Sample records for inquiry wheel game

  1. Representational Inquiry competences in Science Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke


    to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter......This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed......, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game...

  2. Martian Boneyards: Scientific Inquiry in an MMO Game (United States)

    Asbell-Clarke, Jodi; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Larsen, Jamie; Sylvan, Elisabeth; Hewitt, Jim


    This paper reports on research of a game designed for scientific inquiry in a new and publicly available massively-multiplayer online environment (MMO). Educators and game designers worked together to create a highly immersive environment, a compelling storyline, and research-grounded tools for scientific inquiry within the game. The designers…

  3. "Martian Boneyards": Sustained Scientific Inquiry in a Social Digital Game (United States)

    Asbell-Clarke, Jordis

    Social digital gaming is an explosive phenomenon where youth and adults are engaged in inquiry for the sake of fun. The complexity of learning evidenced in social digital games is attracting the attention of educators. Martian Boneyards is a proof-of-concept game designed to study how a community of voluntary gamers can be enticed to engage in sustained, high-quality scientific inquiry. Science educators and game designers worked together to create an educational game with the polish and intrigue of a professional-level game, striving to attract a new audience to scientific inquiry. Martian Boneyards took place in the high-definition, massively multiplayer online environment, Blue Mars, where players spent an average of 30 hours in the game over the 4-month implementation period, with some exceeding 200 hours. Most of the players' time was spent in scientific inquiry activities and about 30% of the players' in-game interactions were in the analysis and theory-building phases of inquiry. Female players conducted most of the inquiry, in particular analysis and theory building. The quality of scientific inquiry processes, which included extensive information gathering by players, and the resulting content were judged to be very good by a team of independent scientists. This research suggests that a compelling storyline, a highly aesthetic environment, and the emergent social bonds among players and between players and the characters played by designers were all responsible for sustaining high quality inquiry among gamers in this free-choice experience. The gaming environment developed for Martian Boneyards is seen as an evolving ecosystem with interactions among design, players' activity, and players' progress.

  4. Science Teachers' Perceptions of the Relationship Between Game Play and Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Mezei, Jessica M.

    The implementation of inquiry learning in American science classrooms remains a challenge. Teachers' perceptions of inquiry learning are predicated on their past educational experiences, which means outdated methods of learning may influence teachers' instructional approaches. In order to enhance their understanding and ultimately their implementation of inquiry learning, teachers need new and more relevant models. This study takes a preliminary step exploring the potential of game play as a valuable experience for science teachers. It has been proposed that game play and inquiry experiences can embody constructivist processes of learning, however there has been little work done with science teachers to systematically explore the relationship between the two. Game play may be an effective new model for teacher education and it is important to understand if and how teachers relate game playing experience and knowledge to inquiry. This study examined science teachers' game playing experiences and their perceptions of inquiry experiences and evaluated teacher's recognition of learning in both contexts. Data was collected through an online survey (N=246) and a series of follow-up interviews (N=29). Research questions guiding the study were: (1) What is the nature of the relationship between science teachers' game experience and their perceptions of inquiry? (2) How do teachers describe learning in and from game playing as compared with inquiry science learning? and (3) What is the range of similarities and differences teachers articulate between game play and inquiry experiences?. Results showed weak quantitative links between science teachers' game experiences and their perceptions of inquiry, but identified promising game variables such as belief in games as learning tools, game experiences, and playing a diverse set of games for future study. The qualitative data suggests that teachers made broad linkages in terms of parallels of both teaching and learning. Teachers

  5. An interactive game-based shoulder wheel system for rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou LW


    Full Text Available Chun-Ming Chang,1,* Yen-Ching Chang,2,3 Hsiao-Yun Chang,4 Li-Wei Chou5,6,* 1Department of Applied Informatics and Multimedia, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Medical Informatics, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Increases in the aging population and in the number of accidents have resulted in more people suffering from physical impairments or disabilities. Rehabilitation therapy thus attracts greater attention as a means of helping patients recover and return to a normal life. With the extremely long and tedious nature of traditional rehabilitation, patients are reluctant to continue the entire process, thus the expected effects of the therapy cannot be obtained. Games are well known to help patients improve their concentration and shift their attention away from the discomfort of their injuries during rehabilitation. Thus, incorporating game technology into a rehabilitation program may be a promising approach.Methods: In this study, a gaming system used for shoulder rehabilitation was developed. The mechanical parts and electric circuits were integrated to mimic the functionalities of a shoulder wheel. Several games were also designed to suit the rehabilitation needs of the patients based on the age and gender differences among the individual users, enabling individuals to undergo the rehabilitation process by playing games. Two surveys were conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants regarding the gaming system.Results: The results of the online survey among a larger population

  6. The Effect of Serious Video Game Play on Science Inquiry Scores (United States)

    Hilosky, Alexandra Borzillo

    American students are not developing the science inquiry skills needed to solve complex 21st century problems, thus impacting the workforce. In 2009, American high school students ranked 21 out of 26 in the category of problem-solving according to the Program for International Student Assessment. Serious video games have powerful epistemic value and are beneficial with respect to enhancing inquiry, effective problem-solving. The purpose of this correlational, quantitative study was to test Gee's assumption regarding the cycle of thinking (routinization, automatization, and deroutinization) by determining whether players status was a significant predictor of science inquiry scores, controlling for age, gender, and major. The 156 non-random volunteers who participated in this study were enrolled in a 2-year college in the northeastern U.S. Multiple regression analyses revealed that major was the strongest overall (significant) predictor, b = -.84, t(149) = -3.70, p video game play. Recommendations include using serious games as instructional tools and to assess student learning (formative and summative), especially among non-traditional learners.

  7. Using Games to Engage Students in Inquiry (United States)

    Byrne, Martha


    This paper discusses the author's experiences of getting advanced undergraduate math students to engage in mathematical inquiry by using games as a vehicle for exploration. The students explored the mathematics behind SET®1, Spot it!®2, Blokus®3, and Six®4. Specifically, we present the experience of the instructor and students and how the games…

  8. An Appreciative Inquiry Exploring Game Sense Teaching in Physical Education (United States)

    Pill, Shane


    This paper reports on research framed as a strengths-based appreciative inquiry (AI) into the use of a game sense (GS) approach for sport and games teaching in physical education (PE). The aim of this research was to find the elements which sustain teachers in the use of a GS approach. This is particularly pertinent given strong advocacy for GS as…

  9. Allocation of fixed transmission cost to wheeling transactions by cooperative game theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yukitoki; Iyoda, Isao


    This paper describes a methodology to allocate the cost of transmission network facilities to wheeling transactions in decentralized power systems. The authors propose that the responsibility placed on transmission facilities involved in each transaction be according to the transmission usage pattern. Their proposal incorporates MW-mile method and considers economies of scale of transmission network facilities. The authors also incorporate a nucleolus scheme in the cooperative game theory to deal with matters of conflict. The applicability of their method is demonstrated in a numerical example

  10. Utility-cogenerator game for pricing power sales and wheeling fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Akeo; Asano, Hiroshi


    The authors studied an extensive game model of an electricity market where a cogenerator sells excess electricity to an electric utility or to an end user. They found that a buy-back system (the utility purchases cogenerated power) is as efficient as a cogenerator-customer wheeling system and that these two systems are more desirable than a monopoly system for the regulator. The buy-back rate should be equal to (LP bargaining solution) or less than (Nash bargaining solution) the marginal cost of the electric utility. They also conducted an analysis of a two-period electricity market in which they found that the cogenerator that can supply excess power during peak period obtains the market advantage

  11. Inquiry Coaching: Scientists & Science Educators Energizing the Next Generation (United States)

    Shope, R. E.; Alcantara Valverde, L.


    A recent National Academy of Sciences report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Laboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term "Arctica Science Research" to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolcanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasiwan Tasiwan


    Full Text Available This classroom action research was conducted to analyze the development of the students’ inquiry abilities in science learning by a learning model of mindmap educative by using game observation normatively (Megono. The study was conducted in three cycles. In each cycle, the students were divided into five groups, each groups consisted of seven students. Each group was mandated to observe and to analyze the images/photos. After the image observations, they were asked to discuss, write and compile the information into a concept map.  One of the students was act as a representative of the group in a game of observation. Data were obtained through the pre-test, post-test, and observation by the observers as well as from the photo and video recording. The results showed that the students’ inquiry ability increased by 63.27% at the end of the cycle. At the initial conditions, the ability of the student was low (0.49. After the first cycle, it increased to 0.63 (medium, and then increased to 0.68 (moderate on the second cycle, and finally it increased to 0.80 (high in the third cycle. The average increase in every aspect was 68.59%.  The highest inquiry capability was achieved in aspects of reasoning amounted to 89.29 (very high. It was suggested to use the observation games fairly and needed more time adjustment to obtain higher learning outcomes.

  13. Selection of methods for evaluating the cost of transmission wheeling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happ, H.H.


    Wheeling has been defined as the use of a utility's transmission facilities to transmit power for other buyers and sellers. On October 26, 1994, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) announced a POLICY STATEMENT, concerning the Commission's Pricing transmission services. It follows a Pricing inquiry conducted by FERC in 1993, and an analysis of the 165 responses FERC had received to that inquiry including one from the Department with which this author is associated. The single most important new element introduced in FERC's Policy Statement of October 26, is flexibility in methodologies which are allowed for determining costs and, thus, prices for transmission services. FERC stated that the respondents to the Pricing Inquiry of 1993 almost unanimously requested that the Commission allow such flexibility. The Policy Statement may lead to experimentation on the part of users of transmission systems, to determine the magnitude of costs predicted by various cost of wheeling methodologies. It is the objective of this paper to outline the steps which New York State has taken and started over five years ago, in executing an investigation of wheeling costs which are generated by a number of cost of wheeling methodologies; documents which are available will be indicated, which should help other investigators in the execution of a similar study. A summary of FERC's Policy Statement dated October 26, 1994 appears in the Appendix

  14. A Web-Based Learning Support System for Inquiry-Based Learning (United States)

    Kim, Dong Won; Yao, Jingtao

    The emergence of the Internet and Web technology makes it possible to implement the ideals of inquiry-based learning, in which students seek truth, information, or knowledge by questioning. Web-based learning support systems can provide a good framework for inquiry-based learning. This article presents a study on a Web-based learning support system called Online Treasure Hunt. The Web-based learning support system mainly consists of a teaching support subsystem, a learning support subsystem, and a treasure hunt game. The teaching support subsystem allows instructors to design their own inquiry-based learning environments. The learning support subsystem supports students' inquiry activities. The treasure hunt game enables students to investigate new knowledge, develop ideas, and review their findings. Online Treasure Hunt complies with a treasure hunt model. The treasure hunt model formalizes a general treasure hunt game to contain the learning strategies of inquiry-based learning. This Web-based learning support system empowered with the online-learning game and founded on the sound learning strategies furnishes students with the interactive and collaborative student-centered learning environment.

  15. Spinning the Big Wheel on “The Price is Right”: A Spreadsheet Simulation Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Willoughby


    Full Text Available A popular game played in each broadcast of the United States television game show “The Price is Right” has contestants spinning a large wheel comprised of twenty different monetary values (in 5-cent increments from $0.05 to $1.00. A player wins by scoring closest to, without exceeding, $1.00. Players may accomplish this in one or a total of two spins. We develop a spreadsheet modeling exercise, useful in an introductory undergraduate Spreadsheet Analytics course, to simulate the spinning of the wheel and to determine optimal spinning strategies.

  16. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel (United States)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio


    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  17. Influences of an Inquiry-based Ubiquitous Gaming Design on Students' Learning Achievements, Motivation, Behavioral Patterns, and Tendency towards Critical Thinking and Problem Solving (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Chih-Hung


    In this paper, an inquiry-based ubiquitous gaming approach was proposed. The objective of the study was to enhance students' performances in in-field learning activities. To show the advantages of the approach, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of it on students' learning achievement, motivation, critical thinking, and problem…

  18. Playing to win over: validating persuasive games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Jacobs (Ruud)


    textabstractThis dissertation describes four years of scientific inquiry into persuasive games – digital games designed to persuade – as part of a multidisciplinary research project ‘Persuasive Gaming. From Theory-Based Design to Validation and Back’ funded by the Netherlands Organization for

  19. Learning analytics in serious gaming: uncovering the hidden treasury of game log files

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Nadolski, Rob; Hummel, Hans


    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of existing log files of the VIBOA environmental policy games at Utrecht University. For reasons of statistical power we’ve combined student cohorts 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, which led to a sample size of 118 students. The VIBOA games are inquiry-based

  20. Applying Technology to Inquiry-Based Learning in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Kinzie, Mable B.; McGuire, Patrick; Pan, Edward


    Children naturally explore and learn about their environments through inquiry, and computer technologies offer an accessible vehicle for extending the domain and range of this inquiry. Over the past decade, a growing number of interactive games and educational software packages have been implemented in early childhood education and addressed a…

  1. The mathematics of games an introduction to probability

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, David G


    Dice, Coins, and Candy Introduction ProbabilityCandy (Yum)! Wheels and More Dice RouletteCrapsCounting the Pokers Cards and CountingSeven Card Pokers Texas Hold'Em BluffingWindmills and Black Jacks? Blackjack Blackjack VariantsMore Fun Dice!Liar's Dice Yahtzee Zombie Dice Board Games, Not ""Bored"" Games Board Game Movement Pay Day (The Board Game) MonopolySpread, RevisitedCan You Bet and Win? Betting SystemsGambler's RuinThere Are More Games! The LotteryBingo Baccarat Farkle BackgammonMemoryAppendices A Probabilities with Infinity B St. Petersburg Paradox C Prisoner's Dilemma and More Game Th

  2. The (De-)Evolution of Evolution Games: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Evolution through Natural Selection in Digital Games (United States)

    Leith, Alex P.; Ratan, Rabindra A.; Wohn, Donghee Yvette


    Given the diversity and complexity of education game mechanisms and topics, this article contributes to a theoretical understanding of how game mechanisms "map" to educational topics through inquiry-based learning. Namely, the article examines the presence of evolution through natural selection (ENS) in digital games. ENS is a…

  3. Game chromatic number of lexicographic product graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alagammai


    Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the exact values of the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of path P2 with path Pn, star K1,n and wheel Wn. Also we give an upper bound for the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H.

  4. Discursive Games and Gamic Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Voorhees


    Full Text Available Digital games are an increasingly prominent media form but are consistently ignored in critical communication scholarship. Several voices in the field of game studies have advocated the application of communication and rhetorical theory to the study of games, but this effort to cross-pollinate game studies and communication studies has not been reciprocated. This article addresses this lacunae, making the case for critical studies of communication to take up the study of digital games. I argue that digital games are both ready objects of inquiry well-suited for rhetorical methods and generative sites with the potential to stimulate thinking about communication processes in general and rhetoric in particular.

  5. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games (United States)

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta


    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  6. At-Risk and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Students' On-Task Behavior and Conceptual Understanding in Earth Science-Related Topics during Inquiry-, Technology-, and Game-Based Activities (United States)

    McNeal, K.; Vasquez, Y.; Avandano, C.; Moreno, K.; Besinaiz, J.


    The Graduate K-12 (GK12) program has been developed by NSF to support the national effort to advance scientific knowledge through educational partnerships. This paper highlights research conducted during the 2006-2007 school year with the Texas A&M University GK12 project. Two elementary schools with very high numbers of at risk students - those who are poor, speak English as their second language, and have a history of failing state-mandated tests were identified to be the field site for the GK12 project. In these two, high-minority (97% and 40% African American and Hispanic) schools, 80% and 56% of the children have been identified by the state as at risk; 94% and 52% are classified as economically disadvantaged; and 46% and 2% are limited English proficient, respectively. In the past year, 30% and 73% of fifth grade students in these schools passed the science portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Data collected during a three- week period where GK12 fellows taught the fifth graders Earth science-related topics is presented. During the implementation, students were engaged in technology-, inquiry-, and game-based activities. Students were divided into low-, medium-, and high-abilities in one school, and regular and bilingual groups in the other. Pre- post open-ended multiple choice tests indicated that all but the low performing students' conceptual understanding (CU) significantly (p significantly improved during the inquiry activity, and the high and bilingual students' CU significantly improved for the game activities. Classroom observation assessments showed that there was a significant (p Significant differences between student groups' CU and on-task behavior indicated that technology-based activities showed greatest differences between the low- ability learners and the other students, whereas, inquiry-based activities tended not to show such extremes. In the case of the bilingual and regular students however, technology

  7. Passion Play: Will Wright and Games for Science Learning (United States)

    Ching, Dixie


    Researchers and instructional designers are exploring the possibilities of using video games to support STEM education in the U.S., not only because they are a popular media form among youth, but also because well-designed games often leverage the best features of inquiry learning. Those interested in using games in an educational capacity may…

  8. C# game programming cookbook for Unity 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Jeff W


    Making Games the Modular Way Important Programming ConceptsBuilding the Core Game Framework Controllers and Managers Building the Core Framework ScriptsPlayer Structure Game-Specific Player Controller Dealing with Input Player Manager User Data ManagerRecipes: Common Components Introduction The Timer Class Spawn ScriptsSet Gravity Pretend Friction-Friction Simulation to Prevent Slipping Around Cameras Input Scripts Automatic Self-Destruction Script Automatic Object SpinnerScene Manager Building Player Movement ControllersShoot 'Em Up Spaceship Humanoid Character Wheeled Vehicle Weapon Systems

  9. Power Transmission Scheduling for Generators in a Deregulated Environment Based on a Game-Theoretic Approach

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    Bingtuan Gao


    Full Text Available In a deregulated environment of the power market, in order to lower their energy price and guarantee the stability of the power network, appropriate transmission lines have to be considered for electricity generators to sell their energy to the end users. This paper proposes a game-theoretic power transmission scheduling for multiple generators to lower their wheeling cost. Based on the embedded cost method, a wheeling cost model consisting of congestion cost, cost of losses and cost of transmission capacity is presented. By assuming each generator behaves in a selfish and rational way, the competition among the multiple generators is formulated as a non-cooperative game, where the players are the generators and the strategies are their daily schedules of power transmission. We will prove that there exists at least one pure-strategy Nash equilibrium of the formulated power transmission game. Moreover, a distributed algorithm will be provided to realize the optimization in terms of minimizing the wheeling cost. Finally, simulations were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game approach for the generators in a deregulated environment.

  10. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.


    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  11. Learning with touchscreen devices: game strategies to improve geometric thinking (United States)

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando


    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The theoretical background of our study lies in the works of J. Hintikka, a Finnish logician, who developed a new type of logic, based on game theory, called the logic of inquiry. In order to experiment with this new approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics, we have prepared five game-activities based on geometric theorems in which two players play against each other in a multi-touch dynamic geometric environment (DGE). In this paper, we present the design of the first game-activity and the relationship between it and the logic of inquiry. Then, adopting the theoretical framework of the instrumental genesis by Vérillon and Rabardel (EJPE 10: 77-101, 1995), we will present and analyse significant actions and dialogues developed by students while they are solving the game. We focus on the presence of a particular way of playing the game introduced by the students, the "reflected game", and highlight its functions for the development of the task.

  12. The Prize Is Healthy Eyes: Using Games to Educate about Diabetic Retinopathy (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri N.; Garden-Robinson, Julie


    This article describes a program for prevention of diabetic retinopathy (DR) that was designed for Extension in collaboration with optometrists. The program was created to increase knowledge and awareness about risk factors for DR and included a game and take-home materials. Participants were asked to play a game similar to Wheel of Fortune. A…

  13. Gender in digital games: gameplay as cyborg performance


    Yilmaz, Serenad


    Computer games have now been around nearly forty years. The pace at which computer games have transformed has been so fast that at times it is exceeding thoughtful evaluation and criticism. Since the beginning of the 2000’s, academic understanding of this phenomenon has been trying to catch up with this pace. Feminist studies has also been observing computer gaming, theorizing it as another male-dominated cultural domain. Most of the feminist inquiries in this area have focused on representat...

  14. Origami Wheel Transformer: A Variable-Diameter Wheel Drive Robot Using an Origami Structure. (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Sa-Reum; Kim, Ji-Suk; Park, Jae-Jun; Cho, Kyu-Jin


    A wheel drive mechanism is simple, stable, and efficient, but its mobility in unstructured terrain is seriously limited. Using a deformable wheel is one of the ways to increase the mobility of a wheel drive robot. By changing the radius of its wheels, the robot becomes able to pass over not only high steps but also narrow gaps. In this article, we propose a novel design for a variable-diameter wheel using an origami-based soft robotics design approach. By simply folding a patterned sheet into a wheel shape, a variable-diameter wheel was built without requiring lots of mechanical parts and a complex assembly process. The wheel's diameter can change from 30 to 68 mm, and it is light in weight at about 9.7 g. Although composed of soft materials (fabrics and films), the wheel can bear more than 400 times its weight. The robot was able to change the wheel's radius in response to terrain conditions, allowing it to pass over a 50-mm gap when the wheel is shrunk and a 50-mm step when the wheel is enlarged.

  15. A Ten-Step Design Method for Simulation Games in Logistics Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumarola, M.; Van Staalduinen, J.P.; Verbraeck, A.


    Simulation games have often been found useful as a method of inquiry to gain insight in complex system behavior and as aids for design, engineering simulation and visualization, and education. Designing simulation games are the result of creative thinking and planning, but often not the result of a

  16. Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science (United States)

    Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike


    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry-oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! The control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference, F(2,91) = 3.6, p hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games in order to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  17. Bioethics in the Hunger Games (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce


    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  18. Serious Gaming Analytics: What Students´ Log Files Tell Us about Gaming and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Westera


    Full Text Available In this paper we explore existing log files of the VIBOA environmental policy game. Our aim is to identify relevant player behaviours and performance patterns. The VIBOA game is a 50 hours master level serious game that supports inquiry-based learning: students adopt the role of an environmental consultant in the (fictitious consultancy agency VIBOA, and have to deal with complex, multi-faceted environmental problems in an academic and methodologically sound way. A sample of 118 master students played the game. We used learning analytics to extract relevant data from the logging and find meaningful patterns and relationships. We observed substantial behavioural variability across students. Correlation analysis suggest a behavioural trade that reflects the rate of “switching” between different game objects or activities. We were able to establish a model that uses switching indicators as predictors for the efficiency of learning. Also we found slight evidence that students who display increased switching behaviours need more time to complete the games.  We conclude the paper by critically evaluating our findings, making explicit the limitations of our study and making suggestions for future research that links together learning analytics and serious gaming.

  19. Indigenous games of South African children: a rationale for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /or indigenous games are instrumental in resisting cultural imperialism, developing a national identity and branding national unity. Local research and educational programmes are proliferating and may benefit from scientific inquiry. The aim of ...

  20. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen


    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  1. Passion play: Will Wright and games for science learning (United States)

    Ching, Dixie


    Researchers and instructional designers are exploring the possibilities of using video games to support STEM education in the U.S., not only because they are a popular media form among youth, but also because well-designed games often leverage the best features of inquiry learning. Those interested in using games in an educational capacity may benefit from an examination of the work of video game designer Will Wright. Wright designs through a constructivist lens and his open-ended, sandbox games ( SimCity, The Sims, Spore) present wide "possibility spaces" that allow players to exercise their critical thinking and problem solving skills. His games invoke a delight in discovery that inspire creative acts and interest-driven learning both during and outside of the game. Finally, he reminds us that failure-based learning is a viable strategy for building expertise and understanding.

  2. Learning on electrical circuits while playing 'E&E electrical endeavours' : design research on a serious game optimizing for conceptual understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taconis, R.; Dubois, Mariette; Putter - Smits, de L.G.A.; Bergen, van H.


    In a two year design research project, a serious game was developed in a close collaboration of educational researchers, game-designers and secondary school teachers. In a first round, the game was used in classroom employing an open-inquiry format. It was found that the game had a strong impact on

  3. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin


    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel. (paper)

  4. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome


    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...

  5. Design of Wheeled Mobile Robot with Tri-Star Wheel as Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam


    Full Text Available This study aims to design, and analyze a mobile robot that can handle some of the obstacles, they are uneven surfaces, slopes, can also climb stairs. WMR in this study is Tristar wheel that is containing three wheels for each set. On average surface only two wheels in contact with the surface, if there is an uneven surface or obstacle then the third wheel will rotate with the rotation center of the wheel in contact with the leading obstacle then only one wheel in contact with the surface. This study uses the C language program. Furthermore, the minimum thrust to be generated torque of the motor and transmission is 9.56 kg. The results obtained by calculation and analysis of DC motors used must have a torque greater than 14.67 Minimum thrust to be generated motor torque and the transmission is 9.56 kg. The experimental results give good results for robot to moving forward, backward, turn left, turn right and climbing the stairs.

  6. High frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system under in-wheel motor torque ripple (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Zuo, Shuguang; Wu, Xudong; Duan, Xianglei


    With the introduction of in-wheel motor, the electric wheel system encounters new vibration problems brought by motor torque ripple excitation. In order to analyze new vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, torque ripple of in-wheel motor based on motor module and vector control system is primarily analyzed, and frequency/order features of the torque ripple are discussed. Then quarter vehicle-electric wheel system (QV-EWS) dynamics model based on the rigid ring tire assumption is established and the main parameters of the model are identified according to tire free modal test. Modal characteristics of the model are further analyzed. The analysis indicates that torque excitation of in-wheel motor is prone to arouse horizontal vibration, in which in-phase rotational, anti-phase rotational and horizontal translational modes of electric wheel system mainly participate. Based on the model, vibration responses of the QV-EWS under torque ripple are simulated. The results show that unlike vertical low frequency (lower than 20 Hz) vibration excited by road roughness, broadband torque ripple will arouse horizontal high frequency (50-100 Hz) vibration of electric wheel system due to participation of the three aforementioned modes. To verify the theoretical analysis, the bench experiment of electric wheel system is conducted and vibration responses are acquired. The experiment demonstrates the high frequency vibration phenomenon of electric wheel system and the measured order features as well as main resonant frequencies agree with simulation results. Through theoretical modeling, analysis and experiments this paper reveals and explains the high frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, providing references for the dynamic analysis, optimal design of QV-EWS.

  7. An orbital emulator for pursuit-evasion game theoretic sensor management (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Wang, Tao; Wang, Gang; Jia, Bin; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh


    This paper develops and evaluates an orbital emulator (OE) for space situational awareness (SSA). The OE can produce 3D satellite movements using capabilities generated from omni-wheeled robot and robotic arm motion methods. The 3D motion of a satellite is partitioned into the movements in the equatorial plane and the up-down motions in the vertical plane. The 3D actions are emulated by omni-wheeled robot models while the up-down motions are performed by a stepped-motor-controlled-ball along a rod (robotic arm), which is attached to the robot. For multiple satellites, a fast map-merging algorithm is integrated into the robot operating system (ROS) and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) routines to locate the multiple robots in the scene. The OE is used to demonstrate a pursuit-evasion (PE) game theoretic sensor management algorithm, which models conflicts between a space-based-visible (SBV) satellite (as pursuer) and a geosynchronous (GEO) satellite (as evader). The cost function of the PE game is based on the informational entropy of the SBV-tracking-GEO scenario. GEO can maneuver using a continuous and low thruster. The hard-in-loop space emulator visually illustrates the SSA problem solution based PE game.

  8. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael


    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  9. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis (United States)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard


    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  10. Reinventing the wheel: comparison of two wheel cage styles for assessing mouse voluntary running activity. (United States)

    Seward, T; Harfmann, B D; Esser, K A; Schroder, E A


    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differ depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs. magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to greater running distance per day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used, suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus investigators need to report wheel cage type/wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The results of this study highlight that mice will run different distances per day and average speed based on the inherent resistance present in the switch mechanism used to record data. Rapid changes in running behavior for the same mouse in the different cages demonstrate that a strong behavioral factor contributes to classic exercise outcomes in mice. Caution needs to be taken when interpreting mouse voluntary wheel running activity to

  11. The Growth of the Native American Gaming Industry: What Has the Past Provided, and What Does the Future Hold? (United States)

    Schaap, James I.


    This article presents a review which embodies a general inquiry about the growth of the Native American gaming industry and possibilities the future may hold for America's indigenous people. Tribal gaming is different from other forms of gaming. It is conducted by Native American governments as a way to carry out their natural self-governing…

  12. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Molyneux-Berry


    Full Text Available The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing. The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  13. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies. (United States)


    ... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c) Mounting... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall...

  14. Games as a Platform for Student Participation in Authentic Scientific Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Damgaard Hansen, Sidse; Planke, Tilo


    for student-research collaboration is to investigate if and how this type of game concept can strengthen authentic experimental practice and the creation of new knowledge in science education. Researchers and game developers tested the game in three separate high school classes (Class 1, 2, and 3). The tests...... were documented using video observations of students playing the game, qualitative interviews, and qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. The focus of the tests has been to study players' motivation and their experience of learning through participation in authentic scientific inquiry....... In questionnaires conducted in the two first test classes students found that the aspects of doing “real scientific research” and solving physics problems were the more interesting aspects of playing the game. However, designing a game that facilitates professional research collaboration while simultaneously...

  15. The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis


    There is a paucity of research frameworks that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. There is a need for frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games and facilitating knowledge construction and motivation to…

  16. Design of Wheeled Mobile Robot with Tri-Star Wheel as Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam


    Full Text Available This study aims to design, and analyze a mobilerobot that can handle some of the obstacles, they are unevensurfaces, slopes, can also climb stairs. WMR in this study is Tristarwheel that is containing three wheels for each set. Onaverage surface only two wheels in contact with the surface, ifthere is an uneven surface or obstacle then the third wheel willrotate with the rotation center of the wheel in contact with theleading obstacle then only one wheel in contact with the surface.This study uses the C language program. Furthermore, theminimum thrust to be generated torque of the motor andtransmission is 9.56 kg. The results obtained by calculation andanalysis of DC motors used must have a torque greater than14.67 Minimum thrust to be generated motor torque andthe transmission is 9.56 kg. The experimental results give goodresults for robot to moving forward, backward, turn left, turnright and climbing the stairs

  17. Teaching Co-Design Games in Five Weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Kjærgård, Sarasiff; Risak Schou, Gudrun


    . It is important in order to prepare students for a career as designers. The paper reports from an intense five weeks course about developing and using design games as a frame for design-oriented collaborations with people outside the core design team. Co-design is about making room for people with diverse...... interests, roles and responsibilities in rehearsing the future. Using the game metaphor to stage and engage everyone is a valuable format for collaborative inquiry and co-creating future visions – in other words exploring diversity and creating unity about values and goals. The professional designer...

  18. Grinding Characteristics Of Directionally Aligned SiC Whisker Wheel-Comparison With Al2O3 Fiber Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 山口胜美; 菊泽贤二; 洞口严; 中根正喜


    A unique SiC whisker wheel was invented,in which the whiskers were aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface.In this paper,grindabilities of the SiC whisker wheel are investigated and compared with those of other wheels of SiC grains,Al2O3 grains,as well as Al2O3 long and short fibres which were also aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface,respectively.The main research contents concern grinding characteristics of a directionally aligned SiC whisker wheel such as material-removal volume,wheel-wear rates,integrity of the ground surfaces,grinding ratios and grinding efficiency.Furthermore,grinding wheels of whiskers and fibres have a common disadvantage:they tend to load easily.The authors have proposed a simple method of loading-free grinding to overcome this propensity and investigate some related grinding characteristics under loading-free grinding conditions.

  19. Tracked Vehicle Road Wheel Puller (United States)


    employed for removing smaller-size components, such as bolts and the like. U.S. Patent No. 5,410,792, issued to Freeman (3), discloses a caster wheel ...separation of the rubberized annular layer from the outer annular surface of the wheel . Figure 5 further illustrates a modification of the wheel puller...2001. 2. Rubino et al. Pulling Tool. U.S. Patent 5,479,688, 1996. 3. Freeman. Caster Wheel Axle Extraction Apparatus. U.S. Patent 5,410,792

  20. The Windscale Inquiry: the public inquiry system on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.M.


    This thesis is concerned with the Windscale Inquiry of 1977 and its effect on the public inquiry system. It focusses both on the major influences of the Windscale Inquiry process, and on the participants, their aims, motivations, expectations and achievements. It provides the most detailed examination of the Inquiry to date and, as a result, uncovers aspects of the process while have not been explored previously. The central questions of the thesis are: Was the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry inevitable or could it have reached different conclusions? and did the Windscale Inquiry demonstrate that the public inquiry system could be used by a government to reach a decision which it favoured? The thesis argues that the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry was almost inevitable. In fact it was found that the Inspector had made up his mind in favour of oxide reprocessing before the Inquiry opened. However, this finding does not express fully the Inquiry's impact, because, as the thesis shows, the Inquiry became a mechanism which forced the nuclear industry and the government to explain, and substantially alter, some parts of their policies. The process of bringing the government and industry to account, did not alter the THORP decision, but it demonstrated that any subsequent inquiries could subject nuclear developments to searching criticism and investigation. Indeed it is suggested that the Windscale Inquiry made it impossible for subsequent Governments to proceed with nuclear expansion without subjecting them to the public inquiry process. Part I of the thesis examines the history and structure of the public Inquiry system and the relevant aspects of planning law. Part II describes the history of reprocessing and the themes which led to the public inquiry being established. Part III forms the most detailed part of the thesis and examines the Windscale Inquiry process focussing on the participants and the issues involved. (author)

  1. Grinding Wheel System (United States)

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh


    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  2. Recovery tread wheel pairs of machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor IVANOV


    Full Text Available The basic methods of resurfacing wheels are determined and analised. It’sshown that for raising resource of used wheels and decreasing requirements of railwaytransport for new wheels it’s reasonable to use methods of recovering not only geometricparameters of rim, but also its mechanical properties. It’s marked that use of infeedprofile high-speed grinding (VPVSh enables to intensify significantly process ofmechanical treatment of wheel rim profile both when its resurfacing in service and whenmanufacturing new wheel.

  3. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.


    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. The hydraulic wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cardona, A.


    The present article this dedicated to recover a technology that key in disuse for the appearance of other techniques. It is the hydraulic wheel with their multiple possibilities to use their energy mechanical rotational in direct form or to generate electricity directly in the fields in the place and to avoid the high cost of transport and transformation. The basic theory is described that consists in: the power of the currents of water and the hydraulic receivers. The power of the currents is determined knowing the flow and east knowing the section of the flow and its speed; they are given you formulate to know these and direct mensuration methods by means of floodgates, drains and jumps of water. The hydraulic receivers or properly this hydraulic wheels that are the machines in those that the water acts like main force and they are designed to transmit the biggest proportion possible of absolute work of the water, the hydraulic wheels of horizontal axis are the common and they are divided in: you rotate with water for under, you rotate with side water and wheels with water for above. It is analyzed each one of them, their components are described; the conditions that should complete to produce a certain power and formulate them to calculate it. There are 25 descriptive figures of the different hydraulic wheels

  5. Computation of wheel-rail contact force for non-mapping wheel-rail profile of Translohr tram (United States)

    Ji, Yuanjin; Ren, Lihui; Zhou, Jinsong


    Translohr tram has steel wheels, in V-like arrangements, as guide wheels. These operate over the guide rails in inverted-V arrangements. However, the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the guide wheels and guide rails are not always mapped one-to-one. In this study, a simplified elastic method is proposed in order to calculate the contact points between the wheels and the rails. By transforming the coordinates, the non-mapping geometric relationship between wheel and rail is converted into a mapping relationship. Considering the Translohr tram's multi-point contact between the guide wheel and the guide rail, the elastic-contact hypothesis take into account the existence of contact patches between the bodies, and the location of the contact points is calculated using a simplified elastic method. In order to speed up the calculation, a multi-dimensional contact table is generated, enabling the use of simulation for Translohr tram running on curvatures with different radii.

  6. Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors Toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu


    Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based curricula was employed to determine how science teacher's attitudes and efficacy where impacted while designing science-based video games. The study's mixed-method design ascertained teacher efficacy on five factors (General computer use, Science Learning, Inquiry Teaching and Learning, Synchronous chat/text, and Playing Video Games) related to technology and gaming using a web-based survey). Qualitative data in the form of online blog posts was gathered during the project to assist in the triangulation and assessment of teacher efficacy. Data analyses consisted of an Analysis of Variance and serial coding of teacher reflective responses. Results indicated participants who used computers daily have higher efficacy while using inquiry-based teaching methods and science teaching and learning. Additional emergent findings revealed possible motivating factors for efficacy. This professional development project was focused on inquiry as a pedagogical strategy, standard-based science learning as means to develop content knowledge, and creating video games as technological knowledge. The project was consistent with the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework where overlapping circles of the three components indicates development of an integrated understanding of the suggested relationships. Findings provide suggestions for development of standards-based science education software, its integration into the curriculum and, strategies for implementing technology into teaching practices.

  7. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft (United States)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  8. Wheel inspection system environment. (United States)


    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  9. The prospects for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.H.; Center, J.A.


    This paper as published is an outline of a presentation on retail wheeling of electric power. The topics discussed are development of increased wholesale transmission access, government regulatory policies on wholesale transmission, examples of past and present retail transmission access agreements, examples of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission jurisdiction over retail wheeling, and state policies on retail wheeling

  10. Do individual differences in children's curiosity relate to their inquiry-based learning? (United States)

    van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.


    This study investigates how individual differences in 7- to 9-year-olds' curiosity relate to the inquiry-learning process and outcomes in environments differing in structure. The focus on curiosity as individual differences variable was motivated by the importance of curiosity in science education, and uncertainty being central to both the definition of curiosity and the inquiry-learning environment. Curiosity was assessed with the Underwater Exploration game (Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children's scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, 32, 125-160. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002), and inquiry-based learning with the newly developed Scientific Discovery task, which focuses on the principle of designing informative experiments. Structure of the inquiry-learning environment was manipulated by explaining this principle or not. As intelligence relates to learning and possibly curiosity, it was taken into account. Results showed that children's curiosity was positively related to their knowledge acquisition, but not to their quality of exploration. For low intelligent children, environment structure positively affected their quality of exploration, but not their knowledge acquisition. There was no interaction between curiosity and environment structure. These results support the existence of two distinct inquiry-based learning processes - the designing of experiments, on the one hand, and the reflection on performed experiments, on the other - and link children's curiosity to the latter process.

  11. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.


    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  12. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W


    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  13. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide


    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  14. Acceptance of Serious Games in Psychotherapy: An Inquiry into the Stance of Therapists and Patients. (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Grabmayer, Gloria; Green, Nikos


    Serious games are computer or video games that contain elements that are specifically designed for the purpose of education or training. Serious games are increasingly being used within healthcare, but their introduction into and application in psychotherapeutic settings as an e-mental health treatment modality raises questions for both patients and therapists. Current research demonstrates the potential role and effectiveness of serious games within a psychotherapeutic context. However, a limited understanding of patients' and therapists' existing knowledge and experience of serious games, as well as of their readiness to utilize and apply them for the treatment of psychological conditions, requires further investigation. Acceptance, experience, and requirements for the utilization of serious games in therapeutic contexts were assessed through online surveys with German-speaking patients (n = 260) and psychotherapists (n = 234). Respondents' answers were analyzed by a combination of descriptive and inferential statistics by using SPSS. Current knowledge regarding serious games was very limited, with only 10.4% of patients and 11.5% of therapists reporting existing knowledge. However, a general openness toward the concept was observed: 88% of patients and 90% of therapists could envisage a therapeutic use. Patients (rs = 0.169, p = 0.006) who self-rated their level of computer and video game expertise as high were more likely to consider use within psychotherapy, compared with patients who self-rated their expertise as low. Therapists who currently play computer and video games perceive fewer disadvantages of serious game application in a psychotherapeutic context (p = 0.097). Consideration of serious game use was differentiated by the therapeutic approach (p = 0.003), specific mental disorders (highest rated relevant cases: anxiety disorders, affective disorders, disorders regarding impulse control, and adjustment disorders), and patient

  15. Middle school children's game playing preferences: Case studies of children's experiences playing and critiquing science-related educational games (United States)

    Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran

    The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.

  16. Wheel traffic effect on air-filled porosity and air permeability in a soil catena across the wheel rut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    might induce different effects on soil physical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of vehicle traffic on soil physical properties and air permeability by systematic collection of samples in a transect running from the center to the outside of the wheel rut. A field...... catena running from center of the wheel rut to un wheeled part of the field ( 0, 20, 40, 50,60 and 400 cm horizontal distance). We measured water retention and air permeability (ka) at -30, -100 and -300 hPa matric potentials. At -100 hPa, we obtained consistently lower air filled under the wheel rut......The impact of wheel traffic on soil physical properties is usually quantified by randomly collecting soil cores at specific depths below the wheeled surface. However, modeling studies as well as few measurements indicated a non-uniform stress distribution in a catena across the wheel rut, which...

  17. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.


    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  18. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.


    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822.1 In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns the wheel. The original device used mercury to provide electrical contact to the rim, and the dangers involved with the use of this heavy metal have caused the apparatus to disappear from the lecture hall.

  19. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis


    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  20. Reaction wheels for kinetic energy storage (United States)

    Studer, P. A.


    In contrast to all existing reaction wheel implementations, an order of magnitude increase in speed can be obtained efficiently if power to the actuators can be recovered. This allows a combined attitude control-energy storage system to be developed with structure mounted reaction wheels. The feasibility of combining reaction wheels with energy storage wwheels is demonstrated. The power required for control torques is a function of wheel speed but this energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the wheel. The I(2)R loss resulting from a given torque is shown to be constant, independent of the design speed of the motor. What remains, in order to efficiently use high speed wheels (essential for energy storage) for control purposes, is to reduce rotational losses to acceptable levels. Progress was made in permanent magnet motor design for high speed operation. Variable field motors offer more control flexibility and efficiency over a broader speed range.

  1. Customer loads of two-wheeled vehicles (United States)

    Gorges, C.; Öztürk, K.; Liebich, R.


    Customer usage profiles are the most unknown influences in vehicle design targets and they play an important role in durability analysis. This publication presents a customer load acquisition system for two-wheeled vehicles that utilises the vehicle's onboard signals. A road slope estimator was developed to reveal the unknown slope resistance force with the help of a linear Kalman filter. Furthermore, an automated mass estimator was developed to consider the correct vehicle loading. The mass estimation is performed by an extended Kalman filter. Finally, a model-based wheel force calculation was derived, which is based on the superposition of forces calculated from measured onboard signals. The calculated wheel forces were validated by measurements with wheel-load transducers through the comparison of rainflow matrices. The calculated wheel forces correspond with the measured wheel forces in terms of both quality and quantity. The proposed methods can be used to gather field data for improved vehicle design loads.

  2. Assessment of a Boat Fractured Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelic Goran


    Full Text Available During regular use of the steering wheel mounted on a boat, two cracks emanating from a fastener hole were noticed which, consequently, caused final fracture of the wheel. To determine the behavior of a boat steering wheel with cracks present, assessment of a fractured wheel was performed. Torque moments of the fasteners were measured prior to removing the steering wheel from the boat. Visual and dye penetrant inspection followed along with the material detection. Besides using experimental procedures, assessment of the fractured wheel was performed using finite element analysis, i.e. stress intensity factor values were numerically determined. Variation of stress intensity factor with crack length is presented. Possible causes of crack occurrence are given and they include excessive values of fastener torque moments coupled with fretting between fastener and fastener hole that was poorly machined. Results obtained by this assessment can be taken for predicting fracture behavior of a cracked steering wheel and as a reference in the design, mounting and exploitation process of steering wheels improving that way their safety in transportation environment.

  3. An Ultrasonic Wheel-Array Probe (United States)

    Drinkwater, B. W.; Brotherhood, C. J.; Freemantle, R. J.


    This paper describes the development and modeling of an ultrasonic array wheel probe scanning system. The system operates at 10 MHz using a 64 element array transducer which is 50 mm in length and located in a fluid filled wheel. The wheel is coupled to the test structure dry, or with a small amount of liquid couplant. When the wheel is rolled over the surface of the test structure a defect map (C-Scan) is generated in real-time. The tyre is made from a soft, durable polymer which has very little acoustic loss. Two application studies are presented; the inspection of sealant layers in an aluminum aircraft wing structure and the detection of embedded defects in a thick section carbon composite sample.

  4. Wheeled hopping robot (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM


    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  5. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a three...

  6. Full drive-by-wire dynamic control for four-wheel-steer all-wheel-drive vehicles (United States)

    Fahimi, Farbod


    Most of the controllers introduced for four-wheel-steer (4WS) vehicles are derived with the assumption that the longitudinal speed of the vehicle is constant. However, in real applications, the longitudinal speed varies, and the longitudinal, lateral, and yaw dynamics are coupled. In this paper, the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously. This way, the effect of driving/braking forces of the tires on the lateral and yaw motions of the vehicle are automatically included in the control laws. To address the dynamic parameter uncertainty of the vehicle, a chatter-free variable structure controller is introduced. Elimination of chatter is achieved by introducing a dynamically adaptive boundary layer thickness. It is shown via simulations that the proposed control approach performs more robustly than the controllers developed based on dynamic models, in which longitudinal speed is assumed to be constant, and only lateral speed and yaw rate are used as system states. Furthermore, this approach supports all-wheel-drive vehicles. Front-wheel-drive or rear-wheel-drive vehicles are also supported as special cases of an all-wheel-drive vehicle.

  7. Three omni-directional wheels control on a mobile robot


    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Moutinho, Ivo; Silva, Pedro; Fraga, Carlos; Pereira, Nino


    Traditional two wheels differential drive normally used on mobile robots have manoeuvrability limitations and take time to sort out. Most teams use two driving wheels (with one or two cast wheels), four driving wheels and even three driving wheels. A three wheel drive with omni-directional wheel has been tried with success, and was implemented on fast moving autonomous mobile robots. This paper deals with the mathematical kinematics description of such mobile platform, it describes the advant...

  8. Learning Gains for Core Concepts in a Serious Game on Scientific Reasoning (United States)

    Forsyth, Carol; Pavlik, Philip, Jr.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Cai, Zhiqiang; Germany, Mae-lynn; Millis, Keith; Dolan, Robert P.; Butler, Heather; Halpern, Diane


    "OperationARIES!" is an Intelligent Tutoring System that teaches scientific inquiry skills in a game-like atmosphere. Students complete three different training modules, each with natural language conversations, in order to acquire deep-level knowledge of 21 core concepts of research methodology (e.g., correlation does not mean…

  9. Minisatellite Attitude Guidance Using Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STROE


    Full Text Available In a previous paper [2], the active torques needed for the minisatellite attitude guidance from one fixed attitude posture to another fixed attitude posture were determined using an inverse dynamics method. But when considering reaction/momentum wheels, instead of this active torques computation, the purpose is to compute the angular velocities of the three reaction wheels which ensure the minisatellite to rotate from the initial to the final attitude. This paper presents this computation of reaction wheels angular velocities using a similar inverse dynamics method based on inverting Euler’s equations of motion for a rigid body with one fixed point, written in the framework of the x-y-z sequence of rotations parameterization. For the particular case A=B not equal C of an axisymmetric minisatellite, the two computations are compared: the active torques computation versus the computation of reaction wheels angular velocities ̇x , ̇y and ̇z. An interesting observation comes out from this numerical study: if the three reaction wheels are identical (with Iw the moment of inertia of one reaction wheel with respect to its central axis, then the evolutions in time of the products between Iw and the derivatives of the reaction wheels angular velocities, i.e. ̇ , ̇ and ̇ remain the same and do not depend on the moment of inertia Iw.

  10. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.


    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  11. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels. (United States)

    Diamond, Jared


    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  12. Student Inquiry in the Research Process: Part I: Inquiry Research Basics. (United States)

    Preddy, Leslie B.


    Discusses the appropriate use of inquiry among students, teachers, and library media specialists. Topics include planning for an inquiry research project; collaboration between the library media specialist and classroom teacher; national goals, standards, and best practices; teacher roles for inquiry; and evaluating inquiry research. (LRW)

  13. Wheel set run profile renewing method effectiveness estimation


    Somov, Dmitrij; Bazaras, Žilvinas; Žukauskaite, Orinta


    At all the repair enterprises, despite decreased rim wear-off resistance, after every grinding only geometry wheel profile parameters are renewed. Exploit wheel rim work edge decrease tendency is noticed what induces acquiring new wheels. This is related to considerable axle load and train speed increase and also because of wheel work edge repair method imperfection.

  14. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects. (United States)


    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  15. A collaborative narrative inquiry: Two teacher educators learning about narrative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkhuizen, Gary


    Full Text Available With its capacity to unharness the power of narrative to promote meaning-making of lived experience, narrative inquiry is developing as a credible approach to research in several areas in the field of language teaching (Johnson, 2006. This article tells the story of two narrative researchers working in language teacher education who engaged in a collaborative narrative inquiry as both participants and inquirers, in order to learn more about narrative inquiry. The ‘bounded’ nature of their inquiry design provided a feasible way for them to explore their focus of research (i.e. their learning about narrative inquiry, and led them, through an iterative and reflexive process of analysing their narrative data, to formulate what they believe are essential ingredients of principled narrative inquiry work. Four narrative inquiry variables became the scaffolding which enabled them to answer their research questions, and are offered here as a heuristic for teaching practitioners, whether they be teachers, teacher educators or researchers, to guide them in narrative inquiries into their own work.

  16. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice. (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren


    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Peculiarities of Clutch Forming Rails and Wheel Block Construction (United States)

    Shiler, V. V.; Galiev, I. I.; Shiler, A. V.


    The clutch of the wheel and rail is significantly influenced by the design features of the standard wheel pair, which are manifested in the presence of "parasitic" slipping of the wheels along the rails during its movement. The purpose of the presented work is to evaluate new design solutions for wheel sets. The research was carried out using methods of comparative simulation modelling and physical prototyping. A new design of the wheel pair (block wheel pair) is proposed, which features an independent rotation of all surfaces of the wheels in contact with the rails. The block construction of the wheel pair forms open mechanical contours with the track gauge, which completely eliminates the "parasitic" slippage. As a result, in the process of implementing traction or braking forces, the coupling coefficient of the block construction of the wheel pair is significantly higher than that of existing structures. In addition, in the run-out mode, the resistance to movement of the block wheel pair is half as much. All this will allow one to significantly reduce the energy consumption for traction of trains, wear of track elements and crew, and to increase the speed and safety of train traffic.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery. (United States)


    ... be securely fastened to the spindle and the bearing surface shall run true. When more than one wheel... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a...

  19. Module-based structure design of wheeled mobile robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Luo


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative and systematic approach for synthesizing mechanical structures of wheeled mobile robots. The principle and terminologies used for the proposed synthesis method are presented by adopting the concept of modular design, isomorphic and non-isomorphic, and set theory with its associated combinatorial mathematics. The modular-based innovative synthesis and design of wheeled robots were conducted at two levels. Firstly at the module level, by creative design and analysing the structures of classic wheeled robots, a wheel module set containing four types of wheel mechanisms, a suspension module set consisting of five types of suspension frames and a chassis module set composed of five types of rigid or articulated chassis were designed and generalized. Secondly at the synthesis level, two kinds of structure synthesis modes, namely the isomorphic-combination mode and the non-isomorphic combination mode were proposed to synthesize mechanical structures of wheeled robots; which led to 241 structures for wheeled mobile robots including 236 novel ones. Further, mathematical models and a software platform were developed to provide appropriate and intuitive tools for simulating and evaluating performance of the wheeled robots that were proposed in this paper. Eventually, physical prototypes of sample wheeled robots/rovers were developed and tested so as to prove and validate the principle and methodology presented in this paper.

  20. De-framing video games from the light of cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Perron


    Full Text Available In this essay, we shall try to step back from a blinding cinema-centric approach in order to examine the impact such a framing has caused, to question its limitations, and to reflect on the interpretive communities that have relied on film (communities we are part of, due to our film studies background to position video games as an important cultural phenomenon as well as an object worthy of scholarly attention. Using Gaudreault and Marion’s notion of cultural series and wishing to spread a French theoretical approach we find very relevant to the discussion, we will question the bases on which we frame video games as cinema. This inquiry will focus on the audiovisual nature of both media and highlight their differing technical and aesthetic aspects, which will lead us to consider video games as being closer to other forms of audiovisual media.

  1. Costs associated with wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Wheeling costs are incurred by all companies that experience a change in power flows over their transmission lines during a specific transaction, whether or not the lines of that company are part of the contract path. The costs of providing wheeling service differ from one system to another and from one kind of wheeling transaction to another. While most transactions may be completed using existing capacity, others may require an increase in line. Depending on the situation, some cost components may be high, low, negative, or not incurred at all. This article discusses two general categories of costs; transactional and capital. The former are all operation, maintenance and opportunity costs incurred in completing a specific transaction assuming the existence of adequate capacity. Capital costs are the costs of major new equipment purchases and lines necessary to provide any increased level of transmission services

  2. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Explore Australian Football Coaches' Experience with Game Sense Coaching (United States)

    Pill, Shane


    This paper reports on a project framed as a strengths-based case study in the field of sport coaching. The aim of this research was twofold. First, the project trialled. Appreciate Inquiry (AI) for sport pedagogy research and explain how AI can be used in sport coaching research. Second, using an appreciative perspective, the aim of the research…

  3. Study on design of light-weight super-abrasive wheel (United States)

    Nohara, K.; Yanagihara, K.; Ogawa, M.


    Fixed-abrasive tool, also called a grinding wheel, is produced by furnacing abrasive compound which contains abrasive grains and binding powder such as vitrified materials or resins. Fixed-abrasive tool is installed on spindle of grinding machine. And it is given 1,800-2,000 min-1 of spindle rotation for the usage. The centrifugal fracture of the compound of fixed- abrasive tool is one of the careful respects in designing. In recent years, however, super-abrasive wheel as a fixed-abrasive tool has been developed and applied widely. One of the most characteristic respects is that metal is applied for the body of grinding-wheel. The strength to hold abrasive grain and the rigidity of wheel become stronger than those of general grinding wheel, also the lifespan of fixed-abrasive tool becomes longer. The weight of fixed-abrasive tool, however, becomes heavier. Therefore, when the super-abrasive wheel is used, the power consumption of spindle motor becomes larger. It also becomes difficult for the grinding-wheel to respond to sudden acceleration or deceleration. Thus, in order to reduce power consumption in grinding and to obtain quicker frequency response of super-abrasive wheel, the new wheel design is proposed. The design accomplishes 46% weight reduction. Acceleration that is one second quicker than that of conventional grinding wheel is obtained.

  4. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel (United States)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.


    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leśniewicz, P; Kulak, M; Karczewski, M


    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  6. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.


    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  7. Teaching Co-Design Games in Five Weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Kjærgård, Sarasiff; Risak Schou, Gudrun


    This paper is about educating designers as codesigners and reflective practitioners. It is argued that an important goal in design pedagogy is learning the students’ strategies and tools for how to involve various stakeholders in designing, and how to deal with uncertainty and open design agendas....... It is important in order to prepare students for a career as designers. The paper reports from an intense five weeks course about developing and using design games as a frame for design-oriented collaborations with people outside the core design team. Co-design is about making room for people with diverse...... interests, roles and responsibilities in rehearsing the future. Using the game metaphor to stage and engage everyone is a valuable format for collaborative inquiry and co-creating future visions – in other words exploring diversity and creating unity about values and goals. The professional designer...

  8. Project considerations and design of systems for wheeling cogenerated power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Boyle, J.R.; Fish, J.H. III; Martin, W.A.


    Wheeling electric power, the transmission of electricity not owned by an electric utility over its transmission lines, is a term not generally recognized outside the electric utility industry. Investigation of the term`s origin is intriguing. For centuries, wheel has been used to describe an entire machine, not just individual wheels within a machine. Thus we have waterwheel, spinning wheel, potter`s wheel and, for an automobile, wheels. Wheel as a verb connotes transmission or modification of forces and motion in machinery. With the advent of an understanding of electricity, use of the word wheel was extended to be transmission of electric power as well as mechanical power. Today, use of the term wheeling electric power is restricted to utility transmission of power that it doesn`t own. Cogeneration refers to simultaneous production of electric and thermal power from an energy source. This is more efficient than separate production of electricity and thermal power and, in many instances, less expensive.

  9. Phenomena of Foamed Concrete under Rolling of Aircraft Wheels (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-shui; Yao, Hong-yu; Xiao, Xian-bo; Kong, Xiang-jun; Shi, Ya-jie


    Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS) is an effective technique to reduce hazards associated with aircraft overrunning runway. In order to ascertain phenomena of the foamed concrete used for EMAS under rolling of aircraft wheel, a specially designed experimental setup was built which employed Boeing 737 aircraft wheels bearing actual vertical loads to roll through the foamed concrete. A number of experiments were conducted upon this setup. It is discovered that the wheel rolls the concrete in a pure rolling manner and crushes the concrete downwards, instead of crushing it forward, as long as the concrete is not higher than the wheel axle. The concrete is compressed into powder in-situ by the wheel and then is brought to bottom of the wheel. The powder under the wheel is loose and thus is not able to sustain wheel braking. It is also found that after being rolled by the wheel the concrete exhibits either of two states, i.e. either 'crushed through' whole thickness of the concrete or 'crushed halfway', depending on combination of strength of the concrete, thickness of the concrete, vertical load the wheel carries, tire dimension and tire pressure. A new EMAS design concept is developed that if an EMAS design results in the 'crushed through' state for the main gears while the 'crushed halfway' state for the nose gear, the arresting bed would be optimal to accommodate the large difference in strength between the nose gear and the main gear of an aircraft.

  10. Personal Inquiry Manager

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus


    The Personal Inquiry Manager (PIM) is an integration approach based on a mobile application, based on Android, to support the IBL process and gives users mobile access to their inquiries. Moreover it facilitates a more self-directed approach as it enables to set up their own personal inquiries. The

  11. Influence of teacher-directed scientific inquiry on students' primal inquiries in two science classrooms (United States)

    Stone, Brian Andrew

    Scientific inquiry is widely used but pervasively misunderstood in elementary classrooms. The use of inquiry is often attached to direct instruction models of teaching, or is even passed as textbook readings or worksheets. Previous literature on scientific inquiry suggests a range or continuum beginning with teacher-directed inquiry on one extreme, which involves a question, process, and outcome that are predetermined by the teacher. On the other end of the continuum is an element of inquiry that is extremely personal and derived from innate curiosity without external constraints. This authentic inquiry is defined by the study as primal inquiry. If inquiry instruction is used in the elementary classroom, it is often manifested as teacher-directed inquiry, but previous research suggests the most interesting, motivating, and lasting content is owned by the individual and exists within the individual's own curiosity, questioning and processes. Therefore, the study examined the impact of teacher-directed inquiry in two elementary fourth grade classrooms on climate-related factors including interest, motivation, engagement, and student-generated inquiry involvement. The study took place at two elementary classrooms in Arizona. Both were observed for ten weeks during science instruction over the course of one semester. Field notes were written with regard for the inquiry process and ownership, along with climate indicators. Student journals were examined for evidence of primal inquiry, and twenty-two students were interviewed between the two classrooms for evidence of low climate-related factors and low inquiry involvement. Data from the three sources were triangulated. The results of this qualitative study include evidence for three propositions, which were derived from previous literature. Strong evidence was provided in support of all three propositions, which suggest an overall negative impact on climate-related factors of interest, motivation, and engagement for

  12. A fully omnidirectional wheeled assembly for robotic vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.


    A large number of wheeled or tracked platform mechanisms have been studied and developed to provide their mobility capability to teleoperated and autonomous robot vehicles. This paper presents an original wheeled platform based on an orthogonal wheel assembly that provides a full (three-degrees-of-freedom) omnidirectionality of the platform without wheel slippage and with the capability for simultaneous motions in rotation and translation (including sideways movements). A schematic of the basic wheel assembly is shown. The motion of the assembly is unconstrained (freewheeling) in the direction parallel to the main assembly shaft, while it is constrained in the direction perpendicular to the shaft, being driven in this direction by rotation of the shaft. A prototype platform was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of this new concept

  13. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software - RWDMES (United States)

    Blaurock, Carl


    The RWDMES is a tool for modeling the disturbances imparted on spacecraft by spinning reaction wheels. Reaction wheels are usually the largest disturbance source on a precision pointing spacecraft, and can be the dominating source of pointing error. Accurate knowledge of the disturbance environment is critical to accurate prediction of the pointing performance. In the past, it has been difficult to extract an accurate wheel disturbance model since the forcing mechanisms are difficult to model physically, and the forcing amplitudes are filtered by the dynamics of the reaction wheel. RWDMES captures the wheel-induced disturbances using a hybrid physical/empirical model that is extracted directly from measured forcing data. The empirical models capture the tonal forces that occur at harmonics of the spin rate, and the broadband forces that arise from random effects. The empirical forcing functions are filtered by a physical model of the wheel structure that includes spin-rate-dependent moments (gyroscopic terms). The resulting hybrid model creates a highly accurate prediction of wheel-induced forces. It accounts for variation in disturbance frequency, as well as the shifts in structural amplification by the whirl modes, as the spin rate changes. This software provides a point-and-click environment for producing accurate models with minimal user effort. Where conventional approaches may take weeks to produce a model of variable quality, RWDMES can create a demonstrably high accuracy model in two hours. The software consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the user to specify all analysis parameters, to evaluate analysis results and to iteratively refine the model. Underlying algorithms automatically extract disturbance harmonics, initialize and tune harmonic models, and initialize and tune broadband noise models. The component steps are described in the RWDMES user s guide and include: converting time domain data to waterfall PSDs (power spectral

  14. Control of wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; En, Chang Yong


    This paper presents a simulation and practical control system for wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment. A wheeled mobile robot with 3 wheels is fabricated and controlled by proportional derivative active force control (PD-AFC) to move in a pre-planned restricted environment to maintain the tracking errors at zero level. A control system with two loops, outer by PD controller and inner loop by Active Force Control, are designed to control the wheeled mobile robot. Fuzzy logic controller is implemented in the Active force Control to estimate the inertia matrix that will be used to calculate the actual torque applied on the wheeled mobile robot. The mobile robot is tested in two different trajectories, namely are circular and straight path. The actual path and desired path are compared.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of the GFRP material wheel hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yun-Feng


    Full Text Available In this paper, the current bicycle wheel was replaced by the ones which composed by the wheel hub with Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic (alkali free thin-walled cylinder material, hereinafter referred to as GFRP material and the protective components made up of rubber outer pneumatic pad. With the help of the basic theory of elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element “Nonlinear buckling” analysis of the wheel was carried out. The results show that the maximum elastic deformation of the wheel hub and the critical value of buckling failure load were restricted by the elasticity under the condition of external loads. Considering with the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the GFRP value of the material, it is demonstrated that the material is feasible to be used for wheel hub.

  16. Meals on Wheels Association of America (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor IVANOV


    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a theoretical study of profile high-speed grinding (PHSG for forming tread wheel sets during repair instead of turning and mold-milling. Significant disadvantages of these methods are low capacity to adapt to the tool and inhomogeneous structure of the wheel material. This leads to understated treatment regimens and difficulties in recovering wheel sets with thermal and mechanical defects. This study carried out modeling and analysis of emerging cutting forces. Proposed algorithms describe the random occurrence of the components of the cutting forces in the restoration profile of wheel sets with an inhomogeneous structure of the material. To identify the statistical features of randomly generated structures fractal dimension and the method of random additions were used. The multifractal spectrum formed is decomposed into monofractals by wavelet transform. The proposed method allows you to create the preconditions for controlling the parameters of the treatment process.

  18. Development of Diamond-like Carbon Fibre Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 山口勝美; 洞口巌; 竹内雅之


    A unique diamond-like carbon (DLC) grinding wheel was developed, in which the DLC fibres were made by rolling Al sheets coated with DLC films and aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface by laminating Al sheets together with DLC fibres. In this paper, the formation process of DLC fibres and the fabrication process of a DLC fibre wheel were investigated. Many grinding experiments were also carried out on a precision NC plane milling machine using a newly developed DLC wheel. Grinding of specimens of silicon wafers, optical glasses, quartz, granites and hardened die steel SKD11 demonstrated the capabilities of nanometer surface finish. A smooth surface with a roughness value of Ra2.5nm (Ry26nm) was achieved.

  19. UT Biomedical Informatics Lab (BMIL) probability wheel (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Cheng; Lee, Sara; Wang, Allen; Cantor, Scott B.; Sun, Clement; Fan, Kaili; Reece, Gregory P.; Kim, Min Soon; Markey, Mia K.

    A probability wheel app is intended to facilitate communication between two people, an "investigator" and a "participant", about uncertainties inherent in decision-making. Traditionally, a probability wheel is a mechanical prop with two colored slices. A user adjusts the sizes of the slices to indicate the relative value of the probabilities assigned to them. A probability wheel can improve the adjustment process and attenuate the effect of anchoring bias when it is used to estimate or communicate probabilities of outcomes. The goal of this work was to develop a mobile application of the probability wheel that is portable, easily available, and more versatile. We provide a motivating example from medical decision-making, but the tool is widely applicable for researchers in the decision sciences.

  20. Stabilization of the wheel running phenotype in mice. (United States)

    Bowen, Robert S; Cates, Brittany E; Combs, Eric B; Dillard, Bryce M; Epting, Jessica T; Foster, Brittany R; Patterson, Shawnee V; Spivey, Thomas P


    Increased physical activity is well known to improve health and wellness by modifying the risks for many chronic diseases. Rodent wheel running behavior is a beneficial surrogate model to evaluate the biology of daily physical activity in humans. Upon initial exposure to a running wheel, individual mice differentially respond to the experience, which confounds the normal activity patterns exhibited in this otherwise repeatable phenotype. To promote phenotypic stability, a minimum seven-day (or greater) acclimation period is utilized. Although phenotypic stabilization is achieved during this 7-day period, data to support acclimation periods of this length are not currently available in the literature. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the wheel running response in C57BL/6j mice immediately following exposure to a running wheel. Twenty-eight male and thirty female C57BL/6j mice (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) were acquired at eight weeks of age and were housed individually with free access to running wheels. Wheel running distance (km), duration (min), and speed (m∙min(-1)) were measured daily for fourteen days following initial housing. One-way ANOVAs were used to evaluate day-to-day differences in each wheel running character. Limits of agreement and mean difference statistics were calculated between days 1-13 (acclimating) and day 14 (acclimated) to assess day-to-day agreement between each parameter. Wheel running distance (males: F=5.653, p=2.14 × 10(-9); females: F=8.217, p=1.20 × 10(-14)), duration (males: F=2.613, p=0.001; females: F=4.529, p=3.28 × 10(-7)), and speed (males: F=7.803, p=1.22 × 10(-13); females: F=13.140, p=2.00 × 10(-16)) exhibited day-to-day differences. Tukey's HSD post-hoc testing indicated differences between early (males: days 1-3; females: days 1-6) and later (males: days >3; females: days >6) wheel running periods in distance and speed. Duration only exhibited an anomalous difference between wheel running on day 13

  1. Learning the Rules of the Game: The Nature of Game and Classroom Supports When Using a Concept-Integrated Digital Physics Game in the Middle School Science Classroom (United States)

    Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.

    Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found

  2. Wheeling rates evaluation using optimal power flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchayi, M.; El-Hawary, M. E.


    Wheeling is the transmission of electrical power and reactive power from a seller to a buyer through a transmission network owned by a third party. The wheeling rates are then the prices charged by the third party for the use of its network. This paper proposes and evaluates a strategy for pricing wheeling power using a pricing algorithm that in addition to the fuel cost for generation incorporates the optimal allocation of the transmission system operating cost, based on time-of-use pricing. The algorithm is implemented for the IEEE standard 14 and 30 bus system which involves solving a modified optimal power flow problem iteratively. The base of the proposed algorithm is the hourly spot price. The analysis spans a total time period of 24 hours. Unlike other algorithms that use DC models, the proposed model captures wheeling rates of both real and reactive power. Based on the evaluation, it was concluded that the model has the potential for wide application in calculating wheeling rates in a deregulated competitive power transmission environment. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  3. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length. (e) A seam running lengthwise that is...

  4. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin


    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  5. The effect of wheel eccentricity and run-out on grinding forces, waviness, wheel wear and chatter




    PUBLISHED The effect of grinding-wheel eccentricity on grinding forces, wheel wear and final waviness height was studied. Eccentricity was evident in force oscillations and acceleration and audio measurements. A model was developed to predict final scallop-profile shape from grinding parameters and eccentricity. Recommendations are given on detecting eccentricity and determining when eccentricity is tolerable.

  6. Finite element analysis of rail-wheel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, F.; Kharlamov, Y.A.; Islam, S.; Khan, A.A.


    Damage mechanisms such as surface cracks, plastic deformation and wear can significantly reduce the service life of railway track and rolling stock. They also have a negative impact on the rolling noise as well as: on the riding comfort. A proper understanding of these mechanisms requires a detailed knowledge of physical interaction between wheel and rail. Furthermore, demands for higher train speeds and increased axle loads implies that the consequences of larger contact. forces between wheel and rail must be thoroughly investigated. Two methods have traditionally been used to investigate the rail-wheel contact, that is the Hertz analytical method and simplified numerical method based on the boundary element (BE) method. These methods rely on a half-space assumption and a linear material model. This paper presents that to overcome these limitations, a tool for FE-based quasistatic wheel-rail contact simulations has been developed. The tool is a library of ANSYS macro routines for configuring, meshing and loading of a parametric wheel-rail model. The meshing is based on measured wheel and rail profiles. The wheel and rail materials in the contact region are treated as elastic-plastic with kinematic hardening. By controlling the values of the configuration parameters, representations of various driving cases can be generated. The quasi-static loads are obtained from train motion. Interaction phenomena such as rolling, spinning and sidling can be included. The modeling tool and a methodology are described in the presented paper. Significant differences in the calculated state between the FE solution and the traditional approaches can be observed. These differences are most significant in situations with flange contact. (author)

  7. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened...

  8. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.


    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  9. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours (United States)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie


    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  10. Modeling of the motion of automobile elastic wheel in real-time for creation of wheeled vehicles motion control electronic systems (United States)

    Balakina, E. V.; Zotov, N. M.; Fedin, A. P.


    Modeling of the motion of the elastic wheel of the vehicle in real-time is used in the tasks of constructing different models in the creation of wheeled vehicles motion control electronic systems, in the creation of automobile stand-simulators etc. The accuracy and the reliability of simulation of the parameters of the wheel motion in real-time when rolling with a slip within the given road conditions are determined not only by the choice of the model, but also by the inaccuracy and instability of the numerical calculation. It is established that the inaccuracy and instability of the calculation depend on the size of the step of integration and the numerical method being used. The analysis of these inaccuracy and instability when wheel rolling with a slip was made and recommendations for reducing them were developed. It is established that the total allowable range of steps of integration is s; the strongest instability is manifested in the calculation of the angular and linear accelerations of the wheel; the weakest instability is manifested in the calculation of the translational velocity of the wheel and moving of the center of the wheel; the instability is less at large values of slip angle and on more slippery surfaces. A new method of the average acceleration is suggested, which allows to significantly reduce (up to 100%) the manifesting of instability of the solution in the calculation of all parameters of motion of the elastic wheel for different braking conditions and for the entire range of steps of integration. The results of research can be applied to the selection of control algorithms in vehicles motion control electronic systems and in the testing stand-simulators

  11. Teachers' Language on Scientific Inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry? (United States)

    Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof


    With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.

  12. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology (United States)

    Harkness, Nick


    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  13. Wheel running, voluntary ethanol consumption, and hedonic substitution. (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A


    Few studies have examined the relationship between naturally rewarding behaviors and ethanol drinking behaviors in mice. Although natural and drug reinforcers activate similar brain circuitry, there is behavioral evidence suggesting food and drug rewards differ in perceived value. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationships between naturally reinforcing stimuli and consumption of ethanol in ethanol preferring C57BL/6J mice. Mouse behaviors were observed after the following environmental manipulations: standard or enhanced environment, accessible or inaccessible wheel, and presence or absence of ethanol. Using a high-resolution volumetric drinking monitor and wheel running monitor, we evaluated whether alternating access to wheel running modified ethanol-related behaviors and whether alternating access to ethanol modified wheel running or subsequent ethanol-related behaviors. We found that ethanol consumption remains stable with alternating periods of wheel running. Wheel running increases in the absence of ethanol and decreases upon reintroduction of ethanol. Upon reintroduction of ethanol, an alcohol deprivation effect was seen. Collectively, the results support theories of hedonic substitution and suggest that female C57BL/6J mice express ethanol seeking and craving under these specific conditions.

  14. Study on the Attitude Control of Spacecraft Using Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Du


    Full Text Available Attitude determination and control of satellite is important component which determines the accomplish satellite missions. In this study, attitude control using reaction wheels and momentum dumping of wheels are considered. Attitude control law is designed by Sliding control and LQR. Attitude maneuver control law is obtained by Shooting method. Wheels momentum dumping control law is designed by Bang-Bang control. Four reaction wheels are configurated for minimized the electric power consumption. Wheels control torque and magnetic moment of magnetic torquer are limited.

  15. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy (United States)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O


    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  16. Benefits of magnesium wheels for consumer cars (United States)

    Frishfelds, Vilnis; Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis


    Advantages and disadvantages of magnesium wheels are considered based on a mechanical model of a car. Magnesium wheels are usually applied to racing cars as they provide slightly better strength/weight ratio than aluminum alloys. Do they provide notable benefits also for the everyday user when the car speeds do not exceed allowed speed limit? Distinct properties of magnesium rims are discussed. Apart from lighter weight of magnesium alloys, they are also good in dissipating the energy of vibrations. The role of energy dissipation in the rim of a wheel is estimated by a quarter car model. Improvements to safety by using the magnesium wheels are considered. Braking distance and responsiveness of the car is studied both with and without using an Anti Blocking System (ABS). Influence of rim weight on various handling parameters of the car is quantitatively tested.

  17. The Fatigue Life Prediction of Train Wheel Rims Containing Spherical Inclusions (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Chen, Huanguo; Cai, Li; Chen, Pei; Qian, Jiacheng; Wu, Jianwei


    It is a common phenomenon that fatigue crack initiation occurs frequently in the inclusions of wheel rims. Research on the fatigue life of wheel rims with spherical inclusions is of great significance on the reliability of wheels. To find the danger point and working condition of a wheel, the stress state of the wheel rim with spherical inclusions was analyzed using the finite element method. Results revealed that curve conditions are dangerous. The critical plane method, based on the cumulative fatigue damage theory, was used to predict the fatigue life of the wheel rim and whether it contained spherical inclusions or not under curve conditions. It was found that the fatigue life of the wheel rim is significantly shorter when the wheel rim contains spherical inclusions. Analysis of the results can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for train operations and maintenance.

  18. Further study on the wheel-rail impact response induced by a single wheel flat: the coupling effect of strain rate and thermal stress (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Han, Liangliang


    A comprehensive dynamic finite-element simulation method was proposed to study the wheel-rail impact response induced by a single wheel flat based on a 3-D rolling contact model, where the influences of the structural inertia, strain rate effect of wheel-rail materials and thermal stress due to the wheel-rail sliding friction were considered. Four different initial conditions (i.e. pure mechanical loading plus rate-independent, pure mechanical loading plus rate-dependent, thermo-mechanical loading plus rate-independent, and thermo-mechanical loading plus rate-dependent) were involved into explore the corresponding impact responses in term of the vertical impact force, von-Mises equivalent stress, equivalent plastic strain and shear stress. Influences of train speed, flat length and axle load on the flat-induced wheel-rail impact response were discussed, respectively. The results indicate that the maximum thermal stresses are occurred on the tread of the wheel and on the top surface of the middle rail; the strain rate hardening effect contributes to elevate the von-Mises equivalent stress and restrain the plastic deformation; and the initial thermal stress due to the sliding friction will aggravate the plastic deformation of wheel and rail. Besides, the wheel-rail impact responses (i.e. impact force, von-Mises equivalent stress, equivalent plastic strain, and XY shear stress) induced by a flat are sensitive to the train speed, flat length and axle load.

  19. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria


    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Benešová


    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Benesova


    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.

  2. Mentoring and Argumentation in a Game-Infused Science Curriculum (United States)

    Gould, Deena L.; Parekh, Priyanka


    Engaging in argumentation from evidence is challenging for most middle school students. We report the design of a media-based mentoring system to support middle school students in engaging in argumentation in the context of a game-infused science curriculum. Our design emphasizes learners apprenticing with college student mentors around the socio-scientific inquiry of a designed video game. We report the results of a mixed-methods study examining the use of this media-based mentoring system with students ages 11 through 14. We observed that the discourse of groups of students that engaged with the game-infused science curriculum while interacting with college student mentors via a social media platform demonstrated statistically significant higher ratings of cognitive, epistemic, and social aspects of argumentation than groups of students that engaged with the social media platform and game-infused science curriculum without mentors. We further explored the differences between the Discourses of the mentored and non-mentored groups. This analysis showed that students in the mentored groups were invited, guided, and socialized into roles of greater agency than students in the non-mentored groups. This increased agency might explain why mentored groups demonstrated higher levels of scientific argumentation than non-mentored groups. Based on our analyses, we argue that media-based mentoring may be designed around a video game to support middle school students in engaging in argumentation from evidence.

  3. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access. (United States)

    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore


    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Analysis of wheel rim - Material and manufacturing aspects (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Singh, Abhiraaj; James, Eldhose


    The tire in an automobile is supported by the rim of the wheel and its shape and dimensions should be adjusted to accommodate a specified tire. In this study, a tire of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial operation used to define and specify the quality of the product. The design and modelling reduces the risk of damage involved in the manufacturing process. The design performed on this wheel rim is done on modelling software. After designing the model, it is imported for analysis purposes. The analysis software is used to calculate the different types of force, stresses, torque, and pressures acting upon the rim of the wheel and it reduces the time spent by a human for mathematical calculations. The analysis carried out considers two different materials namely structural steel and aluminium. Both materials are analyzed and their performance is noted.

  5. Blocking of conditioned taste avoidance induced by wheel running. (United States)

    Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald


    In Experiment 1, compared to non-reinforced presentation of a food stimulus (A-->no US), the association of a food stimulus with wheel running (A-->US) blocked subsequent avoidance of a distinctive flavor (X), when both the food and flavor were followed by wheel running (AX-->US). Experiment 2 replicated and extended the blocking effect, demonstrating that the amount of avoidance of X after AX-->wheel training depended on the correlation between A-alone trials and wheel running-the predictiveness of the A stimulus. The present study is the first to demonstrate associative blocking of conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) induced by wheel running and strongly implicates associative learning as the basis for this kind of avoidance. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Scientific Inquiry Literacy of Prospective Biology Teachers through Inquiry Lab Project in Microbiology (United States)

    Kusnadi, K.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Redjeki, S.; Aryantha, I. N. P.


    The implementation of the inquiry laboratory based project to enhance scientific inquiry literacy of prospective biology teachers in Microbiology course has been done. The inquiry lab based project was designed by three stages were debriefing of basic microbiology lab skills, guided inquiry and free inquiry respectively. The Study was quasi experimental with control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were prospective biology teachers consists of 80 students. The scientific inquiry literacy instrument refers to ScInqLiT by Wenning. The results showed that there was significant difference of scientific inquiry literacy posttest scores between experiment and control (α 0,05) and was obtained N-gain score was 0.49 (medium) to experiment and 0.24 (low) to control. Based on formative assessment showed that development of student’s scientific attitude, research and microbiology lab skills during conducting project were increased. Student’s research skills especially in identification of variables, constructing a hypothesis, communicating and concluding were increased. During implementation of inquiry project also showed that they carried out mind and hands-on and so collaborative group investigation lab activities. Our findings may aid in reforming higher-education, particularly in microbiology laboratory activities to better promote scientific inquiry literacy, scientific attitude, research and laboratory skills.

  7. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin


    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  8. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  9. Inquiry-based leading and learning : Inquiry-based working by school boards, school leaders and teachers and students’ inquiry habit of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, E.


    Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to

  10. Fiches pratiques: Le Charme noir; Aux Armes, citoyens!; La Roue de l'histoire; Lexique de didactique: Les 39 Marches (Practical Ideas: Black Charm; To Arms, Citizens!; The Wheel of History; The Vocabulary of Teaching: 39 Steps). (United States)

    Hudon, Pierrette; And Others


    Three class activities for French second language instruction are described (interpretation of a literary text with reinterpretation by a less experienced group; an exercise in political expressions; and a wheel-of-history game), and a sequel in a series of articles on the vocabulary of language teaching is presented. (MSE)

  11. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David


    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic and Acoustic Characterisation of Automotive Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Curà


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the dynamic and acoustic characterisation of an automotive wheel. In particular, an experimental research activity previously performed by the authors about the dynamic behaviour of automotive wheels has been extended to the acoustic field.

  13. Reinventing the Wheel: The Economic Benefits of Wheeled Transportation in Early British Colonial West Africa


    Isaías N. Chaves; Stanley L. Engerman; James A. Robinson


    One of the great puzzles of Sub-Saharan African economic history is that wheeled transportation was barely used prior to the colonial period. Instead, head porterage was the main method of transportation. The consensus among historians is that this was a rational adaption to the underlying conditions and factor endowments. In this paper we undertake the first systematic investigation of the relative costs of the different forms of wheeled transportation in Africa. We focus on calculating the ...

  14. Kinematics and dynamics modelling of a mecanum wheeled mobile platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS


    Full Text Available analysis for mecanum wheeled mobile platform same time during the operation of the mobile platform, a maximum of eighty-one combinations of wheels (four wheels: 1,2, 3 and 4) and directions of rotational velocity of wheels (three directions of rotation... = I ’ (15) where ai is a constant depending on the wheel number and ai = -1 for i = 1 and 4, and ai = 1 for i = 2 and 3, T is the torque developed on the vehicle that changes the posture of the vehicle, I is the mass inertia of the vehicle...

  15. Evaluating the use of programming games for building early analytical thinking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tsalapatas


    Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners excel academically independently of theme area. It is on high demand in the world of work especially in innovation related sectors. It involves finding a viable solution to a problem by identifying goals, parameters, and resources available for deployment. These are strategy elements in game play. They further constitute good practices in programming. This work evaluates how serious games based on visual programming as a solution synthesis tool within exploration, inquiry, and collaboration can help learners build structured mindsets. It analyses how a visual programming environment that supports experimentation for building intuition on potential solutions to logical puzzles, and then encourages learners to synthesize a solution interactively, helps learners through gaming principles to build self-esteem on their problem solving ability, to develop algorithmic thinking capacity, and to stay engaged in learning.

  16. Pre-exposure to wheel running disrupts taste aversion conditioning. (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C


    When rats are given access to a running wheel after drinking a flavored solution, they subsequently drink less of that flavor solution. It has been suggested that running produces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This study explored whether CTA is eliminated by prior exposure to wheel running [i.e., unconditioned stimulus (UCS) pre-exposure effect]. The rats in the experimental group (UW) were allowed to wheel run for 1 h daily for seven consecutive days of pre-exposure. Rats in the two other groups had either access to locked wheels (LW group) or were maintained in their home cages (HC group) during the pre-exposure days. All rats were then exposed to four paired and four unpaired trials using a "ABBAABBA" design. Conditioning trials were composed of one flavored liquid followed by 60-min access to wheel running. For the unpaired trials, rats received a different flavor not followed by the opportunity to run. All rats were then initially tested for water consumption followed by tests of the two flavors (paired or unpaired) in a counterbalanced design. Rats in the UW group show no CTA to the liquid paired with wheel running, whereas LW and HC groups developed CTA. These results indicate that pre-exposure to wheel running (i.e., the UCS), eliminates subsequent CTA.

  17. Tensegrital Wheel for Enhanced Surface Mobility, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations introduces the "tensegrital wheel" an inventive concept for wheeled locomotion that exploits the geometric and mechanical attributes of a tensegrity...

  18. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.


    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822. In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns…

  19. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel disturbances are some of the largest sources of noise on sensitive telescopes. Such wheel-induced mechanical noises are not well characterized....

  20. A Full Disturbance Model for Reaction Wheels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.P.; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; Seiler, R; van Put, P.; Cottaar, E.J.E.


    Reaction wheels are rotating devices used for the attitude control of spacecraft. However, reaction wheels also generate undesired disturbances in the form of vibrations, which may have an adverse effect on the pointing accuracy and stability of spacecraft (optical) payloads. A disturbance model for

  1. Teaching Science through Inquiry (United States)

    Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid W.; Clough, Michael P.


    Science education efforts have long emphasized inquiry, and inquiry and scientific practices are prominent in contemporary science education reform documents (NRC 1996; NGSS Lead States 2013). However, inquiry has not become commonplace in science teaching, in part because of misunderstandings regarding what it means and entails (Demir and Abell…

  2. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running. (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T


    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  3. A rotating target wheel system for gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.


    A description is given for a low-mass, rotating target wheel to be used within the Gammasphere target chamber. This system was developed for experiments employing high beam currents in order to extend lifetimes of targets using low-melting point target material. The design is based on a previously successful implementation of rotating target wheels for the Argonne Positron Experiment (APEX) as well as the Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). A brief history of these rotating target wheel systems is given as well as a discussion on target preparation and performance

  4. Two new wheels for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia


    Juergen Zimmer (Max Planck Institute), Roy Langstaff (TRIUMF/Victoria) and Sergej Kakurin (JINR), in front of one of the completed wheels of the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. A decade of careful preparation and construction by groups in three continents is nearing completion with the assembly of two of the four 4 m diameter wheels required for the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. The first two wheels have successfully passed all their mechanical and electrical tests, and have been rotated on schedule into the vertical position required in the experiment. 'This is an important milestone in the completion of the ATLAS End Cap Calorimetry' explains Chris Oram, who heads the Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter group. Like most experiments at particle colliders, ATLAS consists of several layers of detectors in the form of a 'barrel' and two 'end caps'. The Hadronic Calorimeter layer, which measures the energies of particles such as protons and pions, uses two techniques. The barrel part (Tile Calorimeter) cons...

  5. Wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels. (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter R; Levy, Charles E; Dietrich, Frederick D; Winkler, Sandra Hubbard; Tillman, Mark D; Chow, John W


    To assess wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels using qualitative interview methods. Qualitative evaluations were conducted in a laboratory setting with a focus on users' experiences using power assist wheel in their naturalistic environments. Participants consisted of seven women and 13 men (M(age) = 42.75, SD = 14.68) that included one African American, one Hispanic, 17 whites, and one individual from Zambia. Qualitative interviews were conducted before, during, and after use of a power assist wheel. Main outcome measures included the wheelchair users' evaluations and experiences related to the use of power assist wheels. The primary evaluations included wheeling on challenging terrains, performance of novel activities, social/family aspects, fatigue, and pain. These descriptions indicated that most participants perceived positive experiences with the power assist wheels, including access to new and different activities. Secondary evaluations indicated that the unit was cumbersome and prohibitive for some participants because of difficulties with transport in and out of a vehicle and battery life. Most participants felt that power assist wheels provided more independence and social opportunities. The power assist wheel seems to offer physical and social benefits for most wheelers. Clinicians should consider users' home environment and overall life circumstances before prescribing.

  6. Resting Is Rusting: A Critical View on Rodent Wheel-Running Behavior. (United States)

    Richter, Sophie Helene; Gass, Peter; Fuss, Johannes


    Physical exercise is known to exert various beneficial effects on brain function and bodily health throughout life. In biomedical research, these effects are widely studied by introducing running wheels into the cages of laboratory rodents. Yet, although rodents start to run in the wheels immediately, and perform wheel-running excessively on a voluntary basis, the biological significance of wheel-running is still not clear. Here, we review the current literature on wheel-running and discuss potentially negative side-effects that may give cause for concern. We particularly emphasize on analogies of wheel-running with stereotypic and addictive behavior to stimulate further research on this topic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Latent effectiveness of desiccant wheel: A silica gels- water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, A. A.; Mohamed, S. A.


    A latent heat effectiveness model in term of dimensionless groups? =f (NTU, m * ,Crm * ) for energy wheel has been analytically derived. The energy wheel is divided into humidification and dehumidification sections. For each section macroscopic mass differential equations for gas and the matrix were applied. In this process local latent effectiveness (? c ,? h ) for the humidification and dehumidification section of the wheel were obtained. The Latent effectiveness of the wheel is then derived form local effectiveness [? =f (? c ,? h)]. The model is compared with the existing experimental investigation and manufacturer data for energy wheel. More than 90% of the experimental data within a confidence limit of 95%. (Author)

  8. Exercise in Inquiry: Critical Thinking in an Inquiry-Based Exercise Physiology Laboratory Course. (United States)

    DiPasquale, Dana M.; Mason, Cheryl L.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.


    Describes an inquiry-based teaching method implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Indicates students' strong, positive feelings about the inquiry-based teaching method and shows that inquiry-based learning results in a higher order of learning not typically observed in traditional style classes. This teaching method…

  9. Analysis of power wheeling services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepel, R.C.; Jewell, W.; Johnson, R.; Maddigan, R.


    Purpose of this study is to examine existing wheeling arrangements to determine the terms of the agreements, to analyze the terms relative to regulatory goals, and finally, to suggest ways in which the arrangements can be modified to lead to outcomes more closely in line with the goals. The regulatory goals that are considered are: Does the arrangement meet the revenue requirement of the wheeling firm. Is efficient use promoted. Are the costs fairly apportioned. And, is the arrangement practical and feasible to implement.

  10. Wheels With Sense (United States)

    Cambridge, Dwayne; Clauss, Douglas; Hewson, Fraser; Brown, Robert; Hisrich, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus


    We describe a student intrapreneurial project in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. At the request of a major fortune 100 company, a study has been made of the technical and marketing issues for a new business of selling sensors on commercial vehicle wheels for monitoring pressure, temperature, rotations, and vibrations, as well as providing identification. The nature of the physics involved in the choice of the appropriate device such as capacitive or piezoresistive sensors is discussed, along with the possibility of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology and RFID (radiofrequency identification) readout on wheels. Five options (status quo, in-house development, external business acquisition, a large business national partnership, and a small-business Cleveland consortium partnership) were studied from both technological and business perspectives to commercialize the technology. The decision making process for making a choice is explained.

  11. Dynamic Modeling and Vibration Analysis for the Vehicles with Rigid Wheels Based on Wheel-Terrain Interaction Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang


    Full Text Available The contact mechanics for a rigid wheel and deformable terrain are complicated owing to the rigid flexible coupling characteristics. Bekker’s equations are used as the basis to establish the equations of the sinking rolling wheel, to vertical load pressure relationship. Since vehicle movement on the Moon is a complex and on-going problem, the researcher is poised to simplify this problem of vertical loading of the wheel. In this paper, the quarter kinetic models of a manned lunar rover, which are both based on the rigid road and deformable lunar terrain, are used as the simulation models. With these kinetic models, the vibration simulations were conducted. The simulation results indicate that the quarter kinetic model based on the deformable lunar terrain accurately reflects the deformable terrain’s influence on the vibration characteristics of a manned lunar rover. Additionally, with the quarter kinetic model of the deformable terrain, the vibration simulations of a manned lunar rover were conducted, which include a parametric analysis of the wheel parameters, vehicle speed, and suspension parameters. The results show that a manned lunar rover requires a lower damping value and stiffness to achieve better vibration performance.

  12. Diagnostics of the wheel thread of railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak


    Full Text Available Purpose. At present, the devastating impact of faulty wheels on rails on the move is a major problem of railway transport. This factor is one of the most important, which causes the shift from traditional manual methods of verification and external examination to the automated diagnostic system of rolling stock in operation. Methodology. To achieve this goal the main types of wheel damages and the way they appear are analyzed. The methods for defects and abnormalities of the wheel thread determining as well as their advantages and disadvantages were presented. Nowadays these methods are under usage in both the international practice and in the one of the CIS countries. Findings. The faulty wheel sound on the move was researched and analyzed. The necessity of using the automated system, enabling one to reduce significantly the human factor is substantiated. Originality. The method to determine the wheel thread damage on the basis of a sound diagnostic is proposed. Practical value. Automatic tracking system of the wheels condition allows performing their more qualitative diagnostics, detecting a fault at the early stage and forecasting the rate of its extension. Besides detecting the location of the faulty wheel in the rolling stock, it is also possible to trace the dynamics of the fault extension and to give the recommendations on how to eliminate it.

  13. Design procedure for a wind-wheel with self-adjusting blade mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady A. Oborsky


    Full Text Available Developed is a wind-wheel design equipped with the self-adjusting blade. The blade is positioned eccentrically to the balance wheel and can freely rotate around its axis. Elaborated is the method of calculating the energy characteristics for a wind-wheel with the self-adjusting blade, considering not only the wind force but the force of air counter flow resistance to the blade’s rotation. Initially, the blade being located at an angle α = 45 to the wheel rotation plane, the air flow rotates the wheel with the maximum force. Thus, the speed of rotation increases that involves the increase in air counter flow resistance and results in blade turning with respective angle α reduction. This, consequently, reduces the torque. When the torsional force and the resistance enter into equilibrium, the blade takes a certain angle α, and the wheel speed becomes constant. This wind-wheel design including a self-adjusting blade allows increasing the air flow load ratio when compared to the wind-wheel equipped with a jammed blade.

  14. Dynamic motion stabilization for front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu


    Full Text Available This article presents a new dynamic motion stabilization approach to front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles. The approach includes functions such as traction control system, electronic differential system, and electronic stability control. The presented electric vehicle was endowed with anti-skid performance in longitudinal accelerated start; smooth turning with less tire scrubbing; and safe driving experience in two-dimensional steering. The analysis of the presented system is given in numerical derivations. For practical verifications, this article employed a hands-on electric vehicle named Corsa-electric vehicle to carry out the tests. The presented approach contains an integrated scheme which can achieve the mentioned functions in a single microprocessor. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented methodology.

  15. Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaste, Margus; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo A.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, E.T.; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria


    Inquiry-based learning is gaining popularity in science curricula, international research and development projects as well as teaching. One of the underlying reasons is that its success can be significantly improved due to the recent technical developments that allow the inquiry process to be

  16. Primary teachers conducting inquiry projects : effects on attitudes towards teaching science and conducting inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Hest, Erna G.W.C.M.; Poortman, Cindy Louise


    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers’ attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of

  17. 77 FR 70478 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, Wheeling Office, A Division Of RG Steel, LLC, Including On-Site Leased... (United States)


    ... Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives LLC, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal..., Wheeling Office, a division of RG Steel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia (TA-W-81,880) and Mountain State Carbon, LLC, including...

  18. Wheel-running attenuates intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats: sex differences. (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Hunter, Robb G; Carroll, Marilyn E


    This experiment examines the effect of access to a running-wheel on intravenous cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Rats maintained at 85% of their free-feeding body weight were first exposed to the running-wheel alone during the 6-h sessions until behavior stabilized for 14 days. Intravenous cannulae were then implanted, and the rats were trained to self-administer a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg) under a fixed-ratio (FR 1) schedule during the 6-h sessions, while the wheel remained inactive and cocaine self-administration stabilized (cocaine-only condition). Next, the wheel access and cocaine self-administration were concurrently available followed by a period of cocaine-only. Behavior was allowed to stabilize for 10 days at each phase. During wheel access, cocaine infusions decreased by 21.9% in males and 70.6% in females compared to the cocaine-only condition; the effect was statistically significant in females. Infusions increased to baseline levels when wheel access was terminated. When cocaine infusions were concurrently available, wheel revolutions were reduced by 63.7% and 61.5% in males and females, respectively, compared to the wheel-only condition. This result did not differ due to sex, but it was statistically significant when data from males and females were combined. These results indicate that wheel-running activity had a greater suppressant effect on cocaine self-administration in females than in males, and in females, wheel-running and cocaine self-administration are substitutable as reinforcers.

  19. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)


    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  20. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin. (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  1. Habituation contributes to the decline in wheel running within wheel-running reinforcement periods. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; McLaughlin, Ryan J


    Habituation appears to play a role in the decline in wheel running within an interval. Aoyama and McSweeney [Aoyama, K., McSweeney, F.K., 2001. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 76, 289-302] showed that when a novel stimulus was presented during a 30-min interval, wheel-running rates following the stimulus increased to levels approximating those earlier in the interval. The present study sought to assess the role of habituation in the decline in running that occurs over a briefer interval. In two experiments, rats responded on fixed-interval 30-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 45 s. Forty reinforcers were completed in each session. In the first experiment, the brake and chamber lights were repeatedly activated and inactivated after 25 s of a reinforcement interval had elapsed to assess the effect on running within the remaining 20 s. Presentations of the brake/light stimulus occurred during nine randomly determined reinforcement intervals in a session. In the second experiment, a 110 dB tone was emitted after 25 s of the reinforcement interval. In both experiments, presentation of the stimulus produced an immediate decline in running that dissipated over sessions. No increase in running following the stimulus was observed in the first experiment until the stimulus-induced decline dissipated. In the second experiment, increases in running were observed following the tone in the first session as well as when data were averaged over several sessions. In general, the results concur with the assertion that habituation plays a role in the decline in wheel running that occurs within both long and short intervals. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  3. Wheel liner design for improved sound and structural performances (United States)

    Oltean, Alexandru; Diaconescu, Claudiu; Tabacu, Ştefan


    Vehicle noise is composed mainly of wheel-road noise and noise from the power unit. At low speeds power unit noise dominates while at high speeds wheel-road noise dominates as wheel-road noise level increases approximately logarithmically with speed. The wheel liner is designed as a component of the vehicle that has a multiple role. It has to prevent the dirt or water from the road surface that are engaged by the wheel to access the engine/front bay. Same time it has the important role to reduce perceived noised in the passenger’s compartment that comes from the wheel-road interaction. Progress in plastic injection moulding technology allowed for new structures to be developed - nonwoven materials in combination with a PP based carrier structure which benefits from a cell structure caused by MuCell injection moulding. The results are light parts with increased sound absorption performances. An adapted combination of materials and production processes can provide the solution for stiff yet soundproofing structures valued for modern vehicles. Sound absorption characteristics of materials used for wheel liners applications were reported in this study. Different polypropylene and polyester fibre-based thermally bonded nonwovens varying in weight and thickness were investigated. Having as a background the performances of the nonwoven material the microcellular structure was part of the analysis. Acoustical absorptive behaviour was explained by analysing the results obtained using the impedance tube and correlating with the knowledge of materials structure.

  4. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... grinding wheels. Face shields or goggles in good condition shall be worn when operating a grinding wheel...

  5. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice (United States)

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.


    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  6. Primary Teachers Conducting Inquiry Projects: Effects on Attitudes towards Teaching Science and Conducting Inquiry (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; van Hest, Erna G. W. C. M.; Poortman, Cindy


    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers' attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of teachers' attitudes. Teachers felt less anxious…

  7. The Ferris Wheel and Justifications of Curvature (United States)

    Stevens, Irma E.; Moore, Kevin C.


    This report discusses the results of semi-structured clinical interviews with ten prospective secondary mathematics teachers who were provided with dynamic images of Ferris wheels. We asked the students to graph the relationship between the distance a rider traveled around the Ferris wheel and the height of the rider from the ground. We focus on…

  8. Analysis of motion of the three wheeled mobile platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskot Anna


    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the designing motion of the three wheeled mobile platform under the unsteady conditions. In this paper the results of the analysis based on the dynamics model of the three wheeled mobile robot, with two rear wheels and one front wheel has been included The prototype has been developed by the author's construction assumptions that is useful to realize the motion of the platform in a various configurations of wheel drives, including control of the active forces and the direction of their settings while driving. Friction forces, in longitudinal and in the transverse directions, are considered in the proposed model. Relation between friction and active forces are also included. The motion parameters of the mobile platform has been determined by adopting classical approach of mechanics. The formulated initial problem of platform motion has been solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order. Results of motion analysis with motion parameters values are determined and sample results are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acun Kardianawati


    Full Text Available Tantangan terhadap pesatnya perkembangan Usaha Mikro, Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM adalah bagaimana UMKM dapat menemukan strategi yang tepat untuk memenangkan persaingan. Inovasi pada e-marketplace UMKM adalah salah satu cara yang efektif dalam usaha untuk memenangkan persaingan, yang antara lain dapat diterapkan pada sistem transaksi online. Sistem transaksi online adalah salah satu elemen vital dari e-marketplace yang dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan elemen dari game desain yang disebut dengan gamifikasi untuk meningkatkan pengalaman, loyalty, brand awareness, dan motivasi pembeli dalam melakukan transaksi. Permasalahan yang sering terjadi dalam gamifikasi ini adalah pada konsep dan desain yang tidak sistematis, pola desain yang sempit dan kaku, terlalu berorientasi pada reward dan tidak berorientasi pada pengguna. Berkaitan dengan permasalahan ini, gamifikasi yang bertujuan mempengaruhi perilaku pengguna selaras dengan konsep Appreciative Inquiry (AI sehingga dapat diterapkan pada desain gamifikasi. Analisa dengan Appreciative Inquiry menghasilkan penerapan gamifikasi yang dilakukan pada eksplorasi dan pemilihan produk untuk mendorong pengguna untuk sering melihat produk-produk UMKM. Penerapan gamifikasi tersebut ditujukan untuk pembeli dan penjual, dimana dari sisi pembeli dapat memotivasi dalam melihat-lihat produk dan dari sisi penjual termotivasi dalam hal penyajian produknya. Gamifikasi ini memberikan keunikan dan pembeda dari pesaing serta dapat meningkatkan kemungkinan pembelian produk. Ranking produk yang paling sering dilihat juga memotivasi penjual atau penyedia produk untuk dapat menyajikan produknya dengan sebaik-baiknya. Dengan hal-hal tersebut maka akan dapat meningkatkan daya saing dari E-Marketplace UMKM. Kata Kunci: gamifikasi, Appreciative Inquiry, E-Marketplace, UMKM.

  10. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields or goggles in good condition shall be worn when operating a grinding wheel. [53 FR 32526, Aug. 25, 1988] ...

  11. Approaches to Inquiry Teaching: Elementary teacher's perspectives (United States)

    Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy


    Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.

  12. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  13. Magnetic power conversion with machines containing full or porous wheel heat exchangers (United States)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Kitanovski, Andrej; Diebold, Marc; Gonin, Cyrill; Vuarnoz, Didier


    A first part of the article contains a thermodynamic theory describing the temperature distribution in a Curie wheel. The occurring nonlinear ordinary differential equation has an analytical solution. If a Curie wheel is stabilized by levitation, it is named Palmy wheel. These wheels show a full structure, and because of this reason, their uptake of heat from a flame (Curie wheel) or by (solar) light absorption (Palmy wheel) only on the periphery of a cylinder is very limited. To improve the method, a modification of the principle by introducing a convective heat transport into a porous wheel is discussed. By this the power conversion rate from a heat flux to mechanical and electric power is very much increased. The second part of the article presents results of a theoretical/numerical study on the efficiencies of magnetic power conversion plants operating with porous wheels. Furthermore, these efficiencies—which are promising—are compared with those of existing power conversion plants, as e.g. geothermal binary cycle power plants.

  14. Magnetic power conversion with machines containing full or porous wheel heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Kitanovski, Andrej; Diebold, Marc; Gonin, Cyrill; Vuarnoz, Didier


    A first part of the article contains a thermodynamic theory describing the temperature distribution in a Curie wheel. The occurring nonlinear ordinary differential equation has an analytical solution. If a Curie wheel is stabilized by levitation, it is named Palmy wheel. These wheels show a full structure, and because of this reason, their uptake of heat from a flame (Curie wheel) or by (solar) light absorption (Palmy wheel) only on the periphery of a cylinder is very limited. To improve the method, a modification of the principle by introducing a convective heat transport into a porous wheel is discussed. By this the power conversion rate from a heat flux to mechanical and electric power is very much increased. The second part of the article presents results of a theoretical/numerical study on the efficiencies of magnetic power conversion plants operating with porous wheels. Furthermore, these efficiencies-which are promising-are compared with those of existing power conversion plants, as e.g. geothermal binary cycle power plants

  15. Numerical and experimental analysis of a solid desiccant wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koronaki Irene P.


    Full Text Available The rotary desiccant dehumidifier is an important component which can be used in air conditioning systems in order to reduce the electrical energy consumption and introduce renewable energy sources. In this study a one dimensional gas side resistance model is presented for predicting the performance of the desiccant wheel. Measurements from two real sorption wheels are used in order to validate the model. One wheel uses silica gel as desiccant material and the other lithium chloride. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to compare the counter flow with the co-current wheel arrangements and to explain why the counter flow one is more efficient for air dehumidification.

  16. Technics study on high accuracy crush dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel (United States)

    Jia, Yunhai; Lu, Xuejun; Li, Jiangang; Zhu, Lixin; Song, Yingjie


    Mechanical grinding of artificial diamond grinding wheel was traditional wheel dressing process. The rotate speed and infeed depth of tool wheel were main technics parameters. The suitable technics parameters of metals-bonded diamond grinding wheel and resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel high accuracy crush dressing were obtained by a mount of experiment in super-hard material wheel dressing grind machine and by analysis of grinding force. In the same time, the effect of machine sharpening and sprinkle granule sharpening was contrasted. These analyses and lots of experiments had extent instruction significance to artificial diamond grinding wheel accuracy crush dressing.

  17. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.


    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  18. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires. (United States)


    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When... the minimum thickness of tires may be as much below the limits specified earlier in this paragraph (d...

  19. Effect of short-term prefeeding and body weight on wheel running and responding reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David; Jensen, K


    A biobehavioural analysis of activity anorexia suggests that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by food supply and body weight. In the present experiment, food allocation was varied within subjects by prefeeding food-deprived rats 0, 5, 10 and 15 g of food before sessions of lever pressing for wheel-running reinforcement. The experiment assessed the effects of prefeeding on rates of wheel running, lever pressing, and postreinforcement pausing. Results showed that prefeeding animals 5 g of food had no effect. Prefeeding 10 g of food reduced lever pressing for wheel running and rates of wheel running without a significant change in body weight; the effect was, however, transitory. Prefeeding 15 g of food increased the animals' body weights, resulting in a sustained decrease of wheel running and lever pressing, and an increase in postreinforcement pausing. Overall the results indicate that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by changes in local food supply, but is sustained only when there is a concomitant change in body weight.

  20. Installation of the first of the big wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni


    The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons

  1. College science teachers' views of classroom inquiry (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Francis J.


    The purposes of this study were to (a) gain an understanding of the views of inquiry held by faculty members involved in undergraduate science teaching and (b) describe the challenges, constraints, and opportunities that they perceived in designing and teaching inquiry-based laboratories. Participants included 19 college professors, representing both life and physical science disciplines, from (a) 2-year community college, (b) small, private nonprofit liberal arts college, (c) public master's granting university, and (d) public doctoral/research extensive university. We collected data through semistructured interviews and applied an iterative data analysis process. College science faculty members held a full and open inquiry view, seeing classroom inquiry as time consuming, unstructured, and student directed. They believed that inquiry was more appropriate for upper level science majors than for introductory or nonscience majors. Although faculty members valued inquiry, they perceived limitations of time, class size, student motivation, and student ability. These limitations, coupled with their view of inquiry, constrained them from implementing inquiry-based laboratories. Our proposed inquiry continuum represents a broader view of inquiry that recognizes the interaction between two dimensions of inquiry: (a) the degree of inquiry and (b) the level of student directedness, and provides for a range of inquiry-based classroom activities.

  2. Out-of-round railway wheels—assessment of wheel tread irregularities in train traffic (United States)

    Johansson, Anders


    Results from an extensive wheel measurement campaign performed in Sweden are given and discussed. Out-of-roundness (OOR), transverse profile and surface hardness of 99 wheels on passenger trains (X2 and intercity), freight trains, commuter trains (Regina) and underground trains (C20) were measured. Both tread and disc braked wheels were investigated. The selected wheels had travelled a distance of more than 100000 km, and the measurements were conducted when the train wagons/coaches had been taken out of traffic for maintenance, most of them due to reasons other than wheel OOR. Mechanical contact measurement methods were used. The highest roughness levels (higher than 20 dB re 1 μm for some wheels) were found on powered high-speed (X2) train wheels. The previously known polygonalization of C20 underground wheels is quantified. It is also verified that an initial irregularity is formed due to the clamping in a three-jaw chuck during profiling of new C20 wheels. Magnitudes and wavelength contents of measured wheel roughness are compared with corresponding measurements of rail roughness.

  3. Load-bearing processes in agricultural wheel-soil systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijink, F.G.J.


    In soil dynamics we distinguish between loosening and loadbearing processes. Load-bearing processes which can occur under agricultural rollers, wheels, and tyres are dealt with In this dissertation.

    We classify rollers, wheels, and tyres and treat some general aspects of these

  4. A Star-Wheel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; WU Bo; JIN Ai-min; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHENG Yu-fei; ZHANG Shuai


    In order to achieve a wheelchair climb stairs function, this paper designs a star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism. Through the effect of the lock coupling, the star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism is formed to be fixed axis gear train or planetary gear train achieving flat-walking and stair-climbing functions. Crossing obstacle analysis obtains the maximum height and minimum width of obstacle which the wheelchair can cross. Stress-strain analysis in Solidworks simulation is performed to verify material strength.

  5. The influence of an inquiry professional development program on secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching (United States)

    Lotter, Christine


    This research investigated nine secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching throughout a year-long professional development program. The professional development program consisted of a two-week summer inquiry institute and research experience in university scientists' laboratories, as well as three academic year workshops. Teachers' conceptions of inquiry teaching were established through both qualitative interviews and a quantitative instrument given before and after the summer institute and again at the end of the academic year. Videotapes of all nine teachers presenting inquiry lessons in their own classrooms were evaluated using an observation protocol that measured the teachers' degree of reform teaching. Three of the teachers were chosen for an in-depth case study of their classroom teaching practices. Data collected from each of the case study teachers included videotapes from classroom observations, responses to an inquiry survey, and transcripts from two additional qualitative interviews. Students' responses to their teachers' use of inquiry teaching were also investigated in the case study classrooms. Through their participation in the professional development experience, the teachers gained a deeper understanding of how to implement inquiry practices in their classrooms. The teachers gained confidence and practice with inquiry methods through developing and presenting their institute-developed inquiry lessons, through observing other teachers' lessons, and participating as students in the workshop inquiry activities. Data analysis revealed that the teachers' knowledge of inquiry was necessary but not sufficient for their implementation of inquiry teaching practices. The teachers' conceptions of science, their students, effective teaching practices, and the purpose of education were found to have a direct effect on the type and amount of inquiry instruction performed in the high school classrooms. The research findings suggest that

  6. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.


    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.

  7. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M


    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  8. Reduction of extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking by wheel running in female rats. (United States)

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Gliddon, Luke A; Carroll, Marilyn E


    Previous work has shown that wheel running reduced the maintenance of cocaine self-administration in rats. In the present study, the effect of wheel running on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking was examined. Female rats were trained to run in a wheel during 6-h sessions, and they were then catheterized and placed in an operant conditioning chamber where they did not have access to the wheel but were allowed to self-administer iv cocaine. Subsequently, rats were divided into four groups and were tested on the extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking while they had varying access to a wheel in an adjoining compartment. The four groups were assigned to the following wheel access conditions: (1) wheel running during extinction and reinstatement (WER), (2) wheel running during extinction and a locked wheel during reinstatement (WE), (3) locked wheel during extinction and wheel running during reinstatement (WR), and (4) locked wheel during extinction and reinstatement (WL). WE and WR were retested later to examine the effect of one session of wheel access on cocaine-primed reinstatement. There were no group differences in wheel revolutions, in rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration, or in responding during maintenance when there was no wheel access. However, during extinction, WE and WER responded less than WR and WL. WR and WER had lower cocaine-primed reinstatement than WE and WL. One session of wheel exposure in WE also suppressed cocaine-primed reinstatement. Wheel running immediately and effectively reduced cocaine-seeking behavior, but concurrent access to running was necessary. Thus, exercise is a useful and self-sustaining intervention to reduce cocaine-seeking behavior.

  9. Elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.


    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  10. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Kuo, P.; Liu, S.; Murphy, D.; Picone, J.W.; Ramanath, S.


    This Final Report covers the Phase II Innovative Grinding Wheel (IGW) program in which Norton Company successfully developed a novel grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. In 1995, Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics using small prototype wheels. The Phase II program was initiated to scale-up the new superabrasive wheel specification to larger diameters, 305-mm to 406-mm, required for most production grinding of cylindrical ceramic parts, and to perform in-house and independent validation grinding tests.

  11. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material


    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto


    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  12. Orchestrating Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Littleton, Karen, Ed.; Scanlon, Eileen, Ed.; Sharples, Mike, Ed.


    There is currently a rapidly growing interest in inquiry learning and an emerging consensus among researchers that, particularly when supported by technology, it can be a significant vehicle for developing higher order thinking skills. Inquiry learning methods also offer learners meaningful and productive approaches to the development of their…

  13. Preservice teachers working with narrative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    Application of inquiry in teacher education is gaining momentum. Inquiry is used to build connections with the local community (Nicholas, Baker-Sennett, McClanahan, & Harwood, 2012), student-centered inquiry is used as a curricular model (Oliver et al., 2015), inquiry is used to accentuate......’-module is a 6 week full-time study including a 2 weeks stay at a youth folk high school, where the teacher students are to focus on a self-determined element of the praxis. The students are to study this focus through narrative inquiry based on the North-American tradition within narrative inquiry (Clandinin....... Aarhus; Kbh.: Klim; i samarbejde med Folkehøjskolernes Forening. Salerno, A. S., & Kibler, A. K. (2015). Questions they ask: Considering teacher-inquiry questions posed by pre-service english teachers. Educational Action Research, 23(3), 399-415....

  14. A mechanical model for deformable and mesh pattern wheel of lunar roving vehicle (United States)

    Liang, Zhongchao; Wang, Yongfu; Chen, Gang (Sheng); Gao, Haibo


    As an indispensable tool for astronauts on lunar surface, the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) is of great significance for manned lunar exploration. An LRV moves on loose and soft lunar soil, so the mechanical property of its wheels directly affects the mobility performance. The wheels used for LRV have deformable and mesh pattern, therefore, the existing mechanical theory of vehicle wheel cannot be used directly for analyzing the property of LRV wheels. In this paper, a new mechanical model for LRV wheel is proposed. At first, a mechanical model for a rigid normal wheel is presented, which involves in multiple conventional parameters such as vertical load, tangential traction force, lateral force, and slip ratio. Secondly, six equivalent coefficients are introduced to amend the rigid normal wheel model to fit for the wheels with deformable and mesh-pattern in LRV application. Thirdly, the values of the six equivalent coefficients are identified by using experimental data obtained in an LRV's single wheel testing. Finally, the identified mechanical model for LRV's wheel with deformable and mesh pattern are further verified and validated by using additional experimental results.

  15. A Multiple Data Fusion Approach to Wheel Slip Control for Decentralized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yin


    Full Text Available Currently, active safety control methods for cars, i.e., the antilock braking system (ABS, the traction control system (TCS, and electronic stability control (ESC, govern the wheel slip control based on the wheel slip ratio, which relies on the information from non-driven wheels. However, these methods are not applicable in the cases without non-driven wheels, e.g., a four-wheel decentralized electric vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a new wheel slip control approach based on a novel data fusion method to ensure good traction performance in any driving condition. Firstly, with the proposed data fusion algorithm, the acceleration estimator makes use of the data measured by the sensor installed near the vehicle center of mass (CM to calculate the reference acceleration of each wheel center. Then, the wheel slip is constrained by controlling the acceleration deviation between the actual wheel and the reference wheel center. By comparison with non-control and model following control (MFC cases in double lane change tests, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control method has significant anti-slip effectiveness and stabilizing control performance.

  16. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  17. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter


    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  18. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter


    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory trackin...

  19. Lateral ring metal elastic wheel absorbs shock loading (United States)

    Galan, L.


    Lateral ring metal elastic wheel absorbs practically all shock loading when operated over extremely rough terrain and delivers only a negligible shock residue to associated suspension components. The wheel consists of a rigid aluminum assembly to which lateral titanium ring flexible elements with treads are attached.

  20. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao


    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  1. Sizewell B: the anatomy of an inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, T.; Kemp, R.; Purdue, M.


    The Economic and Social Research Council has studied four major environmental public inquiries, including Sizewell-B. This report summarizes some of the observations of the Sizewell Inquiry Review Project which has been analyzing the context, content and conduct of the Sizewell-B Inquiry. Although public inquiries in Britain have an important function in building public trust in planning decisions where opinions are divided and independent advice is needed, one outcome of the Sizewell-B Inquiry may be a streamlining of the inquiry process, eg by prior examination of policy matters, leaving the Inquiry to consider specifically site-related matters only. (UK)

  2. Inquiry Practices in Malaysian Secondary Classroom and Model of Inquiry Teaching Based on Verbal Interaction (United States)

    Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof


    Purpose: Inquiry teaching has been suggested as one of the important approaches in teaching chemistry. This study investigates the inquiry practices among chemistry teachers. Method: A combination of quantitative and qualitative study was applied in this study to provide detailed information about inquiry teaching practices. Questionnaires,…

  3. Modeling of traction-coupling properties of wheel propulsor (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.


    In conditions of operation of aggregates on soils with low bearing capacity, the main performance indicators of their operation are determined by the properties of retaining the functional qualities of the propulsor. Therefore, the parameters of the anti-skid device can not be calculated by only one criterion. The equipment of propellers with anti-skid devices, which allow to reduce the compaction effect of the propulsion device on the soil, seems to be a rational solution to the problem of increasing traction and coupling properties of the driving wheels. The mathematical model is based on the study of the interaction of the driving wheel with anti-skid devices and a deformable bearing surface, which takes into account the wheel diameter, skid coefficient, the parameters of the anti-skid device, the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. As a basic mathematical model that determines the dependence of the coupling properties on the wheel parameters, the model obtained as a result of integration and reflecting the process of soil deformation from the shear stress is adopted. The total value of the resistance forces will determine the force of the hitch pressure on the horizontal soil layers, and the value of its deformation is the degree of wheel slippage. When the anti-skid devices interact with the soil, the traction capacity of the wheel is composed of shear forces, soil shear and soil deformation forces with detachable hooks. As a result of the interaction of the hook with the soil, the latter presses against the walls of the hook with the force equal to the sum of the hook load and the resistance to movement. During operation, the linear dimensions of the hook will decrease, which is not taken into account by the safety factor. Abrasive wear of the thickness of the hook is approximately proportional to the work of friction caused by the movement of the hook when inserted into the soil and slipping the wheel.

  4. Applied design methodology for lunar rover elastic wheel (United States)

    Cardile, Diego; Viola, Nicole; Chiesa, Sergio; Rougier, Alessandro


    In recent years an increasing interest in the Moon surface operations has been experienced. In the future robotic and manned missions of Moon surface exploration will be fundamental in order to lay the groundwork for more ambitious space exploration programs. Surface mobility systems will be the key elements to ensure an efficient and safe Moon exploration. Future lunar rovers are likely to be heavier and able to travel longer distances than the previously developed Moon rover systems. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is the only manned rover, which has so far been launched and used on the Moon surface. Its mobility system included flexible wheels that cannot be scaled to the heavier and longer range vehicles. Thus the previously developed wheels are likely not to be suitable for the new larger vehicles. Taking all these considerations into account, on the basis of the system requirements and assumptions, several wheel concepts have been discussed and evaluated through a trade-off analysis. Semi-empirical equations have been utilized to predict the wheel geometrical characteristics, as well as to estimate the motion resistances and the ability of the system to generate thrust. A numerical model has also been implemented, in order to define more into the details the whole wheel design, in terms of wheel geometry and physical properties. As a result of the trade-off analysis, the ellipse wheel concept has shown the best behavior in terms of stiffness, mass budget and dynamic performance. The results presented in the paper have been obtained in cooperation with Thales Alenia Space-Italy and Sicme motori, in the framework of a regional program called STEPS . STEPS-Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale is a research project co-financed by Piedmont Region and firms and universities of the Piedmont Aerospace District in the ambit of the P.O.R-F.E.S.R. 2007-2013 program.

  5. Experimental studies of breaking of elastic tired wheel under variable normal load (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Zedgenizov, V. G.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.


    The paper analyzes the braking of a vehicle wheel subjected to disturbances of normal load variations. Experimental tests and methods for developing test modes as sinusoidal force disturbances of the normal wheel load were used. Measuring methods for digital and analogue signals were used as well. Stabilization of vehicle wheel braking subjected to disturbances of normal load variations is a topical issue. The paper suggests a method for analyzing wheel braking processes under disturbances of normal load variations. A method to control wheel baking processes subjected to disturbances of normal load variations was developed.

  6. Color Wheel Windows (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie


    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Impactful Practitioner Inquiry: The Ripple Effect on Classrooms, Schools, and Teacher Professionalism. Practitioner Inquiry Series (United States)

    Nichols, Sue; Cormack, Phil


    How does practitioner inquiry impact education? Examining the experiences of practitioners who have participated in inquiry projects, the authors present ways in which this work has enabled educators to be positive change agents. They reveal the difference that practitioner inquiry has made in their professional practice, their understanding of…

  8. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  9. TSA Public Inquiry Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — All non-media public inquiries and complaints and responses to inquiries received by telephone, e-mail and fax, and handles contacts in English and Spanish. The data...

  10. Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

  11. Study on general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (United States)

    Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ken; Takano, Masaharu; Inoue, Kenji


    This paper proposes a general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Unlike robotic manipulators which are modeled as 3-dimensional serial link mechanism, WMRs will be modeled as planar linkage mechanism with multiple links branching out from the base and/or another link. Since this model resembles a tree with branches, it will be called 'tree-structured-link'. The end of each link corresponds to the wheel which is in contact with the floor. In dynamics of WMR, equation of motion of a WMR is derived from joint input torques incorporating wheel dynamics. The wheel dynamics determines forces and moments acting on wheels as a function of slip velocity. This slippage of wheels is essential in dynamics of WMR. It will also be shown that the dynamics of WMR reduces to kinematics when slippage of wheels is neglected. Furthermore, the equation of dynamics is rewritten in velocity input form, since most of industrial motors are velocity controlled.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan


    Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.

  13. The Effects of Wear upon the Axial Profile of a Grinding Wheel in the Construction of Innovative Grinding Wheels for Internal Cylindrical Grinding


    Nadolny, K.; Słowiński, B.


    The article describes the effects of wear upon the axial profile of a grinding wheel in the axial cylindrical grinding processes. This mechanism was used to develop a grinding wheel with zone diversified structure made of microcrystalline sintered corundum abrasive grains and vitrifies bond. Such a grinding wheel is characterized by the conical rough grinding zone that is made by grains of a relatively large size, and a cylindrical finish grinding zone with grains of a smaller size and can be...

  14. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by forced and voluntary wheel running in rats. (United States)

    Forristall, J R; Hookey, B L; Grant, V L


    Voluntary exercise by rats running in a freely rotating wheel (free wheel) produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) of a flavored solution consumed before running [e.g., Lett, B.T., Grant, V.L., 1996. Wheel running induces conditioned taste aversion in rats trained while hungry and thirsty. Physiol. Behav. 59, 699-702]. Forced exercise, swimming or running, also produces CTA in rats [e.g., Masaki, T., Nakajima, S., 2006. Taste aversion induced by forced swimming, voluntary running, forced running, and lithium chloride injection treatments. Physiol. Behav. 88, 411-416]. Energy expenditure may be the critical factor in producing such CTA. If so, forced running in a motorized running wheel should produce CTA equivalent to that produced by a similar amount of voluntary running. In two experiments, we compared forced running in a motorized wheel with voluntary running in a free wheel. Mean distance run over 30 min was equated as closely as possible in the two apparatuses. Both types of exercise produced CTA relative to sedentary, locked-wheel controls. However, voluntary running produced greater CTA than forced running. We consider differences between running in the free and motorized wheels that may account for the differences in strength of CTA.

  15. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin


    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  16. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. (United States)


    ... input to the wheel during braking. (b) A rim-stamped straight-plate wheel shall not be used as a... that is periodically tread-braked for a short duration by automatic circuitry for the sole purpose of...

  17. Measuring the Dynamic Soil Response During Repeated Wheeling Using Seismic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Carizzon, Marco; Berisso, Feto Esimo


    was performed with an agricultural tire (60 kN wheel load) on a gleyic Cambisol. We measured Vp using an acoustic (microseismic) device at various depths before, during (i.e., below the tire), and after wheeling. In addition, we measured bulk density and penetrometer resistance before and after wheeling...

  18. The Wheels of Stress Go 'Round and 'Round (United States)

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.


    "The Wheels of Stress Go Round and Round" teaching idea uses three activity wheels to reinforce stress-related content and concepts. After presenting a definition of stress, the instructor assists students in identifying stressors, and aids in formulating a list of negative, reactive behaviors and a list of positive coping mechanisms. Using…

  19. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn


    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  20. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  1. Cyber Security Considerations for Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles (United States)


    Update Will Enable Autonomous Driving. Retrieved August 6, 2015, from cars -that-think...Cyber Security Considerations for Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles 1 UNCLASSIFIED Cyber Security Considerations for... Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Sebastian C Iovannitti 4/1/2016 Submitted to Lawrence Technological University College of Management in

  2. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber


    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  3. Development of New Wheel-Chair for Sports Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shionoya


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop the new wheel-chair which had the function to drive straight by one-hand operation. To perform this purpose, the driving force transmission axis (DFTA which had transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side of that was developed. The wheel-chair could drive straight by one-hand operation by the DFTA. The large torque, however, was generated in the DFTA, because the DFTA transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side by the axis of small diameter. Furthermore, the shear stress in the DFTA generated by this torque would lead to the DFTA break. The shear stress in the DFTA was calculated to examine the axial strength and durability. On the DETA of the wheelchair, the maximum shear stress calculated from the torque in driving was 39.53 MP and this was defined as the standard of the demand specifications as a strength and durability of the DFTA.

  4. Characterizing the Performance of the Wheel Electrostatic Spectrometer (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, P. J.; Holbert, E.; Calle, C. I.; Clements, J. S.


    Insulators need to be discharged after each wheel revolution. Sensor responses repeatable within one standard deviation in the noise of the signal. Insulators may not need to be cleaned after each revolution. Parent Technology- Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment/Electrometer Electrostatic sensors with dissimilar cover insulators Protruding insulators tribocharge against regolith simulant Developed for use on the scoop for the 2001 Mars Odyssey lander Wheel Electrostatic Spectrometer Embedded electrostatic sensors in prototype Martian rover wheel If successful, this technology will enable constant electrostatic testing on Mars Air ionizing fan used to neutralize the surface charge on cover insulators . WES rolled on JSClA lunar simulant Control experiment -Static elimination not conducted between trials -Capacitor discharged after each experiment Charge neutralization experiment -Static elimination conducted between trials -Capacitor discharged after each experiment. Air ionizing fan used on insulators after each wheel revolution Capacitor discharged after each trial Care was taken to roll WES with same speed/pressure Error bars represent one standard deviation in the noise of e ach sensor

  5. The Development of Lightweight Commercial Vehicle Wheels Using Microalloying Steel (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhou; Zhang, Lilong; Wang, Jiegong; Xuan, Zhaozhi; Liu, Xiandong; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Wenjun; Lu, Guimin

    Lightweight wheels can reduce weight about 100kg for commercial vehicles, and it can save energy and reduce emission, what's more, it can enhance the profits for logistics companies. The development of lightweight commercial vehicle wheels is achieved by the development of new steel for rim, the process optimization of flash butt welding, and structure optimization by finite element methods. Niobium micro-alloying technology can improve hole expansion rate, weldability and fatigue performance of wheel steel, and based on Niobium micro-alloying technology, a special wheel steel has been studied whose microstructure are Ferrite and Bainite, with high formability and high fatigue performance, and stable mechanical properties. The content of Nb in this new steel is 0.025% and the hole expansion rate is ≥ 100%. At the same time, welding parameters including electric upsetting time, upset allowance, upsetting pressure and flash allowance are optimized, and by CAE analysis, an optimized structure has been attained. As a results, the weight of 22.5in×8.25in wheel is up to 31.5kg, which is most lightweight comparing the same size wheels. And its functions including bending fatigue performance and radial fatigue performance meet the application requirements of truck makers and logistics companies.

  6. Characteristics of The Magnet Wheel As A Magnetic Levitation Device of Induction Type


    藤井, 信男; 小川, 幸吉; 松本, 敏雄; Nobuo, FUJII; Kokichi, OGAWA; Toshio, MATSUMOTO; 九州大学; 大分大学; 安川電機; Kyushu University; Oita University; Yaskawa Electric Co., Ltd.


    A new type of magnetic wheel called the "magnet wheel" has been proposed. The magnet wheel has both magnetic levitation and linear drive functions combined into one. In the magnet wheel, the permanent magnets are rotated over the conducting plate so that an induction type of repulsive lift force is obtained. To produce thrust from the drag torque which is simultaneously induced with the lift force, the "tilt type" and "partial overlap type" magnet wheels have been proposed. Poor power factor ...

  7. Four-wheeled walker related injuries in older adults in the Netherlands. (United States)

    van Riel, K M M; Hartholt, K A; Panneman, M J M; Patka, P; van Beeck, E F; van der Cammen, T J M


    With ageing populations worldwide, mobility devices are used more than ever. In the current literature there is no consensus whether the available mobility devices safely improve the mobility of their users. Also, evidence is lacking concerning the risks and types of injuries sustained while using a four-wheeled walker. To assess injury risks and injury patterns in older adults (≥65 years) who presented at Emergency Departments (ED) in the Netherlands with an injury due to using a four-wheeled walker. In this study, the Dutch Injury Surveillance System was used to obtain a national representative sample of annual ED visits in the Netherlands in the adult population (≥65 years) sustaining an injury while using a four-wheeled walker. The numbers of four-wheeled walker users in the Netherlands were obtained from the national insurance board. The numbers of ED visits were divided by the numbers of four-wheeled walker users to calculate age- and sex-specific injury risks. Annually 1869 older adults visited an ED after sustaining an injury while using a four-wheeled walker. Falls were the main cause of injury (96%). The injury risk was 3.1 per 100 users of four-wheeled walkers. Women (3.5 per 100 users) had a higher risk than men (2.0 per 100 users). Injury risk was the highest in women aged 85 years and older (6.2 per 100 users). The majority of injuries were fractures (60%) with hip fracture (25%) being the most common injury. Nearly half of all four-wheeled walker related injuries required hospitalisation, mostly due to hip fractures. Healthcare costs per injury were approximately €12 000. This study presents evidence that older adults experiencing a fall while using a four-wheeled walker are at high risk to suffer severe injuries.

  8. A novel instrumented multipeg running wheel system, Step-Wheel, for monitoring and controlling complex sequential stepping in mice. (United States)

    Kitsukawa, Takashi; Nagata, Masatoshi; Yanagihara, Dai; Tomioka, Ryohei; Utsumi, Hideko; Kubota, Yasuo; Yagi, Takeshi; Graybiel, Ann M; Yamamori, Tetsuo


    Motor control is critical in daily life as well as in artistic and athletic performance and thus is the subject of intense interest in neuroscience. Mouse models of movement disorders have proven valuable for many aspects of investigation, but adequate methods for analyzing complex motor control in mouse models have not been fully established. Here, we report the development of a novel running-wheel system that can be used to evoke simple and complex stepping patterns in mice. The stepping patterns are controlled by spatially organized pegs, which serve as footholds that can be arranged in adjustable, ladder-like configurations. The mice run as they drink water from a spout, providing reward, while the wheel turns at a constant speed. The stepping patterns of the mice can thus be controlled not only spatially, but also temporally. A voltage sensor to detect paw touches is attached to each peg, allowing precise registration of footfalls. We show that this device can be used to analyze patterns of complex motor coordination in mice. We further demonstrate that it is possible to measure patterns of neural activity with chronically implanted tetrodes as the mice engage in vigorous running bouts. We suggest that this instrumented multipeg running wheel (which we name the Step-Wheel System) can serve as an important tool in analyzing motor control and motor learning in mice.

  9. Ark of Inquiry: Responsible Research and Innovation through Computer-Based Inquiry Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margus Pedaste; Leo Siiman; Bregje de Vries; Mirjam Burget; Tomi Jaakkola; Emanuele Bardone; Meelis Brikker; Mario Mäeots; Marianne Lind; Koen Veermans


    Ark of Inquiry is a learning platform that uses a computer-based inquiry learning approach to raise youth awareness to Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). It is developed in the context of a large-scale European project ( and provides young European citizens

  10. Design processes of a citizen inquiry community


    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike


    As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...

  11. 10 CFR 1022.6 - Public inquiries. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inquiries. 1022.6 Section 1022.6 Energy DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.6 Public inquiries. Inquiries regarding DOE's floodplain and wetland environmental... at 1-800-472-2756, toll free. ...

  12. STEM@School: an engaging Serious Game! (United States)

    terracina, annalisa; mecella, massimo


    Over the last ten years, the way in which education and training is delivered has changed considerably with the advent of new technologies. Thus, technology should be a prominent part of the learning process and should be intended as a support for teachers and learners. One new technology that holds considerable promise for helping to engage learners is Games-Based Learning (GBL). The term game is quite ambiguous, that means that researchers, game designers, parents, students, teachers, etc. have a different concept of games. In this research, we intend games as inquiry based laboratories in which participants are able to imagine, engage with, and reflect upon their experiences. Gaming and schooling have developed into two distinct "knowledge traditions" that often rely on opposing validity criteria for determining what counts and what does not count as relevant knowledge. To avoid that dichotomy, GBL should integrate different aspects that are related to the knowledge itself, to pedagogical aspects, to scenario-based and every day practice. In the above scenario we matured the idea to develop a serious game that integrates the most up-to-date technologies in new teaching trends: Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) and Intelligent Pedagogical Agents (IPAs). The main idea of our research is a VLE that in turn is a role playing game. The role playing game is a social game in which each student becomes a player with her abilities and her tasks. In order to succeed, all the players should work to achieve a common objective/goal. The storyboard is designed in a way that there is an evolution in the role playing game and a progress in the level of learning as well. The idea of helping students in the process of learning in a different way with respect to the classical approach finds support in many psychological studies and previous work, in particular we refer to Howard Gardner theory (1983): "We might think of the topic as a room with at least five doors or entry

  13. Collaboration Modality, Cognitive Load, and Science Inquiry Learning in Virtual Inquiry Environments (United States)

    Erlandson, Benjamin E.; Nelson, Brian C.; Savenye, Wilhelmina C.


    Educational multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) have been shown to be effective platforms for situated science inquiry curricula. While researchers find MUVEs to be supportive of collaborative scientific inquiry processes, the complex mix of multi-modal messages present in MUVEs can lead to cognitive overload, with learners unable to…

  14. Enhanced voluntary wheel running in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Pehmøller, Christian; Klein, Anders B


    to voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise. Moreover, we assessed energy expenditure in the basal state, and evaluated the effects of wheel running on food intake, body composition, and a range of exercise-induced central and peripheral biomarkers. We found that adaptation to voluntary wheel...... running is affected by GPRC6A, as ablation of the receptor significantly enhances wheel running in KO relative to WT mice. Both genotypes responded to voluntary exercise by increasing food intake and improving body composition to a similar degree. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the GPRC6A...

  15. Windscale inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.M.


    The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted. (author)

  16. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats


    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Liang, Nu-Chu


    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel...

  17. Torsional Moment Measurement on Bucket Wheel Shaft of Giant Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří FRIES


    Full Text Available Bucket wheel loading at the present time (torsional moment on wheel shaft, peripheral cutting force is determined from electromotor incoming power or reaction force measured on gearbox hinge. Both methods together are weighted by steel construction absorption of driving units and by inertial forces of motor rotating parts. In the article is described direct method of the torsional moment measurement, which eliminates mentioned unfavourable impacts except absorption of steel construction of bucket wheel itself.

  18. Multi-scale Fatigue Damage Life Assessment of Railroad Wheels (United States)


    This study focused on the presence of a crack in the railway wheels subsurface and how it affects the wheels fatigue life. A 3-D FE-model was constructed to simulate the stress/strain fields that take place under the rolling contact of railway ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With support from the Department of Atomic Energy, our institute has initiated a programme on development and study of a low capacity (20 liters/hr. turboexpander based Nitrogen liquefier. Hence a process design was carried out and a turboexpander was designed to meet the requirement of the liquefier. The turboexpander is used for lowering the temperature of the process gas (Nitrogen by the isenthalpic expansion. The efficiency of the turboexpander mainly depends on the specific speed and specific diameter of the turbine wheel. The paper explains a general methodology for the design of any type of turbine wheel (radial, backward swept and forward swept for any pressure ratio with different process gases. The design of turbine wheel includes the determination of dimensions, blade profile and velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of the turbine wheel. Generally radial turbine wheels are used but in this case to achieve the high efficiency at desired speed, backward curved blades are used to maintain the Mach number of the process gas at the nozzle exit, close to unity. If the velocity of fluid exceeds the speed of sound, the flow gets choked leading to the creation of shock waves and flow at the exit of the nozzle will be non-isentropic.

  20. Assessing the influence of wheel defects of a rolling stockon railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich


    Full Text Available Transfer of the load from the wheels on the rail occurs at a very small area compared with the size of the wheels and rails. The materials near this site have a very large voltage. Determination of contact stresses is complicated by the fact that the magnitude of these stresses in the rails under actually revolving wheel load exceeds the yield and compressive strength of modern rail steel. We should note that the metal of the rail head, experiencing contact stresses, especially when the location of the pads is closer to the middle of the rail head, works in the conditions close to the compression conditions, and therefore can withstand higher voltage without plastic deformation than the standard compressible sample. But, as a rule, the observed hardening of the metal in the zone of contact stresses and lapping at the edges of the rail head indicates the presence of plastic deformation and, consequently, higher stresses in the wheel-rail contact zone than the yield strength of the metal rail even in the conditions of its operation in the rail head.The use of the design equations derived on the basis of the Hertz theory for metal behavior in elastic stage, is valid. The reason is that each individual dynamic application of wheel loads on the rail is very short, and the residual plastic deformation from the individual loads of the pair of wheels on the rail is actually small. This elastic-plastic deformation of the rail becomes visible as a result of gradual gaining of a missed tonnage of rails and wheels respectively. Irregularities on the running surface of the wheels are of two types. The most common are the so-called continuous bumps on the wheel, when due to the uneven wear of rail the original shape of the wheel across the tread surface distorts. But nowadays, more and more often there occur isolated smooth irregularities of the wheel pairs, due to the increased wear of the wheel because of the stopping and blocking of wheels of the vehicles

  1. Experimental analysis and regression prediction of desiccant wheel behavior in high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel air-conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Sun, Yuexia


    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of desiccant wheel (DW) in the running system and obtain the useful data for practical application. The combined influences of multiple variables on the performance of desiccant wheel are investigated based on evaluating the indexes...... of moisture removal capacity, dehumidification effectiveness, dehumidification coefficient of performance and sensible energy ratio. The results show that higher effect on the dehumidification is due to the regeneration temperature and outdoor air humidity ratio rather than the outdoor air temperature...... and the ratio between regeneration and process air flow rates. A simple method based on multiple linear regression theory for predicting the performance of the wheel has been proposed. The predicted values and the experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained. Regression models are established...

  2. A comparison of two types of running wheel in terms of mouse preference, health, and welfare. (United States)

    Walker, Michael; Mason, Georgia


    Voluntary wheel running occurs in mice of all strains, sexes, and ages. Mice find voluntary wheel running rewarding, and it leads to numerous health benefits. For this reason wheels are used both to enhance welfare and to create models of exercise. However, many designs of running wheel are used. This makes between-study comparisons difficult, as this variability could potentially affect the amount, pattern, and/or intensity of running behaviour, and thence the wheels' effects on welfare and exercise-related changes in anatomy and physiology. This study therefore evaluated two commercially available models, chosen because safe for group-housed mice: Bio Serv®'s "fast-trac" wheel combo and Ware Manufacturing Inc.'s stainless steel mesh 5″ upright wheel. Working with a total of three hundred and fifty one female C57BL/6, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice, we assessed these wheels' relative utilization by mice when access was free; the strength of motivation for each wheel-type when access required crossing an electrified grid; and the impact each wheel had on mouse well-being (inferred from acoustic startle responses and neophobia) and exercise-related anatomical changes (BMI; heart and hind limb masses). Mice ran more on the "fast-trac" wheel regardless of whether both wheel-types were available at once, or only if one was present. In terms of motivation, subjects required to work to access a single wheel worked equally hard for both wheel-types (even if locked and thus not useable for running), but if provided with one working wheel for free and the other type of wheel (again unlocked) accessible via crossing the electrified grid, the "fast-trac" wheel emerged as more motivating, as the Maximum Price Paid for the Ware metal wheel was lower than that paid for the "fast-trac" plastic wheel, at least for C57BL/6s and DBA/2s. No deleterious consequences were noted with either wheel in terms of health and welfare, but only mice with plastic wheels developed significantly larger

  3. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang


    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  4. Cross-stream ejection in the inter-wheel region of aircraft landing gears (United States)

    McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis


    The reduction of aircraft noise is an important challenge currently faced by aircraft manufacturers. During approach and landing, the landing gears contribute a significant proportion of the aircraft generated noise. It is therefore critical that the key noise sources be identified and understood in order for effective mitigation methods to be developed. For a simplified two-wheel nose landing gear, a strong cross stream flow ejection phenomena has been observed to occur in the inter-wheel region in presence of wheel wells. The location and orientation of these flow ejections causes highly unsteady, three dimensional flow between the wheels that may impinge on other landing gear components, thereby potentially acting as a significant noise generator. The effects of changing the inter-wheel geometry (inter-wheel spacing, the wheel well depth and main strut geometry) upon the cross-stream ejection behaviour has been experimentally investigated using both qualitative flow visualisation and quantitative PIV techniques. A summary of the key results will be presented for the three main geometrical parameters under examination and the application of these findings to real life landing gears will be discussed. Thanks to Messier-Bugatti-Dowty and NSERC for their support for this project.

  5. How Select Groups of Preservice Science Teachers with Inquiry Orientations View Teaching and Learning Science through Inquiry (United States)

    Ward, Peggy

    Although hailed as a powerful form of instruction, in most teaching and learning contexts, inquiry-based instruction is fraught with ambiguous and conflicting definitions and descriptions. Yet little has been written about the experiences preservice science teacher have regarding their learning to teach science through inquiry. This project sought to understand how select preservice secondary science teachers enrolled in three UTeach programs in Arkansas conceptualize inquiry instruction and how they rationalize its value in a teaching and learning context. The three teacher education programs investigated in this study are adoption sites aligned with the UTeach Program in Austin, TX that distinguishes itself in part by its inquiry emphasis. Using a mixed method investigation design, this study utilized two sources of data to explore the preservice science teachers' thinking. In the first phase, a modified version of the Pedagogy of Science teaching Tests (POSTT) was used to identify select program participants who indicated preferences for inquiry instruction over other instructional strategies. Secondly, the study used an open-ended questionnaire to explore the selected subjects' beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning science in an inquiry context. The study also focused on identifying particular junctures in the prospective science teachers' education preparation that might impact their understanding about inquiry. Using a constant comparative approach, this study explored 19 preservice science teachers' conceptions about inquiry. The results indicate that across all levels of instruction, the prospective teachers tended to have strong student-centered teaching orientations. Except subjects in for the earliest courses, subjects' definitions and descriptions of inquiry tended toward a few of the science practices. More advanced subjects, however, expressed more in-depth descriptions. Excluding the subjects who have completed the program, multiple

  6. Mission Analysis and Orbit Control of Interferometric Wheel Formation Flying (United States)

    Fourcade, J.

    Flying satellite in formation requires maintaining the specific relative geometry of the spacecraft with high precision. This requirement raises new problem of orbit control. This paper presents the results of the mission analysis of a low Earth observation system, the interferometric wheel, patented by CNES. This wheel is made up of three receiving spacecraft, which follow an emitting Earth observation radar satellite. The first part of this paper presents trades off which were performed to choose orbital elements of the formation flying which fulfils all constraints. The second part presents orbit positioning strategies including reconfiguration of the wheel to change its size. The last part describes the station keeping of the formation. Two kinds of constraints are imposed by the interferometric system : a constraint on the distance between the wheel and the radar satellite, and constraints on the distance between the wheel satellites. The first constraint is fulfilled with a classical chemical station keeping strategy. The second one is fulfilled using pure passive actuators. Due to the high stability of the relative eccentricity of the formation, only the relative semi major axis had to be controlled. Differential drag due to differential attitude motion was used to control relative altitude. An autonomous orbit controller was developed and tested. The final accuracy is a relative station keeping better than few meters for a wheel size of one kilometer.

  7. Space shuttle wheels and brakes (United States)

    Carsley, R. B.


    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  8. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.


    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  9. Nuclear energy inquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.


    Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs

  10. Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu


    Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based…

  11. Nesting behavior of house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for increased wheel-running activity. (United States)

    Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Davis, S J; Garland, T


    Nest building was measured in "active" (housed with access to running wheels) and "sedentary" (without wheel access) mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines selected for 10 generations for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, and from four randombred control lines. Based on previous studies of mice bidirectionally selected for thermoregulatory nest building, it was hypothesized that nest building would show a negative correlated response to selection on wheel-running. Such a response could constrain the evolution of high voluntary activity because nesting has also been shown to be positively genetically correlated with successful production of weaned pups. With wheel access, selected mice of both sexes built significantly smaller nests than did control mice. Without wheel access, selected females also built significantly smaller nests than did control females, but only when body mass was excluded from the statistical model, suggesting that body mass mediated this correlated response to selection. Total distance run and mean running speed on wheels was significantly higher in selected mice than in controls, but no differences in amount of time spent running were measured, indicating a complex cause of the response of nesting to selection for voluntary wheel running.

  12. Design of wheel-type walking-assist device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Jung, Kyung Min; Lee, Sung Uk


    In this research, a outdoor wheel-type walking-assist device is developed to help an elder having a poor muscular strength at legs for walking, sitting and standing up easily at outdoors, and also for going and downing stairs. In conceptually designing, the environments of an elder's activity, the size of an elder's body and a necessary function of helping an elder are considered. This device has 4 wheels for stability. When an elder walks in incline plane with the proposed device, a rear-wing is rotated to keep the supporting device horizontal, regardless of an angle of inclination. A height-controlling device, which can control the height of the supporting device for adjusting an elder's height, is varied vertically to help an elder to sit and stand-up easily. Moreover, a outdoor wheel-type walking-assist device is conceptually designed and is made. In order to design it, the preview research is investigated firstly. On the basis of the proposed walking-assist device, the outdoor walking-assist device is designed and made. The outdoor wheel-type walking-assist device can go and down stairs automatically. This device go up and down the stair of having maximum 20cm height and an angle of 25 degrees with maximum 4 sec/stairs speed, and move at flatland with 60cm/sec speed

  13. Nonlinear dynamics modeling and simulation of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Liu


    Full Text Available Two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle system is a kind of naturally unstable underactuated system with high-rank unstable multivariable strongly coupling complicated dynamic nonlinear property. Nonlinear dynamics modeling and simulation, as a basis of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle dynamics research, has the guiding effect for system design of the project demonstration and design phase. Dynamics model of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is established by importing a TSi ProPac package to the Mathematica software (version 8.0, which analyzes the stability and calculates the Lyapunov exponents of the system. The relationship between external force and stability of the system is analyzed by the phase trajectory. Proportional–integral–derivative control is added to the system in order to improve the stability of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle. From the research, Lyapunov exponent can be used to research the stability of hyperchaos system. The stability of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is better by inputting the proportional–integral–derivative control. The Lyapunov exponent and phase trajectory can help us analyze the stability of a system better and lay the foundation for the analysis and control of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle system.

  14. Design Optimization of Heat Wheels for Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Antonellis


    Full Text Available Air to air heat exchangers play a crucial role in mechanical ventilation equipment, due to the potential primary energy savings both in case of refurbishment of existing buildings or in case of new ones. In particular, interest in heat wheels is increasing due to their low pressure drop and high effectiveness. In this paper a detailed optimization of design parameters of heat wheels is performed in order to maximize sensible effectiveness and to minimize pressure drop. The analysis is carried out through a one dimensional lumped parameters heat wheel model, which solves heat and mass transfer equations, and through appropriate correlations to estimate pressure drop. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data of a heat wheel tested in specific facilities, and good agreement is attained. The device optimization is performed through the variation of main design parameters, such as heat wheel length, channel base, height and thickness and for different operating conditions, namely the air face velocity and the revolution speed. It is shown that the best configurations are achieved with small channel thickness and, depending on the required sensible effectiveness, with appropriate values of wheel length and channel base and height.

  15. Biologically Inspired Modular Neural Control for a Leg-Wheel Hybrid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin; Laksanacharoen, Pudit


    In this article we present modular neural control for a leg-wheel hybrid robot consisting of three legs with omnidirectional wheels. This neural control has four main modules having their functional origin in biological neural systems. A minimal recurrent control (MRC) module is for sensory signal...... processing and state memorization. Its outputs drive two front wheels while the rear wheel is controlled through a velocity regulating network (VRN) module. In parallel, a neural oscillator network module serves as a central pattern generator (CPG) controls leg movements for sidestepping. Stepping directions...... or they can serve as useful modules for other module-based neural control applications....

  16. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.


    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  17. 3D dynamic modeling of spherical wheeled self-balancing mobile robot


    İnal, Ali Nail


    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references. In recent years, dynamically stable platforms that move on spherical wheels, also known as BallBots, gained popularity in the robotics literature as an alternative locomotion method to statically stable wheeled mobile robots. In contrast to wheeled ...

  18. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry (United States)

    Cottey, Alan


    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  19. From Territorial to Temporal Ambitions: The Politics of Time and Imagination in Massive Multiplayer Online Forecasting Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonny J. Avi Brooks


    Full Text Available In 2010, the online forecasting game Urgent Evoke, produced by Jane McGonigal, former Director of Gaming at the Institute for the Future and the World Bank Institute, elicited praise by gaming critics as a model for “serious gaming.” The game promised to show how players could think about long-term solutions to urgent social problems like hunger, poverty, conflict, and climate change using the African continent as its test bed. Players imagined future temporal outcomes through remixing media. In a qualitative analysis of actual game play during the real-time introduction of the game for teaching organizational communication, Evoke became a platform for student inquiry for questioning its underlying design as an expansion of territorial and temporal conquest. Evoke served as a springboard for building a literacy of critical time among students in accessing stakeholder power to determine the future. Students challenged, created, and followed the cultural capital of promissory visions in circulation. The curriculum design for using serious and forecasting games like Evoke must account for the conceptual development of what Sarah Sharma calls critical time or chronopolitics, a hidden politics of time that shapes our approaches to cultures, organizations, and innovation. By placing spatial and temporal dynamics center stage, we investigated how serious games produce a chronopolitics of time differentiating among people by class and ethnicity. Alternative Reality Games offer the potential for building a literacy of critical forecasting time to understand the practices for anticipating the future as temporal networks of power, different and uneven.

  20. NQRY Coaching: Scientists and Science Educators Energizing the Next Generation (United States)

    Shope, R. E.


    A recent National Academy of Science report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Collaboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term Arctica Science Research to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolvanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.

  1. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle (United States)

    Casey, Leo


    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  2. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats. (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K


    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  3. Simulation and Measurement of Wheel on Rail Fatigue and Wear


    Dirks, Babette


    The life of railway wheels and rails has been decreasing in recent years. This is mainly caused by more traffic and running at higher vehicle speed. A higher speed usually generates higher forces, unless compensated by improved track and vehicle designs, in the wheel-rail contact, resulting in more wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage to the wheels and rails. As recently as 15 years ago, RCF was not recognised as a serious problem. Nowadays it is a serious problem in many countries a...

  4. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth


    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  5. Considerations on the use of elastic wheels to the urban transport vehicles (United States)

    Sebesan, Ioan; Arsene, Sorin; Manea, Ion


    To minimize dynamic wheel-rail interaction efforts a condition is that the unassembled mass of the vehicle is as small as possible. The elastic wheel by its construction fulfills these conditions - she has interposed between the crown and the body of the wheel, the elastic rubber elements. In this way, it can be considered that the unsupported mass is represented only by the mass of the wheel crown. Additionally, this elasticity also has a reduction effect on rolling noise. This feature makes it suitable for use on urban transport vehicles.

  6. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.


    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  7. Naloxone attenuates the conditioned place preference induced by wheel running in rats. (United States)

    Lett, B T; Grant, V L; Koh, M T


    Pairings, during which an episode of wheel running is followed by confinement in a distinctive place, produce conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. This finding indicates that wheel running has a rewarding effect that outlasts the activity itself. In two similar experiments, we tested the hypothesis that this rewarding effect of wheel running is mediated by endogenous opioids. During a paired trial, the rats in the naloxone group were first allowed to wheel run for 2 h, then injected with naloxone (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively), and 10 min later placed in a distinctive chamber. During an unpaired trial, these rats were confined in an adjoining chamber without wheel running. Naloxone was injected before placement in both chambers, so that if naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion occurred, it would have counteracting effects on performance during the preference test. The rats in the saline group were similarly treated, except that saline was injected instead of naloxone. CPP occurred in the saline group, but not in the naloxone group. Thus, naloxone attenuated the CPP induced by wheel running. This finding supports the hypothesis that the rewarding effect of wheel running is mediated by endogenous opioids.

  8. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro


    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  9. Damages and resource of locomotive wheels used under the north operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grigorev


    Full Text Available In operating railway equipment, in particular the elements, such as a wheel and a rail there is damage accumulation of any kind, causing a premature equipment failure. Thus, an analysis of the mechanisms and modeling of damage accumulation and fracture both on the surface and in the bulk material remain a challenge.Data on the defective wheel sets to be subjected to facing has been collected and analyzed to assess the locomotive wheel sets damage of the locomotive fleet company of AK «Yakutia Railways», city of Aldan, The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. For this purpose, three main locomotives have been examined.The object of research carried out in this paper, is a locomotive wheels tire, which is subjected to cyclic impact (dynamic loads during operation. In this regard, the need arises to determine both the strength of material in response to such shock loads and the quantitative calculation of damage accumulated therein.The accumulated fatigue damage has been attributed to one radial cross section of the wheel coming into contact with the rail once per revolution of the wheel. Consequently, in one revolution a wheel is under one loading cycle. As stated, the average mileage of locomotives to have the unacceptable damages formed on the tread surface is 12 thousand km.Test results establish that along with the high-cycle loading the shock-contact action on rail joints significantly affects the accumulation of damage in the locomotive wheels tire. The number of cycles to failure due to the formation of unacceptable damage in the locomotive wheels tire is N = 2,4×106 and 6×105 cycles, respectively, for fatigue and shock-contact loading.In general, we can say that the problem of higher intensity to form the surface damage is directly related to the operation of the locomotive wheel tire under abnormally low climatic temperatures. With decreasing ambient temperature, this element material rapidly looses its plastic properties, thereby accelerating

  10. Design and Assessment of a Machine Vision System for Automatic Vehicle Wheel Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Furferi


    Full Text Available Abstract Wheel alignment, consisting of properly checking the wheel characteristic angles against vehicle manufacturers' specifications, is a crucial task in the automotive field since it prevents irregular tyre wear and affects vehicle handling and safety. In recent years, systems based on Machine Vision have been widely studied in order to automatically detect wheels' characteristic angles. In order to overcome the limitations of existing methodologies, due to measurement equipment being mounted onto the wheels, the present work deals with design and assessment of a 3D machine vision-based system for the contactless reconstruction of vehicle wheel geometry, with particular reference to characteristic planes. Such planes, properly referred to as a global coordinate system, are used for determining wheel angles. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested against a set of measurements carried out using a commercial 3D scanner; the absolute average error in measuring toe and camber angles with the machine vision system resulted in full compatibility with the expected accuracy of wheel alignment systems.

  11. Wheels lining up for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia


    On 30 October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year.

  12. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics. Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Ramanath, S.; Simpson, M.; Lilley, E.


    Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. This program was a cooperative effort involving three Norton groups representing a superabrasive grinding wheel manufacturer, a diamond film manufacturing division and a ceramic research center. The program was divided into two technical tasks, Task 1, Analysis of Required Grinding Wheel Characteristics, and Task 2, Design and Prototype Development. In Task 1 we performed a parallel path approach with Superabrasive metal-bond development and the higher technical risk, CVD diamond wheel development. For the Superabrasive approach, Task 1 included bond wear and strength tests to engineer bond-wear characteristics. This task culminated in a small-wheel screening test plunge grinding sialon disks. In Task 2, an improved Superabrasive metal-bond specification for low-cost machining of ceramics in external cylindrical grinding mode was identified. The experimental wheel successfully ground three types of advanced ceramics without the need for wheel dressing. The spindle power consumed by this wheel during test grinding of NC-520 sialon is as much as to 30% lower compared to a standard resin bonded wheel with 100 diamond concentration. The wheel wear with this improved metal bond was an order of magnitude lower than the resin-bonded wheel, which would significantly reduce ceramic grinding costs through fewer wheel changes for retruing and replacements. Evaluation of ceramic specimens from both Tasks 1 and 2 tests for all three ceramic materials did not show evidence of unusual grinding damage. The novel CVD-diamond-wheel approach was incorporated in this program as part of Task 1. The important factors affecting the grinding performance of diamond wheels made by CVD coating preforms were determined.

  13. Multiresolution analysis over graphs for a motor imagery based online BCI game. (United States)

    Asensio-Cubero, Javier; Gan, John Q; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy


    Multiresolution analysis (MRA) over graph representation of EEG data has proved to be a promising method for offline brain-computer interfacing (BCI) data analysis. For the first time we aim to prove the feasibility of the graph lifting transform in an online BCI system. Instead of developing a pointer device or a wheel-chair controller as test bed for human-machine interaction, we have designed and developed an engaging game which can be controlled by means of imaginary limb movements. Some modifications to the existing MRA analysis over graphs for BCI have also been proposed, such as the use of common spatial patterns for feature extraction at the different levels of decomposition, and sequential floating forward search as a best basis selection technique. In the online game experiment we obtained for three classes an average classification rate of 63.0% for fourteen naive subjects. The application of a best basis selection method helps significantly decrease the computing resources needed. The present study allows us to further understand and assess the benefits of the use of tailored wavelet analysis for processing motor imagery data and contributes to the further development of BCI for gaming purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG


    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  15. Grinding performance evaluation of porous composite-bonded CBN wheels for Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhenzhen


    Full Text Available For high-efficiency grinding of difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium and nickel alloys, a high porosity is expected and also a sufficient mechanical strength to satisfy the function. However, the porosity increase is a disadvantage to the mechanical strength. As a promising pore forming agent, alumina bubbles are firstly induced into the abrasive layer to fabricate porous cubic boron nitride (CBN wheels. When the wheel porosity reaches 45%, the bending strength is still high up to 50 MPa with modified orderly pore distribution. A porous CBN wheel was fabricated with a total porosity around 30%. The grinding performance of the porous composite-bonded CBN wheel was evaluated in terms of specific force, specific grinding energy, and grinding temperature, which were better than those of the vitrified one under the same grinding conditions. Compared to the vitrified CBN wheel, clear straight cutting grooves and less chip adhesion are observed on the ground surface and there is also no extensive loading on the wheel surface after grinding.

  16. Evaluation of the 30 Ton CHA Crane Wheel Axle Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RICH, J.W.


    An existing design for eccentric bushings was utilized and updated as necessary to accommodate minor adjustment as required to correct wheel alignment on the North West Idler wheel. The design is revised to install eccentric bushings on only one end

  17. The time has come for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, D.O.; Achinger, S.K.


    Retail wheeling, the transmission and distribution of electric power for end users, fosters competition and promotes the efficient use of resources. Access to electric-utility transmission and distribution systems would establish competitive electric markets by permitting retail customers to obtain the lowest cost for energy which would meet their specific needs. Among electric utilities and their customers, the idea of allowing market forces to attract supply and set prices is a current controversy. To counter the anticompetitive effects of recent mergers in the wholesale market, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has mandated open transmission access for wholesale customers. However, the FERC denied access to retail customers and qualifying facilities (QF) in both its Northeast Utilities (FERC case No. EC-90-1 90) and PacifiCorp (U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for D.C., 89-1333) decisions. Retail wheeling will benefit both consumers and producers. The ability of large customers to purchase power from the lowest cost sources and have it transmitted to their facilities, will save American industrial and commercial customers at least $15 billion annually. The Increased efficiency resulting from competition would also reduce residential electric bills. Through retail wheeling, independent power producers can market their capacity to a greater customer base, and traditional utilities will benefit from access to other utilities markets with the more efficient utilities prospering. Retail wheeling will, therefore, reward efficient utilities and encourage inefficient utilities to improve

  18. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator. (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung


    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  19. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA, with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  20. Wheeling and transmission system service policy in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.; Schultz, A.J.; Limmer, H.D.


    This paper provides a review and discussion of the status of wheeling in the USA and Canada; the pros and cons of the new policies that are evolving and under consideration for wheeling and transmission access; specific case examples of some of the difficulties that have arisen; and the potential for new transmission technology. (author)

  1. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  2. Sensor set-up for wireless measurement of automotive rim and wheel parameters in laboratory conditions (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Prus, P.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Rychlik, A.; Kozubel, W.


    Modern rims and wheels are tested at the design and production stages. Tests can be performed in laboratory conditions and on the ride. In the laboratory, complex and costly equipment is used, as for example wheel balancers and impact testers. Modern wheel balancers are equipped with electronic and electro-mechanical units that enable touch-less measurement of dimensions, including precision measurement of radial and lateral wheel run-out, automatic positioning and application of the counterweights, and vehicle wheel set monitoring - tread wear, drift angles and run-out unbalance. Those tests are performed by on-wheel axis measurements with laser distance meters. The impact tester enables dropping of weights from a defined height onto a wheel. Test criteria are the loss of pressure of the tire and generation of cracks in the wheel without direct impact of the falling weights. In the present paper, a set up composed of three accelerometers, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor is examined as the base of a wheel tester. The sensor set-up configuration, on-line diagnostic and signal transmission are discussed.

  3. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.


    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  4. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact. (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei


    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  5. Theoretical design study of the MSFC wind-wheel turbine (United States)

    Frost, W.; Kessel, P. A.


    A wind wheel turbine (WWT) is studied. Evaluation of the probable performance, possible practical applications, and economic viability as compared to other conventional wind energy systems is discussed. The WWT apparatus is essentially a bladed wheel which is directly exposed to the wind on the upper half and exposed to wind through multiple ducting on the lower half. The multiple ducts consist of a forward duct (front concentrator) and two side ducts (side concentrators). The forced rotation of the wheel is then converted to power through appropriate subsystems. Test results on two simple models, a paper model and a stainless steel model, are reported. Measured values of power coefficients over wind speeds ranging from 4 to 16 m/s are given. An analytical model of a four bladed wheel is also developed. Overall design features of the wind turbine are evaluated and discussed. Turbine sizing is specified for a 5 and 25 kW machine. Suggested improvements to the original design to increase performance and performance predictions for an improved WWT design are given.

  6. A game is a game is a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff


    Recently self-referentiality have occurred as a trend among game designers and have also enjoyed sporadic attention in academia. However, in academia, discussions of self-referential games often rest on proceduralist arguments and a too exclusive focus on the game object. This paper draws...... on the typology of meta-pictures developed by art historian J.W.T. Mitchell. Based on this typology, this paper discusses the notion of meta-games and suggest a broad conception of such games that includes not only the game object, but also the player and the discourse in which it is interpreted....

  7. On minimizing mechanical stresses of the rail way wheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, H.; Esfahanian, M.


    The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of elastic-plastic stresses under severe drag braking. A railway wheel performs three tasks, aiding in trian movement, supporting the car load, and acting as a brake drum. Finite element computer programs are developed for elasto-plastic stress analysis. An attempt is made here to find an improved fillet profile of the wheel with the intention of minimizing high tensile mechanical stresses. Three new fillet profiles for the wheel are tested. A penalty function is used as a criterion for comparison of stresses between the new designs and the old design. The design with the least penalty is chosen to be the improved one

  8. Fuzzy model for predicting the number of deformed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Đorđević


    Full Text Available Deformation of the wheels damage cars and rails and affect on vehicle stability and safety. Repair and replacement cause high costs and lack of wagons. Planning of maintenance of wagons can not be done without estimates of the number of wheels that will be replaced due to wear and deformation in a given period of time. There are many influencing factors, the most important are: weather conditions, quality of materials, operating conditions, and distance between the two replacements. The fuzzy logic model uses the collected data as input variables to predict the output variable - number of deformed wheels for a certain type of vehicle in the defined period at a particular section of the railway.

  9. Modeling and analysis of linearized wheel-rail contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, Z.


    The dynamics of the railway vehicles are nonlinear and depend upon several factors including vehicle speed, normal load and adhesion level. The presence of contaminants on the railway track makes them unpredictable too. Therefore in order to develop an effective control strategy it is important to analyze the effect of each factor on dynamic response thoroughly. In this paper a linearized model of a railway wheel-set is developed and is later analyzed by varying the speed and adhesion level by keeping the normal load constant. A wheel-set is the wheel-axle assembly of a railroad car. Patch contact is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. (author)

  10. Inquiry in Limnology Lessons (United States)

    Variano, Evan; Taylor, Karen


    Inquiry can be implemented in various ways, ranging from simple classroom discussions to longterm research projects. In this article, the authors developed a project in which high school students were introduced to the nature and process of scientific discovery through a two-week guided inquiry unit on "limnology"--the study of fresh water, which…

  11. Wheel-running in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: protection or symptom? (United States)

    Richter, Helene; Ambrée, Oliver; Lewejohann, Lars; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Paulus, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sachser, Norbert


    Several studies on both humans and animals reveal benefits of physical exercise on brain function and health. A previous study on TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, reported beneficial effects of premorbid onset of long-term access to a running wheel on spatial learning and plaque deposition. Our study investigated the effects of access to a running wheel after the onset of Abeta pathology on behavioural, endocrinological, and neuropathological parameters. From day 80 of age, the time when Abeta deposition becomes apparent, TgCRND8 and wildtype mice were kept with or without running wheel. Home cage behaviour was analysed and cognitive abilities regarding object recognition memory and spatial learning in the Barnes maze were assessed. Our results show that, in comparison to Wt mice, Tg mice were characterised by impaired object recognition memory and spatial learning, increased glucocorticoid levels, hyperactivity in the home cage and high levels of stereotypic behaviour. Access to a running wheel had no effects on cognitive or neuropathological parameters, but reduced the amount of stereotypic behaviour in transgenics significantly. Furthermore, wheel-running was inversely correlated with stereotypic behaviour, suggesting that wheel-running may have stereotypic qualities. In addition, wheel-running positively correlated with plaque burden. Thus, in a phase when plaques are already present in the brain, it may be symptomatic of brain pathology, rather than protective. Whether or not access to a running wheel has beneficial effects on Alzheimer-like pathology and symptoms may therefore strongly depend on the exact time when the wheel is provided during development of the disease.

  12. Multi-component lightweight gearwheels with deep-drawn wheel body for automotive applications (United States)

    Benkert, Tim; Hiller, Maria; Volk, Wolfram


    Multi-component gearwheels offer great lightweight opportunities for automotive applications. An assembly of a gear ring and a wheel body joined by press fit replaces the monolithic gearwheel. To save weight, the wheel body uses lightweight design. This lightweight design influences the assembled gearwheel’s mechanical properties like stiffness, weight and torque capacity. Further, the wheel body material influences the mentioned properties as well. In this paper, the effects of the lightweight wheel body manufactured by deep-drawing on the mechanical properties of the assembled gearwheel are investigated. Three different wheel body designs are examined regarding their stiffness and weight compared to a reference gearwheel. Using the best design, the influence of five materials with increasing yield strength on the maximum torque the gearwheel can transmit is studied. All research is done virtually using Abaqus 6.12-3.

  13. Transmission access and retail wheeling. The key questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.


    The key questions involving transmission access and retail wheeling are discussed, distinguishing between opposing views regarding the effect on system costs and the environment, particularly on optimal planning involving matching capacity and demand, generation use, demand side management, and economic operations. Also discussed are contrasting views regarding the effect of cost control pressures, regulatory advantages and disadvantages, the impact on system reliability, and the stranding of investment. The author's key concern is the effect of retail wheeling upon optimal planning and operation i.e., will competitors be willing to provide one another with the cost and technical information required for coordination? In his worst scenario, retail wheeling may lead to substantial production cost increases, lessened reliability, and unfair cost-shifting between customer classes. More optimistically, production costs and reliability may be unaffected and the cost-shifting could be salubrious. 7 figs., 11 refs

  14. Science Camps for Introducing Nature of Scientific Inquiry Through Student Inquiries in Nature: Two Applications with Retention Study (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, G.; Abik, N. M.; Capkinoglu, E.; Metin, D.; Dogan, E. Eroglu; Cetin, P. S.; Schwartz, R.


    Scientific inquiry is widely accepted as a method of science teaching. Understanding its characteristics, called Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI), is also necessary for a whole conception of scientific inquiry. In this study NOSI aspects were taught explicitly through student inquiries in nature in two summer science camps. Students conducted four inquiries through their questions about surrounding soil, water, plants, and animals under the guidance of university science educators. At the end of each investigation, students presented their inquiry. NOSI aspects were made explicit by one of the science educators in the context of the investigations. Effectiveness of the science camp program and its retention were determined by applying Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI-S) (Schwartz et al. 2008) questionnaire as pre-, post-, and retention test after two months. The patterns in the data were similar. The science camp program was effective in developing three of six NOSI aspects which were questions guide scientific research, multiple methods of research, and difference between data and evidence. Students' learning of these aspects was retained. Discussion about these and the other three aspects is included in the paper. Implications of differences between school and out-of-school science experiences are also discussed.

  15. Possibilities of using welding-on technologies in crane wheel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The paper deals with analysis of welds-on quality of traverse crane wheels made from gr. 90–60 mate- rial, ASTM A148. Three types of welding-on technology with various filling materials were used. On wheel after wearing was welded-on one interlayer by a combination of additional materials, wire A 106 with F 11 ...

  16. Meta-Analysis of Inquiry-Based Instruction Research (United States)

    Hasanah, N.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Rudyatmi, E.


    Inquiry-based instruction in biology has been the focus of educational research conducted by Unnes biology department students in collaboration with their university supervisors. This study aimed to describe the methodological aspects, inquiry teaching methods critically, and to analyse the results claims, of the selected four student research reports, grounded in inquiry, based on the database of Unnes biology department 2014. Four experimental quantitative research of 16 were selected as research objects by purposive sampling technique. Data collected through documentation study was qualitatively analysed regarding methods used, quality of inquiry syntax, and finding claims. Findings showed that the student research was still the lack of relevant aspects of research methodology, namely in appropriate sampling procedures, limited validity tests of all research instruments, and the limited parametric statistic (t-test) not supported previously by data normality tests. Their consistent inquiry syntax supported the four mini-thesis claims that inquiry-based teaching influenced their dependent variables significantly. In other words, the findings indicated that positive claims of the research results were not fully supported by good research methods, and well-defined inquiry procedures implementation.

  17. Evolutionary games played by multi-agent system with different memory capacity (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan


    The evolution of cooperation is still an enigma. Resolution of cooperative dilemma is a hot topic as a perplexing interdisciplinary project, and has captured wide attention of researchers from many disciplines as a multidisciplinary field. Our main concern is the design of a networked evolutionary game model in which players show difference in memory capability. The idea of different memory capacities has its origin on the pervasive individual heterogeneity of real agents in nature. It is concluded that this proposed multiple memory capacity stimulates cooperation in lattice-structured populations. The networking effect is also investigated via a scale free network which is associated with the heterogeneous populations structure. Interestingly, results suggest that the effectiveness of a heterogeneous network at fostering cooperation is reduced in the presence of individual memory here. A thorough inquiry in the coevolutionary dynamics of individual memory and spatial structure in evolutionary games is planned for the immediate future.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvander, Mille Themsen


    I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark......I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark...

  19. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats. (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu


    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Liang, Nu-Chu


    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. PMID:25791204

  1. Mathematical model of rolling an elastic wheel over deformable support base (United States)

    Volskaia, V. N.; Zhileykin, M. M.; Zakharov, A. Y.


    One of the main direction of economic growth in Russia remains to be a speedy development of north and northeast regions that are the constituents of the 60 percent of the country territory. The further development of these territories requires new methods and technologies for solving transport and technological problems when off-road transportation of cargoes and people is conducting. One of the fundamental methods of patency prediction is imitation modeling of wheeled vehicles movement in different operating conditions. Both deformable properties of tires and physical and mechanical properties of the ground: normal tire deflection and gauge depth; variation of contact patch area depending on the load and pressure of air in the tire; existence of hysteresis losses in the tire material which are influencing on the rolling resistance due to friction processes between tire and ground in the contact patch; existence of the tangential reaction from the ground by entire contact area influence on the tractive patency. Nowadays there are two main trends in theoretical research of interaction wheeled propulsion device with ground: analytical method involving mathematical description of explored process and finite element method based on computational modeling. Mathematical models of interaction tire with the ground are used both in processes of interaction individual wheeled propulsion device with ground and researches of mobile vehicle dynamical models operated in specific road and climate conditions. One of the most significant imperfection of these models is the description of interaction wheel with flat deformable support base whereas profile of real support base surface has essential height of unevenness which is commensurate with radius of the wheel. The description of processes taking place in the ground under influence of the wheeled propulsion device using the finite element method is relatively new but most applicable lately. The application of this method allows

  2. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.


    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a “fast” electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a “fast” mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas

  3. The Impact of a Practice-Teaching Professional Development Model on Teachers' Inquiry Instruction and Inquiry Efficacy Beliefs (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Thompson, Stephen; Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Smiley, Whitney F.; Blue, Genine; Rea, Mary


    This study examined changes in middle school teachers' beliefs about inquiry, implementation of inquiry practices, and self-efficacy to teach science through inquiry after participating in a year-long professional development program. The professional development model design was based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory of learning and…

  4. Rear suspension design for an in-wheel-drive electric car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, Ashwin Dayal; Besselink, Igo


    The in-wheel motor configuration can provide more flexibility to electric car design, making the car more compact and lightweight. However, current suspension systems are not designed to incorporate an in-wheel powertrain, and studies have shown deterioration in ride comfort and handling when more

  5. Automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system for rail wheel sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, Paul; Weiland, M.G.


    This paper covers the design, system automation, calibration and validation of an automated ultrasonic system for the inspection of new and in service wheel set assemblies from diesel-electric locomotives and gondola cars. This system uses Phased Array (PA) transducers for flaw detection and Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) for the measurement of residual stress. The system collects, analyses, evaluates and categorizes the wheel sets automatically. This data is archived for future comparison and trending. It is also available for export to a portal lathe for increased efficiency and accuracy of machining, therefore allowing prolonged wheel life.

  6. Innovative Design and Performance Evaluation of Bionic Imprinting Toothed Wheel. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Tong, Jin; Stephen, Carr


    A highly efficient soil-burrowing dung beetle possesses an intricate outer contour curve on its foreleg end-tooth. This study was carried out based on evidence that this special outer contour curve has the potential of reducing soil penetration resistance and could enhance soil-burrowing efficiency. A toothed wheel is a typical agricultural implement for soil imprinting, to increase its working efficiency; the approach of the bionic geometrical structure was utilized to optimize the innovative shape of imprinting toothed wheel. Characteristics in the dung beetle's foreleg end-tooth were extracted and studied by the edge detection technique. Then, this special outer contour curve was modeled by a nine-order polynomial function and used for the innovative design of imprinting the tooth's cutting edge. Both the conventional and bionic teeth were manufactured, and traction tests in a soil bin were conducted. Taking required draft force and volume of imprinted microbasin as the evaluating indexes, operating efficiency and quality of different toothed wheels were compared and investigated. Results indicate that compared with the conventional toothed wheel, a bionic toothed wheel possesses a better forward resistance reduction property against soil and, meanwhile, can enhance the quality of soil imprinting by increasing the volume of the created micro-basin.

  7. The effect of mountain bike wheel size on cross-country performance. (United States)

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John


    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different wheel size diameters on indicators of cross-country mountain bike time trial performance. Nine competitive male mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) performed 1 lap of a 3.48 km mountain bike (MTB) course as fast as possible on 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheeled MTB. Time (s), mean power (W), cadence (revs · min -1 ) and velocity (km · h -1 ) were recorded for the whole lap and during ascent and descent sections. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. Results revealed no significant main effects for any variables by wheel size during all trials, with the exception of cadence during the descent (F (2, 16)  = 8.96; P = .002; P 2  = .53). Post hoc comparisons revealed differences lay between the 26″ and 29″ wheels (P = .02). The findings indicate that wheel size does not significantly influence performance during cross-country when ridden by trained mountain bikers, and that wheel choice is likely due to personal choice or sponsorship commitments.

  8. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters. (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B


    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Convex games versus clan games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.


    In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games. We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games. Furthermore, each monotonic

  10. Convex Games versus Clan Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.


    In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games.We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games.Furthermore, each monotonic

  11. Game on! : Evaluation malaria games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Willems


    The goal of GameOn! is to develop a serious video game. The object: to develop a serious game that aims to change behavior through awareness. The setup A multidisciplinary group which unites expertise from didactic and game production backgrounds produces an educational game for an international

  12. Stocks and flows of lead-based wheel weights in the United States (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.


    Lead is used in many widely known applications, such as automobile batteries and radiation shielding. Another lesser known, but long-term, use of lead is in automotive vehicle wheel weights. Lead weights have been used to balance wheels since the 1930s because of its high specific gravity, low relative cost, and its malleability. Out-of-balance tires tend to 'cup' and vibrate and as a result cause excessive wear on tires and vehicle suspension components and result in compromised handling, especially at high speeds. The mass, number, and style of weights needed to balance a wheel depend on the tire's size and weight and on the type and condition of the wheels (rims) on the vehicle. This study addresses an accounting of the stocks and flows of lead contained in lead wheel weights from their manufacture, through use, dissipation, and recycling, and environmental issues associated with the use of lead.

  13. Controlled braking scheme for a wheeled walking aid


    Coyle, Eugene; O'Dwyer, Aidan; Young, Eileen; Sullivan, Kevin; Toner, A.


    A wheeled walking aid with an embedded controlled braking system is described. The frame of the prototype is based on combining features of standard available wheeled walking aids. A braking scheme has been designed using hydraulic disc brakes to facilitate accurate and sensitive controlled stopping of the walker by the user, and if called upon, by automatic action. Braking force is modulated via a linear actuating stepping motor. A microcontroller is used for control of both stepper movement...

  14. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles (United States)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi


    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  15. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D


    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers.

  16. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David


    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  17. Game mechanics : advanced game design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Ernest; Dormans, Joris


    Game Mechanics is aimed at game design students and industry professionals who want to improve their understanding of how to design, build, and test the mechanics of a game. Game Mechanics will show you how to design, test, and tune the core mechanics of a game—any game, from a huge role-playing

  18. Naturalistic Inquiry in E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Agostinho


    Full Text Available In this article, the author explains how and why one particular qualitative research approach, the naturalistic inquiry paradigm, was implemented in an e-learning research study that investigated the use of the World Wide Web technology in higher education. A framework is presented that situates the research study within the qualitative research literature. The author then justifies how the study was compliant with naturalistic inquiry and concludes by presenting a model for judging the quality of such research. The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how naturalistic inquiry can be implemented in e-learning research that can serve as a guide for researchers undertaking this form of qualitative inquiry. As such, the focus of the article is to illustrate how methodological issues pertaining to naturalistic inquiry were addressed and justified to represent a rigorous research approach rather than presenting the results of the research study.

  19. Position and force control of a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.


    When a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels is traveling in a circle, the motion of the wheels is constrained. The wheel translational velocity divided by the radius to the center of rotation must be the same for all wheels. When the drive wheels are controlled independently using position control, the motion of the wheels may violate the constraints and the wheels may slip. Consequently, substantial errors can occur in the orientation of the vehicle. A vehicle with N drive wheels has (N - 1) constraints and one degree of freedom. We have developed a new approach to the control of a vehicle with N steerable drive wheels. The novel aspect of our approach is the use of force control. To control the vehicle, we have one degree of freedom for the position on the circle and (N - 1) forces that can be used to reduce errors. Recently, Kankaanranta and Koivo developed a control architecture that allows the force and position degrees of freedom to be decoupled. In the work of Kankaanranta and Koivo the force is an exogenous input. We have made the force endogenous by defining the force in terms of the errors in satisfying the rigid body kinematic constraints. We have applied the control architecture to the HERMIES-III robot and have measured a dramatic reduction in error (more than a factor of 20) compared to motions without force control.

  20. Stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dongwei; Wang Hongli; Zhu Zhiwen; Feng Zhang


    A four-wheel-steering system subjected to white noise excitations was reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian system. Subsequently we obtained an one-dimensional Ito stochastic differential equation for the averaged Hamiltonian of the system by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian systems. Thus, the stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system was analyzed by analyzing the sample behaviors of the averaged Hamiltonian at the boundary H = 0 and calculating its Lyapunov exponent. An example given at the end demonstrated that the conclusion obtained is of considerable significance

  1. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  2. Atomic Ferris wheel beams (United States)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.


    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  3. First-Year Teachers’ Uphill Struggle to Implement Inquiry Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Chichekian


    Full Text Available This longitudinal study of six first-year teachers focused on conceptualizations of inquiry-based pedagogy, self-efficacy for inquiry-based teaching, and its actual enactment. Data included a self-report survey of self-efficacy for inquiry-based instruction, individual interviews at the beginning and end of the year, and five distributed classroom observations. At year’s end, self-efficacy for inquiry teaching declined, as did frequencies of concepts teachers used to describe inquiry enactment. Inquiry descriptions reflected a set of interrelated procedures more than inquiry as conceptual knowledge. Novice teachers were observed least enacting pedagogical actions that required enabling students to communicate findings and the most in student engagement; however, over time frequencies of student engagement declined. Consistent patterns were observed between shifts in self-efficacy and inquiry enactment and shifts between self-efficacy and conceptualizations of inquiry enactment. We found beginning steps toward links between teacher’s conceptualizations and classroom practice.

  4. Theoretical perspectives on narrative inquiry. (United States)

    Emden, C


    Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.

  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Y.-H.; Wang, J.-H.; Lu, S.-N.; Chen, T.-Y.; Changchien, C.-S.; Chen, C.-H.; Hung, C.-H.; Lee, C.-M.


    Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy (CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2 hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50% (8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically. Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Y.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail:; Lu, S.-N. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Changchien, C.-S. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Hung, C.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)


    Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy (CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2 hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50% (8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically. Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS.

  7. 49 CFR 211.61 - Informal safety inquiries. (United States)


    ... information on selected topics relating to railroad safety. A notice of each such inquiry will be published in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal safety inquiries. 211.61 Section 211.61..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Miscellaneous Safety-Related Proceedings and Inquiries § 211...

  8. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann


    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  9. Dealing with the Ambiguities of Science Inquiry (United States)

    Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos


    The current vision of science education in myriad educational contexts encourages students to learn through the process of science inquiry. Science inquiry has been used to promote conceptual learning and engage learners in an active process of meaning-making and investigation to understand the world around them. The science inquiry process…

  10. Effects of setting angle on performance of fish-bionic wind wheel (United States)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Z. X.; Song, L.; Chen, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Chen, W.


    With the energy crisis and the increasing environmental pollutionmore and more efforts have been made about wind power development. In this paper, a new type of vertical axis named the fish-bionic wind wheel was proposed, and the outline of wind wheel was constructed by curve of Fourier fitting and polynomial equations. This paper attempted to research the relationship between the setting angle and the wind turbine characteristics by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that the setting angle of the fish-bionic wind wheel has some significant effects on the efficiency of the wind turbine, Within the range of wind speed from 13m/s to 15m/s, wind wheel achieves the maximum efficiency when the setting angle is at 37 degree. The conclusion will work as a guideline for the improvement of wind turbine design.

  11. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri


    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  12. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide. (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il


    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  13. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets. (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice


    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  14. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  15. General motors front wheel drive 2-mode hybrid transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, James [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). New Transmission Products Group.; Holmes, Alan G. [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). Powertrain Hybrid Architecture


    General Motors now expands the application of two-mode hybrid technology to front wheel drive vehicles with the development of a hybrid electric transmission packaged into essentially the same space as a conventional automatic transmission for front wheel drive. This was accomplished using a space-efficient arrangement based on two planetary gear sets and electric motor-generators with large internal diameters. A combination of damper and hydraulically-controlled clutch allow comfortable shutdown and restarting of large-displacement engines in front wheel drive vehicles. The hybrid system delivers electric low-speed urban driving, two continuously variable ranges of transmission speed ratios, four fixed transmission speed ratios, electric acceleration boosting, and regenerative braking. In the first vehicle application, the two-mode hybrid helps to reduce vehicle fuel consumption by approximately one-third. (orig.)

  16. Development of an omnidirectional Automated Guided Vehicle with MY3 wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyang Yu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an omnidirectional Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV with a novel omnidirectional wheel named MY3 wheel. Due to the special structure and material of the MY3 wheel, the AGV has full three DOFs in the motion plane and good capabilities of load carrying and slip resisting. In addition, the kinematic model of the AGV is derived, and the guiding method that can make the AGV to follow a specified path is established. Finally, experiments are performed to verify the kinematic model and guiding method.

  17. Errors of car wheels rotation rate measurement using roller follower on test benches (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Svirbutovich, O. A.; Krivtsov, S. N.


    The article deals with rotation rate measurement errors, which depend on the motor vehicle rate, on the roller, test benches. Monitoring of the vehicle performance under operating conditions is performed on roller test benches. Roller test benches are not flawless. They have some drawbacks affecting the accuracy of vehicle performance monitoring. Increase in basic velocity of the vehicle requires increase in accuracy of wheel rotation rate monitoring. It determines the degree of accuracy of mode identification for a wheel of the tested vehicle. To ensure measurement accuracy for rotation velocity of rollers is not an issue. The problem arises when measuring rotation velocity of a car wheel. The higher the rotation velocity of the wheel is, the lower the accuracy of measurement is. At present, wheel rotation frequency monitoring on roller test benches is carried out by following-up systems. Their sensors are rollers following wheel rotation. The rollers of the system are not kinematically linked to supporting rollers of the test bench. The roller follower is forced against the wheels of the tested vehicle by means of a spring-lever mechanism. Experience of the test bench equipment operation has shown that measurement accuracy is satisfactory at small rates of vehicles diagnosed on roller test benches. With a rising diagnostics rate, rotation velocity measurement errors occur in both braking and pulling modes because a roller spins about a tire tread. The paper shows oscillograms of changes in wheel rotation velocity and rotation velocity measurement system’s signals when testing a vehicle on roller test benches at specified rates.

  18. Experimental investigation into the mechanism of the polygonal wear of electric locomotive wheels (United States)

    Tao, Gongquan; Wang, Linfeng; Wen, Zefeng; Guan, Qinghua; Jin, Xuesong


    Experiments were conducted at field sites to investigate the mechanism of the polygonal wear of electric locomotive wheels. The polygonal wear rule of electric locomotive wheels was obtained. Moreover, two on-track tests have been carried out to investigate the vibration characteristics of the electric locomotive's key components. The measurement results of wheels out-of-round show that most electric locomotive wheels exhibit polygonal wear. The main centre wavelength in the 1/3 octave bands is 200 mm and/or 160 mm. The test results of vibration characteristics indicate that the dominating frequency of the vertical acceleration measured on the axle box is approximately equal to the passing frequency of a polygonal wheel, and does not vary with the locomotive speed during the acceleration course. The wheelset modal analysis using the finite element method (FEM) indicates that the first bending resonant frequency of the wheelset is quite close to the main vibration frequency of the axle box. The FEM results are verified by the experimental modal analysis of the wheelset. Moreover, different plans were designed to verify whether the braking system and the locomotive's adhesion control have significant influence on the wheel polygon or not. The test results indicate that they are not responsible for the initiation of the wheel polygon. The first bending resonance of the wheelset is easy to be excited in the locomotive operation and it is the root cause of wheel polygon with centre wavelength of 200 mm in the 1/3 octave bands.

  19. Effects of genetic background and environmental novelty on wheel running as a rewarding behaviour in mice. (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Stoker, Astrid K; Kas, Martien J H; Spruijt, Berry M


    Recent studies suggest running wheel activity to be naturally rewarding and reinforcing; considering the shared neuro-behavioural characteristics with drug-induced reward situations, wheel running behaviour gains interest as a tool to study mechanisms underlying reward-sensitivity. Previously, we showed that wheel running has the potential to disrupt the daily organization of home cage behaviour in female C57BL/6 [de Visser L, van den Bos R, Spruijt BM. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion. Behav Brain Res 2005;160:382-8]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of novelty-induced stress on wheel running and its impact on home cage behaviour in male C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Our aim was to determine whether wheel running may be used as a tool to study both genetic and environmentally induced differences in sensitivity to rewarding behaviour in mice. One group of male mice was placed in an automated home cage observation system for 2 weeks with a wheel integrated in the cage. A second group of mice was allowed to habituate to this cage for 1 week before a running wheel was introduced. Results showed a pronounced sensitising effect of novelty on the level of wheel running in C57Bl/6 mice but not in DBA mice. Overall levels of wheel running were higher in DBA/2 mice. Furthermore, wheel running affected circadian rhythmicity in DBA/2 mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. From these findings we tentatively suggest that wheel running behaviour could serve as a tool to study the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in sensitivity to rewarding behaviour in mice. As it is displayed spontaneously and easy to monitor, wheel running may be well suitable to be included in high-throughput phenotyping assays.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Gorin


    Full Text Available Fundamental principles for hybrid theory on turning of an all-wheel drive system are given in the paper. The paper shows expediency of accounting longitudinal additional tangential reactions (parasitic forces in contacts of central and lateral wheels with foundation. Algorithms for calculating additional tangential reactions have been proposed in the paper. The paper presents calculation kinematics model for turning of steered and rigid bogie with inter-wheel differential at various axial drive.

  1. Collaborative Inquiry Learning: Models, tools, and challenges (United States)

    Bell, Thorsten; Urhahne, Detlef; Schanze, Sascha; Ploetzner, Rolf


    Collaborative inquiry learning is one of the most challenging and exciting ventures for today's schools. It aims at bringing a new and promising culture of teaching and learning into the classroom where students in groups engage in self-regulated learning activities supported by the teacher. It is expected that this way of learning fosters students' motivation and interest in science, that they learn to perform steps of inquiry similar to scientists and that they gain knowledge on scientific processes. Starting from general pedagogical reflections and science standards, the article reviews some prominent models of inquiry learning. This comparison results in a set of inquiry processes being the basis for cooperation in the scientific network NetCoIL. Inquiry learning is conceived in several ways with emphasis on different processes. For an illustration of the spectrum, some main conceptions of inquiry and their focuses are described. In the next step, the article describes exemplary computer tools and environments from within and outside the NetCoIL network that were designed to support processes of collaborative inquiry learning. These tools are analysed by describing their functionalities as well as effects on student learning known from the literature. The article closes with challenges for further developments elaborated by the NetCoIL network.

  2. Talking Science: Developing a Discourse of Inquiry (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Smith, Pru; Murcia, Karen


    A key principle of inquiry-based science education is that the process of inquiry must include opportunities for the exploration of questions and ideas, as well as reasoning with ideas and evidence. Teaching and learning Science therefore involves teachers managing a discourse that supports inquiry and students engaging in talk that facilitates…

  3. From Paris to Beijing, a 12,000-km cycle tour to see the Olympic Games !

    CERN Multimedia


    Two members of CERN’s cycling club have taken up an incredible challenge - that of travelling to the Chinese capital for the inauguration of the Olympic Games this summer by pedal power alone! Peter Dreesen (on the left) and Raymond Cambarrat training in 2007, with the CERN Velo Club. At the Moldova-Ukraine border, on 18 April.Peter Dreesen, an engineer in CERN’s AB-PO Group, and Raymond Cambarrat, a safety officer in TS-AS3, set off "on their own two wheels" from the esplanade of the Trocadéro in Paris, on 16 March. Although approaching retirement, both these members of CERN’s Velo Club are well-trained athletes and have the ambition of completing the 12,000-km journey on their bikes from start to finish, crossing twelve countries on their way and arriving in Beijing five days before the start of the Games. It would all seem a rather hair-brained scheme if it were not for the meticulo...

  4. The Inquiry Matrix: A Tool for Assessing and Planning Inquiry in Biology and Beyond (United States)

    Grady, Julie


    One way to advance inquiry in the classroom is to establish a systematic strategy for reflecting on our practice and our students' readiness to engage in increasingly complex scientific reasoning. The Matrix for Assessing and Planning Scientific Inquiry (MAPSI) is a tool that promotes this valuable reflection so that we, as teachers, are better…

  5. Dynamic Open Inquiry Performances of High-School Biology Students (United States)

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit


    In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…

  6. Characterizing Wheel-Soil Interaction Loads Using Meshfree Finite Element Methods: A Sensitivity Analysis for Design Trade Studies (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Bojanowski, Cezary; Kulakx, Ronald F.


    A wheel experiencing sinkage and slippage events poses a high risk to planetary rover missions as evidenced by the mobility challenges endured by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. Current wheel design practice utilizes loads derived from a series of events in the life cycle of the rover which do not include (1) failure metrics related to wheel sinkage and slippage and (2) performance trade-offs based on grouser placement/orientation. Wheel designs are rigorously tested experimentally through a variety of drive scenarios and simulated soil environments; however, a robust simulation capability is still in development due to myriad of complex interaction phenomena that contribute to wheel sinkage and slippage conditions such as soil composition, large deformation soil behavior, wheel geometry, nonlinear contact forces, terrain irregularity, etc. For the purposes of modeling wheel sinkage and slippage at an engineering scale, meshfree nite element approaches enable simulations that capture su cient detail of wheel-soil interaction while remaining computationally feasible. This study implements the JPL wheel-soil benchmark problem in the commercial code environment utilizing the large deformation modeling capability of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) meshfree methods. The nominal, benchmark wheel-soil interaction model that produces numerically stable and physically realistic results is presented and simulations are shown for both wheel traverse and wheel sinkage cases. A sensitivity analysis developing the capability and framework for future ight applications is conducted to illustrate the importance of perturbations to critical material properties and parameters. Implementation of the proposed soil-wheel interaction simulation capability and associated sensitivity framework has the potential to reduce experimentation cost and improve the early stage wheel design proce

  7. Inquiry and Digital Learning Centers (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    "Inquiry is an investigative process that engages students in answering questions, solving real world problems, confronting issues, or exploring personal interests" (Pappas and Tepe 2002, 27). Students who engage in inquiry learning need tools and resources that enable them to independently gather and use information. Scaffolding is important for…

  8. Science Inquiry as Knowledge Transformation: Investigating Metacognitive and Self-regulation Strategies to Assist Students in Writing about Scientific Inquiry Tasks (United States)

    Collins, Timothy A.


    Science inquiry is central to the science education reform efforts that began in the early 1990's. It is both a topic of instruction and a process to be experienced. Student engagement in the process of scientific inquiry was the focus of this study. The process of scientific inquiry can be conceived as a two-part task. In the initial part of the task, students identify a question or problem to study and then carry out an investigation to address the issue. In the second part of the task, students analyze their data to propose explanations and then report their findings. Knowing that students struggle with science inquiry tasks, this study sought to investigate ways to help students become more successful with the communication demands of science inquiry tasks. The study took place in a high school chemistry class. Students in this study completed a total of three inquiry tasks over the course of one school year. Students were split into four experimental groups in order to determine the effect of goal setting, metacognitive prompts, and sentence stems on student inquiry tasks. The quality of the student written work was assessed using a scoring rubric familiar to the students. In addition, students were asked at four different times in the school year to respond to a self-efficacy survey that measured student self-efficacy for chemistry content and science inquiry processes. Student self-efficacy for the process of scientific inquiry was positive and did not change over the course of the study while student scores on the science inquiry tasks rose significantly. The metacognitive prompts and instruction in goal setting did not have any effect on student inquiry scores. Results related to the effect of the sentence stems were mixed. An analysis of student work indicated that students who received high marks on their initial inquiry task in this study were the ones that adopted the use of the sentence stems. Students who received low marks on their initial inquiry

  9. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and Summative Assessment Functions for Flexible Inquiry (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven; Whitaker, J. Reid


    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Semenov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to the definition of technical and economic efficiency from the use of wheels of perspective structural scheme in the undercarriage of the rail vehicles (wagon. Methodology. The use efficiency of wheels of promising design scheme by reducing the motion resistance and wear of the wheel flanges is estimated by calculated values of estimated annual economic effect of implementation and payback period of the costs required for the development and implementation of the proposed wheel. Non-recurring costs include the cost associated with conducting research and development work, as well as the additional costs required for the manufacture of wheels of promising design scheme. Findings. In the course of computation and analysis of the economic efficiency from introductions of wheels of promising design concept, carried out on the basis of the initial data for the South-West railway, it was determined the profit which can be obtained by reducing the following operating costs: cost of returning the wheel flange on wheel sets; cost of fuel and energy resources for train traction; the value of the idle of cars in the current uncoupling repair; cost of repairs and current maintenance of rail track. In addition, it can be additionally released a number of cars by reducing their downtime. The calculation of net discounted income is carried out with the following assumptions: calculation period; estimated increase in the cost of wheel sets with wheels of promising constructive scheme compared to the model, the values of net profit for the accounting period, which was calculated by calculating the average value minus the cost of research, development and manufacturing of wheelset park with wheels of new design scheme. For a given billing period, the calculated value of the net discounted income was obtained and the payback period of the project was determined. Originality. The approaches to the perfection of design scheme of wheels

  11. The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games. (United States)

    Shubik, Martin


    Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)

  12. Reinforcement of wheel running in BALB/c mice: role of motor activity and endogenous opioids. (United States)

    Vargas-Pérez, Héctor; Sellings, Laurie H L; Paredes, Raúl G; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A; Díaz, José-Luis


    The authors investigated the effect of the opioid antagonist naloxone on wheel-running behavior in Balb/c mice. Naloxone delayed the acquisition of wheel-running behavior, but did not reduce the expression of this behavior once acquired. Delayed acquisition was not likely a result of reduced locomotor activity, as naloxone-treated mice did not exhibit reduced wheel running after the behavior was acquired, and they performed normally on the rotarod test. However, naloxone-blocked conditioned place preference for a novel compartment paired previously with wheel running, suggesting that naloxone may delay wheel-running acquisition by blocking the rewarding or reinforcing effects of the behavior. These results suggest that the endogenous opioid system mediates the initial reinforcing effects of wheel running that are important in acquisition of the behavior.

  13. A design-based study of Citizen Inquiry for geology


    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike


    Citizen Inquiry forms a new method of informal science learning and aims to enable the engagement of citizens in online scientific investigations. Citizen Inquiry combines aspects from Citizen Science and Inquiry-based learning and is implemented through a community of practice where people having a shared interest interact and exchange knowledge and methods supported and guided by online systems and tools within a web-based inquiry environment. To explore the potential of Citizen Inquiry, a ...

  14. Modelling of a mecanum wheel taking into account the geometry of road rollers (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.; Sękala, A.; Foit, K.


    During the process planning in a company one of the basic factors associated with the production costs is the operation time for particular technological jobs. The operation time consists of time units associated with the machining tasks of a workpiece as well as the time associated with loading and unloading and the transport operations of this workpiece between machining stands. Full automation of manufacturing in industry companies tends to a maximal reduction in machine downtimes, thereby the fixed costs simultaneously decreasing. The new construction of wheeled vehicles, using Mecanum wheels, reduces the transport time of materials and workpieces between machining stands. These vehicles have the ability to simultaneously move in two axes and thus more rapid positioning of the vehicle relative to the machining stand. The Mecanum wheel construction implies placing, around the wheel free rollers that are mounted at an angle 450, which allow the movement of the vehicle not only in its axis but also perpendicular thereto. The improper selection of the rollers can cause unwanted vertical movement of the vehicle, which may cause difficulty in positioning of the vehicle in relation to the machining stand and the need for stabilisation. Hence the proper design of the free rollers is essential in designing the whole Mecanum wheel construction. It allows avoiding the disadvantageous and unwanted vertical vibrations of a whole vehicle with these wheels. In the article the process of modelling the free rollers, in order to obtain the desired shape of unchanging, horizontal trajectory of the vehicle is presented. This shape depends on the desired diameter of the whole Mecanum wheel, together with the road rollers, and the width of the drive wheel. Another factor related with the curvature of the trajectory shape is the length of the road roller and its diameter decreases depending on the position with respect to its centre. The additional factor, limiting construction of

  15. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva


    Full Text Available The most effective method for finish machining of hard-metals and alloys is to use the diamond grinding wheels for grinding. An application of diamond wheels significantly increases the employee output, reduces costs, and raises manufacturing efficiency with achieving the high performance properties of treated surfaces.During grinding a working surface of diamond wheel wears out. It adversely affects the cutting capability of the diamond grains, and depending on the grinding conditions can occur through different mechanisms. Wear of diamond wheel causes distortion of its shape and reduces cutting properties. However, dressing of diamond wheels is a complicated and time-consuming operation in terms of manufacturing technique.Methods to make dressing of diamond grinding wheel have different types of classification. Classification of dressing methods by the type of energy used is as follows: mechanical, chemical, electrophysical, electromechanical, and electrochemical. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages.Electrochemical method of dressing is the most productive and efficient. Electrochemical method comprises anode-mechanical dressing and electrochemical (electrolytic one. The paper presents the electrochemical in-process dressing (ECD and the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID.The source of energy, grinding a wheel with metal bond, and an electrode are necessary for providing ELID. The ELID consists of several stages. The first stage is preliminary electrolytic dressing of diamond wheel. The electrolyte is placed into the gap between the wheel and electrode. The bond of the wheel is oxidized. An insulating layer is formed. It reduces an electrical conductivity of the wheel and controls consumption of diamond grains, as well as polishes the surface of the work piece. Further, the insulating layer is destroyed. The cycle of dressing begins anew.The ECD proceeds in the same way as ELID. However during the ECD-process there

  16. Just-In-Time predictive control for a two-wheeled robot


    Nakpong, Nuttapun; Yamamoto, Shigeru


    In this paper, we introduce the use of Just-In-Time predictive control to enhance the stability of a two-wheeled robot. Just-In-Time predictive control uses a database which includes a huge amounts of input-output data of the two-wheeled robot and predicts its future movements based on a Just-In-Time algorithm. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Using technology to support science inquiry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P John Williams


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a teacher’s experience in implementing an inquiry approach to his teaching over a period of two years with two different classes. His focus was on using a range of information technologies to support student inquiry learning. The study demonstrates the need to consider the characteristics of students when implementing an inquiry approach, and also the influence of the teachers level of understanding and related confidence in such an approach. The case also indicated that a range of technologies can be effective in supporting student inquiry learning.

  18. Tilted wheel satellite attitude control with air-bearing table experimental results (United States)

    Inumoh, Lawrence O.; Forshaw, Jason L.; Horri, Nadjim M.


    Gyroscopic actuators for satellite control have attracted significant research interest over the years, but their viability for the control of small satellites has only recently started to become clear. Research on variable speed gyroscopic actuators has long been focused on single gimbal actuators; double gimbal actuators typically operate at constant wheel spin rate and allow tilt angle ranges far larger than the ranges needed to operate most satellite missions. This research examines a tilted wheel, a newly proposed type of inertial actuator that can generate torques in all three principal axes of a rigid satellite using a spinning wheel and a double tilt mechanism. The tilt mechanism tilts the angular momentum vector about two axes providing two degree of freedom control, while variation of the wheel speed provides the third. The equations of motion of the system lead to a singularity-free system during nominal operation avoiding the need for complex steering logic. This paper describes the hardware design of the tilted wheel and the experimental setup behind both standalone and spherical air-bearing tables used to test it. Experimental results from the air bearing table are provided with the results depicting the high performance capabilities of the proposed actuator in torque generation.

  19. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W


    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  20. Computational Inquiry in Introductory Statistics (United States)

    Toews, Carl


    Inquiry-based pedagogies have a strong presence in proof-based undergraduate mathematics courses, but can be difficult to implement in courses that are large, procedural, or highly computational. An introductory course in statistics would thus seem an unlikely candidate for an inquiry-based approach, as these courses typically steer well clear of…

  1. Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development (United States)

    Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock


    The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

  2. Games on Games. Game Design as Critical Reflexive Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Caruso


    Full Text Available Can video game design be compared to more formalized practices of scientific research or speculation within game studies? And, by virtue of an intellectual leap that in itself calls for discussion, can video games be considered as an efficient vehicle for the presentation of certain kinds of knowledge, in the same way in which papers, conference presentations, and books are? What Ratto defines as critical making (2011, the practice of producing artifacts of different sorts in order to supplement and extend critical reflection, may apply to video games as well. Forms of research through design (Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, 2007, of carpentry (Bogost, 2012, and speculative design (Dunne and Raby, 2013 have been analyzed, discussed, and maybe most importantly, put into practice in different fields of cultural and scientific production. To address this gap and to map the current (and future state of self-reflexive games, we asked both researchers and designers to imagine an application of these concepts to video games. Paraphrasing Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, what does research through game design might mean? What epistemological insights can we derive from the act of designing, making and playing video games?

  3. Thermal modal analysis of novel non-pneumatic mechanical elastic wheel based on FEM and EMA (United States)

    Zhao, Youqun; Zhu, Mingmin; Lin, Fen; Xiao, Zhen; Li, Haiqing; Deng, Yaoji


    A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Experiment Modal Analysis (EMA) have been employed here to characterize the structural dynamic response of mechanical elastic wheel (ME-Wheel) operating under a specific thermal environment. The influence of high thermal condition on the structural dynamic response of ME-Wheel is investigated. The obtained results indicate that the EMA results are in accordance with those obtained using the proposed Finite Element (FE) model, indicting the high reliability of this FE model applied in analyzing the modal of ME-Wheel working under practical thermal environment. It demonstrates that the structural dynamic response of ME-Wheel operating under a specific thermal condition can be predicted and evaluated using the proposed analysis method, which is beneficial for the dynamic optimization design of the wheel structure to avoid tire temperature related vibration failure and improve safety of tire.

  4. Analysis of the distribution of temperature fields in the braked railway wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchánek Andrej


    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of reduced stress in a braked railway wheel, based on thermal transient analysis on virtual models, which influence the characteristics of the railway wheels. Structural analysis was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics program system package. Thermal transient analysis deals with detection of temperature fields which are a result of braking by brake block. The applied heat flux represents the heat generated by friction of brake block. It is applied to a quarter model of the wheel to speed up the calculation. This analysis simulates two braking processes with subsequent cooling. Distribution of the equivalent stress was detected in the railway wheel cross section, at selected points. The input parameters were taken from the thermal transient analysis. These equivalent stresses result from thermal load.

  5. Robust Feedback Linearization-based Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for a four-wheel driven, four-wheel steered mobile robot moving in outdoor terrain. The robot is modeled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. A nonlinear trajectory tracking feedback control law based...

  6. Conceptualising inquiry based education in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Artigue, Michéle


    of inquiry as a pedagogical concept in the work of Dewey (e.g. 1916, 1938) to analyse and discuss its migration to science and mathematics education. For conceptualizing inquiry-based mathematics education (IBME) it is important to analyse how this concept resonates with already well-established theoretical...... frameworks in mathematics education. Six such frameworks are analysed from the perspective of inquiry: the problem-solving tradition, the Theory of Didactical Situations, the Realistic Mathematics Education programme, the mathematical modelling perspective, the Anthropological Theory of Didactics...

  7. Gamers on Games and Gaming : Implications for Educational Game Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staalduinen, J.P.


    In the past two decades, there has been a steadily increasing interest in the use of games for educational purposes. This has led to an increased design, use and study of educational games; games where the players learn through playing. However, experiments with the educational use of games have not

  8. Influence of Wheel Eccentricity on Vertical Vibration of Suspended Monorail Vehicle: Experiment and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikai Lv


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of wheel eccentricity on vertical vibration of suspended monorail vehicle based on experiment and simulation. Two sets of tests are conducted in the first Chinese suspended monorail, and the tested acceleration is analyzed and exhibited. A multibody dynamic model of the suspended monorail vehicle is established to simulate the vertical vibration of car body excited by wheel eccentricity. The results show that there are three factors which may cause an abnormal vibration considering the track and the vehicle system. The influence of wheel eccentricity on the car body vibration was firstly analyzed. Simulated acceleration of car body has a great accordance with test. The wheel eccentricity could excite the resonance of car body at the speed of 21 km/h, and the vertical acceleration would increase considerably. Decreasing the secondary stiffness can effectively reduce the vertical vibration caused by wheel eccentricity, especially at the resonant speed. In the secondary test, the peak of car body acceleration at speed of 20 km/h is not appearing when only renewing the wheels, and the acceleration is decreasing obviously at the domain frequency. It is further determined that the abnormal vibration is mainly caused by the wheel eccentricity.

  9. Preliminary Design and Investigation of Integrated Compressor with Composite Material Wheel (United States)

    Wang, Jifeng; Müller, Norbert


    An integrated water vapor compressor with composite material wheel is developed and strength analysis using FEM is presented. The design of wound composite material allows for integrating all rotating parts of the drive that may simply reduce to only the rotor of the electrical motor, since no drive shaft is required anymore. This design can reduce the number of parts and mass, which is convenient for engineers to maintain the compressor. The electrical motors are brushless DC motors operating through a frequency drive and apply a torque on the wheels through the materials bonded in the wheel shrouds. This system allows a large amount of compression to be produced in a multi-stage compression setup. To determine the stress and vibration characteristics of this integrated compressor, numerical analysis is carried out using FEM. The simulation result shows that the integrated compressor with composite material wheel can be used in a chiller system where water as a refrigerant.

  10. High levels of wheel running protect against behavioral sensitization to cocaine. (United States)

    Renteria Diaz, Laura; Siontas, Dora; Mendoza, Jose; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas


    Although there is no doubt that the direct action of stimulant drugs on the brain is necessary for sensitization to their behavioral stimulating effects, several experiments indicate that drug action is often not sufficient to produce sensitization. There is considerable evidence that many individual characteristics and experiential variables can modulate the behavioral and neural changes that are seen following repeated exposure to stimulant drugs. In the work presented here, we examined whether chronic wheel running would modulate behavioral sensitization to cocaine, and whether any such influence was contingent on individual differences in wheel running. We found that a 5- or 10-week experience with wheel running protects against behavioral sensitization to cocaine but only in animals with a natural tendency to run the most. Understanding the mechanism underlying the modulating effect of wheel running on behavioral sensitization may have important implications for future studies on the link between drug-induced behavioral and neural adaptations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wheeling and Banking Strategies for Optimal Renewable Energy Deployment. International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vora, Ravi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Madrigal, Paola [Energy Regulatory Commission (Mexico); Chatterjee, Sushanta K. [Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (India); Shah, Rakesh [SunEdison, Mumbai (India)


    This paper defines the principles of wheeling (i.e., transmission) tariffs and renewable energy (RE) banking provisions and their role in RE deployment in countries with plans for large-scale RE. It reviews experiences to date in the United States, Mexico, and India and discusses key policy and regulatory considerations for devising more effective wheeling and/or banking provisions for countries with ambitious RE deployment targets. The paper addresses the challenges of competing needs of stakeholders, especially those of RE generators, distribution utilities, and transmission network owners and operators. The importance of wheeling and banking and their effectiveness for financial viability of RE deployment is also explored. This paper aims to benefit policymakers and regulators as well as key renewable energy stakeholders. Key lessons for regulators include: creating long-term wheeling and banking policy certainty, considering incentivizing RE through discounted transmission access, and assessing the cost implications of such discounts, as well as expanding access to renewable energy customers.

  12. Wheels Optimization and Vision Control of Omni-directional Mobile Microrobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghao Li


    Full Text Available This paper presents a millimeters scale omni-directional mobile microrobot with special dual-wheel structure. The microrobot was actuated by three electromagnetic micromotors of 2mm diameter. Dynamic analysis of translational and steering movements presented the relationship between the sizes of the dual-wheel structure and the output torque of the micromotor. Genetic algorithm (GA was employed to optimize the dual-wheel's sizes for reducing the unnecessary torque consumption and improving the driving ability of the microrobot. A computer vision system contained two sets of feedback control is devised for the microrobot. Torque self-balance and current-limiting control approach are presented to ensure the accuracy of step movement. Experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts.

  13. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie


    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  14. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Pragmatic inquiry and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    ’Don’t block the road of inquiry” was the motto of Peirce and also Dewey situated inquiry in its ideal version in a democratic and cooperative community. Abduction became the key concept for the pragmatic and creative research process where the lonely engineer is substituted with intelligent...... collaborations of the many. Thus, inquiry is from a pragmatic understanding rather a social than a purely cognitive task. The paper will firstly give a sketch of this understanding of inquiry and creativity on the background of the theories of Peirce and Dewey and will draw some parallels to recent...... of Thevenot’s critical pragmatism this understanding might be naïve – not because this is an idealistic rather than a real-life scenario but because the idea of collaborative creativity and self-realization has actually become the driving force in a marked dominated organization of science and production...

  16. Bucket wheel excavators for open-cast mining all over the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, W.


    A report is given on the use of bucket wheel excavators, spreaders and tripper cars in open-cast mining of brown coal, oilsand and other minerals in Australia, Canada, India, Spain, USA and Yugoslavia as well as on the use of bucket wheel excavators for land reclamation in Singapore.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Lightweight Robotic Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle


    Johnson, Christopher Patrick


    This study focuses on conducting a benchmarking analysis for light wheeled and tracked robotic vehicles. Vehicle mobility has long been a key aspect of research for many organizations. According to the Department of Defense vehicle mobility is defined as, "the overall capacity to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission"[1]. Until recently this definition has been applied exclusively to large scale wheeled and tracked vehicles. With new development l...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Hariningsih


    Full Text Available Learning science in junior high school in general is focused on mastery of concepts and basic science has not yet developed abilities, such as the ability berinkuiri. Therefore, it is necessary to find the appropriate steps to improve the process of learning science. The purpose of the study iniuntuk improve learning outcomes by using the skill aspect of inquiry learning model level. The method used in this research is mixed method. The instrument used is the syllabus, lesson plans, and the observation sheet keterampilan.Teknik data collection using observation. Aspects of data analysis skills using data reduction method, coding and interpretation. Results of research conducted on 36 students showed the ability berinkuiri learners increased by using the model level of inquiry. Results of learners aspect of overall skill increases with the good category. The conclusion from this study that the use of models level of inquiry to improve the ability berinkuiri learners and improve learning outcomes aspects of science skills of learners. Pembelajaran IPA di SMP pada umumnya masih menekankan pada penguasaan konsep dan belum mengembangkan kemampuan dasar sains, seperti kemampuan berinkuiri.Oleh karena itu perlu ditemukan langkah yang tepat untuk memperbaiki proses pembelajaran IPA. Tujuan dari penelitian iniuntuk meningkatkan hasil belajar aspek keterampilan dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran level of inquiry. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu mixed methode. Instrumen yang digunakan yaitu Silabus, RPP dan lembar observasi keterampilan. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi. Analisis data aspek keterampilan dengan menggunakan cara mereduksi data, pengkodean dan interpretasi. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan pada 36 peserta didik menunjukkan kemampuan berinkuiri peserta didik mengalami peningkatan dengan menggunakan model level of inquiry. Hasil belajar peserta didik aspek keterampilan secara keseluruhan meningkat dengan dengan

  19. A Ferris Wheel Accident at a Movable Amusement Park. (United States)

    Cho, Young-Jin; Ji, Hong-Keun; Moon, Byung-Sun; Park, Ha-Sun; Goh, Jae-Mo; Park, Nam-Kyu; Choi, Don-Mook


    This study presented a Ferris wheel accident case. A Ferris wheel is composed of many parts, and the outmost ring of it is assembled using a lock pin. This accident occurred because the lock pin caught the door of a gondola and the gondola overturned. Five of the seven passengers in the gondola fell to the ground, along with the gondola's viewing window. The investigation revealed that the gondola became stuck when its door was caught by a lock pin at the Ferris wheel's three o'clock position. The contact between the door and the lock pin was due to a structural problem: There was not enough space allotted between the door and the lock pin. Therefore, if a passenger pushed on the gondola's door, the potential existed for contact between the door and the lock pin. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game (United States)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra


    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  1. Wheel/rail noise generated by a high-speed train investigated with a line array of microphones (United States)

    Barsikow, B.; King, W. F.; Pfizenmaier, E.


    Radiated noise generated by a high-speed electric train travelling at speeds up to 250 km/h has been measured with a line array of microphones mounted along the wayside in two different orientations. The test train comprised a 103 electric locomotive, four Intercity coaches, and a dynamo coach. Some of the wheels were fitted with experimental wheel-noise absorbers. By using the directional capabilities of the array, the locations of the dominant sources of wheel/rail radiated noise were identified on the wheels. For conventional wheels, these sources lie near or on the rim at an average height of about 0·2 m above the railhead. The effect of wheel-noise absorbers and freshly turned treads on radiated noise were also investigated.

  2. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján


    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  3. Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health. (United States)

    Brox, E; Fernandez-Luque, L; Tøllefsen, T


    There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion.

  4. Teaching molecular diffusion using an inquiry approach : diffusion activities in a secondary school inquiry-learning community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; van der Schee, J.; Pilot, A.


    The Dutch chemistry curriculum for upper secondary schools has prescribed inquiry-based student learning since 1997. For some decades inquiry tasks have been a feature of school science in various countries (1). As in other countries, some of our chemistry teachers are used to recipe-geared

  5. 48 CFR 32.909 - Contractor inquiries. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor inquiries. 32.909 Section 32.909 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.909 Contractor inquiries. (a) Direct questions...

  6. Addictive Online Games: Examining the Relationship Between Game Genres and Internet Gaming Disorder. (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Hendriks, Stefan J F


    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is the most recent term used to describe problematic or pathological involvement with computer or video games. This study examined whether this disorder is more likely to involve pathological involvement with online (i.e., Internet) games as opposed to offline games. We also explored the addictive potential of nine video game genres by examining the relationship between IGD and 2,720 games played by a sample of 13- to 40-year olds (N = 2,442). Although time spent playing both online and offline games was related to IGD, online games showed much stronger correlations. This tendency is also reflected within various genres. Disordered gamers spent more than four times as much time playing online role-playing games than nondisordered gamers and more than thrice as much time playing online shooters, whereas no significant differences for offline games from these genres were found. Results are discussed within the frame of social interaction and competition provided by online games.

  7. Towards an Ecological Inquiry in Child-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Hjermitslev, Thomas


    The paper introduces an Ecological Inquiry as a methodological approach for designing technology with children. The inquiry is based on the ‘ecological turn’ in HCI, Ubiquitous Computing and Participatory Design that shift the emphasis of design from technological artifacts to entire use ecologies...... into which technologies are integrated. Our Ecological Inquiry extends Cooperative Inquiry in three directions: from understanding to emergence of social practices and meanings, from design of artifacts to hybrid environments, and from a focus on technology to appropriations through design and use. We...... exemplify our approach in a case study in which we designed social technologies for hybrid learning environments with children in two schools, and discuss how an Ecological Inquiry can inform existing approaches in CCI....

  8. The standard set game of a cooperative game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Hoede, C.


    We show that for every cooperative game a corresponding set game can be defined, called the standard set game. Values for set games can be applied to this standard game and determine allocations for the cooperative game. On the other hand, notions for cooperative games, like the Shapley value, the

  9. Target Inquiry: Changing Chemistry High School Teachers' Classroom Practices and Knowledge and Beliefs about Inquiry Instruction (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Luxford, Karen M.; Luxford, Cynthia J.


    Inquiry-based instruction requires a deep, conceptual understanding of the process of science combined with a sophisticated knowledge of teaching and learning. This study examines the changes in classroom instructional practices and corresponding changes to knowledge and beliefs about inquiry instruction for eight high school chemistry teachers.…

  10. A development of the distributive law of points on the multi-wheeled machine wheels with electro-mechanical transmission, made under the scheme "motor-axis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Jileikin


    Full Text Available Currently, developers of multi-wheeled vehicles (MWV show growing interest in electromechanical drive in the «motor-axis» implementation. However, in designing the traction electric drive (TED based on such approach the problems arise, primarily, from a lack of creating experience and of ready algorithmic solutions to control the traction motors. The use of methods to implement the individual TED is impossible because of the presence of cross-axle differential in the leading axle drive, which does not allow the input torque control of each wheel singly. The paper offers a law to control a traction electric drive of MWV leading axles that comprises the law to control the tractive effort torque and braking moment on the leading axles as well as algorithms of anti-lock brake and traction control systems.An analysis of simulation modeling results shows an efficiency of the developed law that allows control of the traction electric drive of MWV leading axles. The control law includes an algorithm to control the tractive effort torque and braking moment on the driving-wheels, as well as algorithms of anti-lock brake and traction systems.At stationary (constant speed rotation and non-stationary (elk test maneuvering there was no spin of vehicle wheels. Angular speeds of the wheels vary smoothly. Partial loss of vehicle stability when making maneuvers on ice may be reduced through development of algorithms for dynamic stabilization, which will improve the MWV road-holding and trajectory ability. Fullscale tests of MWV with traction electric drive implemented using a “motor-axis" approach are required to have a final answer on the performance and effectiveness of the developed control law.

  11. Systematizing game learning analytics for serious games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Fernandez, Cristina; Calvo Morata, Antonio; Freire, Manuel; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar


    Applying games in education provides multiple benefits clearly visible in entertainment games: their engaging, goal-oriented nature encourages students to improve while they play. Educational games, also known as Serious Games (SGs) are video games designed with a main purpose other than

  12. Analyzing students' attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons (United States)

    Kostenbader, Tracy C.

    Due to the logistics of guided-inquiry lesson, students learn to problem solve and develop critical thinking skills. This mixed-methods study analyzed the students' attitudes towards science during inquiry lessons. My quantitative results from a repeated measures survey showed no significant difference between student attitudes when taught with either structured-inquiry or guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative results analyzed through a constant-comparative method did show that students generate positive interest, critical thinking and low level stress during guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative research also gave insight into a teacher's transition to guided-inquiry. This study showed that with my students, their attitudes did not change during this transition according to the qualitative data however, the qualitative data did how high levels of excitement. The results imply that students like guided-inquiry laboratories, even though they require more work, just as much as they like traditional laboratories with less work and less opportunity for creativity.

  13. Flipped Science Inquiry@Crescent Girls' School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishi Goh


    Full Text Available This study shares the findings of a school-based Action Research project to explore how inquiry-based science practical lessons designed using the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS classroom pedagogical model influence the way students learn scientific knowledge and also students' development of 21st century competencies, in particular, in the area of Knowledge Construction. Taking on a broader definition of the flipped classroom pedagogical model, the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework adopts a structure that inverted the traditional science learning experience. Scientific knowledge is constructed through discussions with their peers, making use of their prior knowledge and their experiences while engaging in hands-on activities. Through the study, it is found that with the use of the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework, learning experiences that are better aligned to the epistemology of science while developing 21st century competencies in students are created.

  14. Artful inquiry as a leadership skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte

    Artful Inquiry as a Leadership Skill Lotte Darsø Abstract for 8th AMO 2016: Open Stream How do leaders develop their own leadership? How do leaders get inspiration and energy for leading and how do they make decisions in complex situations with scarce information? In this paper I will argue...... that artful inquiry is an important leadership skill, both in relation for leaders to rekindle themselves and their employees. I’ll define Artful Inquiry as the skill of inquiring into something of importance through body, mind, heart and spirit. Artful Inquiry taps into the leader’s tacit knowledge...... of materials such as paper, clay, LEGO pieces, photos, cloth, materials from nature, or a combinations of these); embodying (e.g. exploring positions, developing empathy, or focused sensing into what the body knows); listening (e.g. to different music pieces or live music); or presencing (e.g. through...

  15. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl


    Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete...

  16. Inquiry-based Learning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyøe, Jonas; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Hjelmborg, Mette Dreier

    From a grading list of 28 of the highest ranked mathematics education journals, the six highest ranked journals were chosen, and a systematic search for inquiry-based mathematics education and related keywords was conducted. This led to five important theme/issues for inquiry-based learning...

  17. Trained Inquiry Skills on Heat and Temperature Concepts (United States)

    Hasanah, U.; Hamidah, I.; Utari, S.


    Inquiry skills are skills that aperson needs in developing concepts, but the results of the study suggest that these skills haven’t yet been trained along with the development of concepts in science feeding, found the difficulties of students in building the concept scientifically. Therefore, this study aims to find ways that are effective in training inquiry skills trough Levels of Inquiry (LoI) learning. Experimental research with one group pretest-postest design, using non-random sampling samples in one of vocational high school in Cimahi obtained purposively 33 students of X class. The research using the inquiry skills test instrument in the form of 15questions multiple choice with reliability in very high category. The result of data processing by using the normalized gain value obtained an illustration that the ways developed in the LoI are considered effective trained inquiry skills in the middle category. Some of the ways LoI learning are considered effective in communicating aspects through discovery learning, predicting trough interactive demonstration, hypotheses through inquiry lesson, and interpreting data through inquiry lab, but the implementation of LoI learning in this study hasn’t found a way that is seen as effective for trespassing aspects of designing an experiment.

  18. Scientific Inquiry in Health Sciences Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    inquiry or critical thinking. Discussion: The value of this study is that it might enable educational developers to give junior faculty better guidance on teaching and specific feedback on their teaching portfolio in particular in regards to the design of learning activities that might use scientific...... in terms of a more systematic approach to higher-level thinking. Thus although participants cited one or more constructivist educational theorists, they did not express a well-articulated notion of inquiry and they provided limited concrete examples on how to design a conducive learning environment around...... inquiry as means and end in higher education....

  19. Investigation of diamond wheel topography in Elliptical Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (EUAG) of monocrystal sapphire using fractal analysis method. (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xibin; Zhou, Tianfeng; Wu, Yongbo; Jiao, Li


    The wear behaviors of grinding wheel have significant influence on the work-surface topography. However, a comprehensive and quantitative method is lacking for evaluating the wear conditions of grinding wheel. In this paper, a fractal analysis method is used to investigate the wear behavior of resin-bonded diamond wheel in Elliptical Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (EUAG) of monocrystal sapphire, and a series of experiments on EUAG and conventional grinding (CG) are performed. The results show that the fractal dimension of grinding wheel topography is highly correlated to the wear behavior, i.e., grain fracture, grain pullout, and wheel loading. An increase in cutting edge density on the wheel surface results in an increase of the fractal dimension, but an increase in the grain pullout and wheel loading results in a decrease in the fractal dimension. The wheel topography in EUAG has a higher fractal dimension than that in CG before 60 passes due to better self-sharpening behavior, and then has a smaller fractal dimension because of more serious wheel loadings after 60 passes. By angle-dependent distribution analysis of profile fractal dimensions, the wheel surface topography is transformed from isotropic to anisotropic. These indicated that the fractal analysis method could be further used in monitoring of a grinding wheel performance in EUAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns (United States)

    Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Kim, Dai-Jin


    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3) individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4) individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5) individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers) (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579). Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD. PMID:29206183

  1. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns. (United States)

    Paik, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Kim, Dai-Jin


    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3) individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4) individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5) individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers) (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579). Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD.

  2. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Hyun Paik


    Full Text Available Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD. Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1 individuals who played only computer games; (2 individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3 individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4 individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5 individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579. Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD.

  3. A Four-Wheel-Rhombus-Arranged Mobility System for a New Lunar Robotic Rover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Wen


    Full Text Available Different from traditional ground vehicles, planetary robotic rovers with limited weight and power need to travel in unfamiliar and extremely arduous environments. In this paper, a newly developed four-wheel-rhombus-arranged (FWRA mobility system is presented as a lunar robotic rover with high mobility and a low-weight structure. The mobility system integrates independent active suspensions with a passive rotary link structure. The active suspension with swing arms improves the rover's capacity to escape from a trapped environment whereas the passive rotary link structure guarantees continuous contact between the four wheels and the terrain. The four-wheel-three-axis rhombus configuration of the mobility system gives a high degree of lightweight structure because it has a simple mechanism with the minimum number of wheels among wheeled rovers with three-axis off-road mobility. The performance evaluation of the lightweight nature of the structure, manoeuvrability and the mobility required in a planetary exploring environment are illustrated by theoretical analysis and partly shown by experiments on the developed rover prototype.

  4. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    Literature and previous studies show that creative play is easy to emerge when children interact with tangible, low-tech toys and games than with digital games. This paradoxical situation is linked to the long-standing problem of end-users (or players) authoring of digital contents and systems. We...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....... propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...

  5. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program: Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology (United States)

    Kim, Hanna


    This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were entering eighth grade attended an intensive, 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program which used a main theme, "Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology." We used pre- and post-attitude surveys, pre- and post-science content knowledge tests, and selective interviews to collect data and measure changes in students' attitudes and content knowledge. The study results indicated that at the post-intervention measures, participants significantly improved their attitudes toward science and science-related careers and increased their content knowledge of selected science concepts ( p < .05).

  6. Lessons from the Sizewell B inquiry: how to make major public inquiries into energy projects fair and efficient. Address to the parliamentary group for energy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Riordan, T.; Purdue, M.; Kemp, R.


    The paper is an address to the Parliamentary Group for Energy Studies, and concerns an appraisal of the Sizewell B Inquiry. The unique nature of the Inquiry is described, and an assessment of the Inquiry is given. Based on the main criticisms of the Inquiry, proposals for the reform of future major public inquiries are put forward.

  7. Investigating Functions with a Ferris Wheel (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn; Hornbein, Peter; Azeem, Sumbal


    The authors provide a dynamic Ferris wheel computer activity that teachers can use as an instructional tool to help students investigate functions. They use a student's work to illustrate how students can use relationships between quantities to further their thinking about functions.

  8. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel. (United States)


    ... of the rim; or, (i) A wheel on the car has been welded unless the car is being moved for repair in... on the car shows evidence of being loose such as oil seepage on the back hub or back plate; (h) A...

  9. Uptake of wheel-filtration among clients of a supervised injecting facility: Can structured education work? (United States)

    Steele, Maureen; Silins, Edmund; Flaherty, Ian; Hiley, Sarah; van Breda, Nick; Jauncey, Marianne


    Wheel-filtration of pharmaceutical opioid tablets is a recognised harm reduction strategy, but uptake of the practice among people who inject drugs is low. The study aimed to: (i) examine perceptions of filtration practices; (ii) provide structured education on wheel-filtration; and (iii) assess uptake of the practice. Frequent opioid tablet injectors (n = 30) attending a supervised injecting facility in Sydney, Australia, received hands-on instruction on wheel-filtration based on recommended practice. Pre-education, post-education and follow-up questionnaires were administered. Wheel-filtration was generally regarded as better than cotton-filtration (the typical method) in terms of perceived effects on health, ease of use and overall drug effect. Sixty-eight percent of those who said they would try wheel-filtration after the education had actually done so. Of those who usually used cotton-filtration, over half (60%) had used wheel-filtration two weeks later. Uptake of safer preparation methods for pharmaceutical opioid tablets increases after structured education in wheel-filtration. Findings suggest that SIFs are an effective site for this kind of education. Supervised injecting facility workers are uniquely positioned to provide harm reduction education at the time of injection. [Steele M, Silins E, Flaherty I, Hiley S, van Breda N, Jauncey M. Uptake of wheel-filtration among clients of a supervised injecting facility: Can structured education work? Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:116-120]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Elimination of torque pulsations in a direct drive EV wheel motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hredzak, B.; Gair, S. [Napier Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Eastham, J.F. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)


    Double sided axial field machines are attractive for direct wheel drives in electric vehicles. This is due to the fact that stator/rotor misalignments can be accommodated. In this case the stator of the machine is envisaged mounted on the chassis of the car while the rotor directly drives the road wheel. Since the wheel is perturbed by the road surface the rotor will move vertically between the outside stator assemblies and thus give rise to torque pulsations. A vector control scheme has been implemented whereby the torque pulsations are eliminated by (i) calculation of the flux variation due to the rotor perturbation and (ii) using this signal for the modulation of the motor input current.

  11. Stress Distribution around Laser-Welded Cutting Wheels Using a Spherical Indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Wan Kyu; Jeong, In Hyeon; Nahm, Seung Hoon [KRISS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A spherical indentation has been proposed as a nondestructive method of measuring local residual stress field in laser-voided joints. The apparent yield strengths interpreted from the spherical indentation data of as-welded cutting wheel were compared with the intrinsic yield strengths measured at nearly equivalent locations in annealed wheel. Their difference along the distance from the welding line is welding stress distribution because the intrinsic yield strength is invariant regardless of the elastic residual stress. The spherical indentations show that the laser-welded diamond cutting wheel displays a 10 min-wide distribution of the welding residual stress and has peak compressive and tensile stresses in the shank and tip regions, respectively.

  12. Taste avoidance induced by wheel running: effects of backward pairings and robustness of conditioned taste aversion. (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C


    Rats repeatedly exposed to a distinctive novel solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the opportunity to run in a wheel subsequently drink less of this solution. Investigations on this phenomenon indicate that wheel running is an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) for establishing conditioned taste aversion (CTA) when using a forward conditioning procedure (i.e., the US-wheel running follows the CS-taste). However, other studies show that wheel running produces reliable preference for a distinctive place when pairings are backward (i.e., the CS-location follows the US-wheel running). One possibility to account for these results is that rewarding aftereffects of wheel running conditioned preference to the CS. The main objective of the present study was to assess the effects of backward conditioning using wheel running as the US and a distinctive taste as the CS. In a between-groups design, two experimental groups [i.e., forward (FC) and backward conditioning (BC)] and two control groups [CS-taste alone (TA) and CS-US unpaired (UNP)] were compared. Results from this experiment indicated that there is less suppression of drinking when a CS-taste followed a bout of wheel running. In fact, rats in the BC group drank more of the paired solution than all the other groups.

  13. Diabetes education on wheels. (United States)

    Hardway, D; Weatherly, K S; Bonheur, B


    Diabetes education programs remain underdeveloped in the pediatric setting, resulting in increased consumer complaints and financial liability for hospitals. The Diabetes Education on Wheels program was designed to provide comprehensive, outcome-oriented education for patients with juvenile diabetes. The primary goal of the program was to enhance patients' and family members' ability to achieve self-care in the home setting. The program facilitated sequential learning, improved consumer satisfaction, and promoted financial viability for the hospital.

  14. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns


    Soo-Hyun Paik; Hyun Cho; Ji-Won Chun; Jo-Eun Jeong; Dai-Jin Kim


    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smart...

  15. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin


    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A. V.


    Full Text Available GIS-APPROACH application has allowed establishing that usual wheels of machine-tractor units carry out considerable influence on soil which exceeds visible borders of a track of wheels on the dimensions. This influence shows in augmentation of soil penetration resistance at 100-155 % in comparison with the control on depth of 0-10 cm and on 20-30 % on depth of 45-50 %. It is impossible to exclude that influence of wheels proceeds more deeply, than tests have been conducted. Critical for cultivated plants value of soil penetration resistance in 3 MPa under the influence of usual wheels of agricultural machinery comes nearer practically to a surface. Character of profile changes of hardness in various regions influences of wheels allows assuming the long season of a relaxation of soil for achievement of background values of soil penetration resistance. The further researches are necessary for an establishment of concrete indicators of dynamics. Negative influence of an overstocking does not confine only deterioration of conditions of growth of assemblages of rootlets of plants. Infringement of processes of moving of moisture in the soil, the accelerated evaporation and the slowed down processes of a filtration and an infiltration, destruction of modular frame, activization of erosive processes is possible. The understanding of these processes will give the chance volume understanding of real influence of running systems of machine-tractor devices on bedrock. Region intensive influence of dual wheels is circumscribed by the top soil layers (0-15 cm. The major feature of influence of dual wheels is absence of an overstocking above critical levels. It is impossible to exclude possible positive influence of moderate inspissations of soil under the influence of dual wheels for growth of agricultural crops and moisture conservation in soil. The cumulative negative effect on soil crossed vehicles traces is probable. The long season of a relaxation of

  17. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.


    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This lecture deals with the application problems of convertibility GPS system at paddle excavator K 800. The claims of the modern operating surface mining of the excavators requires a lot of information for monitoring of mining process, capacity mining, selective extraction etc. The utilization of monitoring the excavator setting by GPS system proved to be the only one proper because the receivers are resistant to the vibration, dust, temperature divergence and weather changeable. Only the direct contact with communications satellite is required. It means that they can´t be located in a metal construction space (shadow caused by construction elements, influence of electrical high voltage cables even they can´t be located close to the paddle wheel on the paddle boom (shadow possibility caused by cuttinng edge created during lower gangplanks mining. This is the reason that GPS receivers are set uppermost on the metal construction excavator and the mathematical formulation is required for determination of paddle wheel petting. The relations for calculation of the paddle wheel coordinate were defined mathematically and after that the mathematical model was composed.

  19. Online Games


    Kerr, Aphra; Ivory, James D.


    When we agreed to edit the theme on online games for this Encyclopedia our first question was, “What is meant by online games?” Scholars of games distinguish between nondigital games (such as board games) and digital games, rather than between online and offline games. With networked consoles and smartphones it is becoming harder and harder to find players in the wealthy industrialized countries who play “offline” digital games. Most games developers now include ...

  20. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki


    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  1. Dynamic analysis of elastic rubber tired car wheel breaking under variable normal load (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Zedgenizov, V. G.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.


    The purpose of the paper is to analyze the dynamics of the braking of the wheel under normal load variations. The paper uses a mathematical simulation method according to which the calculation model of an object as a mechanical system is associated with a dynamically equivalent schematic structure of the automatic control. Transfer function tool analyzing structural and technical characteristics of an object as well as force disturbances were used. It was proved that the analysis of dynamic characteristics of the wheel subjected to external force disturbances has to take into account amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics. Normal load variations impact car wheel braking subjected to disturbances. The closer slip to the critical point is, the higher the impact is. In the super-critical area, load variations cause fast wheel blocking.

  2. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.


    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  3. Soft Legged Wheel-Based Robot with Terrestrial Locomotion Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi


    Full Text Available In recent years robotics has been influenced by a new approach, soft-robotics, bringing the idea that safe interaction with user and more adaptation to the environment can be achieved by exploiting easily deformable materials and flexible components in the structure of robots. In 2016, the soft-robotics community has promoted a new robotics challenge, named RoboSoft Grand Challenge, with the aim of bringing together different opinions on the usefulness and applicability of softness and compliancy in robotics. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a terrestrial robot based on two soft legged wheels. The tasks predefined by the challenge were set as targets in the robot design, which finally succeeded to accomplish all the tasks. The wheels of the robot can passively climb over stairs and adapt to slippery grounds using two soft legs embedded in their structure. The soft legs, fabricated by integration of soft and rigid materials and mounted on the circumference of a conventional wheel, succeed to enhance its functionality and easily adapt to unknown grounds. The robot has a semi stiff tail that helps in the stabilization and climbing of stairs. An active wheel is embedded at the extremity of the tail in order to increase the robot maneuverability in narrow environments. Moreover two parallelogram linkages let the robot to reconfigure and shrink its size allowing entering inside gates smaller than its initial dimensions.

  4. About the influence of wheel slide protection devices action on longitudinal dynamic of trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruceanu Cătălin


    Full Text Available Wheel slide protection devices (WSPD are destined to avoid important sliding of wheels during braking actions in case of temporarily impaired wheel-rail adhesion by correspondent reductions of air pressure in brake cylinders. Accordingly, longer braking distances and higher longitudinal in-train forces occur, potentially affecting the traffic safety and the passengers comfort. A general analyse and evaluation of these effects are the main targets of the present study. The theoretical considerations are sustained by simulations of braking process, considering situations of normal, respectively diminished wheel-rail adhesion determining random actuations of WSPD. The air pressure evolution in brake cylinders of was experimentally determined on a computerized brake system test stand and adequately used as input in simulations. The results indicate an increase of in-train forces and a more complex evolution of the longitudinal dynamic actions between the vehicles in the case of degraded wheel-rail adhesion, when the random actuation of WSPD have major influence in the whole braking process.

  5. Tire-rim interface pressure of a commercial vehicle wheel under radial loads: theory and experiment (United States)

    Wan, Xiaofei; Shan, Yingchun; Liu, Xiandong; He, Tian; Wang, Jiegong


    The simulation of the radial fatigue test of a wheel has been a necessary tool to improve the design of the wheel and calculate its fatigue life. The simulation model, including the strong nonlinearity of the tire structure and material, may produce accurate results, but often leads to a divergence in calculation. Thus, a simplified simulation model in which the complicated tire model is replaced with a tire-wheel contact pressure model is used extensively in the industry. In this paper, a simplified tire-rim interface pressure model of a wheel under a radial load is established, and the pressure of the wheel under different radial loads is tested. The tire-rim contact behavior affected by the radial load is studied and analyzed according to the test result, and the tire-rim interface pressure extracted from the test result is used to evaluate the simplified pressure model and the traditional cosine function model. The results show that the proposed model may provide a more accurate prediction of the wheel radial fatigue life than the traditional cosine function model.

  6. Asymmetric Barrier Lyapunov Function-Based Wheel Slip Control for Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Chen


    Full Text Available As an important device of the aircraft landing system, the antilock braking system (ABS has a function to avoid aircraft wheels self-locking. To deal with the strong nonlinear characteristics, complex nonlinear control schemes are applied in ABS. However, none of existing control schemes focus on the braking operating status, which directly reflects wheels self-locking degree. In this paper, the braking operating status region is divided into three regions: the healthy region, the light slip region, and the deep slip region. An ABLF-based wheel slip controller is proposed for ABS to constrain the braking system operating status in the healthy region and the light slip region. Therefore the ABS will be prevented from operating in the deep slip region. Under the proposed control scheme, self-locking is avoided completely and zero steady state error tracking of the wheel optimal slip ratio is implemented. The Hardware-In-Loop (HIL experiments have validated the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  7. Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health (United States)

    Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.


    Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865

  8. How to Support Primary Teachers' Implementation of Inquiry: Teachers' Reflections on Teaching Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim


    Many primary teachers face challenges in teaching inquiry science, often because they believe that they do not have the content knowledge or pedagogical skills to do so. This is a concern given the emphasis attached to teaching science through inquiry where students do not simply learn about science but also do science. This study reports on the…

  9. Productive Gaming


    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa


    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  10. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner


    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  11. [Active and safe with wheeled walkers : Pilot study on feasibility of mobility exercises for wheeled walker users]. (United States)

    Pflaum, Marina; Lang, Frieder R; Freiberger, Ellen


    The number of older people with mobility impairments using wheeled walkers is increasing; however, the handling of these walking aids is often ineffective. Moreover, age-associated functional loss, environmental demands and fear of falling may additionally challenge mobility. The new training program "Active and safe with wheeled walkers" aims to enhance skills and to improve mobility. The present pilot study was carried out to assess the feasibility of the training as well as to identify training effects and methodological insights for further research. The study was carried out with 28 wheeled walker users (age 68-91 years) in assisted living facilities using a pre-post design. Of the participants 13 persons were trained for 10 weeks (90 min, twice a week) and 15 persons served as a control group. Data were collected on functional mobility, hand strength, leg strength, balance, walker handling and fear of falling. The drop-out rate for the training was 38 % due to health concerns (n = 2), lack of time (n = 1) and changes in health status independent of training (n = 3). Medium to large effects were detected. Data regarding the recruitment strategy and the acceptance of individual exercises are available. The results indicate a good feasibility and effectiveness of the training. The simple accessibility of the training was conducive for the regular participation. The everyday relevance of the results and the lack of comparable interventions suggest that further research efforts be carried out. Recruitment strategies, training requirements and data collection methods need to be optimized.

  12. Serious Games: Video Games for Good? (United States)

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah


    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  13. Optimal Electrical Energy Slewing for Reaction Wheel Spacecraft (United States)

    Marsh, Harleigh Christian

    The results contained in this dissertation contribute to a deeper level of understanding to the energy required to slew a spacecraft using reaction wheels. This work addresses the fundamental manner in which spacecrafts are slewed (eigenaxis maneuvering), and demonstrates that this conventional maneuver can be dramatically improved upon in regards to reduction of energy, dissipative losses, as well as peak power. Energy is a fundamental resource that effects every asset, system, and subsystem upon a spacecraft, from the attitude control system which orients the spacecraft, to the communication subsystem to link with ground stations, to the payloads which collect scientific data. For a reaction wheel spacecraft, the attitude control system is a particularly heavy load on the power and energy resources on a spacecraft. The central focus of this dissertation is reducing the burden which the attitude control system places upon the spacecraft in regards to electrical energy, which is shown in this dissertation to be a challenging problem to computationally solve and analyze. Reducing power and energy demands can have a multitude of benefits, spanning from the initial design phase, to in-flight operations, to potentially extending the mission life of the spacecraft. This goal is approached from a practical standpoint apropos to an industry-flight setting. Metrics to measure electrical energy and power are developed which are in-line with the cost associated to operating reaction wheel based attitude control systems. These metrics are incorporated into multiple families of practical high-dimensional constrained nonlinear optimal control problems to reduce the electrical energy, as well as the instantaneous power burdens imposed by the attitude control system upon the spacecraft. Minimizing electrical energy is shown to be a problem in L1 optimal control which is nonsmooth in regards to state variables as well as the control. To overcome the challenge of nonsmoothness, a

  14. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class (United States)

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa


    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  15. 22 CFR 217.14 - Preemployment inquiries. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemployment inquiries. 217.14 Section 217.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... inquiries. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct a...

  16. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype


    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D


    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the...

  17. Potentials in Udeskole: Inquiry-Based Teaching Outside the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Barfod


    Full Text Available Most research on outdoor education, including the Scandinavian concept udeskole (regular curriculum-based teaching outside the classroom, has focused on pupils' outcomes, whereas less has focused on teachers' practices. In this article, we described the occurrence of inquiry-based teaching in udeskole. To analyze practice, we extended the notion of inquiry-based education. Within science and mathematics education, a strong stepwise teaching approach formerly was established, called Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSME, emphasizing pupils' hypothesis testing, data validation and systematic experimentation. In this study, we broadened the IBSME-concept of inquiry in order to include a more holistic, non-linear teaching approach, but excluding teacher-instructed inquiry. Using this idea, we observed and documented by field notes how five experienced teachers practiced mathematics and science teaching in udeskole at primary level in Denmark. Twenty-eight outdoor days were observed. Each day was divided into separate teaching incidents with a distinct start and end. The level of teacher interference and possible choices in each teaching incidents formed the analytic background. We analyzed each of the 71 teaching incidents, and categorized each of them into one of five categories numbered 4–0. The categories designated numbers 4–2 contained the inquiry-based teaching incidents, and the categories designated 1 and 0 were categorized as “non-inquiry-based.” They contained teaching incidents where the teacher was instructing the pupils (category 1, and outdoor teaching activities with no sign of inquiry, called training activities (category 0. Our results showed that about half of the analyzed outdoor teaching practice seemed to be inquiry-based, emphasizing pupils' choice and presenting cognitive challenge. This indicates that the analyzed udeskole had the potential to support an explorative and multifaceted inquiry

  18. Simple gambling or sophisticated gaming? : applying game analysis methods to modern video slot machine games


    Leppäsalko, Tero


    Slot machine games have become the most popular form of gambling worldwide. In Finland, their pervasiveness in public spaces and popularity makes them one of the most common form of gaming. However, in game studies, gambling games are often regarded as borderline games due to the player’s lack of control. In this thesis I ask whether modern video slot machine games can be considered as games and if so, what similarities there are between them and contemporary video games. To find out if m...

  19. Designing Game Analytics For A City-Builder Game


    Korppoo, Karoliina


    The video game industry continues to grow. Competition is tough as games become more and more popular and easier for the users to get, thanks to digital distribution and social media platforms that support games. Thanks to the readily available internet connections and games using them, data of player behaviour can be acquired. This is where game analytics come in. What sort of player actions provide meaningful information that can be used to iterate the game? Typically game analytics is appl...

  20. Scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry: Revealing a private side of science (United States)

    Reiff, Rebecca R.

    Science educators, philosophers, and pre-service teachers have contributed to conceptualizing inquiry but missing from the inquiry forum is an in-depth research study concerning science faculty conceptions of scientific inquiry. The science education literature has tended to focus on certain aspects of doing, teaching, and understanding scientific inquiry without linking these concepts. As a result, conceptions of scientific inquiry have been disjointed and are seemingly unrelated. Furthermore, confusion surrounding the meaning of inquiry has been identified as a reason teachers are not using inquiry in instruction (Welch et al., 1981). Part of the confusion surrounding scientific inquiry is it has been defined differently depending on the context (Colburn, 2000; Lederman, 1998; Shymansky & Yore, 1980; Wilson & Koran, 1976). This lack of a common conception of scientific inquiry is the reason for the timely nature of this research. The result of scientific journeys is not to arrive at a stopping point or the final destination, but to refuel with questions to drive the pursuit of knowledge. A three-member research team conducted Interviews with science faculty members using a semi-structured interview protocol designed to probe the subject's conceptions of scientific inquiry. The participants represented a total of 52 science faculty members from nine science departments (anthropology, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, school of health, physical education and recreation (HPER), medical sciences, physics, and school of environmental science) at a large mid-western research university. The method of analysis used by the team was grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in which case the frequency of concepts, patterns, and themes were coded to categorize scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry. The results from this study address the following components: understanding and doing scientific inquiry, attributes of scientists engaged


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kliuchnikov


    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  2. Defining and Leveraging Game Qualities for Serious Games (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong


    Serious games can and should leverage the unique qualities of video games to effectively deliver educational experiences for the learners. However, leveraging these qualities is incumbent upon understanding what these unique 'game' qualities are , and how they can facilitate the learning process. This paper presents an examination of the meaning of the term 'game' . as it applies to both serious games and digital entertainment games. Through the examination of counter examples, we derive three game characteristics; games are self contained, provide a variety of meaningful choices, and are intrinsically compelling. We also discuss the theoretical educational foundations which support the application of these 'game qualities' to educational endeavors. This paper concludes with a presentation of results achieved through the application of these qualities and the applicable educational theories to teach learners about the periodic table of elements via a serious game developed by the authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Made Oka Widharma


    Full Text Available Perkembangan game saat ini sangat pesat sehingga banyak orang yang tertarik untuk memainkannya bahkan sampai lupa waktu,suatu game akan membuat orang tertarik dan penasaran karena didalam nya terdapat AI (artificial intelegent. Tujuan pengembangan kecerdasan buatan adalah untuk membuat aksi dan reaksi otonom agen atau NPC (Non-Player Character dari game. Dua NPC bisa saling membantu dalam menjalankan strategi menyerang terhadap musuh. penelitian  ini menjelaskan tentang bagaimana orang dapat bermain game secara bersama-sama dengan menggunakan jaringan computer atau jaringan internet . Dua NPC yang dimaksud  adalahNPC Scout yang bertugas memancing serangan musuh, dan NPC Sniper yang bertugas memberikan back up serangan dari jarak jauh.. Perilaku yangdimaksud adalah menyerang brutal, menyerang, bertahan dan melarikan diri. Masing-masing perilaku diujicobakan dalam game First Person Shooter menggunakan unity engine. Dalam simulasi game terjadi respon perubahan perilaku masing-masing NPC terhadap kondisi yang dihadapi dengan mengetahui respon dari NPC maka akan dapat menentukan strategi dalam game tersebut.

  4. Feasibility of the Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Eng, Janice J; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L; Goldsmith, Charles H


    Many older adults rely on a manual wheelchair for mobility but typically receive little, if any, training on how to use their wheelchair effectively and independently. Standardized skill training is an effective intervention, but limited access to clinician trainers is a substantive barrier. Enhancing Participation in the Community by Improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) is a 1-month monitored home training program for improving mobility skills in older novice manual wheelchair users, integrating principles from andragogy and social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study is to determine whether feasibility indicators and primary clinical outcome measures of the EPIC Wheels program are sufficiently robust to justify conducting a subsequent multi-site randomized controlled trial. A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial at two sites will compare improvement in wheelchair mobility skills between an EPIC Wheels treatment group and a computer-game control group, with additional wheelchair use introduced as a second factor. A total of 40 community-dwelling manual wheelchair users at least 55 years old and living in two Canadian metropolitan cities (n = 20 × 2) will be recruited. Feasibility indicators related to study process, resources, management, and treatment issues will be collected during data collection and at the end of the study period, and evaluated against proposed criteria. Clinical outcome measures will be collected at baseline (pre-randomization) and post-intervention. The primary clinical outcome measure is wheelchair skill capacity, as determined by the Wheelchair Skills Test, version 4.1. Secondary clinical outcome measures include wheelchair skill safety, satisfaction with performance, wheelchair confidence, life-space mobility, divided-attention, and health-related quality of life. The EPIC Wheels training program offers several innovative features. The convenient, portable, economical, and adaptable tablet-based, home program model

  5. Sworn testimony of the model evidence: Gaussian Mixture Importance (GAME) sampling (United States)

    Volpi, Elena; Schoups, Gerrit; Firmani, Giovanni; Vrugt, Jasper A.


    What is the "best" model? The answer to this question lies in part in the eyes of the beholder, nevertheless a good model must blend rigorous theory with redeeming qualities such as parsimony and quality of fit. Model selection is used to make inferences, via weighted averaging, from a set of K candidate models, Mk; k=>(1,…,K>), and help identify which model is most supported by the observed data, Y>˜=>(y˜1,…,y˜n>). Here, we introduce a new and robust estimator of the model evidence, p>(Y>˜|Mk>), which acts as normalizing constant in the denominator of Bayes' theorem and provides a single quantitative measure of relative support for each hypothesis that integrates model accuracy, uncertainty, and complexity. However, p>(Y>˜|Mk>) is analytically intractable for most practical modeling problems. Our method, coined GAussian Mixture importancE (GAME) sampling, uses bridge sampling of a mixture distribution fitted to samples of the posterior model parameter distribution derived from MCMC simulation. We benchmark the accuracy and reliability of GAME sampling by application to a diverse set of multivariate target distributions (up to 100 dimensions) with known values of p>(Y>˜|Mk>) and to hypothesis testing using numerical modeling of the rainfall-runoff transformation of the Leaf River watershed in Mississippi, USA. These case studies demonstrate that GAME sampling provides robust and unbiased estimates of the evidence at a relatively small computational cost outperforming commonly used estimators. The GAME sampler is implemented in the MATLAB package of DREAM and simplifies considerably scientific inquiry through hypothesis testing and model selection.

  6. Development of Composite Grinding Wheels for Hard and Soft Metals


    Pruti, Faruk


    This research investigates the performance of grinding wheel in terms of its internal granular particles and their effect on the surface finish for both soft and hard metals subjected to both dry and wet conditions of use. The study considers the properties of materials of construction including hardness of the granular particles and their size and distributions that affects the grinding wheel efficiency in abrading of soft and hard metal surfaces. Furthermore, in order to improve grinding pe...

  7. Wheeled Vehicle Steering Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle steering systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  8. Wheeled Vehicle Electrical Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle electrical systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  9. Deformation and lifetime behaviour of cyclic loaded rail and wheel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denne, B.; Lang, K.-H.; Loehe, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1


    Corrugation, shelling and squats are some unexpected technical problems caused by increasing service tonnage, increasing load of the rails and increasing train speed at Deutsche Bahn AG lines since the last decades. As the complex phenomena of rolling contact fatigue in the rail / wheel system is difficult to understand extensive investigations have to be done to describe the multiaxial rolling contact fatigue processes and to develop and verify multiaxial fatigue criteria and lifetime predictions. To reach this aim a reliable fatigue data base of the utilised steels is required. To obtain such data, specimens were worked out of rails and wheels used in high speed traffic. With these specimens the lifetime behaviour and the endurance limit were estimated from push-pull tests. For the rail steel stress and total strain controlled fatigue tests were performed. The resulting lifetime behaviour is compared. In the wheel there are several regions with different microstructures due to the heat treatment at the end of the manufacturing process. Specimens were taken from the wheel rim representing these different microstructures. With these specimens stress controlled fatigue tests were performed. The influence of the different microstructures on the deformation and lifetime behaviour is showed. (orig.)

  10. A novel dual motor drive system for three wheel electric vehicles (United States)

    Panmuang, Piyapat; Thongsan, Taweesak; Suwapaet, Nuchida; Laohavanich, Juckamass; Photong, Chonlatee


    This paper presents a novel dual motor drive system used for three wheel electric vehicles that have one free wheel at the front and two wheels with a drive system at the end of the vehicles. A novel dual motor drive system consists of two identical DC motors that are independently controlled by its speed-torque controller. Under light load conditions, only one of the DC motors will operate around it rated whilst under hard load conditions both of the DC motors will operate. With this drive system, the motors will operate only at its high performance at rated or else no operate to retain longer lifetime. The simulated results for the Skylab three wheel electric vehicle prototype with 8kW at full load (high torque, low speed) and around 4kW at light/normal operating loads (regular speed-torque) showed that the proposed system provides better dynamic responses with faster overshoot current/voltage recovery time, has lower investment costs, has longer lifetime of the motors and allows the motors to always operate at their high performance and thus achieve more cost effective system compared to a single motor drive system with 8kW DC motors.

  11. Wheel Slip Control of Vehicle ABS Using Piezoactuator-Based Valve System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheol Jeon


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoactuator-based valve for vehicle ABS. The piezoactuator located in one side of a rigid beam makes a displacement required to control the pressure at a flapper-nozzle of the pneumatic valve. In order to obtain the wide control range of the pressure, a pressure modulator comprised of dual-type cylinder and piston is proposed. The governing equation of the piezovalve system which consists of the proposed piezoactuator-based valve and the pressure modulator is obtained. The longitudinal vehicle dynamics and the wheel slip condition are then formulated. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed piezovalve system from the viewpoint of the vehicle ABS, a sliding mode controller is designed for wheel slip control. The tracking control performances for the desired wheel slip rate are evaluated and the braking performances in terms of braking distance are then presented on different road conditions (dry asphalt, wet asphalt, and wet jennite. It is clearly shown that the desired wheel slip rate is well achieved and the braking distance and braking time can be significantly reduced by using the proposed piezovalve system associated with the slip rate controller.

  12. Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games


    Kobayashi, Naoki


    A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...

  13. Simulation modeling of wheeled vehicle dynamics on the stand "Roller"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Kotiev


    Full Text Available The tests are an integral part of the wheeled vehicle design, manufacturing, and operation. The need for their conducting arises from the research and experimental activities to assess the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the vehicles in general, as well as the individual components and assemblies. It is obvious that a variety of design features of wheeled vehicles request a development of methods both for experimental studies and for creating the original bench equipment for these purposes.The main positive feature of bench tests of automotive engineering is a broad capability to control the combinations of traction loads, speed rates, and external input conditions. Here, the steady state conditions can be used for a long time, allowing all the necessary measurements to be made, including those with video and photo recording experiment.It is known that the benefits of test "M" type (using a roller dynamometer include a wide range of test modes, which do not depend on the climatic conditions, as well as a capability to use a computer-aided testing programs. At the same time, it is known that the main drawback of bench tests of full-size vehicle is that the tire rolling conditions on the drum mismatch to the real road pavements, which are difficult to simulate on the drum surface. This problem can be solved owing to wheeled vehicle tests at the benches "Roller" to be, in efficiency, the most preferable research method. The article gives a detailed presentation of developed at BMSTU approach to its solving.Problem of simulation mathematical modeling has been solved for the vehicle with the wheel formula 8 × 8, and individual wheel-drive.The simulation results have led to the conclusion that the proposed principle to simulate a vehicle rolling on a smooth non-deformable support base using a bench " Roller " by simulation modeling is efficient.

  14. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik


    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  15. Light and Heavy Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fuel Consumption Evaluations Using Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO) (United States)



  16. The Benefits of Using Authentic Inquiry within Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki; Bigler, Amber


    A broad continuum exists to describe the structure of inquiry lessons (Hanegan, Friden, & Nelson, 2009). Most teachers have heard inquiry described from a range of simple questioning to completely student-designed scientific studies (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002). Biotechnology education often uses a variety of inquiries from cookbook laboratory…

  17. Analysing a Relationship Between Wheel Wear and Cutting Forces During Diamond Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva


    Full Text Available In diamond grinding cutting forces affect the quality of the machined surface. We can estimate a wear rate of the diamond wheel by the magnitude of the forces and promptly resort to the restoration of its cutting properties. To solve this problem it is necessary to define a relationship between grinding wheel wear and cutting forces. There was no this dependence found in the sources of literature.The forces acting on a single worn diamond grain are considered to find the relationship between wheel wear and cutting forces. The main forces acting on the diamond grain are such as a reaction force of machining material, a frictional force over a worn place of the grain, and a total pressure on the contact surface of the grain and machining material. According to calculation results, in grinding the cutting forces are proportional to the hardness of machining material, and depend on the grain wear, as well as on the process operation conditions.The paper presents a technique for calculating the number of cutting (active grains per unit surface of diamond wheel to determine a total cutting force in grinding. The number of cutting grains depends on the properties of diamond wheel and on the operation conditions of grinding process.During grinding a total cutting force is calculated through the single grain cutting force, the number of cutting grains per unit surface of the grinding wheel and the contact area between the wheel and the work piece. Theoretical calculation of the forces is based on the condition that protrusions of all cutting grains are identical and all grains have a maximum wear, i.e. maximum worn place of grain.Calculations based on proposed theoretical formulas are compared with the calculations from the empirical formulas given in the literature. Varying the operation conditions of grinding makes the comparison. Convergence of results in the range of 5-20% is regarded as acceptable.On the BMSTU base flat diamond grinding of tungsten

  18. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series (United States)

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick


    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  19. Learning Analytics for Communities of Inquiry (United States)

    Kovanovic, Vitomir; Gaševic, Dragan; Hatala, Marek


    This paper describes doctoral research that focuses on the development of a learning analytics framework for inquiry-based digital learning. Building on the Community of Inquiry model (CoI)--a foundation commonly used in the research and practice of digital learning and teaching--this research builds on the existing body of knowledge in two…

  20. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó


    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  1. The physics of wheel-rail stability (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.


    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure.

  2. The Physics of Wheel-Rail Stability (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.


    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure

  3. Game Analytics for Game User Research, Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia


    The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design......The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design...

  4. Physics Learning using Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and Guided Inquiry Models Viewed by Students Achievement Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sulistijo


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes of between students that are given the Physics learning models of Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and guided inquiry, between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. This study was an experimental study with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The study population was the students of class X of SMAN 1 Toroh Grobogan of academic year 2016/2017. Samples were obtained by cluster random sampling technique consists of two classes, class X IPA 3 is used as an experimental class using ISTAD model and class X IPA 4 as the control class using guided inquiry model. Data collection techniques using test techniques for learning outcomes, and technical questionnaire to obtain the data of students' achievement motivation. Analysis of data using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that: (1 there is a difference between the learning outcomes of students with the ISTAD Physics models and with the physics model of guided inquiry. (2 There are differences in learning outcomes between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. (3 There is no interaction between ISTAD and guided inquiry Physics models learning and achievement motivation of students.

  5. Connected Gaming: An Inclusive Perspective for Serious Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Kafai


    Full Text Available Serious games should focus on connected gaming, which is combining the instructionist approach on having students play educational games for learning with the constructionist approach on having students make their own games for learning. Constructionist activities have always been part of the larger gaming ecology but have traditionally received far less attention than their instructionist counterparts. Future developments in serious gaming ought to promote this more inclusive perspective to better realize the full potential of gaming as a means for learning and for connecting children to technology and to each other. This potential for more meaningful connectivity can also address the persistent access and diversity issues long facing gaming cultures. 

  6. Inquiry-based science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Hagelskjær, Jens


    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret naturfagsundervisnings......Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret...

  7. Addictive Online Games: Examining the Relationship Between Game Genres and Internet Gaming Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Hendriks, S.J.F.

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is the most recent term used to describe problematic or pathological involvement with computer or video games. This study examined whether this disorder is more likely to involve pathological involvement with online (i.e., Internet) games as opposed to offline games.

  8. Experimental Comparison of Inquiry and Direct Instruction in Science (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Applegate, Brooks; Skjold, Brandy; Undreiu, Adriana; Loving, Cathleen C.; Gobert, Janice D.


    There are continuing educational and political debates about "inquiry" versus "direct" teaching of science. Traditional science instruction has been largely direct but in the US, recent national and state science education standards advocate inquiry throughout K-12 education. While inquiry-based instruction has the advantage of modelling aspects…

  9. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao


    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  10. Effect of sucrose availability and pre-running on the intrinsic value of wheel running as an operant and a reinforcing consequence. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David


    The current study investigated the effect of motivational manipulations on operant wheel running for sucrose reinforcement and on wheel running as a behavioral consequence for lever pressing, within the same experimental context. Specifically, rats responded on a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing produced the opportunity to run in a wheel in one component of the schedule (reinforcer component) and wheel running produced the opportunity to consume sucrose solution in the other component (operant component). Motivational manipulations involved removal of sucrose contingent on wheel running and providing 1h of pre-session wheel running. Results showed that, in opposition to a response strengthening view, sucrose did not maintain operant wheel running. The motivational operations of withdrawing sucrose or providing pre-session wheel running, however, resulted in different wheel-running rates in the operant and reinforcer components of the multiple schedule; this rate discrepancy revealed the extrinsic reinforcing effects of sucrose on operant wheel running, but also indicated the intrinsic reinforcement value of wheel running across components. Differences in wheel-running rates between components were discussed in terms of arousal, undermining of intrinsic motivation, and behavioral contrast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mueller


    Full Text Available Optical systems for automatic visual inspections are of increasing importance in the field of automation in the industrial domain. A new application is the determination of steering wheel angles during wheel track setting of the final inspection of car manufacturing. The camera has to be positioned outside the car to avoid interruptions of the processes and therefore, oblique images of the steering wheel must be acquired. Three different approaches of computer vision are considered in this paper, i.e. a 2D shape-based matching (by means of a plane to plane rectification of the oblique images and detection of a shape model with a particular rotation, a 3D shape-based matching approach (by means of a series of different perspectives of the spatial shape of the steering wheel derived from a CAD design model and a point-to-point matching (by means of the extraction of significant elements (e.g. multifunctional buttons of a steering wheel and a pairwise connection of these points to straight lines. The HALCON system (HALCON, 2016 was used for all software developments and necessary adaptions. As reference a mechanical balance with an accuracy of 0.1° was used. The quality assessment was based on two different approaches, a laboratory test and a test during production process. In the laboratory a standard deviation of ±0.035° (2D shape-based matching, ±0.12° (3D approach and ±0.029° (point-to-point matching could be obtained. The field test of 291 measurements (27 cars with varying poses and angles of the steering wheel results in a detection rate of 100% and ±0.48° (2D matching and ±0.24° (point-to-point matching. Both methods also fulfil the request of real time processing (three measurements per second.

  12. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo


    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  13. Gaming Increases Craving to Gaming-Related Stimuli in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder. (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Lingxiao; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N


    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU. Subjects' craving responses to gaming-related stimuli were measured before and after 30 minutes of gaming. The comparison between post- and pregaming measures showed that for IGD, gaming was associated with increased craving and increased brain activation of the lateral and prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the precuneus when exposed to gaming-related stimuli. In individuals with RGU, no enhanced brain activity was observed. These results suggest that gaming behavior enhances craving responses in subjects with IGD but not in subjects with RGU, provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying IGD, and suggest behavioral and neurobiological targets for IGD-related interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling and simulation of dynamic wheel-rail interaction using a roller rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyakwo, A; Pislaru, C; Ball, A; Gu, F


    The interaction between the wheel and rail greatly influences the dynamic response of railway vehicles on the track. A roller rig facility can be used to study and monitor real time parameters that influence wheel-rail interaction such as wear, adhesion, friction and corrugation without actual field tests being carried out. This paper presents the development of the mathematical models for full scale roller rig and 1/5 scale roller rig and the wear prediction model based on KTH wear function. The simulated critical speed for the 1/5 scale roller rig is about one-fifth of the critical speed for the full scale model so the simulated results compare well with the theory related to wheel-rail contact and dynamics. Also the differences between the simulated rolling radii for the full scale model with and without wear function are analysed. This paper presents the initial stage of a large scale research project where the influence of wear on the wheel-rail performance will be studied in more depth.

  15. Assistive devices alter gait patterns in Parkinson disease: advantages of the four-wheeled walker. (United States)

    Kegelmeyer, Deb A; Parthasarathy, Sowmya; Kostyk, Sandra K; White, Susan E; Kloos, Anne D


    Gait abnormalities are a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and contribute to fall risk. Therapy and exercise are often encouraged to increase mobility and decrease falls. As disease symptoms progress, assistive devices are often prescribed. There are no guidelines for choosing appropriate ambulatory devices. This unique study systematically examined the impact of a broad range of assistive devices on gait measures during walking in both a straight path and around obstacles in individuals with PD. Quantitative gait measures, including velocity, stride length, percent swing and double support time, and coefficients of variation were assessed in 27 individuals with PD with or without one of six different devices including canes, standard and wheeled walkers (two, four or U-Step). Data were collected using the GAITRite and on a figure-of-eight course. All devices, with the exception of four-wheeled and U-Step walkers significantly decreased gait velocity. The four-wheeled walker resulted in less variability in gait measures and had less impact on spontaneous unassisted gait patterns. The U-Step walker exhibited the highest variability across all parameters followed by the two-wheeled and standard walkers. Higher variability has been correlated with increased falls. Though subjects performed better on a figure-of-eight course using either the four-wheeled or the U-Step walker, the four-wheeled walker resulted in the most consistent improvement in overall gait variables. Laser light use on a U-Step walker did not improve gait measures or safety in figure-of-eight compared to other devices. Of the devices tested, the four-wheeled-walker offered the most consistent advantages for improving mobility and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the inquiry experience: A focus on Kentucky teachers (United States)

    Nolte, Beth


    Inquiry-based instruction is driven by active participation by the learner. Through the learning process, critical thinking skills are practiced. While inquiry methods are often discussed in the realm of science education, the methods are not subject specific. In fact, the Kentucky Program of Studies calls for the incorporation of inquiry strategies into all areas of the curriculum. This call for more inquiry-based education occurs in the midst of a national testing debate in which accountability is tied to student test scores. This study takes a narrative approach to explore teachers' experiences with using inquiry methods. Interviews were conducted with teachers who, at least 1 year prior to participating in this study, had attended a weeklong intensive professional development workshop on using inquiry methods for instruction. A method is described for analyzing interview data direct in its digital audio form---without transcription. Eight teachers' experiences are presented here in the narrative form and their narratives are compared for an overall analysis. Themes of conflict previously reported in the literature are explored in participants' stories. This research concludes with a discussion of the results, a reflection on the method, and suggestions for the future based on teachers' experiences with using inquiry-based learning strategies.

  17. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul


    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov


    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  19. A Return to Methodological Commitment: Reflections on Narrative Inquiry (United States)

    Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean


    In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…

  20. Evaluation Inquiry in Donor Funded Programmes in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation inquiry has been noted to have a significant influence on whether the evaluation outcomes are used or not. However, only limited studies have examined evaluation inquiry and its implication on the use of evaluation in Ghana. This study therefore seeks to contribute to knowledge on evaluation inquiry and the ...