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Sample records for insect bites and stings

  1. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  2. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... widow spider bite; Brown recluse bite; Flea bite; Honey bee or hornet sting; Lice bites; Mite bite; ... Saunders; 2016:chap 359. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, ...

  3. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ... birdbaths) and are attracted by bright colors and sweat. Bites result in stinging sensation followed by a ...

  4. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/stinging-insect-allergy.aspx. Accessed Jan. 9, 2018. LoVecchio F. ...

  5. Stinging and biting insect allergy: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solley, Graham O

    2004-12-01

    Stings and bites from various insects are responsible for many anaphylactic events. To document the clinical features of specific forms of anaphylaxis and investigate clinical concerns regarding stinging and biting insect allergy. All patients presenting for evaluation of adverse reactions to insect stings or bites between December 1980 and December 1997 had the clinical details of their reactions recorded and their reactions classified. The spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs is similar to that seen in anaphylaxis from other sources; stings on the head or neck are not more likely to cause life-threatening reactions than stings elsewhere on the body; a lesser reaction will not necessarily lead to a more serious reaction from a future sting; asthmatic patients do appear to have an increased risk of asthma as a feature of their anaphylactic response; anaphylaxis is usually confined to a particular insect species for the individual patient; patients who have had multiple stings at one time may have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a "toxic" response; and patients who have had anaphylaxis from other sources are at no greater risk than that of the general population of reacting similarly to insect stings or bites. Anaphylactic events from insect stings show the same clinical features as those from other sources. Systemic reactions seem confined to a specific insect species. Patients who experience RXN3 reactions from multiple stings at one time should undergo specific venom testing, because many have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a toxic response. Future consideration should be given to the role of beta-adrenergic antagonists and ACE inhibitors in patients with systemic reactions.

  6. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to a venom sac. Try to remove it as quickly as ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ... shape on its underbelly. The venom (a toxic substance) in a black widow bite ...

  7. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can carry other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, ... Clean the area with soap and water, and treat with an antiseptic or antibiotic cream to avoid ...

  8. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  11. The use of concentrated heat after insect bites/stings as an alternative to reduce swelling, pain, and pruritus: an open cohort-study at German beaches and bathing-lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Müller1,*, Beatrice Großjohann1,*, Lutz Fischer2,*1Department of Medical Science and Operations, RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, An der Wiek 7, 17489 Greifswald, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Straße 23b, 17493 Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Swelling, pain, and pruritus are the most relevant symptoms after insect bites/stings. Glucocorticoids and antihistamines are well established in insect sting treatment. Bite Away® is a CE-certified medical device of class 2A (noninvasive device intended for administration to the body, which exchanges energy with the patient in a therapeutic manner to reduce swelling, pruritus, and pain after insect bites/stings via non-invasive administration of concentrated heat to the skin. We therefore performed a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study with 146 volunteers using the visual analog scale (VAS for insect bites/stings to study the reduction of swelling, pruritus, and pain. Demographic data, time from insect sting to treatment, number and duration of administrations of concentrated heat, relevant symptoms, and the development of a VAS score of swelling, pruritus, and pain on baseline, after 2, 5, and 10 minutes after administration, were registered.Results: In total 146 subjects with a mean age of 29.4 ± 20.7 years (range 2–81 were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three (63.7% of the subjects were stung by wasps, 33 (22.6% of the subjects were bitten by mosquitoes, and eight suffered bee stings (5.3%. VAS score swelling decreased with statistical significance after the use of Bite Away® from 4 before treatment to 2 and 1 after 2–5 and 10 minutes, respectively. VAS pain score was 6 before treatment, 2 after 2 minutes, 1 after 5 minutes, and 0 after 10 minutes (median. VAS pruritus score was only available for 52 (35.2% of the patients. The score decreased from 5 before

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Excellence in Pediatric Dermatology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member resources and programs Member benefits ... to bites and stings FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-6", " ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care ...

  17. Beware of Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stings. These products contain ingredients such as colloidal oatmeal and sodium bicarbonate. Keep kids' nails short. ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  18. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite ... following tips: For painful bites , such as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and action ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var ...

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  2. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  5. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  8. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... your head About nails: More important than you think Questions lots of kids ask about their skin, ... bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award Resident-Fellow QI Project Award Resident International Grant Resident Scholarship to Legislative ... sunscreen that contains insect repellent, as sunscreen must be applied liberally and often while insect repellant should ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. ... also wearing sunscreen, apply your sunscreen first, let it dry, and then apply the insect repellent. Do ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... that contains insect repellent, as sunscreen must be applied liberally and often while insect repellant should be applied sparingly. Wear appropriate clothing. If you know you’ ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed skin as much as possible by wearing long-sleeved shirts, pants, socks and closed shoes instead of sandals. For additional protection, pull your socks up over your pants and ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... follow the instructions on the repellent and reapply as directed. If you are also wearing sunscreen, apply ... Do not use sunscreen that contains insect repellent, as sunscreen must be applied liberally and often while ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides ... layers of clothing with insect repellent containing the active ingredient Permethrin. Follow the directions carefully and allow ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... are also wearing sunscreen, apply your sunscreen first, let it dry, and then apply the insect repellent. ... notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos=t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad- ...

  1. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  3. Bee sting after seizure and ischemic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yurtseven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insect bites, bee stings are the most frequently encountered. Often seen after bee stings usually only local allergic reactions. Sometimes with very serious clinical condition may also be confronted. Of this rare clinical findings; polyneuritis, parkinsonism, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, hemolytic anemia and renal disease has. Here a rare convulsions after a bee sting is presented.

  4. Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings : a systematic review and health economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, R.; Elremeli, M.; Cherry, M.; Oude Elberink, J.N.G.; Bulsara, M.; Mahon, J.; Daniels, M.; Hockenhull, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with insect repellent ... against mosquitoes. Look for one that has been pre-treated with pyrethroid insecticide. If it doesn’t ...

  6. Management of Insect Sting Hypersensitivity: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Pesek, Robert D.; Lockey, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera insect stings are common. While most are self-limited, some induce systemic allergic reactions or anaphylaxis. Prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of these reactions are important for improving quality-of-life and reducing the risk of future sting reactions. This review summarizes the current recommendations to diagnose and treat Hymenoptera sting induced allergic reactions and highlights considerations for various populations throughout the world.

  7. A mimic of sexually-motivated homicide: insect stings and heat exhaustion in a forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy X; Pollanen, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia. There were multiple apparent bruises on the body and neck. At autopsy, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination, the apparent bruises were found to be hemorrhagic insect bites. No significant injuries were present and no semen was found. Death appeared to be related to heat exhaustion and innumerable insect stings. Investigation of the medical history revealed longstanding schizoaffective disorder with episodic psychotic decompensations. In the past, during an acute psychotic episode the decedent removed her clothing and ran wildly in a forest, until she was rescued in a state of exhaustion and marked agitation, and taken to hospital for treatment. We concluded that the same circumstances had been repeated but with a fatal outcome. This case is an example of a mimic of sexually-motivated homicide and is a reminder to forensic pathologists to avoid tunnel vision. We need to be skeptical of the allure of common sense based on first impressions of the scene and the body. Forensic pathologists must be unafraid to scientifically explore improbable, but true, alternate explanations.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... and closed shoes instead of sandals. For additional protection, pull your socks up over your pants and ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members Making a Difference Award Native ... Recognition Program Leadership Institute Programs Mentoring Leadership Learning Center Residents and Fellows Resource Center Join the AAD ...

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  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A- ...

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  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course Hands on: Cosmetics Legislative Conference FAQs Meet with your congressional district ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ...

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  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library ... notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior ...

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  18. Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, H; Tang, L; Linneberg, A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. METHODS: Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross...... or wasp. IgE to CCDs occurred in only 0.7%, but 80% of these were DS. Finally, 36% with IgE to CCDs had had symptoms, mostly local. Serum tryptase was not associated with a history of sting reactions. CONCLUSIONS: In a temperate climate, self-reported insect sting reactions and sensitization to venom...

  19. Personal protection against biting insects and ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern France by Aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the Personal protection against vectors (PPAV. It is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves individually by using an arsenal of resources available on the market. Yet most of these means have been neither checked for effectiveness or safety tests, however, essential. Travellers, staff on mission or assignment, are looking for specific information on how to protect themselves or their families. Health workers had at their disposal so far indications that vary widely from one source to another. Therefore it seemed important to the Society of Travel Medicine (SMV and the French Society of Parasitology (SFP to initiate a reflection on this theme. This reflection took the form of recommendations for good practice, following the outline established by the French High Health Authority (HAS. The aim was to gather all relevant information, verified and validated and the format to be used not only by health personnel (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, but also by travel agents and individuals. This document highlights the need to take into account the risk of vector-borne diseases, some deadly, and the benefit of various methods of personal protection. The choice of methods is clearly oriented towards those whose effectiveness has been proven and potential risks assessed. The paper finally proposes two decision trees based on the transmission type (day or night and kind of stay (short or roaming, long and steady. It concerns travellers, but also expatriates, residents and nomads.

  20. Stinging Insect Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow jackets. Their nests are gray or brown, football-shaped and made of a paper material similar ... must still have someone take you to an emergency room immediately if you are stung. Those with ...

  1. Stinging Insect Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is important to identify them. Yellow jackets' nests are made of a paper-maché material and ... hollow trees or cavities of buildings. Paper wasps' nests are usually made of a paper-like material ...

  2. Clinical features and management of ocular lesions after stings by hymenopteran insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Siddharthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the ocular alterations and the management after stings from Hymenopteran insects. In all the five patients, the insect was identified as bee. The patients presented with significant corneal edema, which resolved dramatically in three of them after removal of stingers. Among the other two one went for permanent corneal decompensation and the other developed Intumuscent cataract with increased intraocular pressure. Although a rare occurrence, ocular trauma caused by Hymenopteran insects has a potential to cause severe ocular damage in humans. A high level of clinical suspicion and immediate removal of the stingers along with administration of high doses of topical and systemic steroids is a must to prevent chances of permanent corneal damage and intraocular complications.

  3. Stinging insect allergy: state of the art 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Michael S; Ledford, Dennis K

    2015-01-01

    Stinging insect allergy is responsible for more than 10% of all cases of anaphylaxis. The potential culprit insects are diverse and vary with geography. The incidence of insect allergy is declining in some areas and increasing in others, possibly due to effects of climate change, introduction of species into new areas, outdoor recreational activities, and movement of human populations that brings insects into contact with a greater number of people. Flying Hymenoptera and imported fire ant stings are responsible for the majority of patients evaluated for insect anaphylaxis. The most efficient means of identifying allergy to insects is skin testing although falsely positive and negative results occur. The limitations of testing coupled with the natural temporal variability of allergic sensitivity complicate the interpretation of test results. The clinical history is of paramount importance to be certain that the test results are relevant; therefore, screening or testing before a history of a sting reaction is not advisable. Mast cell disorders are associated with severe anaphylaxis from insect stings and should be considered in affected subjects. Insect immunotherapy, using venoms for most insects and whole-body extracts for imported fire ants, is proven effective in reducing the likelihood of anaphylaxis due to subsequent stings from 40%-60% to less than 5%. Future clinical application of component testing or in vitro cellular tests, such as the basophil activation test, may improve optimal choices for immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Insect anaphylaxis: where are we? The stinging facts 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Khan, Fatima S; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2012-08-01

    Insect allergy remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2011, the third iteration of the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter was published, the first being published in 1999 and the second in 2004. Since the 2004 edition, our understanding of insect hypersensitivity has continued to expand and has been incorporated into the 2011 edition. This work will review the relevant changes in the management of insect hypersensitivity occurring since 2004 and present our current understanding of the insect hypersensitivity diagnosis and management. Since the 2004 commissioning by the Joint Task Force (JTF) on Practice Parameters of 'Stinging insect hypersensitivity: a practice parameter update', there have been important contributions to our understanding of insect allergy. These contributions were incorporated into the 2011 iteration. Similar efforts were made by the European Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology Interest Group in 2005 and most recently in 2011 by the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Our understanding of insect allergy, including the natural history, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, and risk factors, has greatly expanded. This evolution of knowledge should provide improved long-term management of stinging insect hypersensitivity. This review will focus primarily on the changes between the 2004 and 2011 stinging insect practice parameter commissioned by the JTF on Practice Parameters, but will, where appropriate, highlight the differences between working groups.

  5. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Wolc, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Frankena, K.; Garrick, D.J.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite

  6. Diagnostic methods for insect sting allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2004-08-01

    This review overviews advances from mid-2002 to the present in the validation and performance methods used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom-induced immediate-type hypersensitivity. The general diagnostic algorithm for insect sting allergy is initially discussed with an examination of the AAAAI's 2003 revised practice parameter guidelines. Changes as a result of a greater recognition of skin test negative systemic reactors include repeat analysis of all testing and acceptance of serology as a complementary diagnostic test to the skin test. Original data examining concordance of venom-specific IgE results produced by the second-generation Pharmacia CAP System with the Johns Hopkins University radioallergosorbent test are presented. Diagnostic performance of honeybee venom-specific IgE assays used in clinical laboratories in North America is discussed using data from the Diagnostic Allergy Proficiency Survey conducted by the College of American Pathologists. Validity of venom-specific IgE antibody in postmortem blood specimens is demonstrated. The utility of alternative in-vivo (provocation) and in-vitro (basophil-based) diagnostic testing methods is critiqued. This overview supports the following conclusions. Improved practice parameter guidelines include serology and skin test as complementary in supporting a positive clinical history during the diagnostic process. Data are provided which support the analytical performance of commercially available venom-specific IgE antibody serology-based assays. Intentional sting challenge in-vivo provocation, in-vitro basophil flow cytometry (CD63, CD203c) based assays, and in-vitro basophil histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release assays have their utility in the study of difficult diagnostic cases, but their use will remain as supplementary, secondary diagnostic tests.

  7. Large local reactions to insect stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, David B K

    2015-01-01

    Large local reactions (LLRs) are IgE-mediated late-phase inflammatory reactions that can cause great morbidity but are associated with a relatively low risk of future anaphylaxis. Patients with LLR may benefit from consultation with an allergist to help clarify the relative risk, to plan the best treatment for future stings, and to determine whether or not to pursue testing or venom immunotherapy (VIT). The chance of anaphylaxis to future stings is Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Roders, N.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Oers, van M.M.; Leibold, W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in

  9. Infrared thermography to diagnose and manage venomous animal bites and stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Infrared imaging (IR is a noninvasive technique that quantifies body surface temperature, producing a digital color image. IR has been used to study diseases in which skin temperature can reflect the presence of inflammation. METHODS This was an observational pilot study of eight patients envenomed by snakes, spiders, and scorpions. All patients were examined using a thermal camera. RESULTS In all cases, we obtained infrared images that corroborated clinical findings indicating localized effects of venom, specifically inflammation. CONCLUSIONS IR has potential for use as a research, diagnostic, and monitoring tool for localized effects of animal venoms.

  10. Management of stinging insect hypersensitivity: a 5-year retrospective medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Hagan, Larry

    2006-08-01

    The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for Allergy and Immunology recommends that patients with a history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting be educated on ways to avoid insect stings, carry injectable epinephrine for emergency self-treatment, undergo specific IgE testing for stinging insect sensitivity, and be considered for immunotherapy. To review frontline providers' documented care and recommendations for imported fire ant and flying insect hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective medical record review was performed of emergency department and primary care clinic visits between November 1, 1999, and November 30, 2004. Using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes, medical records were selected for review to identify patients with potential insect hypersensitivity. A total of 769 medical records from patients who experienced an insect sting were reviewed. Of 120 patients with a systemic reaction, 66 (55.0%) received a prescription for injectable epinephrine, and 14 (11.7%) were given information regarding avoidance of the offending insect. Forty-seven patients with systemic reactions (39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Of 28 patients who kept their appointments and underwent skin testing, 3 had negative results and 25 (89%) had positive results and were advised to start immunotherapy. Adherence to the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter recommendations is poor. Many patients who have experienced a systemic reaction after an insect sting and have sought medical care are not afforded an opportunity for potentially lifesaving therapy.

  11. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

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    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  12. Increasing Insect Reactions in Alaska: Is this Related to Changing Climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Demain; Bradford Gessner; Joseph McLaughlin; Derek Sikes; Timothy Foote

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2006, Fairbanks Alaska experienced its first two known cases of fatal anaphylaxis as a result of Hymenoptera stings, presumably from yellowjackets. An increase in insect bites and stings has been observed throughout the state.Has there been an increased incidence of medical visits due to insect bites and stings in Alaska in recent years? We conducted a retrospective review of three independent patient databases in Alaska to identify trends of patients seeking medical care...

  13. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stinging insect identification: Are the allergy specialists any better than their patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Troy W; Forester, Joseph P; Johnson, Monica L; Sikora, Jeremy M; Stolfi, Adrienne; Stahl, Mark C

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that the general population is not skillful at identifying stinging insects with the exception of the honeybee. No information is available to evaluate allergy physicians' accuracy with stinging insect identification. To measure the accuracy of allergists' ability to identify stinging insects and assess their common practices for evaluating individuals with suspected insect hypersensitivity. A picture-based survey and a dried specimen insect box were constructed to determine allergists' and nonallergists' accuracy in identifying insects. Allergists attending the 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology meeting were invited to participate in the study. Common practice approaches for evaluating individuals with stinging insect hypersensitivity were also investigated using a brief questionnaire. Allergy physicians are collectively better at insect identification than nonallergists. Overall, the mean (SD) number of correct responses for nonallergists was 5.4 (2.0) of a total of 10. This score was significantly lower than the score for allergists (6.1 [2.0]; P = .01) who participated in the study. Most allergists (78.5%) test for all stinging insects and use skin testing (69.5%) as the initial test of choice for evaluating individuals with insect hypersensitivity. Overall, allergists are more skilled at Hymenoptera identification. Most allergy specialists reported testing for all stinging insects when evaluating insect hypersensitivity, and skin testing was the preferred testing method in nearly 70% of allergists. These data support the practice parameter's recommendation to consider testing for all flying Hymenoptera insects during venom evaluation, which most of the participating allergists surveyed incorporate into their clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of Pediatric Bite/Sting Injuries. One-Year Study of a Pediatric Emergency Department in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.

  16. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludman SW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sian W Ludman,1 Robert J Boyle2 1Paediatric Allergy Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28, but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment.Keywords: anaphylaxis, quality of life

  17. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  18. Hemichorea after multiple bee stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Seon; Min, Jin Hong; Han, Kyu Hong; Kang, Jun Ho; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Hoon; Park, Jung Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bee sting is one of the most commonly encountered insect bites in the world. Despite the common occurrence of local and systemic allergic reactions, there are few reports of ischemic stroke after bee stings. To the best our knowledge, there have been no reports on involuntary hyperkinetic movement disorders after multiple bee stings. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed involuntary movements of the left leg 24 hours after multiple bee stings, and the cause was confirmed to be a right temporal infarction on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scan. Thus, we concluded that the involuntary movement disorder was caused by right temporal infarction that occurred after multiple bee stings.

  19. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  20. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is a class of insects that sting in order to subdue their prey. Humans coming into accidental contact with these insects results in stings that may cause from mild local reaction like weal formation around the sting site to severe systemic reactions such as intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and rarely pancreatitis. We report here the clinical course of a patient who developed concurrent acute pancreatitis and pigment-induced acute renal failure after multiple hornet stings.

  1. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  2. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  3. When can immunotherapy for insect sting allergy be stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich R; Ring, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stings by Hymenoptera (honey bees, vespids, ants) can cause systemic allergic reactions (SARs). Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective and reduces an allergic patient's risk of a recurrent SAR to less than 5-20%. The risk of a recurrent SAR to a re-sting decreases the longer VIT is continued. The recommended duration of VIT is at least 3 to 5 years. Risk factors for recurrent SARs to a sting after stopping VIT have been identified and discussed: Recommendations concerning stopping VIT: For patients without any of the identified risk factors, VIT should be continued for 5 rather than 3 years. In patients with definite risk factors, a longer duration of VIT has to be discussed before stopping it. In mast cell disorders, VIT for life is recommended. Because of the residual risk of SARs after VIT, all patients are advised to carry an epinephrine autoinjector indefinitely and to continue to take measures to avoid Hymenoptera stings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of stinging insect allergy: utility of cellular in-vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J; Heijnen, Ingmar Afm

    2009-08-01

    Diagnosis of stinging insect allergy is based on a detailed history, venom skin tests, and detection of venom-specific IgE. As an additional diagnostic tool, basophil responsiveness to venom allergens has been shown to be helpful in selected patients. This review summarizes the current diagnostic procedures for stinging insect allergy and discusses the latest developments in cellular in-vitro tests. Cellular assays have been evaluated in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy. The diagnostic performance of the cellular mediator release test is similar to that of the flow cytometric basophil activation test (BAT), but the BAT has been the most intensively studied. BAT offers the possibility to assess basophil reactivity to allergens in their natural environment and to simultaneously analyze surface marker expression and intracellular signaling. It has been demonstrated that BAT represents a valuable additional diagnostic tool in selected patients when used in combination with other well established tests. A major limitation is the current lack of unified, standardized protocols. Flow cytometry offers huge possibilities to enhance knowledge of basophil functions. The BAT may be used as an additional test to confirm the diagnosis of stinging insect allergy in selected patients, provided that it is performed by an experienced laboratory using a validated assay. Test results have to be interpreted by clinicians familiar with the methodological aspects. The utility of the BAT to confirm allergy diagnosis and to predict the risk of subsequent systemic reactions may be improved by combined analysis of multiple surface markers and intracellular signaling pathways.

  5. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  6. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in swedish-born icelandic horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, M.; Eriksson, S.; Schurink, A.; Andersson, L.S.; Sundquist, M.; Frey, R.; Brostrom, H.; Bergstrom, T.; Ducro, B.J.; lindgren, G.

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial

  7. A 'difficult' insect allergy patient: reliable history of a sting, but all testing negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Olsen, Jonathan A; Carlson, John

    2015-08-01

    Few conditions are as treatable as allergy to stinging insects, with venom immunotherapy (VIT) providing up to 98% protection to subsequent stings. The challenge with VIT is not in the treatment, but in the diagnosis. To offer VIT, one must determine a history of a systemic reaction to a stinging insect in conjunction with the presence venom-specific IgE. Current diagnostic methods, although sensitive and specific, are imperfect, and some newer testing options are not widely available. A conundrum occasionally faced is the patient with a reliable and compelling history of a systemic allergic reaction yet negative venom-specific testing. This diagnostic dilemma presents an opportunity to consider possible causes for this diagnostic challenge. Our evolving understanding of the role of occult mast cell disease may begin to help us understand this situation and develop appropriate management strategies. Venom-specific skin testing has long been the cornerstone of the evaluation of venom sensitivity and is often combined with in-vitro assays to add clarity, but even these occasionally may fall short. Exploring novel venom diagnostic testing methods may help to fill in some of the diagnostic gaps. Do currently available venom vaccines contain all the key venom species? Are there enough differences between insect species that we may simply be missing the relevant allergens? What is the significance of the antigenicity of carbohydrate moieties in venoms? What is the role of recombinant venom extracts? VIT is the definitive treatment for insect allergic individuals. To utilize VIT, identification of the relevant Hymenoptera is necessary. Unfortunately, this cannot always be accomplished. This deficiency can have several causes: a potential comorbid condition such as occult mast cell disease, limitations of currently available diagnostic resources, or testing vaccines with an insufficient coverage of relevant venom allergens. Exploring these potential causes may help to

  8. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.

  9. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  10. Chem I Supplement: Bee Sting: The Chemistry of an Insect Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rod; Peck, Larry

    1980-01-01

    Considers various aspects of bee stings including the physical mechanism of the venom apparatus in the bee, categorization of physiological responses of nonprotected individuals to bee sting, chemical composition of bee venom and the mechanisms of venom action, and areas of interest in the synthesis of bee venom. (CS)

  11. Clinical and entomological factors influence the outcome of sting challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, David B K; Breisch, Nancy L; Hamilton, Robert G; Guralnick, Miles W; Greene, Albert; Craig, Timothy J; Kagey-Sobotka, Anne

    2006-03-01

    The reported frequency of systemic reactions to challenge sting varies greatly. To evaluate the interaction of clinical and entomological factors that determine the outcome of a challenge sting. Patients allergic to yellow jacket were stung and monitored for systemic reaction. The frequency and severity of sting reactions were analyzed in relation to the species of insect used and patient characteristics. Objective systemic reactions occurred in 21 of 69 patients (30%) stung with Vespula maculifrons and in 8 of 71 patients (11%) with Vespula germanica (P=.005). Systemic reactions were more frequent in patients with a severe history (9/30; 30%) than in those with a mild or moderate history (21/145; 14%; P=.04). In only 1 of 111 patients (0.9%) was the reaction to sting challenge more severe than previous reactions. The reaction rate was higher when venom skin tests were positive at <1.0 microg/mL (17/75=23%) than when sensitivity was milder (9/100=9%; P=.012). We compared sting outcome and venom-induced histamine release in relation to insects collected in July or in October, and found no difference. Allergic reactions to sting challenge are determined by the species of yellow jacket used, the severity of previous sting reactions, and the degree of skin test sensitivity, but not by the time of year. These factors are important to clinicians when they evaluate the chance of reaction to a future sting and to researchers when they design and report sting challenge studies.

  12. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C

    2015-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Stefansdottir, Sara Bjork; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Rhyner, Claudio; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2016-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Twelve healthy Icelandic horses were vaccinated intralymphatically three times with 10 μg each of four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens in Alum or in Alum/MPLA. Injection with allergens in both Alum and Alum/MPLA resulted in significant increase in specific IgG subclasses and IgA against all r-allergens with no significant differences between the adjuvant groups. The induced antibodies from both groups could block binding of allergen specific IgE from IBH affected horses to a similar extent. No IgE-mediated reactions were induced. Allergen-stimulated PBMC from Alum/MPLA horses but not from Alum only horses produced significantly more IFNγ and IL-10 than PBMC from non-vaccinated control horses. In conclusion, intralymphatic administration of small amounts of pure allergens in Alum/MPLA induces high IgG antibody levels and Th1/Treg immune response and is a promising approach for immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against IBH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  15. Bee or Wasp Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-09-01

    While jogging in a local park in Hong Kong, a 55-year-old, previously healthy man was stung on the ventral aspect of his right wrist. The tiny stinger was gently removed with nail cutters and examined under a microscope at 80x magni cation; plucking the stinger is ill- advised as this may inject more venom into the wounded site. Two days after stinging, the microscopic appearance of the stinger con rmed the diagnosis to be from a bee instead of a wasp or other insect. A simple method of con rming the nature of insect stings and an overview of Hymenoptera stings and their management are provided herein.

  16. Issues in stinging insect allergy immunotherapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The treatment of insect allergy by desensitization still continues to present with some unanswered questions. This review will focus mainly on articles that have dealt with these issues in the past 2 years. With the publication in 2007 of Allergen Immunotherapy: a practice parameter second update, many of the key issues were reviewed and summarized. Other recent studies deal with omalizumab pretreatment of patients with systemic mastocytosis and very severe allergic reactions to immunotherapy. It would appear that venom immunotherapy is somewhat unique compared to inhalant allergen immunotherapy in that premedication prior to rush protocols may not be necessary and that intervals of therapy may be longer than with allergen immunotherapy. The use of concomitant medications such as beta-blockers may be indicated in special situations. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be stopped temporarily before venom injections to prevent reactions. The issue of when to discontinue immunotherapy remains unsettled and should be individualized to patient requirements. The newest revision of the Immunotherapy Parameters provides much needed information concerning successful treatment with immunotherapy of Hymenoptera-sensitive patients.

  17. Wings and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAAP, of the division of Allergies, Asthma and Immunology at San Diego’s Scripps Clinic. While this figure ... of Scripps Clinic’s division of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology in San Diego. But what if you do ...

  18. Fighting and Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Demand Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Pathways My Profile Store Cart Donate ... child, or put the child down. For a young child (2-3 years) say, "biting is not ...

  19. Non-biting flying insects as carriers of pathogenic bacteria in a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges Kappel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Insects have been described as mechanical vectors of nosocomial infections. Methods Non-biting flying insects were collected inside a pediatric ward and neonatal-intensive care unit (ICU of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. Results Most (86.4% of them were found to carry one or more species of bacteria on their external surfaces. The bacteria isolated were Gram-positive bacilli (68.2% or cocci (40.9%, and Gram-negative bacilli (18.2%. Conclusions Insects collected inside a hospital were carrying pathogenic bacteria; therefore, one must consider the possibility they may act as mechanical vectors of infections, in especially for debilitated or immune-compromised patients in the hospital environments where the insects were collected.

  20. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  1. Culicoides obsoletus extract relevant for diagnostics of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Meulenbroeks, C.; Altena, van S.E.C.; Schurink, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Wagner, B.; Leibold, W.; Rohwer, J.; Jacobs, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis in horses caused by the bites of Culicoides species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of whole body extracts of C. obsoletus (the main species found feeding on horses in the Netherlands), C. nubeculosus

  2. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  3. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  4. A Very Big Hand Is a Very Big Problem: Soft-Tissue Infection, Venous Thrombosis, or Just an Insect Sting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Damanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman developed severe edema of her right hand and forearm, for which she was treated with antibiotics, without benefit. The echography excluded a venous thrombosis. Subsequently, she referred a wasp sting before the development of the edema. Specific Hymenoptera venom immunoglobulin E (IgE was found to be positive for paper wasp and yellow jacket. A large local reaction (LLR was diagnosed due to the hymenoptera sting. Self-injectable epinephrine was prescribed for possible, though unlikely, systemic reactions following hymenoptera stings.

  5. Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, John R.; Mangas, Kirstie M.; Porter, Jessica L.; Marcsisin, Renee; Pidot, Sacha J.; Howden, Brian; Omansen, Till F.; Zeng, Weiguang; Axford, Jason K.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Stinear, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU

  6. Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John R; Mangas, Kirstie M; Porter, Jessica L; Marcsisin, Renee; Pidot, Sacha J; Howden, Brian; Omansen, Till F; Zeng, Weiguang; Axford, Jason K; Johnson, Paul D R; Stinear, Timothy P

    2017-04-01

    Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Tails were exposed to mosquito (Aedes notoscriptus and Aedes aegypti) blood feeding or punctured with sterile needles. Two of 12 of mice with M. ulcerans contaminated tails exposed to feeding A. notoscriptus mosquitoes developed BU. There were no mice exposed to A. aegypti that developed BU. Eighty-eight percent of mice (21/24) subjected to contaminated tail needle puncture developed BU. Mouse tails coated only in bacteria did not develop disease. A median incubation time of 12 weeks, consistent with data from human infections, was noted. We then specifically tested the M. ulcerans infectious dose-50 (ID50) in this contaminated skin surface infection model with needle puncture and observed an ID50 of 2.6 colony-forming units. We have uncovered a biologically plausible mechanical transmission mode of BU via natural or anthropogenic skin punctures.

  7. Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Wallace

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Tails were exposed to mosquito (Aedes notoscriptus and Aedes aegypti blood feeding or punctured with sterile needles. Two of 12 of mice with M. ulcerans contaminated tails exposed to feeding A. notoscriptus mosquitoes developed BU. There were no mice exposed to A. aegypti that developed BU. Eighty-eight percent of mice (21/24 subjected to contaminated tail needle puncture developed BU. Mouse tails coated only in bacteria did not develop disease. A median incubation time of 12 weeks, consistent with data from human infections, was noted. We then specifically tested the M. ulcerans infectious dose-50 (ID50 in this contaminated skin surface infection model with needle puncture and observed an ID50 of 2.6 colony-forming units. We have uncovered a biologically plausible mechanical transmission mode of BU via natural or anthropogenic skin punctures.

  8. Evaluation and validation of a bee venom sting challenge performed by a micro-syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Severino, Maurizio; Francescato, Elisabetta; Turillazzi, Stefano; Spadolini, Igino; Rogkakou, Anthi; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    The honeybee sting challenge is considered a reliable procedure to evaluate the efficacy of specific immunotherapy, but it is difficult and unpractical to perform in clinical practice, because live insects are required. To assess the feasibility and reliability of a challenge test using a micro-syringe, and compared the procedure with sting challenge. Patients on bee venom immunotherapy and without systemic reactions at field sting were enrolled. They underwent a sting challenge with live bee, and large local reactions were assessed up to 48 hours. Those patients displaying systemic reactions at the sting challenge were excluded from the syringe challenge for ethical reasons. The syringe challenge was done by injecting 0.5 μL fresh unfiltered bee venom at 2 mm depth (the length of the sting left by a bee). The same follow-up as at the first challenge was performed. Bee-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tryptase were measured after each challenge. Nineteen patients underwent the sting challenge with live bees. Four had immediate systemic reactions (urticaria or asthma) and were excluded from the second challenge. The remaining 15 patients with large local reaction underwent the syringe challenge. No significant difference was seen in the maximum area of the large local reactions between the challenge with live bees and the syringe challenge. Also, no change was seen in tryptase and specific antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that the micro-syringe challenge with honeybee venom is feasible and produces results indistinguishable from those of the traditional sting challenge. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  10. Identification of factors associated with the development of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den R.; Ducro, B.J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    An Internet-based questionnaire among horse owners was carried out to identify factors affecting the incidence of insect bite hypersensitivity (IBHI) among horses in the Netherlands. Information was obtained for 794 horses of various breeds, but the breed distribution was not representative for the

  11. Seasonal differences in cytokine expression in the skin of Shetland ponies suffering from insect bite hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Zaiss, D.M.W.; Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.; Lugt, van der J.J.; Smak, J.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Willemse, T.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses is a seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder primarily caused by Culicoides spp. We hypothesize that a mixed Th2/Th1-type immune status, off season, alters into Th2-dominated immune reactivity in the skin of IBH-affected ponies in the IBM season.

  12. Shrieking, Biting, and Licking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines examples of the monstrous-feminine in the form of abject female monsters in a selection of critically acclaimed and commercially successful video games. Various female monsters from CD Projekt RED’s The Witcher series (2007-2015, and Santa Monica Studio’s God of War series (2005-2013 are considered as examples of the abject monstrous-feminine which fall into a long tradition in horror media of making the female body and body movements into something horrific and repulsive. These female monsters use shrieking, biting, licking, and spreading disease as weapons against the male protagonist, who must slay them to restore symbolic order and progress in the games.

  13. Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacologic evidence that may or may not support clinical and ethnomedical uses of the sap of sangre de drago (dragon's blood; Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.). Data sources used were BIOSIS, EMBASE, PubMed, TOXLIT, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, manual searches, papers on file from peer-reviewed journals, textbooks available at Armana Research, Inc., and researchers in the field of South American botanical medicine. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies largely support the majority of ethnomedical uses of sangre de drago including the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, tumors, stomach ulcers, herpes infection, the itching, pain and swelling of insect bites, and other conditions. Clinical studies of sangre de drago products have reported positive results in the treatment of traveler's and watery diarrhea and the symptoms of insect bites. Because the sap has shown low toxicity and preparations used in clinical studies were well tolerated, further clinical and pharmacologic studies are anticipated. Acknowledgment of the diversity in the chemical makeup of the sap from one geographic area to another and the recent characterization of alkaloid chemotypes of sangre de drago will require that materials developed for clinical use are standardized.

  14. Recombinant culicoides obsoletus complex allergens stimulate antigen-specific T cells on insect bite hypersensitive Shetland ponies in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Willemse, T.; Rutten, V.; Tijhaar, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ponies may suffer from Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), an allergic IgE-mediated pruritic skin disorder, induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine whether recombinant Culicoides obsoletus allergens are able to activate T cells of

  15. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  16. Rhabdomyolysis Secondary to Bee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhan Akdur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect stings belonging to Hymenoptera defined as wasps, yellow jackets, bees, or hornets by human usually result in unserious clinical pictures that go with pain. Rhabdomyolysis following a bee sting is a rare condition. This paper emphasizes “rhabdomyolysis” as a rare complication of this frequently observed envenomation. Rare but severe clinical results may occur due to multiple bee stings, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal insufficiency, and hepatic dysfunction. In bee stings as in our case, clinicians should be alert for rhabdomyolysis in cases with generalized body and muscle pain. Early onset alkaline diuresis and management in patients with rhabdomyolysis are vital in protecting the renal functions and preventing morbidity and mortality.

  17. Allergy to insect stings. IV. Diagnosis by radioallergosorbent test (R.A.S.T.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotka, A.K.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.; Valentine, M.D.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Radioallergosorbent tests (RAST(s)) have been developed and assessed for the diagnosis of insect hypersensitivity by using a purified allergen from honeybee venom, phospholipase A, and crude yellow jacket venom. Sera from 193 patients positive both by history and skin test to one of these insects were compared with various groups of control sera. Eighty percent of sera from skin test-positive patients were RAST positive; positive RAST were found in 16% of sera tested from skin test-negative patients. A highly positive RAST correlates well with a positive skin test and clinical sensitivity, but serum IgE is not measurable in many patients with mast cell or basophil bound antibody. Since biologically important reactions of antigen with IgE require that the antibody be cell bound, skin testing would be preferred to RAST if one were limited to a single test for the diagnosis of insect allergy

  18. Pulmonary Edema and Myocarditis Developing Due to Scorpion Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although most of the scorpion stings are harmless, deadly species of scorpions may cause multiorgan failure, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and pulmonary edema. The cases should be observed in the emergency department against the possibility of development of systemic effects. Fatal complications, in particular such as pulmonary edema, and myocarditis should be considered. In this study, a case of myocarditis and pulmonary edema was detected on the patient who had applied to the emergency department due to a scorpion sting is presented.

  19. [Hymenoptera stings in eyeball--clinical symptoms, patomechanism and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Weglarz, Monika; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    Eyeball is a rare stings location additionally with very special immunology response, with no systemic anaphylactic reactions. The ACAID (Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation) phenomenon causes a special immunology privilege of the eyeball, which prevents late immunological answer reaction and destruction processes of the anterior part of the eye. In case that sting penetrates the eyeball local allergic reaction can appear despite ACAID phenomenon. Adequate treatment is necessary for those patients. It can lead to permanent visual acuity deterioration.

  20. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  1. Development of botanical-based biopesticides and repellents against biting flies on livestock animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biting flies are important insect pests causing millions of dollars in losses to the livestock industry. The attack by biting flies causes significant losses in animal production and potential food contamination and disease transmission. This presentation reports our recent findings on the developme...

  2. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atlantic and Physalia utriculus in the Pacific). Sea nettle ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha ), one of the most common jellyfish ... nose and watery eyes Swallowing difficulty Sweating SEA NETTLE Mild skin rash (with mild stings) Muscle cramps ...

  3. Patients with massive honeybee stings: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Sh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Insect stings can cause local or systemic reactions that range from mild to fatal, and are among the most common causes of anaphylaxis. The major allergens of honeybee venom are phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase, allergen C and melitin. Phospholipase and melitin induce hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and liver damage due to cell membrane breakdown, damage of the vascular endothelium and activation of the inflammatory response. Rhabdomyolysis has been implicated as the cause of acute renal failure in approximately 5-7% of cases. However, bee stings are a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, and are usually associated with 50 or more stings. It has been reported that more than 250 bee stings are capable of causing death in humans. "nCase report: We report two cases of massive honeybee stings (>2000 with rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis and acute renal failure who survived with full recovery, and two cases of >500 honeybee stings who survived without significant complications.

  4. Treating insect-bite hypersensitivity in horses with active vaccination against IL-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettelschoss-Gabriel, Antonia; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Thoms, Franziska; Giese, Christoph; Daniel, Michelle; Olomski, Florian; Kamarachev, Jivko; Birkmann, Katharina; Bühler, Maya; Kummer, Martin; Zeltins, Andris; Marti, Eliane; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2018-03-28

    Insect-bite hypersensitivity is the most common allergic dermatitis in horses. Excoriated skin lesions are typical symptoms of this seasonal and refractory chronic disease. On a cellular level, the skin lesions are characterized by massive eosinophil infiltration caused by an underlying allergic response. To target these cells and treat disease, we developed a therapeutic vaccine against equine IL-5 (eIL-5), the master regulator of eosinophils. The vaccine consisted of eIL-5 covalently linked to a virus-like particle derived from cucumber mosaic virus containing the tetanus toxoid universal T-cell epitope tt830-843 (CMV TT ). Thirty-four Icelandic horses were recruited and immunized with 400 μg of eIL-5-CMV TT formulated in PBS without adjuvant (19 horses) or PBS alone (15 horses). The vaccine was well tolerated and did not reveal any safety concerns but was able to induce anti-eIL-5 autoantibody titers in 17 of 19 horses. This resulted in a statistically significant reduction in clinical lesion scores when compared with previous season levels, as well as levels in placebo-treated horses. Protection required a minimal threshold of anti-eIL-5 antibodies. Clinical improvement by disease scoring showed that 47% and 21% of vaccinated horses reached 50% and 75% improvement, respectively. In the placebo group no horse reached 75% improvement, and only 13% reached 50% improvement. Our therapeutic vaccine inducing autoantibodies against self IL-5 brings biologics to horses, is the first successful immunotherapeutic approach targeting a chronic disease in horses, and might facilitate development of a similar vaccine against IL-5 in human subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scorpions live in warm, dry regions throughout India. They inhabit commonly the crevices of dwellings, underground burrows, under logs or debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, coconut and banana. Scorpion stings are primarily due to accidental contact with scorpion. Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is delta of Godavari river. Because of good irrigation there is rich cultivation of banana and paddy and there are plenty of coconut plantations, so that is a good habitat for scorpions. METHOD Present study is a hospital based retrospective study. All the data related to the scorpion sting in Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences admitted during Jan 2012 to Jan 2016 has been collected. RESULT Total 54 patients of all the age group and both the sexes were included in to the study. Out of 54 patients, 32 were male and 22 were female. Regarding signs of scorpion sting, tachycardia was present in 40 patients, ten patients developed hypertension. Six patients developed arrhythmia. Dyspnoea and convulsion was present in 6 and 2 patients respectively. DISCUSSION Scorpion venom is classified as per its structure, mode of action and binding site. Regarding complications of scorpion sting, four patients developed pulmonary oedema and 3 having convulsion. Out of all 54 patients, 53 were recovered and 1 patient died. CONCLUSION With the availability of potent vasodilators like prazosin and good ICU facilities, the incidence of death and complication due to scorpion bite has reduced.

  6. Management of common animal bites in the emergency centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor Engelbrecht's current fields of interest are bites, stings and poisonous plants. Correspondence to: ... Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in. Cape Town ... infections. Wound infection with Pasteurella multocida usually occurs early (within 12 ..... Dog bite prevention: an assessment of child knowledge. J Pediatr ...

  7. Avoid Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visiting CDC Travelers’ Health website . Pack a travel health kit . Remember to pack insect repellent and use it as directed to prevent mosquito bites. See a healthcare provider familiar with travel medicine, ideally 4 to 6 weeks ...

  8. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  18. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  20. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  1. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  2. MITA/STING and Its Alternative Splicing Isoform MRP Restrict Hepatitis B Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Zhao, Kaitao; Su, Xi; Lu, Lu; Zhao, He; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Jizheng; Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Xue; Wang, Yanyi; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen; Pei, Rongjuan

    2017-01-01

    An efficient clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires the coordinated work of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. MITA/STING, an adapter protein of the innate immune signaling pathways, plays a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA virus infection. Previously, we identified an alternatively spliced isoform of MITA/STING, called MITA-related protein (MRP), and found that MRP could specifically block MITA-mediated interferon (IFN) induction while retaining the ability to activate NF-κB. Here, we asked whether MITA/STING and MRP were able to control the HBV replication. Both MITA/STING and MRP significantly inhibited HBV replication in vitro. MITA overexpression stimulated IRF3-IFN pathway; while MRP overexpression activated NF-κB pathway, suggesting these two isoforms may inhibit HBV replication through different ways. Using a hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model, we found that HBV replication was reduced following MITA/STING and MRP expression vectors in mice and was enhanced by the knockout of MITA/STING (MITA/STING-/-). The HBV specific humoral and CD8+ T cell responses were impaired in MITA/STING deficient mice, suggesting the participation of MITA/STING in the initiation of host adaptive immune responses. In summary, our data suggest that MITA/STING and MRP contribute to HBV control via modulation of the innate and adaptive responses.

  3. Identification and function analysis of canine stimulator of interferon gene (STING).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Mengyan; Li, Gairu; Liu, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ruyi; Zhang, Junyan; Xing, Gang; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Sun, Haifeng; Shi, Zhiyu; Liu, Fei; Hu, Boli; Su, Shuo; Zhou, Jiyong

    2017-12-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) plays an important role in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-mediated activation of type I IFN responses. In this study, we identified and cloned canine STING gene. Full-length STING encodes a 375 amino acid product that shares the highest similarity with feline STING. Highest levels of mRNA of canine STING were detected in the spleen and lungs while the lowest levels in the heart and muscle. Analysis of its cellular localization showed that STING is localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. STING overexpression induced the IFN response via the IRF3 and NF-κB pathways and up-regulated the expression of ISG15 and viperin. However, knockdown of STING did not inhibit the IFN-β response triggered by poly(dA:dT), poly(I:C), or SeV. Finally, overexpression of STING significantly inhibited the replication of canine influenza virus H3N2. Collectively, our findings indicate that STING is involved in the regulation of the IFN-β pathway in canine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insects, isotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the increased use of nuclear techniques in controlling harmful insects. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which uses radiation to sexually sterilize insects and prevent reproduction, is particularly effective in eradication programmes. At the present time, there are approximately 10 species of insect pests being attacked by the SIT. Research and development is being conducted on other insect species and it is anticipated that the technology will be more widely used in the future

  5. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  6. Production of ''no-sting bee'' species by external irradiation and elucidation of the genetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Kazauhiro; Chanpen, Chanchao; Yasue, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Various mutants in bees were observed by gamma-ray irradiation. No-sting bee appeared in some of colonies of an irradiated mature queen bee. The characteristic form and quality of no-sting bee appeared in next generation bee groups. Artificial inseminations of the queen bee were carried out. Mutation parts of the gene were analyzed by using adjusted DNA in samples of wild bees and no-sting bees. A change of band pattern in the no-sting bee was observed much more than the one in the wild bee. Mutation of the genome DNA was cleared by gamma irradiation. Apparent difference of gene amplification between the wild bees and no-sting bees were detected by using gene primer (RAPD). Polymorphism phenomena in the mutant of no-sting bee were observed in comparison with in the wild bee. (M. Suetake)

  7. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  8. CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Eman; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2012-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH-affected horses produce higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 than those from healthy horses, suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells by flow cytometry in PBMC directly after isolation or after stimulation with Culicoides extract or a control antigen (Tetanus Toxoid). There were no differences between healthy and IBH horses either in the proportion of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in freshly isolated PBMC or in the following stimulation with Tetanus Toxoid. However, upon stimulation of PBMC with the allergen, expression of FoxP3 by CD4(+)CD25(+high) and CD4(+)CD25(+dim) cells was significantly higher in healthy than in IBH horses. Addition of recombinant IL-4 to PBMC from healthy horses stimulated with the allergen significantly decreased the proportion of FoxP3 expressing cells within CD4(+)CD25(+high). These results suggest that IBH is associated with a decreased number of allergen-induced Tregs. This could be a consequence of the increased IL-4 production by PBMC of IBH-affected horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discourage mosquitoes, ticks and other biting insects from landing on you. Here are tips for other preventive ... CDC Mosquito Control Methods - NPIC Exit Top of Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  10. Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Distraction works wonders with kids this age. If emotions and energy levels are running high or if boredom has set in, help redirect a little one's attention to a more positive activity, like dancing to music, coloring, or playing a game. Discipline usually is not necessary, since most kids ...

  11. The relationship between oral tori and bite force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Jang, Hyo-Won; Kim, Hye-Sun; Huh, Jong-Ki

    2018-01-12

    Objective The relationship between bite force and torus palatinus or mandibularis remains to be explained. The major aim of this study was to determine the correlation between bite force and oral tori. Methods The bite force of 345 patients was measured with a bite force recorder; impressions of the shape and size of the oral tori were taken on plaster models prior to orthodontic treatments. Subsequently, the relationship between oral tori and bite force was analyzed. Results The size, shape, and incidence of torus palatinus was not significantly correlated with bite force. However, the size of torus mandibularis increased significantly in proportion to the bite force (p = 0.020). The occurrence of different types of oral tori was not correlated with the bite force. Discussion The size of torus mandibularis provides information about bite force and can thus be used to clinically assess occlusal stress.

  12. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  13. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Mastocytosis and insect venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Müller, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    To analyse the association of systemic allergic hymenoptera sting reactions with mastocytosis and elevated baseline serum tryptase and to discuss diagnosis and treatment in patients with both diseases. In recent large studies on patients with mastocytosis a much higher incidence of severe anaphylaxis following hymenoptera stings than in the normal population was documented. In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy, elevated baseline tryptase is strongly associated with severe anaphylaxis. Fatal sting reactions were reported in patients with mastocytosis, notably after stopping venom immunotherapy. During venom immunotherapy most patients with mastocytosis are protected from further sting reactions. Based on these observations immunotherapy for life is recommended for patients with mastocytosis and venom allergy. The incidence of allergic side-effects is increased in patients with mastocytosis and elevated baseline tryptase, especially in those allergic to Vespula venom. Premedication with antihistamines, or omalizumab in cases with recurrent severe side-effects, can be helpful. In all patients with anaphylaxis following hymenoptera stings, baseline serum tryptase should be determined. A value above 11.4 microg/l is often due to mastocytosis and indicates a high risk of very severe anaphylaxis following re-stings. Venom immunotherapy is safe and effective in this situation.

  15. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    support high abundance of biting flies due to the favourable conditions within the forest for breeding, refuge and easy migration of adult females to animal cages to seek for blood meal. Table 1: Abundance of Biting Flies in Relation to Species in the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden. Site. Stomoxys calcitrans. Haematopota.

  16. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  17. Scrotal dog bite: unusual case and review of pediatric literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, M; Prestipino, M; Nardi, N; Falcone, F; Appignani, A

    2009-09-01

    Animal bites to human external genitalia are rare. Only a few cases of scrotal dog bite in children have been reported. We present an additional specific case of a scrotal dog bite in a child because the lesion and its repair have not been previously reported in published pediatric studies. A traumatic resection of the right testicular vas deferens was repaired by microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis. A review of the published data was also performed to analyze the management of scrotal dog bite lesions.

  18. Aquatic antagonists: lionfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W

    2001-07-01

    Although lionfish can be found in all the oceans, the highest incidences of human stings appear to be in the tropics, especially in the Indo-Pacific area and Mediterranean Sea. The recent interest in tropical fish aquaria has expanded the geographic range of the stings of these animals.

  19. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...

  20. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates in the Netherlands : comparing cattle, sheep and the black-light suction trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Host preference is an important determinant of feeding behaviour in biting insects and a critical component in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates using tethered livestock at pasture

  1. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stinging nettle?(Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4...

  2. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The biting effects on resident animals and ... and second largest tourist destination in Nigeria will require concerted efforts to put in proper ... hosts from pool of available susceptible hosts (Okoth ..... communities of the lower Cross River Basin.

  3. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  4. Mastocytosis and insect venom allergy : diagnosis, safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, M.; de Monchy, J.; van Doormaal, J. J.; Jassem, E.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.

    The most important causative factor for anaphylaxis in mastocytosis are insect stings. The purpose of this review is to analyse the available data concerning prevalence, diagnosis, safety and effectiveness of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in mastocytosis patients. If data were unclear, authors were

  5. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.

  6. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  7. Bite Forces and Their Measurement in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs, and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity. In vitro bite forces have been estimated by calculation of the force produced using mechanical equations representing the jaw adductor muscles and of the mandible and skull structure Bite force can be estimated in silico using finite element analysis (FEA of the computed model of the anatomical structures. FEA can estimate bite force in extinct species; however, estimates may be lower than the measurements in live animals and would have to be validated specifically in domestic dogs and cats to be reliable. The main factors affecting the bite forces in dogs and cats are body weight and the skull’s morphology and size. Other factors such as oral pain, TMJ disorders, masticatory muscle atrophy, and malocclusion may also affect bite force. Knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats is essential for various clinical and research fields such as the development of implants, materials, and surgical techniques as well as for forensic medicine. This paper is a summary of current knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats, including the effect of measurement methods and of other factors.

  8. Bite Forces and Their Measurement in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Eun; Arzi, Boaz; Garcia, Tanya C; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2018-01-01

    Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity. In vitro bite forces have been estimated by calculation of the force produced using mechanical equations representing the jaw adductor muscles and of the mandible and skull structure Bite force can be estimated in silico using finite element analysis (FEA) of the computed model of the anatomical structures. FEA can estimate bite force in extinct species; however, estimates may be lower than the measurements in live animals and would have to be validated specifically in domestic dogs and cats to be reliable. The main factors affecting the bite forces in dogs and cats are body weight and the skull's morphology and size. Other factors such as oral pain, TMJ disorders, masticatory muscle atrophy, and malocclusion may also affect bite force. Knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats is essential for various clinical and research fields such as the development of implants, materials, and surgical techniques as well as for forensic medicine. This paper is a summary of current knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats, including the effect of measurement methods and of other factors.

  9. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2 to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  10. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  11. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and...

  12. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  14. Floor of the nose mucosa lysis and labial abscess caused by a bee sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán Navas, Ramón Manuel; Martínez Mendoza, María Guadalupe; Herrera, Henry; Herrera, Helen Piccolo de

    2009-01-01

    Hymenoptera order includes bees, which have a stinging apparatus at the tail capable of delivering venom to the affected tissues. Myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, Necrotizing fasciitis, fatal infection and hemifacial asymmetry, are some of the unusual reactions reported following hymenoptera stings. This paper reports a case of bee sting in the right floor of the nose that mimicked an odontogenic infection affecting the upper lip, canine space and nasal cavity such as in cases of infection secondary to pulpal or periodontal pathology of the anterior teeth. After a thorough clinical and radiographic examination, odontogenic infection was discarded and the diagnosis of floor of the nose mucosal lysis and lip abscess secondary to a bee sting was made. This case was successfully managed with adequate incision, drainage and antibiotics without any further complication. There are several reports of unusual reactions following hymenoptera stings. However, just a few of them referred to infections of local reactions and none of them related to the anatomic location affected in the patient of the present case. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented infection dissemination and the likelihood of tissue necrosis as in previously reported cases of Necrotizing fasciitis.

  15. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  16. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or increasingly painful your child has a weakened immune system or other medical condition that might make an infection more likely your child's tetanus immunizations are not up to date Teach your children to stay away from strange animals, and not to tease or provoke any animals, ...

  17. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Factors Associated with Rabies Awareness and Attitude to Dog Bite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...

  19. Ward Round - Crocodile bites in Malawi: microbiology and surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case series of 5 patients admitted over 5 months to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital who had sustained injuries from a crocodile bite. Three patients required amputation of a limb. The severe soft tissue injury associated with a crocodile bite and the unusual normal oral flora of the crocodile create challenges ...

  20. cGAS/STING Pathway in Cancer: Jekyll and Hyde Story of Cancer Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojit Bose

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis. This review highlights our current understanding of cGAS/STING pathway in cancer, its therapeutic targeting and potential alternate approaches to target this pathway. Optimal therapeutic targeting and artificial tunability of this pathway still demand in depth understanding of cGAS/STING pathway regulation and homeostasis.

  1. cGAS/STING Pathway in Cancer: Jekyll and Hyde Story of Cancer Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Debojit

    2017-11-18

    The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING) pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis. This review highlights our current understanding of cGAS/STING pathway in cancer, its therapeutic targeting and potential alternate approaches to target this pathway. Optimal therapeutic targeting and artificial tunability of this pathway still demand in depth understanding of cGAS/STING pathway regulation and homeostasis.

  2. Regulation and function of the cGAS-STING pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J

    2016-09-20

    The recognition of microbial nucleic acids is a major mechanism by which the immune system detects pathogens. Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immune responses through production of the second messenger cGAMP, which activates the adaptor STING. The cGAS-STING pathway not only mediates protective immune defense against infection by a large variety of DNA-containing pathogens but also detects tumor-derived DNA and generates intrinsic antitumor immunity. However, aberrant activation of the cGAS pathway by self DNA can also lead to autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Thus, the cGAS pathway must be properly regulated. Here we review the recent advances in understanding of the cGAS-STING pathway, focusing on the regulatory mechanisms and roles of this pathway in heath and disease.

  3. Three-dimensional analyses of human bite-force magnitude and moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijden, T M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the three-dimensional orientation of occlusal force on maximal bite-force magnitude was examined in seven human subjects at three different unilateral anteroposterior bite positions (canine, second premolar and second molar). At each position, bite-force magnitude was registered in 17 precisely defined directions using a three-component force transducer and a feedback method. In addition, to assess the efficiency of transfer of muscle to bite force, for bites produced in the sagittal plane, moment-arm length was determined and the produced bite-force moment calculated. The results showed that the largest possible bite force was not always produced in a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane. Generally, maximal bite force in medial and posterior directions was larger than that in, respectively, corresponding lateral and anterior directions. In each direction the produced force was larger at the posterior bite point than at the anterior bite point. The combined moment produced by the jaw muscles was largest for vertical bites, smallest for posteriorly directed bites and intermediate for anteriorly directed bites. In the case of vertically and anteriorly directed bites the produced moment did not vary significantly with the bite position. Hence, for these bite positions the jaw closing moment of the muscles must have kept constant. In the case of posteriorly directed bites the produced moment decreased when bite position changed from the anterior to the posterior side of the dentition. This indicated that jaw muscle activity had declined.

  4. Bite force and occlusal stress production in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Carolyn M; Lieberman, Daniel E; Zink, Katherine D; Peters, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Maximum bite force affects craniofacial morphology and an organism's ability to break down foods with different material properties. Humans are generally believed to produce low bite forces and spend less time chewing compared with other apes because advances in mechanical and thermal food processing techniques alter food material properties in such a way as to reduce overall masticatory effort. However, when hominins began regularly consuming mechanically processed or cooked diets is not known. Here, we apply a model for estimating maximum bite forces and stresses at the second molar in modern human, nonhuman primate, and hominin skulls that incorporates skeletal data along with species-specific estimates of jaw muscle architecture. The model, which reliably estimates bite forces, shows a significant relationship between second molar bite force and second molar area across species but does not confirm our hypothesis of isometry. Specimens in the genus Homo fall below the regression line describing the relationship between bite force and molar area for nonhuman anthropoids and australopiths. These results suggest that Homo species generate maximum bite forces below those predicted based on scaling among australopiths and nonhuman primates. Because this decline occurred before evidence for cooking, we hypothesize that selection for lower bite force production was likely made possible by an increased reliance on nonthermal food processing. However, given substantial variability among in vivo bite force magnitudes measured in humans, environmental effects, especially variations in food mechanical properties, may also be a factor. The results also suggest that australopiths had ape-like bite force capabilities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  6. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  7. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  8. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  9. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  10. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  11. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Predictors of severe systemic anaphylactic reactions in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy: importance of baseline serum tryptase-a study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Aberer, Werner; Birnbaum, Joëlle; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Bucher, Christoph; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Egger, Cornelia; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Körner, Michael; Kucharewicz, Iwona; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Severino, Maurizio; Sticherling, Michael; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2009-11-01

    Severe anaphylaxis to honeybee or vespid stings is associated with a variety of risk factors, which are poorly defined. Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentrations and other variables routinely recorded during patient evaluation with the frequency of past severe anaphylaxis after a field sting. In this observational multicenter study, we enrolled 962 patients with established bee or vespid venom allergy who had a systemic reaction after a field sting. Data were collected on tryptase concentration, age, sex, culprit insect, cardiovascular medication, and the number of preceding minor systemic reactions before the index field sting. A severe reaction was defined as anaphylactic shock, loss of consciousness, or cardiopulmonary arrest. The index sting was defined as the hitherto first, most severe systemic field-sting reaction. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Two hundred six (21.4%) patients had a severe anaphylactic reaction after a field sting. The frequency of this event increased significantly with higher tryptase concentrations (nonlinear association). Other factors significantly associated with severe reactions after a field sting were vespid venom allergy, older age, male sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor medication, and 1 or more preceding field stings with a less severe systemic reaction. In patients with honeybee or vespid venom allergy, baseline serum tryptase concentrations are associated with the risk for severe anaphylactic reactions. Preventive measures should include substitution of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  13. In vitro induction of functional allergen-specific CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, E; Akdis, C A; Wagner, B; Steinbach, F; Marti, E

    2013-08-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a recurrent allergic dermatitis of horses with similarities to human atopic eczema, caused by bites of insects of the genus Culicoides. Previous studies suggested a dysregulated T cell tolerance to Culicoides allergen in IBH-affected horses. We have investigated whether the suppressive function of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells is impaired in IBH-affected horses and possible ways to restore it. CD4(+) CD25(-) cells sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with irradiated autologous PBMC pulsed with Culicoides or tetanus toxoid as control antigen, in the presence of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells. Furthermore, Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) regulatory cells were expanded or induced from CD4(+) CD25(-) cells in vitro in the presence of a combination of rIL-2 and rTGF-β1 (rIL-2/rTGF-β1) or of retinoic acid and rapamycin (RetA/Rapa). Proliferation was determined by [(3) H] thymidine incorporation and cytokine production measured by flow cytometry. The ability of Culicoides- but not tetanus-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells to suppress proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) cells was significantly lower in IBH-affected horses (28%) than in healthy controls (86%). The decreased suppression in IBH-affected horses was associated with a significantly higher proportion of IL-4(+) cells and a lower percentage of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) compared to controls. Addition of rIL-2/rTGF-β1 or of RetA/Rapa to Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells from IBH-affected horses significantly increased the proportion of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) cells. We also found that RetA/Rapa induced a more significant decrease in the frequency of IL-4(+) cells than rIL-2/rTGF-β1. Moreover, the suppressive activity of Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells was significantly restored by both rIL-2/rTGF-β1and RetA/Rapa, albeit in an antigen-unspecific manner. In contrast, in vitro induced Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) cells suppressed

  14. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  15. Insect Repellents: Reducing Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Borne Illnesses Federal Trade Commission Action on Deceptive Marketing of Mosquito Repellent Wrist Band Joint Statement on ... Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on May 29, 2018

  16. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  17. Treatment of hyperdivergent growth pattern and anterior open bite with posterior metallic bite planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Domenico; Lo Russo, Lucio; Nichelini, Jeffrey; Mastrovincenzo, Mario; Barbato, Ersilia; Laurenziello, Michele; Montaruli, Graziano; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the authors analyze the effect of the "Swallowing Occlusal Contact Intercept Appliance" (SOCIA) in treatment of children with hyperdivergent Class II malocclusion. This functional appliance has no intra-oral anchorage, but induces a continuous periodontal, muscular, and articular stimulation. Twenty-six patients with hyperdivergent growth and class II malocclusion were selected and treated with SOCIA appliance. Cephalometric analysis was performed before treatment (T1) and immediately after the treatment (T2). After 24 months treatment authors observed a modification of maxillary growth with a reduction of the divergence with an increase of the posterior facial height, a modification of condylar inclination and forward position of the a hyoid. No modifications was observed about the ANB angle. After treatment the open bite was resolved with a reduction of the inclination of the upper incisors. SOCIA is a reliable functional appliance in growing age patients with a hyperdivergent pattern growth, anterior open bite and class II molar malocclusion.

  18. Bee Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Don't wear loose clothing, which can trap bees between the cloth and your skin. When driving, keep your windows rolled up. Be careful when mowing the lawn or trimming vegetation, activities that might arouse insects in a beehive or wasp nest. Have hives and nests near your home removed ...

  19. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  20. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  1. Estimation of Dog-Bite Risk and Related Morbidity Among Personnel Working With Military Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A

    Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be

  2. Structure-activity relationship studies on the mosquito toxicity and biting deterrency of callicarpenal derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Charles L; Klun, Jerome A; Pridgeon, Julia; Becnel, James; Green, Solomon; Fronczek, Frank R

    2009-04-01

    Callicarpenal (=13,14,15,16-tetranorclerod-3-en-12-al=[(1S,2R,4aR,8aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a,5-tetramethylnaphthalen-1-yl]acetaldehyde; 1) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study, structural modifications were performed on callicarpenal (1) in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for maintaining and/or increasing its activity and to possibly lead to more effective insect control agents. All modifications in this study targeted the C(12) aldehyde or the C(3) alkene functionalities or combinations thereof. Mosquito biting deterrency appeared to be influenced most by C(3) alkene modification as evidenced by catalytic hydrogenation that resulted in a compound having significantly less effectiveness than 1 at a test amount of 25 nmol/cm2. Oxidation and/or reduction of the C(12) aldehyde did not diminish mosquito biting deterrency, but, at the same time, none of the modifications were more effective than 1 in deterring mosquito biting. Toxicities of synthesized compounds towards Ae. aegypti ranged from an LD50 value of 2.36 to 40.11 microg per mosquito. Similarly, LD95 values ranged from a low of 5.59 to a high of 104.9 microg.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Processing, Targeting, and Antifungal Activity of Stinging Nettle Agglutinin in Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Mirjam P.; Houterman, Petra M.; Dekker, Henk L.; Cornelissen, Ben J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism. PMID:10364393

  5. Sting_RDB: a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S R M; Almeida, G V; Souza, K R R; Rodrigues, D N; Kuser-Falcão, P R; Yamagishi, M E B; Santos, E H; Vieira, F D; Jardine, J G; Neshich, G

    2007-10-05

    An effective strategy for managing protein databases is to provide mechanisms to transform raw data into consistent, accurate and reliable information. Such mechanisms will greatly reduce operational inefficiencies and improve one's ability to better handle scientific objectives and interpret the research results. To achieve this challenging goal for the STING project, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining. In this article, we highlight the main features of Sting_RDB and show how a user can explore it for efficient and biologically relevant queries. Considering its importance for molecular biologists, effort has been made to advance Sting_RDB toward data quality assessment. To the best of our knowledge, Sting_RDB is one of the most comprehensive data repositories for protein analysis, now also capable of providing its users with a data quality indicator. This paper differs from our previous study in many aspects. First, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database with mechanisms for efficient and relevant queries using SQL. Sting_rdb evolved from the earlier, text (flat file)-based database, in which data consistency and integrity was not guaranteed. Second, we provide support for data warehousing and mining. Third, the data quality indicator was introduced. Finally and probably most importantly, complex queries that could not be posed on a text-based database, are now easily implemented. Further details are accessible at the Sting_RDB demo web page: http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br/StingRDB.

  6. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, "it would not happen to me." We also identified an attitude that bites were "just one of those things," which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury

  7. Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate

  8. Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Essam Abdel-Salam; Canyon, Deon V

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

  9. Rat-bite fever presenting with rash and septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanechorn Na Ayuthaya, Rajyani; Niumpradit, Nucha

    2005-11-01

    Rat-bite fever is an uncommon disease known for its endemicity to occur worldwide. Although most patients tend to develop mild symptoms with improvement from conventional antibiotics, it can progress with severe complications with a mortality rate as high as 13% without proper treatment. The authors report a complicated case of rat bite-fever involving a 61-year old woman who presented with fever petechial rash, and septic arthritis following a rat bite. Initially, multiple antibiotics were administered but were not effective. As a consequence, invasive procedures such as arthrotomy and joint debridement were done and prolonged antibiotic was administered until clinical resolution. Since many cases do not have a history of rat bite and may present with fever, rashes, and arthritis it is essential to distinguish it from other diseases. Here, the authors will provide details on the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management to aid prompt detection and treatment of the disease.

  10. etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... bite is essential in the diagnosis, prevention and management of this malocclusion. ... Dental malocclusion may be congenital or develop as the child grows. .... uncommon in maxillofacial patients who present with. Le forte 1 ...

  11. Deep bite malocclusion: exploration of the skeletal and dental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, N.K.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Correction of deep bite is crucial for maintenance of dental hard and soft tissue structures and for prevention of temporomandibular joint disorders. Exploration of underlying skeletal and dental factors is essential for efficient and individualized treatment planning. To date etiological factors of dental and skeletal deep bite have not been explored in Pakistani orthodontic patients. The objectives of this study were to explore frequencies of dental and skeletal etiological factors in deep bite patients and to determine correlations amongst dental and skeletal etiological factors of deep bite. Methods: The study included a total of 113 subjects (males=35; females=78) with no craniofacial syndromes or prior orthodontic treatment. Pre-treatment orthodontic records were used to evaluate various dental and skeletal parameters. Descriptive statistics of each parameter were calculated. The various study parameters were correlated using Pearson's Correlation. Results: Deep curve of Spee was most frequently seen factor of dental deep bite (72.6%), followed by increased coronal length of upper incisors (28.3%), retroclined upper incisors (17.7%), retroclined lower incisors (8%) and increased coronal length of lower incisors (5.3%). Decreased gonial angle was most commonly found factor of skeletal deep bite (43.4%), followed by decreased mandibular plane angle (27.4%) and maxillary plane's clockwise rotation (26.5%). Frankfort mandibular plane angle and gonial angle showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.66, p=0.000). Conclusions: Reduced gonial angle is most frequently seen skeletal factor, signifying the importance of angulation and growth of ramus in development of deep bite. Deep curve of Spee is most frequently seen dental etiological component in deep bite subjects, hence signifying the importance of intruding the lower anterior teeth. (author)

  12. [National strategy in the battle against scorpion stings and envenomations. Application and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization.

  13. Impact of scorpion stings on electrocardiographic changes and relationship with body oxidant and antioxidant status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behcet, A.; Zengin, S.; Yildirim, C.; Ercan, S.; Davutoglu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate electrocardiogram changes due to scorpion stings and association between oxidative stress index, body oxidant/antioxidant system and the electrocardiogram changes. Methods: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between May 2009 and October 2010. It comprised 44 patients admitted to the emergency department for scorpion sting, and a control group of matched age and gender of 20 persons. Electrocardiograms were taken promptly in the most painful phases of the patients. Cardiac parameters were measured. Erythrocyte packages were prepared to detect toxin/antioxidant levels. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 44 patients, 22 (50%) were male. Overall average age of the patients was 45.22+-17.99 years. None of the patients required intensive care and none of them had limb losses. Cardiac parameters of the patients in electrocardiogram were higher (p 0.05). Conclusion: Scorpion stings associated with electrocardiogram changes. The mechanism of this relationship is not related with the status of body oxidative stress index and body oxidant and antioxidant capacity. Some parameters warrant further study in terms of potential serious arrhythmias in scorpionism. (author)

  14. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  15. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy after Bee Sting and Treatment with Zolpidem: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Demir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, a metabolic encephalopathy, develops as a result of cessation or reduction of oxygen and blood flow to the brain. The clinical picture may vary in severity from minimal neurologic deficits to coma. In living patients, permanent neuropsychological sequelae can develop. Herein, we present a case of HIE that occured after anaphylactic reaction due to bee sting, which was treatedm with zolpidem.

  17. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  18. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  19. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires' disease in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S Ruiz-Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary infections are unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS- and STING-deficient murine macrophages as well as human cells of individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173/STING were severely impaired in producing type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Legionella pneumophila, bacterial DNA or cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs. In contrast, R232H attenuated cytokine production only following stimulation with bacterial CDN, but not in response to L. pneumophila or DNA. In a mouse model of Legionnaires' disease, cGAS- and STING-deficient animals exhibited higher bacterial loads as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the haplotype frequency of HAQ TMEM173/STING, but not of R232H TMEM173/STING, was increased in two independent cohorts of human Legionnaires' disease patients as compared to healthy controls. Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection.ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register.

  20. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires' disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Juan S; Hamann, Lutz; Shah, Javeed A; Verbon, Annelies; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Naujoks, Jan; Sander, Leif E; Witzenrath, Martin; Cambier, John C; Suttorp, Norbert; Schumann, Ralf R; Jin, Lei; Hawn, Thomas R; Opitz, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary infections are unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS- and STING-deficient murine macrophages as well as human cells of individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173/STING were severely impaired in producing type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Legionella pneumophila, bacterial DNA or cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). In contrast, R232H attenuated cytokine production only following stimulation with bacterial CDN, but not in response to L. pneumophila or DNA. In a mouse model of Legionnaires' disease, cGAS- and STING-deficient animals exhibited higher bacterial loads as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the haplotype frequency of HAQ TMEM173/STING, but not of R232H TMEM173/STING, was increased in two independent cohorts of human Legionnaires' disease patients as compared to healthy controls. Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection. ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register.

  1. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires’ disease in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Lutz; Verbon, Annelies; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Naujoks, Jan; Sander, Leif E.; Witzenrath, Martin; Schumann, Ralf R.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary infections are unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS- and STING-deficient murine macrophages as well as human cells of individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173/STING were severely impaired in producing type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Legionella pneumophila, bacterial DNA or cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). In contrast, R232H attenuated cytokine production only following stimulation with bacterial CDN, but not in response to L. pneumophila or DNA. In a mouse model of Legionnaires’ disease, cGAS- and STING-deficient animals exhibited higher bacterial loads as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the haplotype frequency of HAQ TMEM173/STING, but not of R232H TMEM173/STING, was increased in two independent cohorts of human Legionnaires’ disease patients as compared to healthy controls. Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register PMID:29298342

  2. Cause, setting and ownership analysis of dog bites in Bay County, Florida from 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, J; Templin, M; Jordan, M M; Stanek, D

    2015-02-01

    Emergency room and hospital discharge data have been used to describe the risk factors and public health impact of dog bites. These data sets are based on financial charges for severe bites and underestimates dog bite burdens within communities. This study expands both the source of information and risk factor data collected to provide demographic analysis of dog bite injury risk factors reported in Bay County, Florida in 2009-2010. Extended data for dog bites reported by various sources from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were collected by Florida Department of Health in Bay County. Data collected included bite victim's age and gender, primary reported cause of bite, setting, dog's restraint status and relationship between the victim and the dog. A total of 799 bites were reported. Most bites (55%) were reported first by healthcare practitioners, particularly bites involving childrenmanagement was the most common cause of bites (26%), followed by protective behaviour (24%). Bites of unknown cause were 2.5 times more likely in childrenrisks by age group or gender provides an opportunity to implement targeted interventions to prevent dog bites. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. New directions in diagnostic evaluation of insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, David B K

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of insect sting allergy and prediction of risk of sting anaphylaxis are often difficult because tests for venom-specific IgE antibodies have a limited positive predictive value and do not reliably predict the severity of sting reactions. Component-resolved diagnosis using recombinant venom allergens has shown promise in improving the specificity of diagnostic testing for insect sting allergy. Basophil activation tests have been explored as more sensitive assays for identification of patients with insect allergy and for prediction of clinical outcomes. Measurement of mast cell mediators reflects the underlying risk for more severe reactions and limited clinical response to treatment. Measurement of IgE to recombinant venom allergens can distinguish cross-sensitization from dual sensitization to honeybee and vespid venoms, thus helping to limit venom immunotherapy to a single venom instead of multiple venoms in many patients. Basophil activation tests can detect venom allergy in patients who show no detectable venom-specific IgE in standard diagnostic tests and can predict increased risk of systemic reactions to venom immunotherapy, and to stings during and after stopping venom immunotherapy. The risk of severe or fatal anaphylaxis to stings can also be predicted by measurement of baseline serum tryptase or other mast cell mediators.

  4. [Prevalence of reactions secundary to mosquito bites Aedes aegypti at en el Regional Center of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital, de Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Diaz, Sandra Nora; Cruz, Alfredo Arias; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni A; Rojas Lozano, Antonio A; Valenzuela, Enrique Avitia; Vidaurri Ojeda, Alma C

    2010-01-01

    although systemic reactions resulting from hymenoptera stings have been studied extensively, the prevalence of allergic reactions to mosquitoes is unknown. to investigate the prevalence of allergic reactions to Aedes aegypti bites in patients seeking treatment at the Allergy and Clinical Immunology Regional Center of Jose E Gonzalez University Hospital in Monterrey, Mexico. we carried out a cross-sectional, descriptive study that included patients receiving skin tests for aeroallergens; skin sensitivity to mosquito bites was also tested. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about previous allergic reactions to mosquito bites. a total of 482 patients between 2 and 60 years of age were included; 53% were female, 407 (84.4%) had a history of local reactions to mosquito bites. Twelve patients (2.4%) stated a history of large local reaction; three (0.6%) of them with a positive skin prick test, one (0.2%) of those had systemic reaction history to mosquito. Eighty five (17.6%) patients had a positive mosquito skin test and 307 (63.6%) had a positive skin test for at least one aeroallergen. Seventy-eight (91.7%) of the 85 patients with a positive mosquito skin test had a history of local skin reactions to mosquito bite (odds ratio: 2.303 [confidence interval (CI) 1.037-5.10]. There was no statistically significance association between allergic diseases and mosquito allergy. adverse reactions and allergic reactions to mosquito bites occur frequently. However mosquito allergy is low. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of mosquito allergy in the general population.

  5. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  6. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  7. Wasp sting: An unusual fatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Mathew, P.; Pawar, B.; Calton, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wasp stings are not uncommon especially in populations living in theproximity of forested area-s all over the world. Local manifestationsfollowing stings are common and unusually life threatening anaphylaxis mayoccur, requiring prompt treatment. Multi organ failure and acute renalfailure following wasp stings are rare and histological evaluation suggestacute tubular necrosis secondary to hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and directvenom toxicity. A rare complication of a patient following multiple waspstings with disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure andthrombotic microangiopathy is presented. (author)

  8. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mary E.; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E.; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma’s predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation marks the first functional genomic study for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts’ immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557

  9. Ethanol-induced effects on sting extension response and punishment learning in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Giannoni-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol administration is associated with sedation and analgesia as well as behavioral disinhibition and memory loss but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. During the past decade, insects have emerged as important model systems to understand the neural and genetic bases of alcohol effects. However, novel assays to assess ethanol's effects on complex behaviors in social or isolated contexts are necessary. Here we used the honey bee as an especially relevant model system since bees are typically exposed to ethanol in nature when collecting standing nectar crop of flowers, and there is recent evidence for independent biological significance of this exposure for social behavior. Bee's inhibitory control of the sting extension response (SER and a conditioned-place aversion assay were used to study ethanol effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition, and associative learning. Our findings indicate that although ethanol, in a dose-dependent manner, increases SER thresholds (analgesic effects, it disrupts the ability of honey bees to inhibit SER and to associate aversive stimuli with their environment. These results suggest that ethanol's effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition and associative learning are common across vertebrates and invertebrates. These results add to the use of honey bees as an ethanol model to understand ethanol's effects on complex, socially relevant behaviors.

  10. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  11. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Phosphorylates DDX41 and Activates Its Binding of dsDNA and STING to Initiate Type 1 Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Guan Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system senses cytosolic dsDNA and bacterial cyclic dinucleotides and initiates signaling via the adaptor STING to induce type 1 interferon (IFN response. We demonstrate here that BTK-deficient cells have impaired IFN-β production and TBK1/IRF3 activation when stimulated with agonists or infected with pathogens that activate STING signaling. BTK interacts with STING and DDX41 helicase. The kinase and SH3/SH2 interaction domains of BTK bind, respectively, the DEAD-box domain of DDX41 and transmembrane region of STING. BTK phosphorylates DDX41, and its kinase activities are critical for STING-mediated IFN-β production. We show that Tyr364 and Tyr414 of DDX41 are critical for its recognition of AT-rich DNA and binding to STING, and tandem mass spectrometry identifies Tyr414 as the BTK phosphorylation site. Modeling studies further indicate that phospho-Tyr414 strengthens DDX41’s interaction with STING. Hence, BTK plays a critical role in the activation of DDX41 helicase and STING signaling.

  12. Biting-density and microfilariae infection of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the biting-density and microfilariae infection rate of S. damnosumsl population caught around the Mada River was conducted between May 2013 to April 2014. Captured flies were morphologically identified and dissected for parity and infectivity rate. A total of 308 adult female S. damnosum sl were caught, ...

  13. Black and brown widow spider bites in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUNIE 1993 ten were adults, 2 were aged 13 - 19 years and 11 were ... back 1). In contrast, 10 of the brown widow bites were on the upper part and 5 on the lower part of the body ..... patient develops generalised muscular pain and cramps,.

  14. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease En español Send us your comments When warm ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...

  15. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  16. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  17. Treatment and outcome of unusual animal bite injuries in young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Philadelphia and New York City, USA, the highest incidences were found .... Mouse. Other. Monkey. 64.8%. 10.1%. 8.8%. 8.2%. 3.8%. 3.1% 1.3%. Fig. 1. Mammalian bite .... development of preventive strategies that target the population at ...

  18. STING activation enhances cetuximab-mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation and correlates with HPV+ status in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shanhong; Concha-Benavente, Fernando; Shayan, Gulidanna; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Gibson, Sandra P; Wang, Lin; Gooding, William E; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-03-01

    The intracellular DNA sensor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) has recently been shown to play a vital role in anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses stimulating cytokine production. While human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with unique etiology and clinical outcome, how the STING pathway is regulated in a virus-induced tumor microenvironment is not well understood. Since STING inactivation likely reflects immunoescape via innate immunity, we hypothesized that its restoration would improve efficacy of the immune modulatory monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab. We correlated STING protein expression with clinical parameters by immunohistochemistry (n = 106) and its mRNA expression from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in HNSCC tissue specimens. STING protein expression was tested for association with cancer-specific survival (CSS). We further examined the impact of STING activation on cetuximab-mediated immunity using an in vitro NK:DC:tumor cells co-culture system. In this study, we found that expression of STING both at the protein and mRNA level was higher in HPV positive (HPV + ) specimens but unrelated to TNM stage or cancer-specific survival. Our in vitro studies verified that STING activation enhanced cetuximab mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation. Our findings suggest a novel role of STING in HPV-related carcinogenesis, in which activation of the STING signaling pathway may facilitate anti-tumor response in HNSCC patients, particularly in combination with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Bite force evaluation in subjects with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Sipert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years. Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (incisors, right molars and left molars, three times at each position considering the highest value for each one. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test ( α = 5%. There was a significant deficit in bite force in male individuals with cleft lip and palate compared to the male control group (p=0.02, p=0.004, p=0.003 for incisors, right and left molars, respectively. For the female group, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.79, p=0.06, p=0.47. In the group of individuals with clefts, 92.6% were under orthodontic treatment, which could be a reason for the present findings, since it can decrease the bite force more remarkably in males than in females. In conclusion, the bite force is significantly reduced in men when comparing the cleft group to the noncleft group. In females, this reduction was not significant in the same way. However, the main reason for this reduction and for the different behavior between genders should be further investigated.

  20. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires’ disease in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Moreno, J.S. (Juan S.); Hamann, L. (Lutz); Shah, J.A. (Javeed A.); A. Verbon (Annelies); Mockenhaupt, F.P. (Frank P.); Puzianowska-Kuznicka, M. (Monika); Naujoks, J. (Jan); Sander, L.E. (Leif E.); Witzenrath, M. (Martin); Cambier, J.C. (John C.); Suttorp, N. (Norbert); Schumann, R.R. (Ralf R.); Jin, L. (Lei); T.R. Hawn; Opitz, B. (Bastian)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary

  1. Interactive relationship between the mechanical properties of food and the human response during the first bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Haruka; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2007-05-01

    Biting is an action that results from interplay between food properties and the masticatory system. The mechanical factors of food that cause biting adaptation and the recursive effects of modified biting on the mechanical phenomena of food are largely unknown. We examined the complex interaction between the bite system and the mechanical properties. Nine subjects were each given a cheese sample and instructed to bite it once with their molar teeth. An intra-oral bite force-time profile was measured using a tactile pressure-measurement system with a sheet sensor inserted between the molars. Time, force, and impulse for the first peak were specified as intra-oral parameters of the sample fracture. Mechanical properties of the samples were also examined using a universal testing machine at various test speeds. Besides fracture parameters, initial slope was also determined as a mechanical property possibly sensed shortly after bite onset. The bite profile was then examined based on the mechanical parameters. Sample-specific bite velocities were identified as characteristic responses of a human bite. A negative correlation was found between bite velocity and initial slope of the sample, suggesting that the initial slope is the mechanical factor that modifies the consequent bite velocity. The sample-specific bite velocity had recursive effects on the following fracture event, such that a slow velocity induced a low bite force and high impulse for the intra-oral fracture event. We demonstrated that examination of the physiological and mechanical factors during the first bite can provide valuable information about the food-oral interaction.

  2. [Comparison of bite marks and teeth features using 2D and 3D methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota; Glapiński, Mariusz; Zaba, Czesław; Łabecka, Marzena

    2011-01-01

    The nature of bite marks is complex. They are found at the scene of crime on different materials and surfaces - not only on human body and corpse, but also on food products and material objects. Human bites on skin are sometimes difficult to interpret and to analyze because of the specific character of skin--elastic and distortable--and because different areas of human body have different surfaces and curvatures. A bite mark left at the scene of crime can be a highly helpful way to lead investigators to criminals. The study was performed to establish: 1) whether bite marks exhibit variations in the accuracy of impressions on different materials, 2) whether it is possible to use the 3D method in the process of identifying an individual based on the comparison of bite marks revealed at the scene, and 3D scans of dental casts, 3) whether application of the 3D method allows for elimination of secondary photographic distortion of bite marks. The authors carried out experiments on simulated cases. Five volunteers bit various materials with different surfaces. Experimental bite marks were collected with emphasis on differentiations of materials. Subsequently, dental impressions were taken from five volunteers in order to prepare five sets of dental casts (the maxilla and mandible. The biting edges of teeth were impressed in wax to create an imprint. The samples of dental casts, corresponding wax bite impressions and bite marks from different materials were scanned with 2D and 3D scanners and photographs were taken. All of these were examined in detail and then compared using different methods (2D and 3D). 1) Bite marks exhibit variations in accuracy of impression on different materials. The most legible reproduction of bite marks was seen on cheese. 2) In comparison of bite marks, the 3D method and 3D scans of dental casts are highly accurate. 3) The 3D method helps to eliminate secondary photographic distortion of bite marks.

  3. IFI16 and cGAS cooperate in the activation of STING during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almine, Jessica F; O'Hare, Craig A J; Dunphy, Gillian; Haga, Ismar R; Naik, Rangeetha J; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Connolly, Dympna J; Taylor, Jordan; Kelsall, Ian R; Bowie, Andrew G; Beard, Philippa M; Unterholzner, Leonie

    2017-02-13

    Many human cells can sense the presence of exogenous DNA during infection though the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Other putative DNA receptors have been described, but whether their functions are redundant, tissue-specific or integrated in the cGAS-cGAMP pathway is unclear. Here we show that interferon-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) cooperates with cGAS during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes, as both cGAS and IFI16 are required for the full activation of an innate immune response to exogenous DNA and DNA viruses. IFI16 is also required for the cGAMP-induced activation of STING, and interacts with STING to promote STING phosphorylation and translocation. We propose that the two DNA sensors IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to prevent the spurious activation of the type I interferon response.

  4. Opposing roles of Toll-like receptor and cytosolic DNA-STING signaling pathways for Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous host defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip O Scumpia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful host defense against pathogens requires innate immune recognition of the correct pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs to trigger the appropriate gene program tailored to the pathogen. While many PRR pathways contribute to the innate immune response to specific pathogens, the relative importance of each pathway for the complete transcriptional program elicited has not been examined in detail. Herein, we used RNA-sequencing with wildtype and mutant macrophages to delineate the innate immune pathways contributing to the early transcriptional response to Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous microorganism that can activate a wide variety of PRRs. Unexpectedly, two PRR pathways-the Toll-like receptor (TLR and Stimulator of Interferon Gene (STING pathways-were identified as dominant regulators of approximately 95% of the genes that were potently induced within the first four hours of macrophage infection with live S. aureus. TLR signaling predominantly activated a pro-inflammatory program while STING signaling activated an antiviral/type I interferon response with live but not killed S. aureus. This STING response was largely dependent on the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic guanosine-adenosine synthase (cGAS. Using a cutaneous infection model, we found that the TLR and STING pathways played opposite roles in host defense to S. aureus. TLR signaling was required for host defense, with its absence reducing interleukin (IL-1β production and neutrophil recruitment, resulting in increased bacterial growth. In contrast, absence of STING signaling had the opposite effect, enhancing the ability to restrict the infection. These results provide novel insights into the complex interplay of innate immune signaling pathways triggered by S. aureus and uncover opposing roles of TLR and STING in cutaneous host defense to S. aureus.

  5. The biting performance of Homo sapiens and Homo heidelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Fitton, Laura C; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Stringer, Chris B; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Modern humans have smaller faces relative to Middle and Late Pleistocene members of the genus Homo. While facial reduction and differences in shape have been shown to increase biting efficiency in Homo sapiens relative to these hominins, facial size reduction has also been said to decrease our ability to resist masticatory loads. This study compares crania of Homo heidelbergensis and H. sapiens with respect to mechanical advantages of masticatory muscles, force production efficiency, strains experienced by the cranium and modes of deformation during simulated biting. Analyses utilize X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan-based 3D models of a recent modern human and two H. heidelbergensis. While having muscles of similar cross-sectional area to H. heidelbergensis, our results confirm that the modern human masticatory system is more efficient at converting muscle forces into bite forces. Thus, it can produce higher bite forces than Broken Hill for equal muscle input forces. This difference is the result of alterations in relative in and out-lever arm lengths associated with well-known differences in midfacial prognathism. Apparently at odds with this increased efficiency is the finding that the modern human cranium deforms more, resulting in greater strain magnitudes than Broken Hill when biting at the equivalent tooth. Hence, the facial reduction that characterizes modern humans may not have evolved as a result of selection for force production efficiency. These findings provide further evidence for a degree of uncoupling between form and function in the masticatory system of modern humans. This may reflect the impact of food preparation technologies. These data also support previous suggestions that differences in bite force production efficiency can be considered a spandrel, primarily driven by the midfacial reduction in H. sapiens that occurred for other reasons. Midfacial reduction plausibly resulted in a number of other significant changes in morphology, such

  6. Giant Asian honeybee stings induced acute myocarditis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    NP Dinamithra; S Sivansuthan

    2013-01-01

    Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions including fatal anaphylaxis are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Less commonly, multiple wasp stings can result in multi-system involvement ranging from intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, cardiac involvement, hepatic dysfunction and occasionally thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Here we report one case of multiple Giant Asian honey bee stings induced myocarditis.

  7. Giant Asian honeybee stings induced acute myocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NP Dinamithra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions including fatal anaphylaxis are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Less commonly, multiple wasp stings can result in multi-system involvement ranging from intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, cardiac involvement, hepatic dysfunction and occasionally thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Here we report one case of multiple Giant Asian honey bee stings induced myocarditis.

  8. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  9. Historical perspective and human consequences of Africanized bee stings in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R S; Almeida, R A M B; Barraviera, S R C S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.

  10. Exotic reptile bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J; Ehrlich, M; Henderson, S O

    1997-09-01

    Reptiles are a growing part of the exotic pet trade, and reptile bites have been considered innocuous in the emergency medicine literature. Two cases are reported of reptile bites, one from a green iguana and the other from a reticulated python. The treatment concerns associated with reptile bites are discussed.

  11. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  12. Epidemiologic Investigation of Hornet and Paper Wasp Stings in Forest Workers and Electrical Facility Field Workers in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeko Hayashih

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: 21% of FWs and 14% of EFFWs had experienced systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings with a higher frequency compared with office workers in the same area. 40% of FWs and 30% of EFFWs had sera that were sIgE positive to Hymenoptera venom.

  13. Human microglia and astrocytes express cGAS-STING viral sensing components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Austin M; Marriott, Ian

    2017-09-29

    While microglia and astrocytes are known to produce key inflammatory and anti-viral mediators following infection with replicative DNA viruses, the mechanisms by which these cell types perceive such threats are poorly understood. Recently, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been identified as an important cytosolic sensor for DNA viruses and retroviruses in peripheral leukocytes. Here we confirm the ability of human microglial and astrocytic cell lines and primary human glia to respond to foreign intracellular double stranded DNA. Importantly, we provide the first demonstration that human microglia and astrocytes show robust levels of cGAS protein expression at rest and following activation. Furthermore, we show these cell types also constitutively express the critical downstream cGAS adaptor protein, stimulator of interferon genes (STING). The present finding that human glia express the principle components of the cGAS-STING pathway provides a foundation for future studies to investigate the relative importance of these molecules in clinically relevant viral CNS infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  15. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  16. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Flow Over a Sting Mounted Planetary Probe Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Michael S.; Harvey, John K.; Boyd, Iain D.; George, Jyothish; Horvath, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of experimental studies in the LENS shock tunnel and computations with DSMC and Navier Stokes codes which have been made to examine the aerothermal and flowfield characteristics of the flow over a sting-supported planetary probe configuration in hypervelocity air and nitrogen flows. The experimental program was conducted in the LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel at total enthalpies of 5and 10 MJkg for a range of reservoir pressure conditions from 70 to 500 bars. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were made on the front and rear face of the probe and along the supporting sting. High-speed and single shot schlieren photography were also employed to examine the flow over the model and the time to establish the flow in the base recirculation region. Predictions of the flowfield characteristics and the distributions of heat transfer and pressure were made with DSMC codes for rarefied flow conditions and with the Navier-Stokes solvers for the higher pressure conditions where the flows were assumed to be laminar. Analysis of the time history records from the heat transfer and pressure instrumentation on the face of the probe and in the base region indicated that the base flow was fully established in under 4 milliseconds from flow initiation or between 35 and 50 flow lengths based on base height. The measurements made in three different tunnel entries with two models of identical geometries but with different instrumentation packages, one prepared by NASA Langley and the second prepared by CUBRC, demonstrated good agreement between heat transfer measurements made with two different types of thin film and coaxial gage instrumentation. The measurements of heat transfer and pressure to the front face of the probe were in good agreement with theoretical predictions from both the DSMC and Navier Stokes codes. For the measurements made in low density flows, computations with the DSMC code were found to compare well with the

  17. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  18. Facial dog bite injuries in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dog bites are common and can affect victims of different ages, from children to the elderly. Injuries are usually located in different body regions, including head and face. The treatment of choice for injuries is the suture of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and tetanus and anti-rabies vaccination. Presentation of case: An 11-year-old male black patient was admitted to the Surgery and Maxillo-Facial Traumatology Service, on an urgent basis, victim of domestic animal aggression (dog biting. The child had multiple and extensive lesions on the face, trauma with laceration with loss of substance, involving the left genic region, lower and upper lip, and lower gingival-labial sulcus. Discussion: Smaller children are especially vulnerable to injuries in the craniofacial region due their low stature, propensity to crawl/play on the ground and exploratory behavior. The primary treatment of bites is by means of direct suture, grafting or local flaps, depending on the type of wound and the surgeon's decision, regardless of time elapsed from the attack. Conclusion: This case shows a case of a child patient victim of animal bite, with lesions limited to the region of the face. The patient was followed up for a month and showed good wound healing without any complications. Keywords: Wounds and injuries, Bites and stings, Maxillofacial injuries, Dogs

  19. Treatment of horses with cypermethrin against the biting flies Culicoides nubeculosus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E; Rowlinson, M; Bartram, D; Carpenter, S; Mellor, P; Wall, R

    2010-04-19

    An in vitro assay was used to assess the efficacy of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin applied to horses (Deosect spray, 5.0%, w/v Fort Dodge Animal Health) against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti Linneaus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Hair was collected from the back, belly and legs of the horses immediately prior to treatment and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment, and also from untreated controls. In laboratory assays groups of 10 adult female C. nubeculosus, Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to 0.5g of hair for 3min. In all cases, little or no mortality was observed in insects kept in contact with the pre-treatment samples or the untreated controls. With post-treatment samples for C. nubeculosus, mortality was close to 80% 7 days after treatment and then declined gradually; mean mortality was still at around 50% for hair collected 35 days after treatment. In general, Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus appeared to be less susceptible to cypermethrin than C. nubeculosus and the attenuation of the toxic effect declined more quickly with time after treatment. There were differences in the toxicity of hair from different body regions, with hair from the back consistently inducing the highest mortality and hair from the legs the lowest; this effect was more pronounced for C. nubeculosus than Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus. The results demonstrate the potential for topical insecticide treatment to offer protection to horses against biting flies; but highlight the major differences that exist in susceptibility between different insect species.

  20. The cGAS/STING Pathway Detects Streptococcus pneumoniae but Appears Dispensable for Antipneumococcal Defense in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Juan Sebastian; Hamann, Lutz; Jin, Lei; Sander, Leif E; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Cambier, John; Witzenrath, Martin; Schumann, Ralf R; Suttorp, Norbert; Opitz, Bastian

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. The innate immune system senses pneumococcal cell wall components, toxin, and nucleic acids, which leads to production of inflammatory mediators to initiate and control antibacterial defense. Here, we show that the cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP [cGAMP] synthase)-STING pathway mediates detection of pneumococcal DNA in mouse macrophages to primarily stimulate type I interferon (IFN) responses. Cells of human individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173 , which encodes a common hypomorphic variant of STING, were largely or partly defective in inducing type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines upon infection. Subsequent analyses, however, revealed that STING was dispensable for restricting S. pneumoniae during acute pneumonia in mice. Moreover, explorative analyses did not find differences in the allele frequency of HAQ TMEM173 in nonvaccinated pneumococcal pneumonia patients and healthy controls or an association of HAQ TMEM173 carriage with disease severity. Together, our results indicate that the cGAS/STING pathway senses S. pneumoniae but plays no major role in antipneumococcal immunity in mice and humans. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  2. Aquatic Insects of New York Salt Marsh Associated with Mosquito Larval Habitat and their Potential Utility as Bioindicators

    OpenAIRE

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E.; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...

  3. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  4. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  5. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  6. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  7. The correlation between anti phospholipase A 2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim: The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods: Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE, venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE, and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE (phospholipase A 2 sIgE were analyzed. Results: Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A 2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions : In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A 2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels.

  8. Non-Thermal, On-Site Decontamination and Destruction of Practice Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-12

    Decision Diagram for Stings from Flying Insects Honey bee sting? Stinger embedded? Other types of stinging insects: wasp, hornet, yellow jacket...potential for injury , so this is to be avoided. A mobile process unit allows for processing of the BDU’s at each location where needed followed by...continue as described under step 7.4. Refer to the caution statement in section 7.1 for the proper protocol in reducing the excess permanganate solution and

  9. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were...... posture were made on profile radiographs. RESULTS: Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more...... extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P posture was associated with craniofacial morphology: extended posture was associated with a large cranial base angle...

  10. Sting esitleb raamatut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Inglise rocklaulja Gordon Matthew Sumneri raamatu "Sting. Murtud muusika" esitlusest Tallinnas Viru Keskuse Rahva Raamatus ja kontserdist Saku Suurhallis Broken Musicu nimelise tuuri raames 28. juulil

  11. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Temmam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.. They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  12. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  13. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  14. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta

    2017-09-21

    Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.

  16. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina , it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Snake bite in dogs and its successful treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ananda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dog viz. Labrador and Alsatian cross were presented to the peripheral hospital with a history of frothy salivation, dull, depressed, abnormal gait and with recumbent position. They were diagnosed for snake bite based on the history and physical examination. The hematological parameters showed reduced values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and increased total leukocyte count. The biochemical values showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. The successful treatment was done with anti-snake venom, fluid, corticosteroid, muscuranic receptor antagonist and antibiotic with careful monitoring. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 66-67

  18. Rat-bite fever in children: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, Ifeoma C; Christy, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    We report 2 cases of rat-bite fever (RBF), a multisystem zoonosis, in children and review the literature. RBF is caused by I of 2 Gram-negative organisms: Streptobacillus moniliformis or, less commonly, Spirillum minus. Both of our cases developed in school-aged girls with a history of rat exposure who presented with a multisystem illness consisting of fever, petechial and purpuric rash, arthralgia and polyarthritis. Both responded promptly to antibiotic treatment. An additional 10 cases from a MEDLINE review (1960-2000) are reviewed. RBF must be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients with rashes and a history of exposure to rats.

  19. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  20. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M; Sturm, G J; Muraro, A; Akdis, C A; Antolín-Amérigo, D; Bilò, M B; Bokanovic, D; Calderon, M A; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Oude Elberink, J N G; Gawlik, R; Jakob, T; Kosnik, M; Lange, J; Mingomataj, E; Mitsias, D I; Mosbech, H; Ollert, M; Pfaar, O; Pitsios, C; Pravettoni, V; Roberts, G; Ruëff, F; Sin, B A; Asaria, M; Netuveli, G; Sheikh, A

    2017-03-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were descriptively summarized and, where possible, meta-analysed. Our searches identified a total of 16 950 potentially eligible studies; of which, 17 satisfied our inclusion criteria. The available evidence was limited both in volume and in quality, but suggested that venom immunotherapy (VIT) could substantially reduce the risk of subsequent severe systemic sting reactions (OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.26); meta-analysis showed that it also improved disease-specific quality of life (risk difference = 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.79). Adverse effects were experienced in both the build-up and maintenance phases, but most were mild with no fatalities being reported. The very limited evidence found on modelling cost-effectiveness suggested that VIT was likely to be cost-effective in those at high risk of repeated systemic sting reactions and/or impaired quality of life. The limited available evidence suggested that VIT is effective in reducing severe subsequent systemic sting reactions and in improving disease-specific quality of life. VIT proved to be safe and no fatalities were recorded in the studies included in this review. The cost-effectiveness of VIT needs to be established. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Level and pattern of human rabies and dog bites in Techiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease that is transmitted primarily by bites from rabid dogs and has the highest case fatality rate of most infectious diseases in humans. We described a 6-year trend of rabies and dog bites in a peri-urban district in Ghana. Methods: A record review was conducted in the health ...

  2. The correlation between surface electromyography and bite force of mastication muscles in Asian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-I; Mao, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Mastication function is related to mandible movement, muscle strength, and bite force. No standard device for measuring bite force has been developed. A linear relationship between electromyographic activity and bite force has been reported by several investigators, but data on the reliability of this relationship remain limited in Asian young adults. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable, reliable, quantitative, and noninvasive system to measure the kinetic mastication function and observe the correlation between surface electromyography (sEMG) and bite force. The study group consisted of 41 young healthy adults (24 men and 17 women). Surface electromyography was used to evaluate bilateral temporalis and masseter muscle activities, and an occlusal bite force system was used concurrently to measure the bite force during maximal voluntary biting. Bilateral symmetry was compared, and the correlation between EMG and bite force was calculated. The sEMG signals were 107.7±55.0 μV and 106.0±56.0 μV (P=0.699) on right and left temporalis muscles and 183.7±86.2 μV and 194.8±94.3 μV (P=0.121) on right and left masseter muscles, respectively. The bite force was 5.0±3.2 kg on the right side and 5.7±4.0 kg on the left side (P=0.974). A positive correlation between sEMG and bite force was observed. The correlation coefficient between the temporalis muscle and bite force was 0.512, and that between the masseter muscle and bite force was 0.360. No significant difference between the bilateral electromyographic activities of the temporalis and masseter muscles and bilateral bite force was observed in young healthy adults in Taiwan. A positive correlation between sEMG signals and bite force was noted. By combining sEMG and bite force, we developed a clinically applicable, quantitative, reliable, and noninvasive system for evaluating mastication function by using characteristics of biofeedback.

  3. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and social

  4. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult.To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor.Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning.Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and

  5. Structure-function analysis of STING activation by c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and targeting by antiviral DMXAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu; Ascano, Manuel; Zillinger, Thomas; Wang, Weiyi; Dai, Peihong; Serganov, Artem A; Gaffney, Barbara L; Shuman, Stewart; Jones, Roger A; Deng, Liang; Hartmann, Gunther; Barchet, Winfried; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2013-08-15

    Binding of dsDNA by cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) triggers formation of the metazoan second messenger c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], which binds the signaling protein STING with subsequent activation of the interferon (IFN) pathway. We show that human hSTING(H232) adopts a "closed" conformation upon binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and its linkage isomer c[G(2',5')pA(2',5')p], as does mouse mSting(R231) on binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], c[G(3',5')pA(3',5')p] and the antiviral agent DMXAA, leading to similar "closed" conformations. Comparing hSTING to mSting, 2',5'-linkage-containing cGAMP isomers were more specific triggers of the IFN pathway compared to the all-3',5'-linkage isomer. Guided by structural information, we identified a unique point mutation (S162A) placed within the cyclic-dinucleotide-binding site of hSTING that rendered it sensitive to the otherwise mouse-specific drug DMXAA, a conclusion validated by binding studies. Our structural and functional analysis highlights the unexpected versatility of STING in the recognition of natural and synthetic ligands within a small-molecule pocket created by the dimerization of STING. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  7. Sumoylation Promotes the Stability of the DNA Sensor cGAS and the Adaptor STING to Regulate the Kinetics of Response to DNA Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Qing; Xie, Xue-Qin; Liao, Chen-Yang; Lin, Heng; Liu, Tian-Tian; Yin, Lei; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-09-20

    During viral infection, sensing of cytosolic DNA by the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) activates the adaptor protein STING and triggers an antiviral response. Little is known about the mechanisms that determine the kinetics of activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway, ensuring effective but controlled innate antiviral responses. Here we found that the ubiquitin ligase Trim38 targets cGas for sumoylation in uninfected cells and during the early phase of viral infection. Sumoylation of cGas prevented its polyubiquitination and degradation. Trim38 also sumoylated Sting during the early phase of viral infection, promoting both Sting activation and protein stability. In the late phase of infection, cGas and Sting were desumoylated by Senp2 and subsequently degraded via proteasomal and chaperone-mediated autophagy pathways, respectively. Our findings reveal an essential role for Trim38 in the innate immune response to DNA virus and provide insight into the mechanisms that ensure optimal activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion (‘the bite’) are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query ‘Bruxism [Majr

  9. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  10. Stings and Scams: ‘Fake News,’ the First Amendment, and the New Activist Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Michael; Tarrow, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Constitutional law, technological innovations, and the rise of a cultural “right to know” have recently combined to yield “fake news,” as illustrated by an anti-abortion citizen-journalist sting operation that scammed Planned Parenthood. We find that the First Amendment, as construed by the Supreme Court, offers scant protection for activist journalists to go undercover to uncover wrongdoing, while providing substantial protection for the spread of falsehoods. By providing activists the means...

  11. Relax and Try This Instead: Abbreviated Habit Reversal for Maladaptive Self-Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin M.; Swearer, Susan M.; Friman, Patrick C.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of an abbreviated habit reversal procedure to reduce maladaptive oral self-biting in an adolescent boy in residential care. Treatment involved a combination of relaxation and two competing responses (gum chewing and tongue-lip rubbing). The intervention eliminated the biting and the tissue damage it caused.…

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with anterior open bite in 2 to 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and factors associated with anterior open bite in 2 to 5 year old children in Benin city, Nigeria. ... Background: Anterior open bite is said to exist when there is an actual vertical gap between the upper and lower incisors with the teeth in centric occlusion. This could occur in the anterior or posterior region, and may ...

  13. Snake Bite: A review of Current Literature | Dreyer | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Snake bite most commonly affects those living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, Asia, the ... (WHO) recently recognised snake bite as a neglected tropical disease and this has led to a ...

  14. The frequency and effect of shark-inflicted bite injuries to the reef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shark bite injuries on reef manta rays Manta alfredi off the coast of Inhambane, Mozambique, were examined over a three-year period (2003–2006). The frequency and seasonality of attacks, the rate of wound healing, and the possible identities of attackers were explored. This study presents the first examination of bite ...

  15. Snake bites in Nigeria: A study of the prevalence and treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Although snake bites occur frequently in Benin City, the prevalence has not been documented. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the orthodox treatment of victims. Methods: The study was retrospective and data on victims of snake bite covering a period of twenty ...

  16. Clinical Presentation And Outcome Of Snake-Bite Patients At Zamko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the pattern of clinical presentation and management outcome of snake bite victims treated in a comprehensive health centre in a rural setting in North-Central zone of Nigeria where snake bite morbidity and mortality are known to be unacceptably high. Methods: All records of admission in the ...

  17. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY CLINICAL COURSE AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION We know that habitat of scorpion is warm, and dry region. They inhibit commonly under logs, debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, and Coconut and banana plantations. (1 Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is famous for paddy, banana and coconut which are good habitat for scorpion. It is a retrospective study in which all the date of scorpion sting cases admitted in Konaseema institute of medical science and general hospital the only referral hospital in Konaseema region in last 3 years that is from Oct 2012 to Nov 2015 was collected. Mesobuthus tamulus is common in Andhra Pradesh. With the combined use of SAV and prazosin mortality has been reduced. But the awareness about the scorpion to the parent and its habitat will prevent the sting.

  18. Chaos and insect ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse A. Logan; Fred P. Hain

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in applied mathematical analysis have uncovered a fascinating and unexpected dynamical richness that underlies behavior of even the simplest non-linear mathematical models. Due to the complexity of solutions to these non-linear equations, a new mathematical term, chaos, has been coined to describe the resulting dynamics. This term captures the notion...

  19. Open-bite treatment utilizing clear removable appliances with intermaxillary and intramaxillary elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    Clear removable appliances with elastics can be effective and efficient in extruding maxillary teeth during aligner treatment or following a relapse of an open bite. Some patients with open bites refuse to wear conventional fixed appliances. In these individuals, clear aligners with elastics could be a valuable alternative. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  20. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod...... herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease...... to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital...

  1. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S; Boularan, Cedric; Lioux, Thierry; Perouzel, Eric; Thomsen, Martin K; Paludan, Søren R

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod was shown to have antiviral activity in individual patients, no significant effects were observed in clinical trials, and the compound also exhibited significant side effects, including local inflammation. Cytosolic DNA is detected by the enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP (2'3'-cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to stimulate antiviral pathways, mainly through induction of type I interferon (IFN)s. cGAS is activated upon DNA binding to produce the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) 2'3'-cGAMP, which in turn binds and activates the adaptor protein Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thus triggering type I IFN expression. In contrast to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. In direct comparison between CDNs and TLR agonists, only CDNs acted directly on epithelial cells, hence allowing a more rapid and IFN-focused immune response in the vaginal epithelium. Thus, specific activation of the STING pathway in the vagina evokes induction of the IFN system but limited inflammatory responses to allow control of HSV2 infections in vivo.

  2. Detection of Cyclic Dinucleotides by STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xia; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor protein mediating cytosolic DNA-induced innate immunity for both microbial invasion and self-DNA leakage. STING is also a direct receptor for cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), including the microbial secondary messengers c-di-GMP (3',3'-cyclic di-GMP), 3',3'cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP), and mammalian endogenous 2',3'cGAMP (2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) synthesized by cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase). Upon CDN binding, STING undergoes a conformational change to enable signal transduction by phosphorylation and finally to active IRF3 (Interferon regulatory factor 3) for type I interferon production. Here, we describe some experimental procedures such as Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and luciferase reporter assays to study the CDNs binding and activity by STING proteins.

  3. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  4. Consumer perception of salt-reduced breads: Comparison of single and two-bites evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Lucía; Giménez, Ana; Alcaire, Florencia; Vidal, Leticia; Ares, Gastón

    2017-10-01

    Salt-reduction in processed products has been proposed as a high-impact intervention for reducing the sodium intake at population level. A major limitation for this approach is its potential negative impact on the sensory characteristics of products. The current practice in sensory and consumer science involves single sip/bite evaluations, which may not properly reflect the sensory experience that occurs during product consumption. In this context, the aim of the present work was to compare single and two bite evaluations of consumer sensory and hedonic perception of salt-reduced breads. Five studies with a total of 499 consumers were carried out, in which overall-liking scores of five salt-reduced bread samples were collected after the first and the second bite evaluation. In one of the studies consumers also answered a CATA (check-all-that-apply) question after the first and the second bite. Neither bite nor the interaction between samples and bite had a significant effect on hedonic scores. However, when hedonic scores were analysed separately for each bite, the overall liking scores from the second bite evaluation better reflected differences among samples according to their salt content in two of the five studies. The sensory characterization of the samples did not largely vary between the first and the second bite. Results suggest that consumers' perception of salt reduced bread samples did not largely vary between a single and a two bites evaluation. Further research is warranted in this regard, in particular considering more complex products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  6. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  7. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  8. Scorpion Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you're camping or staying in rustic accommodations — shake out your clothing, bedding and packages often. ... a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library ... biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, ...

  11. Sting Dynamics of Wind Tunnel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    Patterson AFB, AFFDL, Ohio, October 1964. 17. Brunk, James E. "Users Manual: Extended Capability Magnus Rotor and Ballistic Body 6-DOF Trajectory...measure "second-order" aerodynamic effects resulting, for example, from Reynolds number in- fluence. Consequently, all wind tunnel data systems are...sting-model interference effects , sting configurations normally consist of one or more linearly tapered sections combined with one or more untapered

  12. An Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Envenomings in a Rural District of Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about

  13. Amelogenesis imperfecta and anterior open bite: Etiological, classification, clinical and management interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachioti, Xanthippi Sofia; Dimopoulou, Eleni; Vlasakidou, Anatoli; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2014-01-01

    Although amelogenesis imperfecta is not a common dental pathological condition, its etiological, classification, clinical and management aspects have been addressed extensively in the scientific literature. Of special clinical consideration is the frequent co-existence of amelogenesis imperfecta with the anterior open bite. This paper provides an updated review on amelogenesis imperfecta as well as anterior open bite, in general, and documents the association of these two separate entities, in particular. Diagnosis and treatment of amelogenesis imperfecta patients presenting also with anterior open bite require a lengthy, comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which should aim to successfully address all dental, occlusal, developmental, skeletal and soft tissue problems associated with these two serious clinical conditions.

  14. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  15. Brucella abortus Triggers a cGAS-Independent STING Pathway To Induce Host Protection That Involves Guanylate-Binding Proteins and Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Franco, Miriam M; Marim, Fernanda; Guimarães, Erika S; Assis, Natan R G; Cerqueira, Daiane M; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary; Smith, Judith; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; de Queiroz, Nina M G P; Gutman, Delia; Barber, Glen N; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2018-01-15

    Immunity against microbes depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Signaling pathways triggered by Brucella abortus DNA involves TLR9, AIM2, and stimulator of IFN genes (STING). In this study, we observed by microarray analysis that several type I IFN-associated genes, such as IFN-β and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are downregulated in STING knockout (KO) macrophages infected with Brucella or transfected with DNA. Additionally, we determined that STING and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) are important to engage the type I IFN pathway, but only STING is required to induce IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation, and GBP2 and GBP3 expression. Furthermore, we determined that STING but not cGAS is critical for host protection against Brucella infection in macrophages and in vivo. This study provides evidence of a cGAS-independent mechanism of STING-mediated protection against an intracellular bacterial infection. Additionally, infected IFN regulatory factor-1 and IFNAR KO macrophages had reduced GBP2 and GBP3 expression and these cells were more permissive to Brucella replication compared with wild-type control macrophages. Because GBPs are critical to target vacuolar bacteria, we determined whether GBP2 and GBP chr3 affect Brucella control in vivo. GBP chr3 but not GBP2 KO mice were more susceptible to bacterial infection, and small interfering RNA treated-macrophages showed reduction in IL-1β secretion and caspase-1 activation. Finally, we also demonstrated that Brucella DNA colocalizes with AIM2, and AIM2 KO mice are less resistant to B. abortus infection. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the STING-dependent type I IFN pathway is critical for the GBP-mediated release of Brucella DNA into the cytosol and subsequent activation of AIM2. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting can make the skin around your nails feel sore, and it can damage the tissue that ... biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try playing with a ...

  17. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S

    2011-02-03

    Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  20. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  1. Chemical and Biological Analysis of Malaysian Sting less Bee Propolis Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhamizah Ibrahim; Nurul Farah Shakila Mohd Niza; Muhammad Muslim Mohd Rodi; Abdul Jamil Zakaria; Zhari Ismail; Khamsah Suryati Mohd; Khamsah Suryati Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate chemical and biological profile of methanol extracts from Malaysian propolis produced by two commonly found sting less bee species, Heterotrigona itama (MHI) and Geniotrigona thoracica (MGT). Test samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein, carbohydrate and ash content. Tests for phyto chemical screening by thin layer chromatography of both extracts revealed that presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and essential oils but steroids, saponin and coumarins only occur in MHI. Both extracts displayed a characteristic profile and vary from each other. Accordingly, MHI possess higher antioxidant activity with an IC_5_0 of 15.0 ± 0.21 μg/ mL compared to MGT with IC_5_0 of 270.0 ± 0.19 μg/ mL. MHI showed moderate nitric oxide scavenging activity, while MGT only showed mild inhibition. Antidiabetic activity was determined by α-glucosidase inhibition and found significantly better than that of acarbose (positive control). In conclusion, data gathered in this study revealed that bee species play role in determining the chemical and biological profile of particular propolis and should put into account in decision of further development for propolis. (author)

  2. The cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway connects DNA damage to inflammation, senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuo; Chen, Zhijian J

    2018-05-07

    Detection of microbial DNA is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that alerts the host immune system to mount a defense response to microbial infections. However, this detection mechanism also poses a challenge to the host as to how to distinguish foreign DNA from abundant self-DNA. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase (cGAS) is a DNA sensor that triggers innate immune responses through production of the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates the adaptor protein STING. However, cGAS can be activated by double-stranded DNA irrespective of the sequence, including self-DNA. Although how cGAS is normally kept inactive in cells is still not well understood, recent research has provided strong evidence that genomic DNA damage leads to cGAS activation to stimulate inflammatory responses. This review summarizes recent findings on how genomic instability and DNA damage trigger cGAS activation and how cGAS serves as a link from DNA damage to inflammation, cellular senescence, and cancer. © 2018 Li and Chen.

  3. Biopolymers codelivering engineered T cells and STING agonists can eliminate heterogeneous tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyrel T; Moffett, Howell F; Stephan, Sirkka B; Opel, Cary F; Dumigan, Amy G; Jiang, Xiuyun; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Pillai, Smitha P S; Wittrup, K Dane; Stephan, Matthias T

    2017-06-01

    Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting. Here, we have tested implantable biopolymer devices that deliver CAR T cells directly to the surfaces of solid tumors, thereby exposing them to high concentrations of immune cells for a substantial time period. In immunocompetent orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer and melanoma, we found that CAR T cells can migrate from biopolymer scaffolds and eradicate tumors more effectively than does systemic delivery of the same cells. We have also demonstrated that codelivery of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) agonists stimulates immune responses to eliminate tumor cells that are not recognized by the adoptively transferred lymphocytes. Thus, these devices may improve the effectiveness of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors and help protect against the emergence of escape variants.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of a pasteuria strain parasitic to the sting nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekal, S; Borneman, J; Springer, M S; Giblin-Davis, R M; Becker, J O

    2001-06-01

    Pasteuria strain S-1 was found to parasitize the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus. S-1 spores attached to several strains of B. longicaudatus from different geographical locations within the United States. However, they did not adhere to any of the following species: Heterodera schachtii, Longidorus africanus, Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. scribneri, P. neglectus, P. penetrans, P. thornei, P. vulnus, and Xiphinema spp. The 16S rRNA genes from Pasteuria strain S-1 and P. penetrans strain Pp from Senegal were obtained by PCR amplification. A DNA sequence analysis showed that the S-1 16S rRNA had 96% or less similarity to the 16S rRNA genes from all previously reported Pasteuria species. Diverse phylogenetic methods all provided robust support for an association of Pasteuria strain S-1, Pasteuria strain NA parasitic to H. glycines, and P. penetrans strain Pp, to the exclusion of P. ramosa. In addition, our study showed intraspecific variation within P. penetrans as inferred by its 98% similarity to P. penetrans strain Pp.

  5. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  6. Quantifying seasonal and diel variation in Anopheline and Culex human biting rates in Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J; Lippi, Catherine A; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Heydari, Naveed; Silva, Mercy; Adrian, Jefferson; Noblecilla, Leonardo F; Ayala, Efraín B; Encalada, Mayling D; Larsen, David A; Krisher, Jesse T; Krisher, Lyndsay; Fregosi, Lauren; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M

    2017-11-22

    Quantifying mosquito biting rates for specific locations enables estimation of mosquito-borne disease risk, and can inform intervention efforts. Measuring biting itself is fraught with ethical concerns, so the landing rate of mosquitoes on humans is often used as a proxy measure. Southern coastal Ecuador was historically endemic for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), although successful control efforts in the 2000s eliminated autochthonous transmission (since 2011). This study presents an analysis of data collected during the elimination period. Human landing catch (HLC) data for three mosquito taxa: two malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles punctimacula, and grouped Culex spp. were examined for this study. These data were collected by the National Vector Control Service of the Ministry of Health over a 5-year time span (2007-2012) in five cities in southern coastal Ecuador, at multiple households, in all months of the year, during dusk-dawn (18:00-6:00) hours, often at both indoor and outdoor locations. Hurdle models were used to determine if biting activity was fundamentally different for the three taxa, and to identify spatial and temporal factors influencing bite rate. Due to the many different approaches to studying and quantifying bite rates in the literature, a glossary of terms was created, to facilitate comparative studies in the future. Biting trends varied significantly with species and time. All taxa exhibited exophagic feeding behavior, and outdoor locations increased both the odds and incidence of bites across taxa. Anopheles albimanus was most frequently observed biting, with an average of 4.7 bites/h. The highest and lowest respective months for significant biting activity were March and July for An. albimanus, July and August for An. punctimacula, and February and July for Culex spp. Fine-scale differences in endophagy and exophagy, and temporal differences among months and hours exist in biting patterns among

  7. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care immediately if: You were bitten by a black widow or brown recluse spider You are unsure whether the bite ... in the South. Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include: At ... fever and nausea Brown recluse spider The brown recluse spider has a ...

  8. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify......: Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA...

  9. Smads and insect hemimetabolan metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina G; Fernandez-Nicolas, Ana; Belles, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In contrast with Drosophila melanogaster, practically nothing is known about the involvement of the TGF-β signaling pathway in the metamorphosis of hemimetabolan insects. To partially fill this gap, we have studied the role of Smad factors in the metamorphosis of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. In D. melanogaster, Mad is the canonical R-Smad of the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway, Smox is the canonical R-Smad of the TGF-β/Activin branch and Medea participates in both branches. In insects, metamorphosis is regulated by the MEKRE93 pathway, which starts with juvenile hormone (JH), whose signal is transduced by Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which stimulates the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) that acts to repress E93, the metamorphosis trigger. In B. germanica, metamorphosis is determined at the beginning of the sixth (final) nymphal instar (N6), when JH production ceases, the expression of Kr-h1 declines, and the transcription of E93 begins to increase. The RNAi of Mad, Smox and Medea in N6 of B. germanica reveals that the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway regulates adult ecdysis and wing extension, mainly through regulating the expression of bursicon, whereas the TGF-β/Activin branch contributes to increasing E93 and decreasing Kr-h1 at the beginning of N6, crucial for triggering adult morphogenesis, as well as to regulating the imaginal molt timing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  12. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  17. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  20. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  1. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  2. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F 1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F 1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  3. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juli; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Juan; He, Sijia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Bilin; Cai, Huan; Yin, Dongqing; Hu, Derong; Li, Zhi; Chen, Hongzhi; Gao, Xiaoli; Wang, Fang; O'Connor, Jason C; Xu, Yong; Liu, Meilian; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2017-11-14

    Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Fat-specific knockout of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a chaperone-like protein originally identified in the mitochondrial matrix, impaired mitochondrial function and promoted mtDNA release, leading to activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammatory responses. Conversely, fat-specific overexpression of DsbA-L protected mice against high-fat diet-induced activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammation. Taken together, we identify DsbA-L as a key molecule that maintains mitochondrial integrity. DsbA-L deficiency promotes inflammation and insulin resistance by activating the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Our study also reveals that, in addition to its well-characterized roles in innate immune surveillance, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays an important role in mediating obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction.

  4. [Mammal bite management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Marín, Misael; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Jorge Issac; García-Ramírez, Raúl; Morales-Yépez, Héctor Adolfo

    Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Animal bites are still a major cause of morbidity in patients of all ages and have caused several preventable childhood deaths. These wounds often become infected. If the wound requires it, early surgical evaluation must be performed. The use of antibiotics is only recommended for high risk bite wounds. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E

    2015-01-07

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests.

  6. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-Massa-Draa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010 in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distribution of all scorpion species present on the studied area. Results: A total of 75313 scorpion sting cases were notified. The incidence of scorpion stings was 244 cases/100000 population/year and was significantly higher at Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz than Souss-Massa-Draa. The general lethality rate was on an average of 0.28% with a higher rate in Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz compared to Souss-Massa-Draa. There was a different distribution of cases between genders in the two studied regions. With respect to age groups, adults (more than 15 years were affected most compared to children. When analyzed according to the incidence in each province, the highest envenomation incidence was observed in Chichaoua. Concerning lethality, the highest lethality incidence was observed in the Kelaa. Based on this study, we could distinguish three zones: low scorpion stings occurrence without death, high incidence with low lethality and high scorpion stings rate with high lethality. Conclusions: Our data clearly demonstrate the correlation between scorpion stings incidence and the percentage of rural population in the different provinces. Additionally, the lethality incidence could be linked to the scorpion species of the studied area.

  7. Clinical Aspects and Emergent Management of Snake Bites Presented to Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Sonmez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluating the epidemiologic characteristics and management of snake bites presenting to emergency departments. Material and Method: In this retrospective study 74 cases of snakebites admitted to Emergency Department of Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Fourty-six (62.2% of patients were male and 28 (37.8% were female. Mean age of the study population was 34.85±19.17 (min 7- max 80 years. Most of the snakebites occurred between 18.00 to 06.00 hours and at home (73%. 79.7% of snake bites occurred to upper extremities. %93 of cases had intravenous administration of antivenin (one dose. Neither none of the patients needed recurrent administration. Discussion: Snake bites are still a major public health problem especially in rural areas. Particularly emergency care physicians should be adequately capable and sophisticated in multidisciplinary management of snake bites.

  8. Temporomandibular disorders and psychological status in adult patients with a deep bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years......). The control group comprised 20 females (mean age 29.4 years) and 10 males (mean age 34.2 years). TMD examination, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), cephalometric lateral radiographs, registration of occlusion, and bite force were performed. To test the mean differences between...... group compared with the controls. Somatization scores were significantly higher in the deep bite group compared with the controls (P psychological...

  9. The epidemiology of bite and scratch injuries by vertebrate animals in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, Hans C.

    1998-01-01

    Pet and wildlife populations are a potential source of various public health problems, and injuries and complications due to animal bites and scratches are the most obvious. As no population based data on the frequency of animal bites were available at a national level in Switzerland, a study was conducted by the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of medical consultations due to bite and scratch injuries in humans caused by vertebrate animals, to identify possible risk factors, and to assess bite management habits in primary health care. An annual bite and scratch incidence rate of 325 per 100,000 population was estimated. Consultations peaked during the summer months and geographical differences in the reported incidence were observed. Dogs accounted for more than 60% and cats for about 25% of all cases reported. Animal bites and scratches were frequent in persons under 20 years of age. In most ages, the incidence was higher among women than among men, but not in children under the age of ten years. The incidence of cat bites was especially high in adult women. Bites to the head and neck were most frequent in infants and young children and accounted for approximately one third of the reported cases in this age group. Patients sought medical care principally for primary wound care (52.0%) and for vaccination advice (29.6%). Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was initiated in 1.1% of patients. Wound infection was reported in 10.9% of cases, with cat bites/scratches being more often infected than injuries due to dogs. Hospitalization was reported in 0.3% of patients. Data from the emergency department of two district hospitals showed that head and neck injuries were more frequent in out-patients and a higher proportion of persons presented with wound infections (14.1%). The hospitalization rate for emergency department visits was 4.7%. Animal bites and scratches are common events in Switzerland. They

  10. Teeth grinding, oral motor performance and maximal bite force in cerebral palsy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti Rodrigues Santos, Maria Teresa; Duarte Ferreira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Guimarães, Antonio Sergio; Lira Ortega, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Identify whether the degree of oral motor performance is related to the presence of teeth grinding and maximal bite force values in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Ninety-five spastic cerebral palsy children with and without teeth grinding, according to caregivers' reports, were submitted to a comprehensive oral motor performance evaluation during the feeding process using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Maximal bite force was measured using an electronic gnathodynamometer. The teeth grinding group (n = 42) was younger, used anticonvulsant drugs, and was more frequently classified within the subfunctional oral motor performance category. Teeth grinding subfunctional spastic cerebral palsy children presented lower values of maximal bite force. The functional groups showing the presence or absence of teeth grinding presented higher values of maximal bite force compared with the subfunctional groups. In spastic cerebral palsy children, teeth grinding is associated with the worse oral motor performance. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    of the brown colour type (N = 140) and the white colour type (N = 60). Twentybrown and 20 white mink (housed in pairs since weaning) were housed individually at theage of 16 weeks. Every second week (at the age of 20, 22, 24, 25 and 28 weeks), four brownand four white mink were subjected to pressure......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P ...tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of...

  12. Correction of Anterior Open Bite and Facial Profile by Orthognathic Surgery– A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Billur Rahman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of a severe anterior open bite, Class III malocclusion with a history of digitsucking. An 18 years-old male presented with a significant anteroposterior and vertical discrepancy of face. The patient’sface was concave with procumbent lips. He had an anterior open bite of 11 mm, a reverse overjet of 8 mm, and atransverse maxillary deficiency on right side. The orthognathic surgery was elected as an option of treatment to correctthe anterior open bite with improvement of facial profile.Keywords: Anterior open bite; Transverse maxillary deficiency; Vertical excess; Orthognathic surgery.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i1.5512BSMMU J 2010; 3(1: 31-34

  13. Comparing Syndromic Surveillance and Poison Center Data for Snake Bites in Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Pugh, Karen H.; Kelsey, Amy; Tominack, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study intends to use two different surveillance systems available in Missouri to explore snake bite frequency and geographic distribution. Introduction In 2010, there were 4,796 snake bite exposures reported to Poison Centers nationwide (1). Health care providers frequently request help from poison centers regarding snake envenomations due to the unpredictability and complexity of prognosis and treatment. The Missouri Poison Center (MoPC) maintains a surveillance database keepi...

  14. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  15. Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenhout, Saskia A; Oshima, Kenro; Ammar, El-Desouky; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Kingdom, Heather N; Namba, Shigetou

    2008-07-01

    Superkingdom Prokaryota; Kingdom Monera; Domain Bacteria; Phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C, Gram-positive eubacteria); Class Mollicutes; Candidatus (Ca.) genus Phytoplasma. Ca. Phytoplasma comprises approximately 30 distinct clades based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of approximately 200 phytoplasmas. Phytoplasmas are mostly dependent on insect transmission for their spread and survival. The phytoplasma life cycle involves replication in insects and plants. They infect the insect but are phloem-limited in plants. Members of Ca. Phytoplasma asteris (16SrI group phytoplasmas) are found in 80 monocot and dicot plant species in most parts of the world. Experimentally, they can be transmitted by approximately 30, frequently polyphagous insect species, to 200 diverse plant species. In plants, phytoplasmas induce symptoms that suggest interference with plant development. Typical symptoms include: witches' broom (clustering of branches) of developing tissues; phyllody (retrograde metamorphosis of the floral organs to the condition of leaves); virescence (green coloration of non-green flower parts); bolting (growth of elongated stalks); formation of bunchy fibrous secondary roots; reddening of leaves and stems; generalized yellowing, decline and stunting of plants; and phloem necrosis. Phytoplasmas can be pathogenic to some insect hosts, but generally do not negatively affect the fitness of their major insect vector(s). In fact, phytoplasmas can increase fecundity and survival of insect vectors, and may influence flight behaviour and plant host preference of their insect hosts. The most common practices are the spraying of various insecticides to control insect vectors, and removal of symptomatic plants. Phytoplasma-resistant cultivars are not available for the vast majority of affected crops.

  16. Bite-outs and other depletions of mesospheric electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Martin; Rapp, Markus; Plane, John M.C.; Torkar, Klaus M.

    2011-01-01

    The ionised mesosphere is less understood than other parts of the ionosphere because of the challenges of making appropriate measurements in this complex region. We use rocket borne in situ measurements of absolute electron density by the Faraday rotation technique and accompanying DC-probe measurements to study the effect of particles on the D-region charge balance. Several examples of electron bite-outs, their actual depth as well as simultaneous observations of positive ions are presented. For a better understanding of the various dependencies we use the ratio β/αi (attachment rate over ion–ion recombination coefficient), derived from the electron and ion density profiles by applying a simplified ion-chemical scheme, and correlate this term with solar zenith angle and moon brightness. The probable causes are different for day and night; recent in situ measurements support existing hypotheses for daytime cases, but also reveal behaviour at night hitherto not reported in the literature. Within the large range of β/αi values obtained from the analysis of 28 high latitude night flights one finds that the intensity of scattered sunlight after sunset, and even moonlight, apparently can photodetach electrons from meteoric smoke particles (MSP) and molecular anions. The large range of values itself can best be explained by the variability of the MSPs and by occasionally occurring atomic oxygen impacting on the negative ion chemistry in the night-time mesosphere under disturbed conditions. PMID:27570472

  17. Molar height and dentoalveolar compensation in adult subjects with skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Josef; Marek, Ivo; Tycova, Hana; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar components in adult subjects with skeletal open bite in the presence or absence of dental compensation. The study sample included 69 adult female subjects who belonged to three groups according to skeletal vertical relationships and overbite. A total of 15 variables (5 angular, 10 linear) were evaluated. Values in the dentally compensated open bite group (COBG), the dentally noncompensated open bite group (NCOBG), and the control group with normal vertical skeletal relationships and overbite (CG) were compared by means of parametric statistics. The COBG and the NCOBG showed significantly greater incisor and molar heights in both jaws than the CG. No significant difference in upper or lower molar height was found between COBG and NCOBG. Incisor height was significantly greater in COBG than in NCOBG. Elongation in the incisor region was accompanied by significant narrowing of the lower anterior alveolar process in both skeletal open bite groups. Proclination of the upper incisors was significantly smaller in the COBG than in the other groups. Dentoalveolar components consisting of incisor elongation and inclination play a significant role in compensating for skeletal open bite configuration in adult subjects. Increased molar height is a common finding in adults with skeletal open bite.

  18. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  19. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  20. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  1. [Adverse reactions to mosquito bites in scholars from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique López, María Amelia; González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni A; Canseco Villarreal, José Ignacio; Gómez Retamoza, Ernesto Antonio; Padrón López, Olga Magdalena; Cruz Moreno, Miguel Angel; Cisneros Salazar, Guillermo Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Allergic reactions to insect bites are a global problem, the true incidence and prevalence of morbidity from adverse reactions to mosquito bites are unknown. To describe the adverse reactions to mosquito bites in school-age children of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A cross-sectional descriptive study was made via a randomized application of questionnaires to children from public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A total of 11 public schools randomly selected were included in the study. One thousand questionnaires were submitted, of which 506 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 55% were females. Seventy-six percent referred adverse reactions to mosquito bites, itching (75%) and rash (72%) being the most frequent ones, in the last 12 months. Adverse reactions to mosquito bites occur frequently. Early detection is important to establish a prompt treatment.

  2. Insect repellents and sunscreen: implications for personal protection strategies against mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the protection times provided by insect repellent and sunscreen in combined formulations against biting mosquitoes. To determine if concurrent use of repellent and sunscreen influenced protection times. Insect repellent containing comparable concentrations of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) with and without sunscreen were tested on human skin to determine the mean protection time (MPT) against Aedes aegypti (L.) in the laboratory. Further trials were undertaken to determine the effect on MPT of sunscreen reapplication over repellent every two hours. There was no significant difference in the MPT provided by 80% DEET with (MPT+/-SE=770+/-54.8 minutes) and without (MPT+/-SE=830+/-20.2 minutes) sunscreen or 7.14% DEET with (MPT+/-SE =240+/-15.5 minutes) and 6.98% DEET without (MPT+/-SE =230+/-18.4 minutes) sunscreen. Reapplication of sunscreen resulted in a significantly lower MPT of a 17.0% DEET formulation when sunscreen was reapplied concurrently (MPT+/-SE=330+/-25.2 minutes), compared with DEET alone (MPT+/-SE =400+/-12.7 minutes). When combined in a single formulation with sunscreen, the MPT provided by both high and low concentrations of DEET is not reduced. However, if sunscreen is reapplied over insect repellent, protection times can be reduced significantly. In areas of endemic mosquito-borne disease, the reapplication of a low concentration repellent and sunscreen formulation may provide the most effective protection from biting mosquitoes while minimising the risk of overexposure to DEET.

  3. A Call for sting treatment protocol: Case report of a 3 year old with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Kidney Injury in children following bee sting envenomation is rare and survival is hinged on early recognition and prompt appropriate management. This report is aimed at raising awareness among healthcare workers, of one of the systemic effects of massive bee sting and the need to develop sting treatment protocol.

  4. Social insects and selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F

    2001-10-01

    Sometimes science advances because of a new idea. Sometimes, it's because of a new technique. When both occur together, exciting times result. In the study of social insects, DNA-based methods for measuring relatedness now allow increasingly detailed tests of Hamilton's theory of kin selection.

  5. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-23

    project site. • Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects , spiders, and snakes), and 4-18...channel, and in dryer areas of the site. Herbaceous species in the understory include stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), California blackberry (Rubus...Nightshade FAC/FACU Poison oak Nightshade FAC/FACU Stinging nettle FACW Cockle-bur FAC+ COMMENTS Likely C. Canadensis Most E/eocharis spp

  6. Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning. Larval herbivores employ habituation and sensitization-strategies useful in their less variable environments. Exceptions to these patterns based on habitats, mobility, and life history provide critical tests of current theory. Relevant plant traits should be under selection to be easily learned and remembered in pollinators and difficult to learn in herbivores. Insect learning thereby has the potential to have an important, yet largely unexplored, role in plant-insect coevolution.

  7. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your hotel room or lodging Š Choose a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or screens on ... percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection Some brand name examples* (Insect repellents may be sold under ...

  8. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  9. Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insects are for many nations and ethnic groups an indispensable part of the diet. From a nutritional point of view, insects have significant protein content. It varies from 20 to 76% of dry matter depending on the type and development stage of the insect. Fat content variability is large (2–50% of dry matter and depends on many factors. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids' content may be up to 70% of total fatty acids. Carbohydrates are represented mainly by chitin, whose content ranges between 2.7 mg and 49.8 mg per kg of fresh matter. Some species of edible insects contain a reasonable amount of minerals (K, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and P as well as vitamins such as B group vitamins, vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. However their content is seasonal and dependent on the feed. From the hygienic point of view it should be pointed out that some insects may produce or contain toxic bioactive compounds. They may also contain residues of pesticides and heavy metals from the ecosystem. Adverse human allergic reactions to edible insects could be also a possible hazard. Keywords: Chitin, Entomophagy, Fat, Minerals, Proteins, Vitamins

  10. Masters of defence: biomechanics of stinging nettles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Knoblauch, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The techniques employed by plants and animals to defend themselves are very varied. Some involve extremely refined armaments. Stinging nettles employ hollow needle-like stinging hairs constructed from silica, the mineral from which we make glass, and they are filled with poison. The hairs are remarkably rigid and rarely break. Yet the tip is so sharp that the slightest touch cuts human skin, and so fragile that it breaks at that touch and releases poison into the wound. How the seemingly antagonist mechanical functions of rigidity and fragility are achieved, however, is unknown. We combine experiments on real and synthetic stingers to elucidate the poison injection mechanism. The design of plant stingers is compared to other natural systems and optimal stinging strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  11. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775. Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775 which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity.

  12. Periodontal and gingival incisor findings in patients with anterior open bite in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Till Edward; Briegleb, Henning K

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate any association between anterior open bite and periodontal health of the front teeth during mixed dentition. We investigated the periodontal and gingival status of the teeth with dysfunctional and/or subfunctional loading in the open-bite area in 9- to 12-year-old children. We examined 36 subjects with anterior open bite between the ages of 9 and 12 years who had presented for the first time at the Department of Orthodontics, University of Tübingen. A control group of 36 children of the same age with a physiologic incisor relationship--vertical overbite and sagittal overjet were between 1 and 3 mm--were compared. In addition to overjet, the Silness-Löe plaque index, the modified Löe-Silness gingival index, pocket depth and attachment loss were measured and documented at each of the four surfaces (mesial, distal, oral and vestibular) of the upper and lower incisors. The subjects with anterior open bite exhibited significantly more plaque in the malocclusion area than children with a physiologic incisor relationship; the differences were statistically highly significant. The subjects with anterior open bite demonstrated slightly higher degrees of inflammation and a slight increase in periodontal pocket depths than the control group. Periodontal attachment loss was diagnosed in very few areas in both study groups, while attachment loss was slightly more frequent in those with anterior open bite. We observed a higher risk for caries in the malocclusion area in the late mixed dentition phase, as the subjects with anterior open bite presented significantly more plaque accumulation in the incisor area. However, no pathological periodontal anomalies have been detected so far.

  13. Geographic Variation in Access to Dog-Bite Care in Pakistan and Risk of Dog-Bite Exposure in Karachi: Prospective Surveillance Using a Low-Cost Mobile Phone System

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Syed Mohammad Asad; Labrique, Alain B.; Khowaja, Saira; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Irani, Julia; Salahuddin, Naseem; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dog-bites and rabies are under-reported in developing countries such as Pakistan and there is a poor understanding of the disease burden. We prospectively collected data utilizing mobile phones for dog-bite and rabies surveillance across nine emergency rooms (ER) in Pakistan, recording patient health-seeking behaviors, access to care and analyzed spatial distribution of cases from Karachi. Methodology and Principal: Findings A total of 6212 dog-bite cases were identified over t...

  14. Uvula Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarungjit Kraiwattanapong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been several reports of Hymenoptera sting around the world, but only a few have been reported being stung at the oropharynx which is considered uncommon and can cause life threatening condition. The authors reported a case of a 41-year-old healthy man who had a bee sting at his uvula 4 hours before coming to the hospital. He felt a lump in his throat and had some degrees of difficult swallowing and breathing and had muffled voice. The uvula was swollen and there was a pinpoint penetrating lesion at the anterior surface of the uvula. No stinger was identified. Vital signs were stable with no stridor nor wheezing. Intraoperative examination to identify stinger was conducted and tissue at the stinging area was excised to confirm complete removal of the possible embedded foreign body.

  15. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Asai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61. All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6–14 days (median: 10 after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  16. Pigs suffering from injurious behaviours like flank biting and tail biting are more interested to manipulate a novel rope than uninjured control animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Ettema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Injurious behaviours in pigs may involve persistent or forceful biting in specific body parts and may result in wounds of the pigs’ tails, ears, flanks and legs. Such behaviours, which may lead to progressive tissue damage, are difficult to counteract. On a commercial farm 22 groups of pigs with

  17. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pai...... of gender-related differences in somatosensory sensitivity and for the first time indicate that subjects with deep bite may be more sensitive to glutamate-evoked pain and thermal stimuli.......AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...

  18. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  19. The examination and identification of bite marks in foods using 3D scanning and 3D comparison methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naether, Silvio; Buck, Ursula; Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Thali, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Bite mark analysis offers the opportunity to identify the biter based on the individual characteristics of the dentitions. Normally, the main focus is on analysing bite mark injuries on human bodies, but also, bite marks in food may play an important role in the forensic investigation of a crime. This study presents a comparison of simulated bite marks in different kinds of food with the dentitions of the presumed biter. Bite marks were produced by six adults in slices of buttered bread, apples, different kinds of Swiss chocolate and Swiss cheese. The time-lapse influence of the bite mark in food, under room temperature conditions, was also examined. For the documentation of the bite marks and the dentitions of the biters, 3D optical surface scanning technology was used. The comparison was performed using two different software packages: the ATOS modelling and analysing software and the 3D studio max animation software. The ATOS software enables an automatic computation of the deviation between the two meshes. In the present study, the bite marks and the dentitions were compared, as well as the meshes of each bite mark which were recorded in the different stages of time lapse. In the 3D studio max software, the act of biting was animated to compare the dentitions with the bite mark. The examined food recorded the individual characteristics of the dentitions very well. In all cases, the biter could be identified, and the dentitions of the other presumed biters could be excluded. The influence of the time lapse on the food depends on the kind of food and is shown on the diagrams. However, the identification of the biter could still be performed after a period of time, based on the recorded individual characteristics of the dentitions.

  20. [Treatment of a patient with considerably thin alveolar bone and severe open bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiya, Zhuo; Zhou, Hu; Qing, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 25-year-old woman with a severe open bite. This patient presented a grade Ⅲ open bite, considerably thin alveolar bone, and evident labial buccal and lingual root form. The open bite was corrected by fixed orthodontic treatment and masticatory exercises. However, the increased pressure in the labial muscle caused by lip muscle exercise suppressed the canines, which resulted in the protrusion of the apices of canine roots out of the alveolar bone. Afterward, HX brackets, instead of self-locking, were used and bonded reversely in the occlusal-gingival direction on the upper canines. The lip muscle exercises were decreased. After adjustment, the roots penetrated back into the cancellous bone, the severe open bite was corrected, and a normal overbite and overjet were achieved. ClassⅠcanine and molar relationships were established. The masticatory function and profile were both considerably improved. This case report showed that a severe nonskeletal open bite can be corrected using orthodontic treatments combined with masticatory exercises.