-10-01

    Sometimes science advances because of a new idea. Sometimes, it's because of a new technique. When both occur together, exciting times result. In the study of social insects, DNA-based methods for measuring relatedness now allow increasingly detailed tests of Hamilton's theory of kin selection.

  5. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  6. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  7. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  8. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  9. A Guide to the Insect Borers, Pruners, and Girdlers of Pecan and Hickory

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Solomon; J.A. Payne

    1986-01-01

    The importance, identification, biology and indirect control of insects attacking shoots, branches, trunks, and roots of tress are presented. Damage due to and control of the yellow-bellied sapsucker is discussed.

  10. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  11. Methodology for evaluating the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene incorporated into packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect growth regulator methoprene has been impregnated onto various packaging materials to control stored product insects, and is labeled for use in this manner in the United States. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate efficacy towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour b...

  12. Factors driving public tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour concerning insects in the household environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoelitsz, Bruce; Poortvliet, P.M.; Takken, Willem

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the

  13. Factors driving public tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour concerning insects in the household environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelitsz, Bruce; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Takken, Willem

    2018-06-01

    The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the relationships between personal factors and information-seeking behaviour. We combined IPM and RISP to determine important relationships between factors driving insect tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour through an online survey and tested whether this model is valid and generally applicable. Relationships between variables from both IPM and RISP models were tested for seven insect species. Tolerance levels were measured with two factors: willingness to pay for pest control and whether insects are tolerated. Willingness to pay for control was positively affected by age, experience, risk perception, insect characteristics, and negative emotions and affected behavioural intention, by influencing information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. Tolerability was influenced by perception of insect characteristics and determines whether control measures are taken. It was possible to combine the RISP and IPM models. Relevant driving factors were a person's age, experience, risk perception, negative affective responses, tolerance levels, relevant channel beliefs about online forums, information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. There was, however, variation in important factors between different insects. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose

  15. How Insects Survive Winter in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how insects cope with cold temperatures can not only help entomologists more accurately forecast when and where insects are active, but it may also help us understand how climate change will influence insect pests. This newsletter article provides a comprehensive overview of how Midwes...

  16. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  17. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  18. Conflicts and alliances in insect families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, L; Boomsma, J J

    2001-05-01

    Hamilton's principle of inclusive fitness implies that reproductive altruism can evolve, because individuals can pass on genes not only through their own offspring, but also through the offspring of their relatives. Social insects are spectacular examples of how some individuals may be selected to forgo reproduction and instead help others reproduce. Social Hymenoptera are also special because relatedness patterns within families can be asymmetrical, so that optimal sex-ratios, preferred male parentage or preferred mating frequencies become objects of reproductive conflict. The now extensive inclusive fitness theory provides precise qualitative predictions with respect to the emergence of such conflicts. Recent advances in the power of genetic markers applied to resolve family structure in insect societies have brought about a series of studies that have tested these predictions. In support of kin selection as a major evolutionary force, the results suggest that workers frequently control sex allocation. However, the very establishment of such worker control has made new conflicts come to light, between mothers and fathers and between adult individuals and brood. Evidence for these conflicts is only just beginning to be gathered. Recent studies tend to include issues such as 'information' and 'power' (i.e. the ability to perceive signals and the opportunity to act upon this information), and to address selection for selfishness at the individual level with costs of social disruption at the colony level.

  19. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  20. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)