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Sample records for input-queued cell-based switches

  1. Efficient round-robin multicast scheduling for input-queued switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2014-01-01

    The input-queued (IQ) switch architecture is favoured for designing multicast high-speed switches because of its scalability and low implementation complexity. However, using the first-in-first-out (FIFO) queueing discipline at each input of the switch may cause the head-of-line (HOL) blocking...... problem. Using a separate queue for each output port at an input to reduce the HOL blocking, that is, the virtual output queuing discipline, increases the implementation complexity, which limits the scalability. Given the increasing link speed and network capacity, a low-complexity yet efficient multicast...... by means of queue look-ahead. Simulation results demonstrate that this FIFO-based IQ multicast architecture is able to achieve significant improvements in terms of multicast latency requirements by searching through a small number of cells beyond the HOL cells in the input queues. Furthermore, hardware...

  2. Integration of look-ahead multicast and unicast scheduling for input-queued cell switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integration of multicast and unicast traffic scheduling algorithms for input-queued cell switches. The multi-level round-robin multicast scheduling (ML-RRMS) algorithm with the look-ahead (LA) mechanism provides a highly scalable architecture and is able to reduce the head...... module that filters out the conflicting requests to ensure fairness. Simulation results show that comparing with the scheme using WBA for the multicast scheduling, the scheme proposed in this paper reduces the HOL blocking problem for multicast traffic and provides a significant improvement in terms...

  3. Out-of-Sequence Preventative Cell Dispatching for Multicast Input-Queued Space-Memory-Memory Clos-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two out-of-sequence (OOS) preventative cell dispatching algorithms for the multicast input-queued space-memory-memory (IQ-SMM) Clos-network switch architecture, i.e. the multicast flow-based DSRR (MF-DSRR) and the multicast flow-based round-robin (MFRR). Treating each cell...

  4. Enhanced first-in-first-out-based round-robin multicast scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the multicast scheduling for M × N input-queued switches. An enhanced first-in-first-out -based round-robin multicast scheduling algorithm is proposed with a function of searching deeper into queues to reduce the head-of-line (HOL) blocking problem and thereby the multicast...... out on the decision matrix to reduce the number of transmission for each cell. To reduce the HOL blocking problem, a complement matrix is constructed based on the traffic matrix and the decision matrix, and a process of searching deeper into the queues is carried out to find cells that can be sent...... to the idle outputs. Simulation results show that the proposed function of searching deeper into the queues can alleviate the HOL blocking and as a result reduce the multicast latency significantly. Under both balanced and unbalanced multicast traffic, the proposed algorithm is able to maintain a stable...

  5. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  6. Preventing Out-of-Sequence for Multicast Input-Queued Space-Memory-Memory Clos-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an out-of-sequence (OOS) preventative cell dispatching algorithm, the multicast flow-based round robin (MFRR), for multicast input-queued space-memory-memory (IQ-SMM) Clos-network architecture. Independently treating each incoming cell, such as the desynchronized static round...

  7. Out-of-Sequence Prevention for Multicast Input-Queuing Space-Memory-Memory Clos-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two cell dispatching algorithms for the input-queuing space-memory-memory (IQ-SMM) Closnetwork to reduce out-of-sequence (OOS) for multicast traffic. The frequent connection pattern change of DSRR results in a severe OOS problem. Based on the principle of DSRR, MFDSRR is able ...

  8. Concave switching in single-hop and multihop networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, N.

    2015-01-01

    Switched queueing networks model wireless networks, input-queued switches, and numerous other networked communications systems. We consider an (\\(\\alpha ,g\\))-switch policy; these policies provide a generalization of the MaxWeight policies of Tassiulas and Ephremides (IEEE Trans Autom Control

  9. Reducing external speedup requirements for input-queued crossbars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2005-01-01

    performance degradation. This implies, that the required bandwidth between port card and switch card is 2 times the actual port speed, adding to cost and complexity. To reduce this bandwidth, a modified architecture is proposed that introduces a small amount of input and output memory on the switch card chip...

  10. A Queuing Model of the Airport Departure Process

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Simaiakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model of the aircraft departure process at an airport. The modeling procedure includes the estimation of unimpeded taxi-out time distributions and the development of a queuing model of the departure runway system based on the transient analysis of D/E/1 queuing systems. The parameters of the runway service process are estimated using operational data. Using the aircraft pushback schedule as input, the model predicts the expected runway schedule and takeoff ti...

  11. Threshold-based queuing system for performance analysis of cloud computing system with dynamic scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Pechinkin, Alexander V. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Samouylov, Konstantin E.; Gaidamaka, Yuliya V.; Gudkova, Irina A.; Sopin, Eduard S. [Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    Cloud computing is promising technology to manage and improve utilization of computing center resources to deliver various computing and IT services. For the purpose of energy saving there is no need to unnecessarily operate many servers under light loads, and they are switched off. On the other hand, some servers should be switched on in heavy load cases to prevent very long delays. Thus, waiting times and system operating cost can be maintained on acceptable level by dynamically adding or removing servers. One more fact that should be taken into account is significant server setup costs and activation times. For better energy efficiency, cloud computing system should not react on instantaneous increase or instantaneous decrease of load. That is the main motivation for using queuing systems with hysteresis for cloud computing system modelling. In the paper, we provide a model of cloud computing system in terms of multiple server threshold-based infinite capacity queuing system with hysteresis and noninstantanuous server activation. For proposed model, we develop a method for computing steady-state probabilities that allow to estimate a number of performance measures.

  12. Threshold-based queuing system for performance analysis of cloud computing system with dynamic scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Samouylov, Konstantin E.; Gaidamaka, Yuliya V.; Gudkova, Irina A.; Sopin, Eduard S.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is promising technology to manage and improve utilization of computing center resources to deliver various computing and IT services. For the purpose of energy saving there is no need to unnecessarily operate many servers under light loads, and they are switched off. On the other hand, some servers should be switched on in heavy load cases to prevent very long delays. Thus, waiting times and system operating cost can be maintained on acceptable level by dynamically adding or removing servers. One more fact that should be taken into account is significant server setup costs and activation times. For better energy efficiency, cloud computing system should not react on instantaneous increase or instantaneous decrease of load. That is the main motivation for using queuing systems with hysteresis for cloud computing system modelling. In the paper, we provide a model of cloud computing system in terms of multiple server threshold-based infinite capacity queuing system with hysteresis and noninstantanuous server activation. For proposed model, we develop a method for computing steady-state probabilities that allow to estimate a number of performance measures

  13. Queuing Rule of Thumb based on M/M/s Queuing Theory with Applications in Construction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teknomo K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of queuing theory development is toward more precision which requires higher mathematical manipulation. In this paper, we attempted to reverve the current trend toward simplification of queuing formulas such that it can be used in more practical purposes, especially in construction industry. Through numerical examples of two case studies on concreting and earth moving, how to model the construction activities as queuing systems is illustrated systematically. Through the numerical examples, it is shown that when the customer cost is much lower than the server cost, queuing system can be simplified only to incorporate the constraint equation. The queueing constraint equation is suggested to be used as queuing rule of thumb. The proposed rule of thumb is rather conservative in term of queuing performance compared to the standard stochastic queuing formula because it is assumed that all the customers arrive at once in the beginning of the service.

  14. Analysis of effectiveness of possible queuing models at gas stations using the large-scale queuing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effectiveness of possible models for queuing at gas stations, using a mathematical model of the large-scale queuing theory. Based on actual data collected and the statistical analysis of the expected intensity of vehicle arrivals and queuing at gas stations, the mathematical modeling of the real process of queuing was carried out and certain parameters quantified, in terms of perception of the weaknesses of the existing models and the possible benefits of an automated queuing model.

  15. Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.

  16. Soft-Switched Dual-Input DC-DC Converter Combining a Boost-Half-Bridge Cell and a Voltage-Fed Full-Bridge Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) isolated dc-dc converter which combines a boost halfbridge (BHB) cell and a full-bridge (FB) cell, so that two different type of power sources, i.e. both current-fed and voltage-fed, can be coupled effectively by the proposed converter...... for various applications, such as fuel cell and super-capacitor hybrid energy system. By fully using two high frequency transformers and a shared leg of switches, number of the power devices and associated gate driver circuits can be reduced. With phase-shift control, the converter can achieve ZVS turn......-on of active switches and zero-current switching (ZCS) turn-off of diodes. In this paper, derivation, analysis and design of the proposed converter are presented. Finally, a 25~50 V input, 300~400 V output prototype with a 600 W nominal power rating is built up and tested to demonstrate the effectiveness...

  17. Input and output constraints-based stabilisation of switched nonlinear systems with unstable subsystems and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of stabilisation of switched nonlinear systems with output and input constraints. We propose a recursive approach to solve this issue. None of the subsystems are assumed to be stablisable while the switched system is stabilised by dual design of controllers for subsystems and a switching law. When only dealing with bounded input, we provide nested switching controllers using an extended backstepping procedure. If both input and output constraints are taken into consideration, a Barrier Lyapunov Function is employed during operation to construct multiple Lyapunov functions for switched nonlinear system in the backstepping procedure. As a practical example, the control design of an equilibrium manifold expansion model of aero-engine is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  18. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  19. Improving queuing service at McDonald's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Wong, Chin Keat; Lim, Hooi Kie; Migin, Melissa W.

    2014-07-01

    Fast food restaurants are popular among price-sensitive youths and working adults who value the conducive environment and convenient services. McDonald's chains of restaurants promote their sales during lunch hours by offering package meals which are perceived to be inexpensive. These promotional lunch meals attract good response, resulting in occasional long queues and inconvenient waiting times. A study is conducted to monitor the distribution of waiting time, queue length, customer arrival and departure patterns at a McDonald's restaurant located in Kuala Lumpur. A customer survey is conducted to gauge customers' satisfaction regarding waiting time and queue length. An android app named Que is developed to perform onsite queuing analysis and report key performance indices. The queuing theory in Que is based upon the concept of Poisson distribution. In this paper, Que is utilized to perform queuing analysis at this McDonald's restaurant with the aim of improving customer service, with particular reference to reducing queuing time and shortening queue length. Some results will be presented.

  20. Decomposition method for analysis of closed queuing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Nesterov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the method to estimate the average residence time in nodes of closed queuing networks with priorities and a wide range of conservative disciplines to be served. The method is based on a decomposition of entire closed queuing network into a set of simple basic queuing systems such as M|GI|m|N for each node. The unknown average residence times in the network nodes are interrelated through a system of nonlinear equations. The fact that there is a solution of this system has been proved. An iterative procedure based on Newton-Kantorovich method is proposed for finding the solution of such system. This procedure provides fast convergence to solution. Today possibilities of proposed method are limited by known analytical solutions for simple basic queuing systems of M|GI|m|N type.

  1. Soft switching PWM isolated boost converter for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, M.; Adib, E. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation introduced a newly developed soft switching, isolated boost type converter for fuel cell applications. With a simple PWM control circuit, the converter achieves zero voltage switching the main switch. Since the auxiliary circuit is soft switched, the converter can operate at high powers which make it suitable for fuel cell applications. In particular, the converter is suitable for the interface of fuel cell and inverters because of its high voltage gain and isolation between input and output sources. In addition, the input current of the converter (current drained from the fuel cell) is almost constant since it is a boost type converter. The converter was analyzed and the simulation results validate the theoretical analysis.

  2. T-Cell Activation: A Queuing Theory Analysis at Low Agonist Density

    OpenAIRE

    Wedagedera, J. R.; Burroughs, N. J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell receptor (TCR) within the framework of queuing theory, in which TCRs enter the queue upon full activation and exit by downregulation. We fit our model to four experimentally characterized threshold activation criteria and analyze their specificity and sensitivity: the initial calcium spike, cytotoxicity, immunological synapse formation, and cytokine secretion. Specificity characteristics improve as the time window for detection increas...

  3. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  4. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. ... ness - also suffer from a big handicap vis-a-vis the Indian scenario: most of these models do .... more well-known queuing network models and onsite data, a more exact Road Cell ...

  5. A Geo-Aware Taxi Carrying Management System by Using Location Based Services and Zone Queuing Techniques on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi-Ren Dow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxi plays a crucial role in the transportation system because of the characteristic that can be hailed conveniently. Most of the taxi drivers obtain passengers by hunting on the road or waiting in a fixed taxi queuing point; however these methods have poor performance, high vacancy rate, and several critical problems such as air pollution and foul up traffic. This study proposed a taxi carrying management system by using location based services and zone queuing techniques on Internet of things. The proposed system allows drivers to both hunt on the road and wait in a queuing zone. A queuing table is used in the control center and neighbor tables are used in RSUs for zone queuing establishment. Joining and leaving mechanisms are developed for zone queuing management. To enhance service efficiency and quality, we present a scheme to prevent the ping-pong effect which is based on the location based services, a hunting rate calculation scheme, and a path planning service for taxi drivers according to the history carrying record. PRISM is used to simulate the proposed system, and the results indicated that our scheme outperforms the waiting and hunting models in terms of number of customers, vacancy rate, and profit.

  6. impact of queuing on call c queuing on call c queuing on call

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding Author. Tel: +234 ... variations of queuing theory deployed in G modelling include prioritized ... iques aimed at delivering solutions on the issue of optimization of GSM ne approach to ..... Principles and Practice. Upper Saddle ...

  7. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  8. How input fluctuations reshape the dynamics of a biological switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Kessler, David A.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2012-12-01

    An important task in quantitative biology is to understand the role of stochasticity in biochemical regulation. Here, as an extension of our recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.148101 107, 148101 (2011)], we study how input fluctuations affect the stochastic dynamics of a simple biological switch. In our model, the on transition rate of the switch is directly regulated by a noisy input signal, which is described as a non-negative mean-reverting diffusion process. This continuous process can be a good approximation of the discrete birth-death process and is much more analytically tractable. Within this setup, we apply the Feynman-Kac theorem to investigate the statistical features of the output switching dynamics. Consistent with our previous findings, the input noise is found to effectively suppress the input-dependent transitions. We show analytically that this effect becomes significant when the input signal fluctuates greatly in amplitude and reverts slowly to its mean.

  9. Analisa Perbandingan Quality of Service Voice Over IP dengan Pengujian Codec Menggunakan Algoritma Low Latency Queuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP adalah solusi komunikasi suara yang murah karena menggunakan jaringan IP dibanding penggunaan telephone analog yang banyak memakan biaya. Dalam penerapannya, VoIP mengalami permasalahan karena menggunakan teknologi packet switching yang mana penggunaannya bersamaan dengan paket data sehingga timbul delay, jitter, dan packet loss.  Pada penelitian ini, algoritma Low Latency Queuing (LLQ diterapkan pada router cisco. Algoritma LLQ merupakan gabungan dari algoritma Priority Queuing (PQ dan Class Based Weight Fair Queuing (CBWFQ sehingga dapat memprioritaskan paket suara disamping paket data. Algoritma LLQ ini diujikan menggunakan codec GSM FR, G722, dan G711 A-law. Hasil pengujian didapatkan nilai parameter yang tidak jauh berbeda dan memenuhi standar ITU-T.G1010. Nilai delay rata - rata terendah yaitu ketika menggunakan codec G722 sebesar 20,019 ms tetapi G722 memiliki rata - rata jitter yang terbesar yaitu 0,986 ms.  Codec dengan jitter rata – rata terkecil adalah G711 A-law sebesar 0,838 ms. Packet loss untuk semua codec yang diujikan adalah 0%.  Throughput pada paket data terbesar saat menggunakan codec GSM FR yaitu 18,139 kbps. Codec yang direkomendasikan adalah G711 A-law karena lebih stabil dari segi jitter dan codec GSM FR cocok diimplementasikan pada jaringan yang memiliki bandwitdh kecil.

  10. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. A Novel Silicon-based Wideband RF Nano Switch Matrix Cell and the Fabrication of RF Nano Switch Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xiu YANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of RF nano switch matrix cell and the fabrication of RF nano switch. The nano switch matrix cell can be implemented into complex switch matrix for signal routing. RF nano switch is the decision unit for the matrix cell; in this research, it is fabricated on a tri-layer high-resistivity-silicon substrate using surface micromachining approach. Electron beam lithography is introduced to define the pattern and IC compatible deposition process is used to construct the metal layers. Silicon-based nano switch fabricated by IC compatible process can lead to a high potential of system integration to perform a cost effective system-on-a-chip solution. In this paper, simulation results of the designed matrix cell are presented; followed by the details of the nano structure fabrication and fabrication challenges optimizations; finally, measurements of the fabricated nano structure along with analytical discussions are also discussed.

  12. Optimal service using Matlab - simulink controlled Queuing system at call centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, N.; Siva, E. P.; Chandrasekaran, A. D.; Tamilazhagan, V.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents graphical integrated model based academic research on telephone call centres. This paper introduces an important feature of impatient customers and abandonments in the queue system. However the modern call centre is a complex socio-technical system. Queuing theory has now become a suitable application in the telecom industry to provide better online services. Through this Matlab-simulink multi queuing structured models provide better solutions in complex situations at call centres. Service performance measures analyzed at optimal level through Simulink queuing model.

  13. A queuing model for road traffic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrouahane, N.; Aissani, D.; Bouallouche-Medjkoune, L.; Farhi, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present in this article a stochastic queuing model for the raod traffic. The model is based on the M/G/c/c state dependent queuing model, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a variant of M/G/c/c state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. We then extend this model in order to consider upstream traffic demand as well as downstream traffic supply. Finally, we show how to model a whole raod by concatenating raod sections as in the deterministic Godunov scheme

  14. INCREASE OF QUEUING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADING ENTERPRISE BY MEANS OF NUMERICAL STATISTICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazheva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The market economy causes need of development of the economic analysis first of all at microlevel, that is at the level of the separate enterprises as the enterprises are basis for market economy. Therefore improvement of the queuing system trading enterprise is an important economic problem. Analytical solutions of problems of the mass servicing are in described the theory, don’t correspond to real operating conditions of the queuing systems. Therefore in this article optimization of customer service process and improvement of settlement and cash service system trading enterprise are made by means of numerical statistical simulation of the queuing system trading enterprise. The article describe integrated statistical numerical simulation model of queuing systems trading enterprise working in nonstationary conditions with reference to different distribution laws of customers input stream. This model takes account of various behavior customers output stream, includes checkout service model which takes account of cashier rate of working, also this model includes staff motivation model, profit earning and profit optimization models that take into account possible revenue and costs. The created statistical numerical simulation model of queuing systems trading enterprise, at its realization in the suitable software environment, allows to perform optimization of the most important parameters of system. And when developing the convenient user interface, this model can be a component of support decision-making system for rationalization of organizational structure and for management optimization by trading enterprise.

  15. Periodic dynamics in queuing networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addabbo, Tommaso [Information Engineering Department, University of Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: addabbo@dii.unisi.it; Kocarev, Ljupco [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, bul. Krste Misirkov 2, P.O. Box 428, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)], E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu

    2009-08-30

    This paper deals with state-dependent open Markovian (or exponential) queuing networks, for which arrival and service rates, as well as routing probabilities, may depend on the queue lengths. For a network of this kind, following Mandelbaum and Pats, we provide a formal definition of its associated fluid model, and we focus on the relationships which may occur between the network stochastic dynamics and the deterministic dynamics of its corresponding fluid model, particularly focusing on queuing networks whose fluid models have global periodic attractors.

  16. Switched periodic systems in discrete time: stability and input-output norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzern, Paolo; Colaneri, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of stability and the characterisation of input-output norms for discrete-time periodic switched linear systems. Such systems consist of a network of time-periodic linear subsystems sharing the same state vector and an exogenous switching signal that triggers the jumps between the subsystems. The overall system exhibits a complex dynamic behaviour due to the interplay between the time periodicity of the subsystem parameters and the switching signal. Both arbitrary switching signals and signals satisfying a dwell-time constraint are considered. Linear matrix inequality conditions for stability and guaranteed H2 and H∞ performances are provided. The results heavily rely on the merge of the theory of linear periodic systems and recent developments on switched linear time-invariant systems.

  17. Ultra Low Voltage Class AB Switched Current Memory Cells Based on Floating Gate Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor

    1999-01-01

    current memory cells were designed using a CMOS process with threshold voltages V-T0n = \\V-T0p\\ = 0.9 V for the n- and p-channel devices. Both hand calculations and PSPICE simulations showed that the designed example switched current memory cell allowed a maximum signal range better than +/-18 mu......A proposal for a class AB switched current memory cell, suitable for ultra-low-voltage applications is presented. The proposal employs transistors with floating gates, allowing to build analog building blocks for ultralow supply voltage operation also in CMOS processes with high threshold voltages....... This paper presents the theoretical basis for the design of "floating-gate'' switched current memory cells by giving a detailed description and analysis of the most important impacts degrading the performance of the cells. To support the theoretical assumptions circuits based on "floating-gate'' switched...

  18. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 x 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V x ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V x , the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90 degree. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 x 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches

  19. A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Shang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low cost, small size, and ease of control, the switched-capacitor (SC battery equalizers are promising among active balancing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the full cell equalization for the SC equalizers due to the inevitable voltage drops across Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET switches. Moreover, when the voltage gap among cells is larger, the balancing efficiency is lower, while the balancing speed becomes slower as the voltage gap gets smaller. In order to soften these downsides, this paper proposes a cell-to-cell battery equalization topology with zero-current switching (ZCS and zero-voltage gap (ZVG among cells based on three-resonant-state SC converters. Based on the conventional inductor-capacitor (LC converter, an additional resonant path is built to release the charge of the capacitor into the inductor in each switching cycle, which lays the foundations for obtaining ZVG among cells, improves the balancing efficiency at a large voltage gap, and increases the balancing speed at a small voltage gap. A four-lithium-ion-cell prototype is applied to validate the theoretical analysis. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed topology has good equalization performances with fast equalization, ZCS, and ZVG among cells.

  20. A tutorial on queuing and trunking with applications to communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William H

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for developing this synthesis lecture was to provide a tutorial on queuing and trunking, with extensions to networks of queues, suitable for supplementing courses in communications, stochastic processes, and networking. An essential component of this lecture is MATLAB-based demonstrations and exercises, which can be easily modified to enable the student to observe and evaluate the impact of changing parameters, arrival and departure statistics, queuing disciplines, the number of servers, and other important aspects of the underlying system model. Much of the work in this lecture

  1. Synchronous and Asynchronous ATM Multiplexor Properties Comparsion

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zabka

    2006-01-01

    The article is aimed to ATM multiplexor computer model utilisation. Based on simulation runs we try to review aspects of use a synchronous and asynchronous ATM multiplexors. ATM multiplexor is the input queuing model with three inputs. Synchronous multiplexor works without an input priority. Multiplexor inputs are served periodically. Asynchronous multiplexor model supports several queuing and priority mechanisms. CLR and CTD are basic performance parameters. Input cell flows are genera...

  2. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  3. Fault detection for discrete-time switched systems with sensor stuck faults and servo inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guang-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the fault detection problem of switched systems with servo inputs and sensor stuck faults. The attention is focused on designing a switching law and its associated fault detection filters (FDFs). The proposed switching law uses only the current states of FDFs, which guarantees the residuals are sensitive to the servo inputs with known frequency ranges in faulty cases and robust against them in fault-free case. Thus, the arbitrarily small sensor stuck faults, including outage faults can be detected in finite-frequency domain. The levels of sensitivity and robustness are measured in terms of the finite-frequency H- index and l2-gain. Finally, the switching law and FDFs are obtained by the solution of a convex optimization problem. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CMOS single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch and duty cycle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzuan, Roskhatijah; Mohd Salleh, Mohd Khairul; Hamzah, Mustafar Kamal; Ab Wahab, Norfishah

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch for wireless-powered devices such as biomedical implants and wireless sensor nodes. Realised using CMOS process technology, it employs a duty cycle switch control to achieve high output voltage using boost technique, leading to a high output power conversion. It has only six external connections with the boost inductance. The input frequency of the bridge rectifier is set at 50 Hz, while the switching frequency is 100 kHz. The proposed circuit is fabricated on a single 0.18-micron CMOS die with a space area of 0.024 mm2. The simulated and measured results show good agreement.

  5. Analysis of queuing mine-cars affecting shaft station radon concentrations in Quzhou uranium mine, eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshou Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shaft stations of underground uranium mines in China are not only utilized as waiting space for loaded mine-cars queuing to be hoisted but also as the principal channel for fresh air taken to working places. Therefore, assessment of how mine-car queuing processes affect shaft station radon concentration was carried out. Queuing network of mine-cars has been analyzed in an underground uranium mine, located in Quzhou, Zhejiang province of Eastern China. On the basis of mathematical analysis of the queue network, a MATLAB-based quasi-random number generating program utilizing Monte-Carlo methods was worked out. Extensive simulations were then implemented via MATALB operating on a DELL PC. Thereafter, theoretical calculations and field measurements of shaft station radon concentrations for several working conditions were performed. The queuing performance measures of interest, like average queuing length and waiting time, were found to be significantly affected by the utilization rate (positively correlated. However, even with respect to the “worst case”, the shaft station radon concentration was always lower than 200 Bq/m3. The model predictions were compared with the measuring results, and a satisfactory agreement was noted. Under current working conditions, queuing-induced variations of shaft station radon concentration of the study mine are not remarkable. Keywords: Hoist and Transport Systems, Mine-cars, Queuing Simulation, Radon Concentration, Underground Uranium Mine

  6. High Efficiency Boost Converter with Three State Switching Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    is on performance improvement of this type of the converter. Use of foil windings helps to reduce conduction losses in magnetic components and to reduce size of these components. Also it has been demonstrated that the regulation range of this type of converter can be increased by operation with duty cycle lower......The boost converter with the three-state switching cell seems to be a good candidate for a dc-dc stage for non-isolated generators based on alternative energy sources. It provides a high voltage gain, a reduced voltage stress on transistors and limited input current ripples. In this paper the focus...

  7. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  8. Low Power Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supply with 50 V Input and 5 V Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a resonant converter with a switching frequency in the very high frequencyrange (30-300 MHz), a large step down ratio (10 times) and low output power (1 W). Several different invertersand rectifiers are analyzed and compared. The class E inverter and rectifier...... are selected based on complexity andefficiency estimates. Three different power stages are implemented; one with a large input inductor, one with a switch with small capacitances and one with a switch with low on resistance. The power stages are designed with the same specifications and efficiencies from 60...

  9. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  10. Understanding the queuing theory for improved service delivery: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology adopted in this paper, therefore is to describe queuing theory and its associated terminologies in relation to service delivery. In view of this, the paper presented a simplified exposition of queuing theory and management of waiting lines as it affects entrepreneurial drive for more business growth and ...

  11. Principles of Queued Service Observing at CFHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manset, Nadine; Burdullis, T.; Devost, D.

    2011-03-01

    CFHT started to use Queued Service Observing in 2001, and is now operating in that mode over 95% of the time. Ten years later, the observations are now carried out by Remote Observers who are not present at the telescope (see the companion presentation "Remote Queued Service Observing at CFHT"). The next phase at CFHT will likley involve assisted or autonomous service observing (see the presentation "Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes"), which would not be possible without first having a Queued observations system already in place. The advantages and disadvantages of QSO at CFHT will be reviewed. The principles of QSO at CFHT, which allow CFHT to complete 90-100% of the top 30-40% programs and often up to 80% of other accepted programs, will be presented, along with the strategic use of overfill programs, the method of agency balance, and the suite of planning, scheduling, analysis and data quality assessment tools available to Queue Coordinators and Remote Observers.

  12. A graphite based STT-RAM cell with reduction in switching current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) is a serious candidate for “universal memory” because of its non-volatility, fast access time, high density, good scalability, high endurance and relatively low power dissipation. However, problems with low write speed and large write current are important existing challenges in STT-RAM design and there is a tradeoff between them and data retention time. In this study, a novel STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) is proposed. First, the cross-section of the structure is selected to be an ellipse of 45 nm and 180 nm dimensions and a six-layer graphite is used as tunnel barrier. By passing a lateral current with a short pulse width (before applying STT current and independent of it) through four middle graphene layers of the tunnel barrier, a 27% reduction in the amplitude of the switching current (for fast switching time of 2 ns) or a 58% reduction in its pulse width is achieved without any reduction in data retention time. Finally, the effect of downscaling of technology on the proposed structure is evaluated. A reduction of 31.6% and 9% in switching current is achieved for 90 and 22 nm cell width respectively by passing sufficient current (100 µA with 0.1 ns pulse width) through the tunnel barrier. Simulations are done using Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework (OOMMF). - Highlights: • A new STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based MTJ is proposed. • The amplitude of the switching current or its pulsewidth can be reduced without any sacrifice of data retention time. • The proposed design is down-scalable from 90 nm to 22 nm. • Micromagnetic simulations are done with OOMMF

  13. Metastability of Queuing Networks with Mobile Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccelli, F.; Rybko, A.; Shlosman, S.; Vladimirov, A.

    2018-04-01

    We study symmetric queuing networks with moving servers and FIFO service discipline. The mean-field limit dynamics demonstrates unexpected behavior which we attribute to the metastability phenomenon. Large enough finite symmetric networks on regular graphs are proved to be transient for arbitrarily small inflow rates. However, the limiting non-linear Markov process possesses at least two stationary solutions. The proof of transience is based on martingale techniques.

  14. Electrically-controlled nonlinear switching and multi-level storage characteristics in WOx film-based memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Wang, J. B.; Zhong, X. L.

    2018-05-01

    Resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) is considered as a promising candidate for the next generation memory due to its scalability, high integration density and non-volatile storage characteristics. Here, the multiple electrical characteristics in Pt/WOx/Pt cells are investigated. Both of the nonlinear switching and multi-level storage can be achieved by setting different compliance current in the same cell. The correlations among the current, time and temperature are analyzed by using contours and 3D surfaces. The switching mechanism is explained in terms of the formation and rupture of conductive filament which is related to oxygen vacancies. The experimental results show that the non-stoichiometric WOx film-based device offers a feasible way for the applications of oxide-based RRAMs.

  15. A single-server Markovian queuing system with discouraged arrivals and retention of reneged customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has a very negative impact on the queuing system under investigation. If we talk from business point of view, the firms lose their potential customers due to customer impatience, which affects their business as a whole. If the firms employ certain customer retention strategies, then there are chances that a certain fraction of impatient customers can be retained in the queuing system. A reneged customer may be convinced to stay in the queuing system for his further service with some probability, say q and he may abandon the queue without receiving the service with a probability p(=1− q. A finite waiting space Markovian single-server queuing model with discouraged arrivals, reneging and retention of reneged customers is studied. The steady state solution of the model is derived iteratively. The measures of effectiveness of the queuing model are also obtained. Some important queuing models are derived as special cases of this model.

  16. Design of Low Inductance Switching Power Cell for GaN HEMT Based Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Yang, Yongheng

    2018-01-01

    . The design of gate drivers for the GaN HEMT devices is presented. Parasitic inductance and resistance of the proposed design are extracted with finite element analysis and discussed. Common-mode behaviours based on the SPICE model of the converter are analyzed. Experimental results on the designed 3L......In this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell is designed for a three-Level Active Neutral Point Clamped (3LANPC) based on 650 V gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT devices. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices...... are presented. The commutation loops, which mainly contribute to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a four-layer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with the aim to maximize the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained...

  17. APPROXIMATIONS TO PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN QUEUING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambo, N. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations to various performance measures in queuing systems have received considerable attention because these measures have wide applicability. In this paper we propose two methods to approximate the queuing characteristics of a GI/M/1 system. The first method is non-parametric in nature, using only the first three moments of the arrival distribution. The second method treads the known path of approximating the arrival distribution by a mixture of two exponential distributions by matching the first three moments. Numerical examples and optimal analysis of performance measures of GI/M/1 queues are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the methods, and are compared with benchmark approximations.

  18. A cell-based design approach for RSFQ circuits using a binary decision diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, N.; Koshiyama, J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a cell-based design approach for rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits based on a binary decision diagram (BDD). The BDD is a way to represent a logical function using a directed graph which consists of binary switches having one input and two outputs. Since complex logic circuits can be implemented in the form of regular arrays of the BDD binary switches, we can use a cell-based layout methodology for the design of the RSFQ circuits. In this study, we implemented the BDD binary switches by a D 2 flip-flop. In the BDD design approach we made a cell library which contains a binary switch, pulse splitters, confluence buffers and Josephson transmission lines. All cell layouts in the library have identical widths and heights, so that any logic function can be laid out by simple connection of the library cells. As a case study, we implemented a 1-bit RSFQ half-adder and a 3-bit encoder for a flash AD converter. (author)

  19. MODEL OF FUNCTIONING OF TELECOMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT FOR SOFTWARE-CONFIGURATED NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin E. Samouylov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the functioning of the switch of a software defined networks is constructed in the form of a queuing network consisting of two queuing systems: the first simulates an input data buffer and a device for reading information from the header of the packet; the second is a table for addressing the switch of a software defined networks. The receipt of data in software defined networks has a probabilistic character in their deterministic processing in communication channels and switching nodes. Therefore, this mathematical model of the functioning of the switch of a software defined networks was built on the basis of queuing systems and networks. The stream of requests flowing into the network was divided into two Poisson streams of various types of applications, the first of which corresponded to the packets that came to the control port of the switch (from the controller, and the second flow to the remaining packets arriving on the switch. The flow corresponding to the packets arriving at the switch from the controller has a relative priority over the flow from the remaining arriving packets As a result, formulas were obtained for calculating the performance indicators of this telecommunications equipment such as average waiting queues for priority and non-priority applications, the probability of loss of applications for each phase of the switch. Based on the received quality of service indicators for this telecommunications equipment, it is possible to assess the stability of switches in software defined networks for various information impacts.

  20. Dynamic optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    to charge and discharge the input capacitance of piezoelectric transformers in order to achieve zero-voltage switching. This paper proposes a method for detecting the optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies. The provision of sufficient dead time in every cycle......Soft switching is required to attain high efficiency in high-frequency power converters. Piezoelectric transformerbased converters can benefit from soft switching in terms of significantly diminished switching losses and stresses. Adequate dead time is needed in order to deliver sufficient energy...

  1. A versatile cis-acting inverter module for synthetic translational switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Hayashi, Karin; Inoue, Tan; Saito, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Artificial genetic switches have been designed and tuned individually in living cells. A method to directly invert an existing OFF switch to an ON switch should be highly convenient to construct complex circuits from well-characterized modules, but developing such a technique has remained a challenge. Here we present a cis-acting RNA module to invert the function of a synthetic translational OFF switch to an ON switch in mammalian cells. This inversion maintains the property of the parental switch in response to a particular input signal. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous and specific expression control of both the OFF and ON switches. The module fits the criteria of universality and expands the versatility of mRNA-based information processing systems developed for artificially controlling mammalian cellular behaviour.

  2. Fault tolerance improvement for queuing systems under stress load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, Eh.G.; Florko, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Various kinds of queuing information systems (exchange auctions systems, web servers, SCADA) are faced to unpredictable situations during operation, when information flow that requires being analyzed and processed rises extremely. Such stress load situations often require human (dispatcher's or administrator's) intervention that is the reason why the time of the first denial of service is extremely important. Common queuing systems architecture is described. Existing approaches to computing resource management are considered. A new late-first-denial-of-service resource management approach is proposed

  3. Dual-Input Soft-Switched DC-DC Converter with Isolated Current-Fed Half-Bridge and Voltage-Fed Full-Bridge for Fuel Cell or Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    integrate a current-fed boost half-bridge (BHB) and a full-bridge (FB) into one equivalent circuit configuration which has dual-input ability and additionally it can reduce the number of the power devices. With the phase-shift control, it can achieve zero-voltage switching turn-on of active switches...... power rating are built up and tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed converter topology....

  4. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Discrete-Time Switched Nonlinear Systems with Dead Zone Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are proposed for a class of discrete-time switched nonlinear systems with dead zone inputs under arbitrary switching signals. Due to the complicated framework of the discrete-time switched nonlinear systems and the existence of the dead zone, it brings about difficulties for controlling such a class of systems. In addition, the radial basis function neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown terms of each subsystem. Switched update laws are designed while the parameter estimation is invariable until its corresponding subsystem is active. Then, the closed-loop system is stable and all the signals are bounded. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an example is employed.

  5. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  6. Experimental evaluation of end-to-end delay in switched Ethernet application in the automotive domain

    OpenAIRE

    Beretis , Kostas; Symeonidis , Ieroklis

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an approach for deriving upper bound for end-to-end delay in a double star switched Ethernet network. Four traffic classes, following a strict priority queuing policy, were considered. The theoretical analysis was based on network calculus. An experimental setup, which accu-rately reflects an automotive communication network, was implemented in or-der to evaluate the theoretical model. The results obtained by the experiments provided valuable feed...

  7. Input dependent cell assembly dynamics in a model of the striatal medium spiny neuron network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam ePonzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The striatal medium spiny neuron (MSNs network is sparsely connected with fairly weak GABAergic collaterals receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Peri stimulus time histograms (PSTH of MSN population response investigated in various experimental studies display strong firing rate modulations distributed throughout behavioural task epochs. In previous work we have shown by numerical simulation that sparse random networks of inhibitory spiking neurons with characteristics appropriate for UP state MSNs form cell assemblies which fire together coherently in sequences on long behaviourally relevant timescales when the network receives a fixed pattern of constant input excitation. Here we first extend that model to the case where cortical excitation is composed of many independent noisy Poisson processes and demonstrate that cell assembly dynamics is still observed when the input is sufficiently weak. However if cortical excitation strength is increased more regularly firing and completely quiescent cells are found, which depend on the cortical stimulation. Subsequently we further extend previous work to consider what happens when the excitatory input varies as it would in when the animal is engaged in behavior. We investigate how sudden switches in excitation interact with network generated patterned activity. We show that sequences of cell assembly activations can be locked to the excitatory input sequence and delineate the range of parameters where this behaviour is shown. Model cell population PSTH display both stimulus and temporal specificity, with large population firing rate modulations locked to elapsed time from task events. Thus the random network can generate a large diversity of temporally evolving stimulus dependent responses even though the input is fixed between switches. We suggest the MSN network is well suited to the generation of such slow coherent task dependent response

  8. Input dependent cell assembly dynamics in a model of the striatal medium spiny neuron network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) network is sparsely connected with fairly weak GABAergic collaterals receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Peri-stimulus time histograms (PSTH) of MSN population response investigated in various experimental studies display strong firing rate modulations distributed throughout behavioral task epochs. In previous work we have shown by numerical simulation that sparse random networks of inhibitory spiking neurons with characteristics appropriate for UP state MSNs form cell assemblies which fire together coherently in sequences on long behaviorally relevant timescales when the network receives a fixed pattern of constant input excitation. Here we first extend that model to the case where cortical excitation is composed of many independent noisy Poisson processes and demonstrate that cell assembly dynamics is still observed when the input is sufficiently weak. However if cortical excitation strength is increased more regularly firing and completely quiescent cells are found, which depend on the cortical stimulation. Subsequently we further extend previous work to consider what happens when the excitatory input varies as it would when the animal is engaged in behavior. We investigate how sudden switches in excitation interact with network generated patterned activity. We show that sequences of cell assembly activations can be locked to the excitatory input sequence and outline the range of parameters where this behavior is shown. Model cell population PSTH display both stimulus and temporal specificity, with large population firing rate modulations locked to elapsed time from task events. Thus the random network can generate a large diversity of temporally evolving stimulus dependent responses even though the input is fixed between switches. We suggest the MSN network is well suited to the generation of such slow coherent task dependent response which could be utilized by the animal in behavior.

  9. Design of Low Inductance Switching Power Cell for GaN HEMT Based Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurpinar, Emre [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Group; Iannuzzo, Francesco [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Yang, Yongheng [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Castellazzi, Alberto [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Power Electronics, Machines and Control (PEMC); Blaabjerg, Frede [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2017-11-23

    Here in this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell is designed for a three-Level Active Neutral Point Clamped (3LANPC) based on 650 V gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT devices. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which mainly contribute to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a fourlayer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with the aim to maximize the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained. The design of gate drivers for the GaN HEMT devices is presented. Parasitic inductance and resistance of the proposed design are extracted with finite element analysis and discussed. Common mode behaviours based on the SPICE model of the converter are analyzed. Experimental results on the designed 3L-ANPC with the output power of up to 1 kW are presented, which verifies the performance of the proposed design in terms of ultra-low inductance.

  10. Design of Low Inductance Switching Power Cell for GaN HEMT Based Inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Yang, Yongheng; Castellazzi, Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Here in this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell is designed for a three-Level Active Neutral Point Clamped (3LANPC) based on 650 V gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT devices. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which mainly contribute to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a fourlayer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with the aim to maximize the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained. The design of gate drivers for the GaN HEMT devices is presented. Parasitic inductance and resistance of the proposed design are extracted with finite element analysis and discussed. Common mode behaviours based on the SPICE model of the converter are analyzed. Experimental results on the designed 3L-ANPC with the output power of up to 1 kW are presented, which verifies the performance of the proposed design in terms of ultra-low inductance.

  11. Effects of task-switching on neural representations of ambiguous sound input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S; Bregman, Albert S; Lee, Wei-Wei

    2014-11-01

    The ability to perceive discrete sound streams in the presence of competing sound sources relies on multiple mechanisms that organize the mixture of the auditory input entering the ears. Many studies have focused on mechanisms that contribute to integrating sounds that belong together into one perceptual stream (integration) and segregating those that come from different sound sources (segregation). However, little is known about mechanisms that allow us to perceive individual sound sources within a dynamically changing auditory scene, when the input may be ambiguous, and heard as either integrated or segregated. This study tested the question of whether focusing on one of two possible sound organizations suppressed representation of the alternative organization. We presented listeners with ambiguous input and cued them to switch between tasks that used either the integrated or the segregated percept. Electrophysiological measures indicated which organization was currently maintained in memory. If mutual exclusivity at the neural level was the rule, attention to one of two possible organizations would preclude neural representation of the other. However, significant MMNs were elicited to both the target organization and the unattended, alternative organization, along with the target-related P3b component elicited only to the designated target organization. Results thus indicate that both organizations (integrated and segregated) were simultaneously maintained in memory regardless of which task was performed. Focusing attention to one aspect of the sounds did not abolish the alternative, unattended organization when the stimulus input was ambiguous. In noisy environments, such as walking on a city street, rapid and flexible adaptive processes are needed to help facilitate rapid switching to different sound sources in the environment. Having multiple representations available to the attentive system would allow for such flexibility, needed in everyday situations to

  12. L{sup 1} group consensus of multi-agent systems with switching topologies and stochastic inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Yilun, E-mail: shylmath@hotmail.com [Institute for Cyber Security, University of Texas at San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how interacting subsystems of an overall system lead to cluster/group consensus is a key issue in the investigation of multi-agent systems. In this Letter, we study the L{sup 1} group consensus problem of discrete-time multi-agent systems with external stochastic inputs. Based on ergodicity theory and matrix analysis, L{sup 1} group consensus criteria are obtained for multi-agent systems with switching topologies. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the theoretical results.

  13. ANALYSIS OF RELIABILITY OF THE PERIODICALLY AND CONTINUOUSLY CONTROLLED QUEUING SYSTEM WITH TIME REDUNDANCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikadze, I.; Namchevadze, T.; Gobiani, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is proposed a generalized mathematical model of the queuing system with time redundancy without preliminary checking of the queuing system at transition from the free state into the engaged one. The model accounts for various failures of the queuing system detected by continuous instrument control, periodic control, control during recovery and the failures revealed immediately after accumulation of a certain number of failures. The generating function of queue length in both stationary and nonstationary modes was determined. (author)

  14. APPLICATION OF QUEUING THEORY TO AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM) FACILITIES USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    UDOANYA RAYMOND MANUEL; ANIEKAN OFFIONG

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of applying queuing theory to the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) using Monte Carlo Simulation in order to determine, control and manage the level of queuing congestion found within the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) centre in Nigeria and also it contains the empirical data analysis of the queuing systems obtained at the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) located within the Bank premises for a period of three (3) months. Monte Carlo Simulation is applied to th...

  15. A new Zero-Current-Transition PWM switching cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty, `Politechnica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new Zero-Current-Transition (ZCT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus as auxiliary circuit. The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON ad OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. The transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-off, the current through the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-off losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-on the auxiliary circuit slows down the growing rate of the current through the main switch. Thus, turn-on losses are also very much reduced. The active switch operates under ZCT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, while the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. An extended dual input dual output three level Z source inverter with improved switch loss reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Deshmukh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverter (MLI is a proven technology used for industrial applications due to low output total harmonic distortion (THD, high power handling capability and low active device rating. Dual output inverter is a recent trend associated with inverter topologies for specialized applications. This paper deals with three phase three level dual input dual output inverter topology with minimum active device count. Reduction in switch count leads to reduction in losses and improves reliability. Both the input sources share power equally as neutral point current ripple is maintained low. For further reduction in switching losses at higher switching frequencies, the concept of “no switching zone” or discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM has been put forth recently. This paper proposes modification in the placement of “no switching zone” in order to optimize switching losses and output THD (output filtering requirements for low power factor load. This study also proposes novel graphical approach to analyze the loss reduction along with its effect on output THD. The sinusoidal PWM (SPWM is used which gives satisfactory switching loss reduction without complex calculations. Moreover, the proposed topology is generalized to provide dual output at higher voltage levels. It is seen that the components reduction phenomenon becomes more pronounced as number of levels goes on increasing. The proposed converter is simulated in MATLAB software environment and results are obtained.

  17. A new Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM switching cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty `Politebuica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new Zero-Voltage-Transition (ZVT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus an auxiliary circuit (consisting of one active switch and some reactive components). The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON and OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. However, the transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-on, the voltage across the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-on losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-off the auxiliary circuit behaves like a non-dissipative passive snubber reducing the turn-off losses to a great extent. Zero-Voltage-Transition switching technique almost eliminates switching losses. The active switch operates under ZVT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, and the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 6 refs.

  18. A graphite based STT-RAM cell with reduction in switching current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) is a serious candidate for "universal memory" because of its non-volatility, fast access time, high density, good scalability, high endurance and relatively low power dissipation. However, problems with low write speed and large write current are important existing challenges in STT-RAM design and there is a tradeoff between them and data retention time. In this study, a novel STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) is proposed. First, the cross-section of the structure is selected to be an ellipse of 45 nm and 180 nm dimensions and a six-layer graphite is used as tunnel barrier. By passing a lateral current with a short pulse width (before applying STT current and independent of it) through four middle graphene layers of the tunnel barrier, a 27% reduction in the amplitude of the switching current (for fast switching time of 2 ns) or a 58% reduction in its pulse width is achieved without any reduction in data retention time. Finally, the effect of downscaling of technology on the proposed structure is evaluated. A reduction of 31.6% and 9% in switching current is achieved for 90 and 22 nm cell width respectively by passing sufficient current (100 μA with 0.1 ns pulse width) through the tunnel barrier. Simulations are done using Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework (OOMMF).

  19. Interleaved Boost-Half-Bridge Dual–Input DC-DC Converter with a PWM plus Phase-Shift Control for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an isolated dual-input DC-DC converter with a PWM plus phase-shift control for fuel cell hybrid energy systems. The power switches are controlled by phase shifted PWM signals with a variable duty cycle, and thus the two input voltages as well as the output voltage can...

  20. Using queuing theory and simulation model to optimize hospital pharmacy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Mohammadnejhad, Seyed Mohsen; Ravangard, Ramin; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    Hospital pharmacy is responsible for controlling and monitoring the medication use process and ensures the timely access to safe, effective and economical use of drugs and medicines for patients and hospital staff. This study aimed to optimize the management of studied outpatient pharmacy by developing suitable queuing theory and simulation technique. A descriptive-analytical study conducted in a military hospital in Iran, Tehran in 2013. A sample of 220 patients referred to the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in two shifts, morning and evening, was selected to collect the necessary data to determine the arrival rate, service rate, and other data needed to calculate the patients flow and queuing network performance variables. After the initial analysis of collected data using the software SPSS 18, the pharmacy queuing network performance indicators were calculated for both shifts. Then, based on collected data and to provide appropriate solutions, the queuing system of current situation for both shifts was modeled and simulated using the software ARENA 12 and 4 scenarios were explored. Results showed that the queue characteristics of the studied pharmacy during the situation analysis were very undesirable in both morning and evening shifts. The average numbers of patients in the pharmacy were 19.21 and 14.66 in the morning and evening, respectively. The average times spent in the system by clients were 39 minutes in the morning and 35 minutes in the evening. The system utilization in the morning and evening were, respectively, 25% and 21%. The simulation results showed that reducing the staff in the morning from 2 to 1 in the receiving prescriptions stage didn't change the queue performance indicators. Increasing one staff in filling prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 10 persons in the average queue length and 18 minutes and 14 seconds in the average waiting time. On the other hand, simulation results showed that in the evening, decreasing the staff

  1. Stochastic switching in biology: from genotype to phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in non-equilibrium stochastic processes in recent years, driven in part by the observation that the number of molecules (genes, mRNA, proteins) involved in gene expression are often of order 1–1000. This means that deterministic mass-action kinetics tends to break down, and one needs to take into account the discrete, stochastic nature of biochemical reactions. One of the major consequences of molecular noise is the occurrence of stochastic biological switching at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. For example, individual gene regulatory networks can switch between graded and binary responses, exhibit translational/transcriptional bursting, and support metastability (noise-induced switching between states that are stable in the deterministic limit). If random switching persists at the phenotypic level then this can confer certain advantages to cell populations growing in a changing environment, as exemplified by bacterial persistence in response to antibiotics. Gene expression at the single-cell level can also be regulated by changes in cell density at the population level, a process known as quorum sensing. In contrast to noise-driven phenotypic switching, the switching mechanism in quorum sensing is stimulus-driven and thus noise tends to have a detrimental effect. A common approach to modeling stochastic gene expression is to assume a large but finite system and to approximate the discrete processes by continuous processes using a system-size expansion. However, there is a growing need to have some familiarity with the theory of stochastic processes that goes beyond the standard topics of chemical master equations, the system-size expansion, Langevin equations and the Fokker–Planck equation. Examples include stochastic hybrid systems (piecewise deterministic Markov processes), large deviations and the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) method, adiabatic reductions, and queuing/renewal theory. The major aim of

  2. Analysis for a queuing model of FACOM 230-75 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Misako

    1976-09-01

    An open batch multi-job-processing for F230-75 System is analyzed by a M/M/n queuing model. In the model, jobs are considered to be processed with n independent machines whose mean processing rate is μ(n), where n is the actual multiplicity which varies from 0 to a designated multiplicity N. The μ(n) is separately calculated from another queuing models of the executing stage in which multiplicity is held to n. Numerical comparisons of processing time, turnaround time, throughput, etc. are shown in the figures to the variation of job multiplicities. (auth.)

  3. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  4. Ultra-Low Voltage Class AB Switched Current Memory Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical basis for the design of class AB switched current memory cells employing floating-gate MOS transistors, suitable for ultra-low-voltage applications. To support the theoretical assumptions circuits based on these cells were designed using a CMOS process with thr......This paper presents the theoretical basis for the design of class AB switched current memory cells employing floating-gate MOS transistors, suitable for ultra-low-voltage applications. To support the theoretical assumptions circuits based on these cells were designed using a CMOS process...... with threshold voltages of 0.9V. Both hand calculations and PSPICE simulations showed that the cells designed allowed a maximum signal range better than +/-13 micoamp, with a supply voltage down to 1V and a quiescent bias current of 1 microamp, resulting in a very high current efficiency and effective power...

  5. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Model to Optimize Hospital Pharmacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Mohammadnejhad, Seyed Mohsen; Ravangard, Ramin; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospital pharmacy is responsible for controlling and monitoring the medication use process and ensures the timely access to safe, effective and economical use of drugs and medicines for patients and hospital staff. Objectives: This study aimed to optimize the management of studied outpatient pharmacy by developing suitable queuing theory and simulation technique. Patients and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study conducted in a military hospital in Iran, Tehran in 2013. A sample of 220 patients referred to the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in two shifts, morning and evening, was selected to collect the necessary data to determine the arrival rate, service rate, and other data needed to calculate the patients flow and queuing network performance variables. After the initial analysis of collected data using the software SPSS 18, the pharmacy queuing network performance indicators were calculated for both shifts. Then, based on collected data and to provide appropriate solutions, the queuing system of current situation for both shifts was modeled and simulated using the software ARENA 12 and 4 scenarios were explored. Results: Results showed that the queue characteristics of the studied pharmacy during the situation analysis were very undesirable in both morning and evening shifts. The average numbers of patients in the pharmacy were 19.21 and 14.66 in the morning and evening, respectively. The average times spent in the system by clients were 39 minutes in the morning and 35 minutes in the evening. The system utilization in the morning and evening were, respectively, 25% and 21%. The simulation results showed that reducing the staff in the morning from 2 to 1 in the receiving prescriptions stage didn't change the queue performance indicators. Increasing one staff in filling prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 10 persons in the average queue length and 18 minutes and 14 seconds in the average waiting time. On the other hand, simulation

  6. A liquid lens switching-based motionless variable fiber-optic delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Reza, Syed Azer; Sheikh, Mumtaz

    2018-05-01

    We present a Variable Fiber-Optic Delay Line (VFODL) module capable of imparting long variable delays by switching an input optical/RF signal between Single Mode Fiber (SMF) patch cords of different lengths through a pair of Electronically Controlled Tunable Lenses (ECTLs) resulting in a polarization-independent operation. Depending on intended application, the lengths of the SMFs can be chosen accordingly to achieve the desired VFODL operation dynamic range. If so desired, the state of the input signal polarization can be preserved with the use of commercially available polarization-independent ECTLs along with polarization-maintaining SMFs (PM-SMFs), resulting in an output polarization that is identical to the input. An ECTL-based design also improves power consumption and repeatability. The delay switching mechanism is electronically-controlled, involves no bulk moving parts, and can be fully-automated. The VFODL module is compact due to the use of small optical components and SMFs that can be packaged compactly.

  7. Task-set switching under cue-based versus memory-based switching conditions in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta

    2006-08-11

    Adult age differences in task switching and advance preparation were examined by comparing cue-based and memory-based switching conditions. Task switching was assessed by determining two types of costs that occur at the general (mixing costs) and specific (switching costs) level of switching. Advance preparation was investigated by varying the time interval until the next task (short, middle, very long). Results indicated that the implementation of task sets was different for cue-based switching with random task sequences and memory-based switching with predictable task sequences. Switching costs were strongly reduced under cue-based switching conditions, indicating that task-set cues facilitate the retrieval of the next task. Age differences were found for mixing costs and for switching costs only under cue-based conditions in which older adults showed smaller switching costs than younger adults. It is suggested that older adults adopt a less extreme bias between two tasks than younger adults in situations associated with uncertainty. For cue-based switching with random task sequences, older adults are less engaged in a complete reconfiguration of task sets because of the probability of a further task change. Furthermore, the reduction of switching costs was more pronounced for cue- than memory-based switching for short preparation intervals, whereas the reduction of switch costs was more pronounced for memory- than cue-based switching for longer preparation intervals at least for older adults. Together these findings suggest that the implementation of task sets is functionally different for the two types of task-switching conditions.

  8. An improved soft switched PWM interleaved boost AC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, Naci; Iskender, Ires

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an improved soft switched two cell interleaved boost AC/DC converter with high power factor is proposed and investigated. A new auxiliary circuit is designed and added to two cell interleaved boost converter to reduce the switching losses. The proposed auxiliary circuit is implemented using only one auxiliary switch and a minimum number of passive components without an important increase in the cost and complexity of the converter. The main advantage of this auxiliary circuit is that it not only provides zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) for the main switches but also provides soft switching for the auxiliary switch and diodes. Though all semiconductor devices operate under soft switching, they do not have any additional voltage and current stresses. The proposed converter operates successfully in soft switching operation mode for a wide range of input voltage level and the load. In addition, it has advantages such as fewer structure complications, lower cost and ease of control. In the study, the transition modes for describing the behavior of the proposed converter in one switching period are described. A prototype with 600 W output power, 50 kHz/cell switching frequency, input line voltage of 110-220 V rms and an output voltage of 400 V dc has been implemented. Analysis, design and the control circuitry are also presented in the paper.

  9. Density profiles of the exclusive queuing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The exclusive queuing process (EQP) incorporates the exclusion principle into classic queuing models. It is characterized by, in addition to the entrance probability α and exit probability β, a third parameter: the hopping probability p. The EQP can be interpreted as an exclusion process of variable system length. Its phase diagram in the parameter space (α,β) is divided into a convergent phase and a divergent phase by a critical line which consists of a curved part and a straight part. Here we extend previous studies of this phase diagram. We identify subphases in the divergent phase, which can be distinguished by means of the shape of the density profile, and determine the velocity of the system length growth. This is done for EQPs with different update rules (parallel, backward sequential and continuous time). We also investigate the dynamics of the system length and the number of customers on the critical line. They are diffusive or subdiffusive with non-universal exponents that also depend on the update rules.

  10. Two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based double switch-divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Victor; Martins, Leno

    2016-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new multifunctional component, consisting of a T-junction of three waveguides in 2D photonic crystal with a square lattice. One waveguide is the input port, while the other two serve as output ports. This component can fulfil three functions: First, it can switch OFF the two output ports; second, our component can be used as a 3 dB divider of the input power; and third, it can switch ON any one of the two output ports. Changing the regime is achieved by a DC magnetic field that magnetizes a cylindrical ferrite resonator placed in the T-junction. We present an analysis of the scattering matrices of the component and calculated frequency characteristics in the low terahertz region. In the frequency band of about 1 GHz with a central frequency of f=98.46  GHz, the device has the following parameters: isolation of the output ports from the input port in the first regime is better than -30  dB, division of the input signal is about (-3.8±1.0)  dB in the second regime, and isolation in the regime switch ON, where any one of the two output ports is higher than -15  dB and the insertion loss is lower than -2.0  dB.

  11. Switched-Observer-Based Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Switched Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control is addressed for a class of multi-input multioutput (MIMO) switched uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control gains. Neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. In order to avoid the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer for all subsystems, an MIMO NN switched observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states. A new switched observer-based adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is then provided by exploiting the classical average dwell time (ADT) method and the backstepping method and the Nussbaum gain technique. It effectively handles the obstacle about the coexistence of multiple Nussbaum-type function terms, and improves the classical ADT method, since the exponential decline property of Lyapunov functions for individual subsystems is no longer satisfied. It is shown that the technique proposed is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with ADT, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the approach proposed is illustrated by its application to a two inverted pendulum system.

  12. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  13. Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J. C.; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The CRISPR–Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. PMID:28525578

  14. Coupled-Inductor-Based Aalborg Inverter With Input DC Energy Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Houqing; Wu, Weimin; Chung, Henry Shu-hung

    2018-01-01

    Due to the global environmental issues and energy crisis, the injection of renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power system is continuously increasing. As the interface between RESs and power grid, grid-tied inverters using MOSFET switches, without traditional line frequency transformers, show...... some potential advantages, in terms of low cost, high efficiency, and lightweight and small size. Among several proposed configurations, the Aalborg inverter was proposed as a new family of high efficiency MOSFET-switch-based hybrid source inverters. For a conventional “half bridge” type Aalborg...... inverter, due to the imbalance of two independent dc sources, the input dc energies may not be fully utilized, which may reduce the efficiency of whole system. In order to extract the maximum energy from two independent dc sources, a coupled-inductor-based “half bridge” type Aalborg inverter is proposed...

  15. Modified weighted fair queuing for packet scheduling in mobile WiMAX networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrya, Gandeva B.; Brotoharsono, Tri

    2013-03-01

    The increase of user mobility and the need for data access anytime also increases the interest in broadband wireless access (BWA). The best available quality of experience for mobile data service users are assured for IEEE 802.16e based users. The main problem of assuring a high QOS value is how to allocate available resources among users in order to meet the QOS requirement for criteria such as delay, throughput, packet loss and fairness. There is no specific standard scheduling mechanism stated by IEEE standards, which leaves it for implementer differentiation. There are five QOS service classes defined by IEEE 802.16: Unsolicited Grant Scheme (UGS), Extended Real Time Polling Service (ertPS), Real Time Polling Service (rtPS), Non Real Time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort Service (BE). Each class has different QOS parameter requirements for throughput and delay/jitter constraints. This paper proposes Modified Weighted Fair Queuing (MWFQ) scheduling scenario which was based on Weighted Round Robin (WRR) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). The performance of MWFQ was assessed by using above five QoS criteria. The simulation shows that using the concept of total packet size calculation improves the network's performance.

  16. Gallium nitride based transistors for high-efficiency microwave switch-mode amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroldt, Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Highly-efficient switch-mode power amplifiers form key elements in future fully-digital base stations for mobile communication. This novel digital base station concept reduces system energy consumption, complexity, size and costs, while the flexibility in terms of multi-band operation and signal modulation improves. In this work, innovative core circuits for digital high-efficiency class-D and class-S power amplifiers based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology were developed for the application in digital base stations. A combination of optimized GaN devices and improvements in circuit design allow a highly-efficient switch-mode operation at mobile communication frequencies between 0.45 GHz and 2 GHz. Transistor device modeling for switch-mode operation, the simulation environment, and a broadband measurement system were established for the design and evaluation of digital switchmode power amplifiers. The design of broadband core circuits for switch-mode amplifier concepts was analyzed for dual-stage amplifier circuits, using an initial GaN technology with a gate length of 0.25 {mu}m. A speed-enhanced driver stage improved the circuit switching speed sufficiently above 1 GHz. Speed and efficiency of the amplifier core circuits were studied related to transistor parameters like cut-off frequency or gate capacitance. A reduced gate length was found to improve the switching speed, while a lower on-resistance allows the reduction of the inherent static losses of the GaN-based switches. Apart from this, the restriction of a 50 Ohm environment was found to be a major output power and switching speed limitation, due to a poor switching drive capability of the input capacitance of the GaN circuit. Finally, the optimized transistor and circuit design with an output gate width of 1.2 mm were effectively implemented in the given environment for an operation up to 2 GHz with a high drain efficiency of >65% and a digital output power of 5 W. A maximum output power of 9.7 W and a

  17. A Cell-to-Cell Battery Equalizer With Zero-Current Switching and Zero-Voltage Gap Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter and Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Yunlong; Zhang, Chenghui; Cui, Naxin

    2015-01-01

    these difficulties, an innovative direct cell-to-cell battery equalizer based on quasi-resonant LC converter (QRLCC) and boost DC-DC converter (BDDC) is proposed. The QRLCC is employed to gain zero-current switching (ZCS), leading to a reduction of power losses. The BDDC is employed to enhance the equalization...

  18. Know-How on design of switching regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This book introduces switching regulator from base to application, which deals with fundamentals of switching regulator such as the reason of boom about switching regulator, understanding simple circuit without electric transformer and decision of circuit type with input voltage and output voltage, configuration and characteristic of switching regulator, a concrete design of switching regulator, pulse width control circuit and protection circuit, concrete circuit examples of switching power and the point of switching regulator.

  19. Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J C; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-07-27

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Denoising of genetic switches based on Parrondo's paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotoohinasab, Atiyeh; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Random decision making in genetic switches can be modeled as tossing a biased coin. In other word, each genetic switch can be considered as a game in which the reactive elements compete with each other to increase their molecular concentrations. The existence of a very small number of reactive element molecules has caused the neglect of effects of noise to be inevitable. Noise can lead to undesirable cell fate in cellular differentiation processes. In this paper, we study the robustness to noise in genetic switches by considering another switch to have a new gene regulatory network (GRN) in which both switches have been affected by the same noise and for this purpose, we will use Parrondo's paradox. We introduce two networks of games based on possible regulatory relations between genes. Our results show that the robustness to noise can increase by combining these noisy switches. We also describe how one of the switches in network II can model lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli and we change its fate by another switch.

  1. Assessing the Queuing Process Using Data Envelopment Analysis: an Application in Health Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Komal A; Emrouznejad, Ali; Dey, Prasanta K

    2016-01-01

    Queuing is one of the very important criteria for assessing the performance and efficiency of any service industry, including healthcare. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is one of the most widely-used techniques for performance measurement in healthcare. However, no queue management application has been reported in the health-related DEA literature. Most of the studies regarding patient flow systems had the objective of improving an already existing Appointment System. The current study presents a novel application of DEA for assessing the queuing process at an Outpatients' department of a large public hospital in a developing country where appointment systems do not exist. The main aim of the current study is to demonstrate the usefulness of DEA modelling in the evaluation of a queue system. The patient flow pathway considered for this study consists of two stages; consultation with a doctor and pharmacy. The DEA results indicated that waiting times and other related queuing variables included need considerable minimisation at both stages.

  2. Dynamic queuing transmission model for dynamic network loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raovic, Nevena; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    and allowing for the representation of multiple vehicle classes, queue spillbacks and shock waves. The model assumes that a link is split into a moving part plus a queuing part, and p that traffic dynamics are given by a triangular fundamental diagram. A case-study is investigated and the DQTM is compared...

  3. Buck Converter with Soft-Switching Cells for PV Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In power conversion of photovoltaic (PV energy, a hard-switching buck converter always generates some disadvantages. For example, serious electromagnetic interference (EMI, high switching losses, and stresses on an active switch (metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor, MOSFET, and high reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode result in low conversion efficiency. To release these disadvantages, a buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications is proposed. To create zero-voltage-switching (ZVS features of the active switches, a simple active soft-switching cell with an inductor, a capacitor, and a MOSFET is incorporated into the proposed buck converter. Therefore, the switching losses and stresses of the active switches and EMI can be reduced significantly. To reduce reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode, a simple passive soft-switching cell with a capacitor and two diodes is implemented. To verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications, a prototype soft-switching buck converter is built and implemented by using a maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT method. Simulated and experimental results are presented from a 100 W soft-switching buck converter for PV panel applications.

  4. A Novel Four-Step Commutation for Bidirectional Switch Cells of AC-AC Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    on or off of output current happens on the second and third steps. Here the second step is equal to the third one. This method is implemented with four steps by programming in VHDL language. First, the special flip-flop, 74AHC16373, is obtained by programming so as to make input sector signals, output...... sector ones and active switching time PWM ones synchronize. Second, the required switching states are flexibly realized in the form of the look-up table by programming in VHDL language for 36 switching combinations of input sectors with output ones. Third, the obtained switching states are judged whether...... they need commutation by delayers. Finally, the novel method proposed is implemented by switching sequencers. The simulation results have verified its feasibility....

  5. Power requirements reducing of FBG based all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Ľubomír.; Solanská, Michaela; Ladányi, Libor; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2017-12-01

    Although Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are well known devices, their using as all-optical switching elements has been still examined. Current research is focused on optimization of their properties for their using in future all-optical networks. The main problem are high switching intensities needed for achieving the changes of the transmission state. Over several years switching intensities have been reduced from hundreds of GW/cm2 to tens of MW/cm2 by selecting appropriate gratings and signal parameters or using suitable materials. Two principal nonlinear effects with similar power requirements can result in the bistable transmission/reflection of an input optical pulse. In the self-phase modulation (SPM) regime switching is achieved by the intense probe pulse itself. Using cross-phase modulation (XPM) a strong pump alters the FBG refractive index experienced by a weak probe pulse. As a result of this the detuning of the probe pulse from the center of the photonic band gap occurs. Using of XPM the effect of modulation instability is reduced. Modulation instability which is the main SPM degradation mechanism. We focused on nonlinear FBGs based on chalcogenide glasses which are very often used in various applications. Thanks to high nonlinear parameters chalcogenide glasses are suitable candidates for reducing switching intensities of nonlinear FBGs.

  6. TWO-LEVEL HIERARCHICAL COORDINATION QUEUING METHOD FOR TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Semenyaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hierarchical coordination queuing method. Within the proposed method a queuing problem has been reduced to optimization problem solving that was presented as two-level hierarchical structure. The required distribution of flows and bandwidth allocation was calculated at the first level independently for each macro-queue; at the second level solutions obtained on lower level for each queue were coordinated in order to prevent probable network link overload. The method of goal coordination has been determined for multilevel structure managing, which makes it possible to define the order for consideration of queue cooperation restrictions and calculation tasks distribution between levels of hierarchy. Decisions coordination was performed by the method of Lagrange multipliers. The study of method convergence has been carried out by analytical modeling.

  7. Two- and three-input TALE-based AND logic computation in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Florian; Torella, Joseph P; Chen, Jan-Hung; Norsworthy, Michael; Richardson, Ryan R; Silver, Pamela A

    2013-11-01

    Biological computing circuits can enhance our ability to control cellular functions and have potential applications in tissue engineering and medical treatments. Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) represent attractive components of synthetic gene regulatory circuits, as they can be designed de novo to target a given DNA sequence. We here demonstrate that TALEs can perform Boolean logic computation in mammalian cells. Using a split-intein protein-splicing strategy, we show that a functional TALE can be reconstituted from two inactive parts, thus generating two-input AND logic computation. We further demonstrate three-piece intein splicing in mammalian cells and use it to perform three-input AND computation. Using methods for random as well as targeted insertion of these relatively large genetic circuits, we show that TALE-based logic circuits are functional when integrated into the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells. Comparing construct variants in the same genomic context, we modulated the strength of the TALE-responsive promoter to improve the output of these circuits. Our work establishes split TALEs as a tool for building logic computation with the potential of controlling expression of endogenous genes or transgenes in response to a combination of cellular signals.

  8. A soft computing-based approach to optimise queuing-inventory control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghebandha, Mohammad; Hajipour, Vahid

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a multi-product continuous review inventory control problem within batch arrival queuing approach (MQr/M/1) is developed to find the optimal quantities of maximum inventory. The objective function is to minimise summation of ordering, holding and shortage costs under warehouse space, service level and expected lost-sales shortage cost constraints from retailer and warehouse viewpoints. Since the proposed model is Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard, an efficient imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is proposed to solve the model. To justify proposed ICA, both ganetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm are utilised. In order to determine the best value of algorithm parameters that result in a better solution, a fine-tuning procedure is executed. Finally, the performance of the proposed ICA is analysed using some numerical illustrations.

  9. Stability of Switched Feedback Time-Varying Dynamic Systems Based on the Properties of the Gap Metric for Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization of dynamic switched control systems is focused on and based on an operator-based formulation. It is assumed that the controlled object and the controller are described by sequences of closed operator pairs (L,C on a Hilbert space H of the input and output spaces and it is related to the existence of the inverse of the resulting input-output operator being admissible and bounded. The technical mechanism addressed to get the results is the appropriate use of the fact that closed operators being sufficiently close to bounded operators, in terms of the gap metric, are also bounded. That philosophy is followed for the operators describing the input-output relations in switched feedback control systems so as to guarantee the closed-loop stabilization.

  10. Queuing theory and telecommunications networks and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giambene, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a basic description of current networking technologies and protocols as well as important tools for network performance analysis based on queuing theory. The second edition adds selected contents in the first part of the book for what concerns: (i) the token bucket regulator and traffic shaping issues; (ii) the TCP protocol congestion control that has a significant part in current networking; (iii) basic satellite networking issues; (iv) adding details on QoS support in IP networks. The book is organized so that networking technologies and protocols (Part I) are first and are then followed by theory and exercises with applications to the different technologies and protocols (Part II). This book is intended as a textbook for master level courses in networking and telecommunications sectors.

  11. Performance improvement of switched-based interference mitigation for channel assignment in over-loaded small-cell networks

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme for single downlink channel assignment in over-loaded small-cell networks. The model assumes that the available orthogonal channels for small cells are distributed among access points in close vicinity, where each access point knows its allocated channels a priori. Each cell has a single antenna, employs the open access strategy, and can reuse its allocated channels simultaneously, while scheduling concurrent service requests. Moreover, the access points can not coordinate their transmissions, and can receive limited feedback from active users. The paper presents low-complexity schemes to identify a suitable channel to serve the scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while reducing the channel examination load. The optimal thresholds for interference mitigation at the desired receive station are quantified for various performance criteria. The performance and processing load of the proposed schemes are obtained analytically, and then compared to those of the single-threshold scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  12. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young's modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young's modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  15. A self-adaptive thermal switch array for rapid temperature stabilization under various thermal power inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Xiaobao; Patel, Pragnesh; Narain, Amitabh; Meng, Dennis Desheng

    2011-01-01

    A self-adaptive thermal switch array (TSA) based on actuation by low-melting-point alloy droplets is reported to stabilize the temperature of a heat-generating microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device at a predetermined range (i.e. the optimal working temperature of the device) with neither a control circuit nor electrical power consumption. When the temperature is below this range, the TSA stays off and works as a thermal insulator. Therefore, the MEMS device can quickly heat itself up to its optimal working temperature during startup. Once this temperature is reached, TSA is automatically turned on to increase the thermal conductance, working as an effective thermal spreader. As a result, the MEMS device tends to stay at its optimal working temperature without complex thermal management components and the associated parasitic power loss. A prototype TSA was fabricated and characterized to prove the concept. The stabilization temperatures under various power inputs have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under the increment of power input from 3.8 to 5.8 W, the temperature of the device increased only by 2.5 °C due to the stabilization effect of TSA

  16. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests.

  17. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  18. Generalized Switched-Inductor Based Buck-Boost Z-H Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Babaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized buck-boost Z-H converter based on switched inductors is proposed. This structure consists of a set of series connected switched-inductor cells. The voltage conversion ratio of the proposed structure is adjusted by changing the number of cells and the duty cycle. Like the conventional Z-H converter, the shoot-through switching state and the diode before LC network are eliminated. The proposed converter can provide high voltage gain in low duty cycles. Considering different values for duty cycle, the proposed structure works in two operating zones. In the first operating zone, it works as a buck-boost converter and in the second operating zone, it works as a boost converter. In this paper, a complete analysis of the proposed converter is presented. In order to confirm the accuracy of mathematic calculations, the simulations results by using PSCAD/EMTDC software are given.

  19. Dendritic slow dynamics enables localized cortical activity to switch between mobile and immobile modes with noisy background input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kurashige

    Full Text Available Mounting lines of evidence suggest the significant computational ability of a single neuron empowered by active dendritic dynamics. This motivates us to study what functionality can be acquired by a network of such neurons. The present paper studies how such rich single-neuron dendritic dynamics affects the network dynamics, a question which has scarcely been specifically studied to date. We simulate neurons with active dendrites networked locally like cortical pyramidal neurons, and find that naturally arising localized activity--called a bump--can be in two distinct modes, mobile or immobile. The mode can be switched back and forth by transient input to the cortical network. Interestingly, this functionality arises only if each neuron is equipped with the observed slow dendritic dynamics and with in vivo-like noisy background input. If the bump activity is considered to indicate a point of attention in the sensory areas or to indicate a representation of memory in the storage areas of the cortex, this would imply that the flexible mode switching would be of great potential use for the brain as an information processing device. We derive these conclusions using a natural extension of the conventional field model, which is defined by combining two distinct fields, one representing the somatic population and the other representing the dendritic population. With this tool, we analyze the spatial distribution of the degree of after-spike adaptation and explain how we can understand the presence of the two distinct modes and switching between the modes. We also discuss the possible functional impact of this mode-switching ability.

  20. Atmel Microcontroller Based Soft Switched PWM ZVS Full Bridge DC to DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK KUMAR NAYAK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the simulation and implementation of soft switched PWM ZVS full bridge DC to DC converter. The 48V DC is efficiently reduced to 12V DC using a DC to DC converter. This converter has advantages like reduced switching losses, stresses and EMI. Input DC is converted into high frequency AC and it is stepped down to 12V level. Later it is rectified using a full wave rectifier. Laboratory model of microcontroller based DC to DC converter is fabricated and tested. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results.

  1. User Utility Oriented Queuing Model for Resource Allocation in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is one of the most important research topics in servers. In the cloud environment, there are massive hardware resources of different kinds, and many kinds of services are usually run on virtual machines of the cloud server. In addition, cloud environment is commercialized, and economical factor should also be considered. In order to deal with commercialization and virtualization of cloud environment, we proposed a user utility oriented queuing model for task scheduling. Firstly, we modeled task scheduling in cloud environment as an M/M/1 queuing system. Secondly, we classified the utility into time utility and cost utility and built a linear programming model to maximize total utility for both of them. Finally, we proposed a utility oriented algorithm to maximize the total utility. Massive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed model.

  2. A Switched Capacitor Based AC/DC Resonant Converter for High Frequency AC Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuidong Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage to low voltage for easy use. The voltage conversion ratio of conventional switched capacitor power converters is fixed to n, 1/n or −1/n (n is the switched capacitor cell. In this paper, A circuit which can provide n, 1/n and 2n/m of the voltage conversion ratio is presented (n is stepping up the switched capacitor cell, m is stepping down the switching capacitor cell. The conversion ratio can be changed greatly by using only two switches. A resonant tank is used to assist in zero current switching, and hence the current spike, which usually exists in a classical switching switched capacitor converter, can be eliminated. Both easy operation and efficiency are possible. Principles of operation, computer simulations and experimental results of the proposed circuit are presented. General analysis and design methods are given. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis of high frequency AC power generation.

  3. Observer-based leader-following tracking control under both fixed and switching topologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan WANG; Pengxiao ZHANG; Zhixin LIU; Xiaoming HU

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the tracking problem for a class of leader-follower multi-agent systems moving on the plane using observer-based cooperative control strategies. In our set-up, only a subset of the followers can obtain some relative information on the leader. We assume that the control input of the leader is not known to any of the followers while the system matrix is broadcast to all the followers. To track such a leader, an observer-based decentralized feedback controller is designed for each follower and detailed analysis for the convergence is presented for both fixed and switching interaction topologies between agents with the method of common Lyapunov function. We can also generalize the result to the higher dimension case for fixed topology and some special system matrices of the leader for switching topology.

  4. Mathematical methods in the theory of queuing

    CERN Document Server

    Khinchin, A Y; Quenouille, M H

    2013-01-01

    Written by a prominent Russian mathematician, this concise monograph examines aspects of queuing theory as an application of probability. The three-part treatment begins with a study of the stream of incoming demands (or ""calls,"" in the author's terminology). Subsequent sections explore systems with losses and systems allowing delay. Prerequisites include a familiarity with the theory of probability and mathematical analysis. A. Y. Khinchin made significant contributions to probability theory, statistical physics, and several other fields. His elegant, groundbreaking work will prove of subs

  5. Proposing Wavelet-Based Low-Pass Filter and Input Filter to Improve Transient Response of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.

  6. Phenotypic switching of populations of cells in a stochastic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, Peter G.; Lin, Yen Ting; Galla, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    In biology phenotypic switching is a common bet-hedging strategy in the face of uncertain environmental conditions. Existing mathematical models often focus on periodically changing environments to determine the optimal phenotypic response. We focus on the case in which the environment switches randomly between discrete states. Starting from an individual-based model we derive stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics, and obtain analytical expressions for the mean instantaneous growth rates based on the theory of piecewise-deterministic Markov processes. We show that optimal phenotypic responses are non-trivial for slow and intermediate environmental processes, and systematically compare the cases of periodic and random environments. The best response to random switching is more likely to be heterogeneity than in the case of deterministic periodic environments, net growth rates tend to be higher under stochastic environmental dynamics. The combined system of environment and population of cells can be interpreted as host-pathogen interaction, in which the host tries to choose environmental switching so as to minimise growth of the pathogen, and in which the pathogen employs a phenotypic switching optimised to increase its growth rate. We discuss the existence of Nash-like mutual best-response scenarios for such host-pathogen games.

  7. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jiao; Ye Qing; Qu Rong-Hui; Cai Hai-wen

    2016-01-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. (paper)

  8. Method and allocation device for allocating pending requests for data packet transmission at a number of inputs to a number of outputs of a packet switching device in successive time slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Francois [Rueschlikon, CH; Iliadis, Ilias [Rueschlikon, CH; Minkenberg, Cyriel J. A. [Adliswil, CH

    2009-02-03

    A method for allocating pending requests for data packet transmission at a number of inputs to a number of outputs of a switching system in successive time slots, including a matching method including the steps of providing a first request information in a first time slot indicating data packets at the inputs requesting transmission to the outputs of the switching system, performing a first step in the first time slot depending on the first request information to obtain a first matching information, providing a last request information in a last time slot successive to the first time slot, performing a last step in the last time slot depending on the last request information and depending on the first matching information to obtain a final matching information, and assigning the pending data packets at the number of inputs to the number of outputs based on the final matching information.

  9. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  10. Linear population allocation by bistable switches in response to transient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Yao, Guang; Neu, John; Tanouchi, Yu; Lee, Tae Jun; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular decision processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and phenotypic switching, are controlled by bistable signaling networks. In response to transient or intermediate input signals, these networks allocate a population fraction to each of two distinct states (e.g. OFF and ON). While extensive studies have been carried out to analyze various bistable networks, they are primarily focused on responses of bistable networks to sustained input signals. In this work, we investigate the response characteristics of bistable networks to transient signals, using both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. We find that bistable systems exhibit a common property: for input signals with short durations, the fraction of switching cells increases linearly with the signal duration, allowing the population to integrate transient signals to tune its response. We propose that this allocation algorithm can be an optimal response strategy for certain cellular decisions in which excessive switching results in lower population fitness.

  11. Application of queuing theory to patient satisfaction at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that doctors should come to work on time (25, 11.9%), that first‑come‑first served be observed strictly (32, 15.2%) and others suggested that the records staff should desist from collecting bribes from patients in order to place their cards before others. The queuing method employed at the clinic is the multiple single channel ...

  12. Optical switches based on surface plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Cong; Wang Pei; Yuan Guanghui; Wang Xiaolei; Min Changjun; Deng Yan; Lu Yonghua; Ming Hai

    2008-01-01

    Great attention is being paid to surface plasmons (SPs) because of their potential applications in sensors, data storage and bio-photonics. Recently, more and more optical switches based on surface plasmon effects have been demonstrated either by simulation or experimentally. This article describes the principles, advantages and disadvantages of various types of optical switches based on SPs, in particular the all-optical switches. (authors)

  13. A 10-bit 80-MS/s opamp-sharing pipelined ADC with a switch-embedded dual-input MDAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Rui; Zhang Wei; Tang Zhangwen [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Liao Youchun, E-mail: zwtang@fudan.edu.cn [Ratio Microelectronics Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A 10-bit 80-MS/s opamp-sharing pipelined ADC is implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m CMOS. An opamp-sharing MDAC with a switch-embedded dual-input opamp is proposed to eliminate the non-resetting and successive-stage crosstalk problems observed in the conventional opamp-sharing technique. The ADC achieves a peak SNDR of 60.1 dB (ENOB = 9.69 bits) and a peak SFDR of 76 dB, while maintaining more than 9.6 ENOB for the full Nyquist input bandwidth. The core area of the ADC is 1.1 mm{sup 2} and the chip consumes 28 mW with a 1.8 V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. On-Off Switches for Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Zhong Wang; Richard A.Dixon

    2012-01-01

    Secondary cell walls provide plants with rigidity and strength to support their body weight and ensure water and nutrient transport.They also provide textiles,timber,and potentially second-generation biofuels for human use.Genes responsible for synthesis of the different cell wall components,namely cellulose,hemicelluloses,and lignin,are coordinately expressed and under transcriptional regulation.In the past several years,cell wall-related NAC and MYB transcription factors have been intensively investigated in different species and shown to be master switches of secondary cell wall biosynthesis.Positive and negative regulators,which function upstream of NAC master switches,have also been identified in different plant tissues.Further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of cell wall synthesis will facilitate the engineering of plant feedstocks suitable for biofuel production.

  15. Optimal Allocation of Changing Station for Electric Vehicle Based on Queuing Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle as the main development direction of the future automotive industry, has gained attention worldwide. The rationality of the planning and construction of the power station, as the foundation of energy supply, is an important premise for the development of electric vehicles. In full consideration of the electric demand and electricity consumption, this paper proposes a new construction mode in which charging station and centralized charging station are appropriately combined and presents a location optimization model. Not only can this model be applied to determine the appropriate location for the power station, but it can use the queuing theory to determine the optimal number of power equipment, with which we can achieve the minimum costs. Finally, taking a certain city as an example, the optimum plan for power station is calculated by using this model, which provides an important reference for the study of electric vehicle infrastructure planning.

  16. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Performance Analysis of Quality-of-Service Controls in a Cell-Cluster-Based Wireless ATM Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Jong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient cell-cluster-based call control scheme with guaranteed quality-of-service(QoS) provision ing is presented for next generation wireless ATM networks and its performance is mathematically analyzed using the open queuing network. With the cell-cluster-based call control, at the time a mobile connection is admitted to the network, a virtual cell is constructed by choosing a group of neighboring base stations to which the call may probabilistic ally hand over and by assigning to the call a collection of virtual paths between the base stations. Within a micro cell/pico cell environment, it is seen that the cell-cluster-based call control can support effectively a very high rate of handovers, provides very high system capacity, and guarantees a high degree of frequency reuse over the same geographical region without requiring the intervention of the network call control processor each time a handover occurs. But since mobiles, once admitted, are free to roam within the virtual cell, congestion condition occurs in which the number of calls to be handled by one base station exceeds the cell sites` capacity of radio channel and consequently a predefined QoS provision cannot be guaranteed. So, there must be a call admission control function to limit the number of calls existing in a cell-cluster such that required QoS objectives are met. As call acceptance criteria for constant-bit-rate or realtime variable-bit-rate ATM connections, we define four mobile QoS metrics: new-call blocking probability, wireless channel utilization efficiency, congestion probability and normalized average congestion duration. In addition, for QoS provision ing to available-bit-rate, unspecified-bit-rate or non-realtime variable-bit-rate connections, we further define another QoS metric, the minimum threshold breaking probability. By using the open network queuing model, we derive closed form expressions for the five QoS metrics defined above and show that they can be

  19. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Jiao, Zhang; Qing, Ye; Rong-Hui, Qu; Hai-wen, Cai

    2016-03-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61137004, 61405218, and 61535014).

  20. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  1. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  2. Interallelic class switch recombination contributes significantly to class switching in mouse B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Stéphane; Delpy, Laurent; Fleury, Laurence; Dougier, Hei-Lanne; Sirac, Christophe; Cogné, Michel

    2005-05-15

    Except for the expression of IgM and IgD, DNA recombination is constantly needed for the expression of other Ig classes and subclasses. The predominant path of class switch recombination (CSR) is intrachromosomal, and the looping-out and deletion model has been abundantly documented. However, switch regions also occasionally constitute convenient substrates for interchromosomal recombination, since it is noticeably the case in a number of chromosomal translocations causing oncogene deregulation in the course of lymphoma and myeloma. Although asymmetric accessibility of Ig alleles should theoretically limit its occurrence, interallelic CSR was shown to occur at low levels during IgA switching in rabbit, where the definition of allotypes within both V and C regions helped identify interchromosomally derived Ig. Thus, we wished to evaluate precisely interallelic CSR frequency in mouse B cells, by using a system in which only one allele (of b allotype) could express a functional VDJ region, whereas only interallelic CSR could restore expression of an excluded (a allotype) allele. In our study, we show that interchromosomal recombination of V(H) and Cgamma or Calpha occurs in vivo in B cells at a frequency that makes a significant contribution to physiological class switching: trans-association of V(H) and C(H) genes accounted for 7% of all alpha mRNA, and this frequency was about twice higher for the gamma3 transcripts, despite the much shorter distance between the J(H) region and the Cgamma3 gene, thus confirming that this phenomenon corresponded to site-specific switching and not to random recombination between long homologous loci.

  3. Optimal switching using coherent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy....

  4. Improvement of input power dynamic range for 20 Gbit/s optical WDM switch nodes using an integrated Michelson wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    be improved compared to switch blocks without IWCs. This is especially important at high bit rates where the cascadability of the SOA gates decreases. Here, more than 15 dB improvement of the input power dynamic range is achieved at 20 Gbit/s using a high-speed Michelson interferometer wavelength converter...

  5. Growth and self-assembly of BaTiO3 nanocubes for resistive switching memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Dewei; Lin, Xi; Younis, Adnan; Li, Chang Ming; Dang, Feng; Li, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the self-assembled BaTiO 3 nanocubes based resistive switching memory capacitors are fabricated with hydrothermal and drop-coating approaches. The device exhibits excellent bipolar resistance switching characteristics with ON/OFF ratio of 58–70, better reliability and stability over various polycrystalline BaTiO 3 nanostructures. It is believed that the inter cube junctions is responsible for such a switching behaviour and it can be described by the filament model. The effect of film thickness on switching ratio (ON/OFF) was also investigated in details. - Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel resistive switching memory cell based on self-assembled BaTiO 3 nanocubes. - Highlights: • BaTiO 3 nanocubes were prepared by one step facile hydrothermal method. • Self-assembled BaTiO 3 nanocubes thin films were obtained by drop-coating approach. • The BaTiO 3 nanocubes show excellent resistive switching properties for memory applications

  6. Queued Service Observing (QSO) at CFHT II. Queue Preparation and Observation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Savalle, R.; Martin, P.; Shapiro, J.

    In order to maximize the scientific productivity of the CFH12K mosaic wide-field imager, a Queued Service Observing (QSO) mode of operations was implemented at CFHT . To support this new operational model, a two-tiered system consisting of a Swing-based Java client and a relational database was developed. The various software components were designed to handle selection, scheduling, execution, and validation of programs submitted by the investigators through the CFHT Phase 2 Tool (PH2). This paper will discuss the technical architecture, the reasons behind our choice of technology, and our experience implementing this system during the first two semesters of Queue observing.

  7. Application of queuing theory to a fast food outfit: a study of blue meadows restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigha Gumus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the queuing system in Blue Meadows restaurant with a view to determining its operating characteristics and to improve customers’ satisfaction during waiting time using the lens of queuing theory. Data was obtained from a fast food restaurant in the University of Benin. The data collected was tested to show if it follows a Poisson and exponential distribution of arrival and service rate using chi square goodness of fit. A 95% confidence interval level was used to show the range of customers that come into the system at an hour time frame and the range of customers served at an hour time frame. Using the M/M/s model, the arrival rate, service rate, utilization rate, waiting time in the queue and the probability of customers likely balking from the restaurant was derived. The arrival rate (λ at Blue Meadows restaurant was about 40 customers per hour, while the service rate was about 22 customers per hour per server. The number of servers present in the system was two. The average number of customers in the system in an hour window was 40 customers with a utilization rate of 0.909. The paper concludes with a discussion on the benefits of performing queuing analysis to a restaurant.

  8. Posterior Inferotemporal Cortex Cells Use Multiple Input Pathways for Shape Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Carlos R; Lomber, Stephen G; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2017-05-10

    In the macaque monkey brain, posterior inferior temporal (PIT) cortex cells contribute to visual object recognition. They receive concurrent inputs from visual areas V4, V3, and V2. We asked how these different anatomical pathways shape PIT response properties by deactivating them while monitoring PIT activity in two male macaques. We found that cooling of V4 or V2|3 did not lead to consistent changes in population excitatory drive; however, population pattern analyses showed that V4-based pathways were more important than V2|3-based pathways. We did not find any image features that predicted decoding accuracy differences between both interventions. Using the HMAX hierarchical model of visual recognition, we found that different groups of simulated "PIT" units with different input histories (lacking "V2|3" or "V4" input) allowed for comparable levels of object-decoding performance and that removing a large fraction of "PIT" activity resulted in similar drops in performance as in the cooling experiments. We conclude that distinct input pathways to PIT relay similar types of shape information, with V1-dependent V4 cells providing more quantitatively useful information for overall encoding than cells in V2 projecting directly to PIT. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Convolutional neural networks are the best models of the visual system, but most emphasize input transformations across a serial hierarchy akin to the primary "ventral stream" (V1 → V2 → V4 → IT). However, the ventral stream also comprises parallel "bypass" pathways: V1 also connects to V4, and V2 to IT. To explore the advantages of mixing long and short pathways in the macaque brain, we used cortical cooling to silence inputs to posterior IT and compared the findings with an HMAX model with parallel pathways. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375019-16$15.00/0.

  9. Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wang; Luo, Jun; Di Lucente, Stefano; Dorren, Harm; Calabretta, Nicola

    2014-02-10

    We propose and demonstrate an optical flat datacenter network based on scalable optical switch system with optical flow control. Modular structure with distributed control results in port-count independent optical switch reconfiguration time. RF tone in-band labeling technique allowing parallel processing of the label bits ensures the low latency operation regardless of the switch port-count. Hardware flow control is conducted at optical level by re-using the label wavelength without occupying extra bandwidth, space, and network resources which further improves the performance of latency within a simple structure. Dynamic switching including multicasting operation is validated for a 4 x 4 system. Error free operation of 40 Gb/s data packets has been achieved with only 1 dB penalty. The system could handle an input load up to 0.5 providing a packet loss lower that 10(-5) and an average latency less that 500 ns when a buffer size of 16 packets is employed. Investigation on scalability also indicates that the proposed system could potentially scale up to large port count with limited power penalty.

  10. A Three-Phase Dual-Input Matrix Converter for Grid Integration of Two AC Type Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Chiang Loh, Poh

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel dual-input matrix converter (DIMC) to integrate two three-phase ac type energy resources to a power grid. The proposed matrix converter is developed based on the traditional indirect matrix converter under reverse power flow operation mode, but with its six......-to-output voltage boost capability since power flows from the converter’s voltage source side to its current source side. Commanded currents can be extracted from the two input sources to the grid. The proposed control and modulation schemes guarantee sinusoidal input and output waveforms as well as unity input......-switch voltage source converter replaced by a nine-switch configuration. With the additional three switches, the proposed DIMC can provide six in put terminals, which make it possible to integrate two independent ac sources into a single grid-tied power electronics interface. The proposed converter has input...

  11. Resistive switching in ZrO2 based metal-oxide-metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaenen, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is a deeper understanding of the influence of the (i) metal-oxide-metal (MOM) layer stacks configuration, (ii) the oxide films microstructure, (iii) and their defect structure on the appearance of different switching modes, i.e. unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP). The first part deals with the fabrication of ZrO 2 thin films by an industrial compatible atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the chemical, structural and morphological characterization of the films, the growth of ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers, the integration of the layers into metal-oxide-metal (MOM) devices and the electrical characterization with focus on the RS behavior. In the second part the effect of the device structure, in particular the thickness of the electrochemical active electrode (EAE) and the ZrO 2 film morphology, on the RS switching polarity of Pt/ZrO 2 /(EAE) cells is discussed. ZrO 2 films and ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers were grown by ALD and were carefully structurally and electrically characterized. The ZrO 2 films grown from Zr[N(CH 3 )C 2 H 5 ] 4 (TEMA-Zr) at 240 C were polycrystalline with a mixture of cubic/tetragonal phases. ALD/H 2 O-ZrO 2 films exhibited a random oriented polycrystalline structure, whereas the ALD/O 3 -ZrO 2 films consisted of preferably oriented cubic shaped grains. Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt structures with a Ti top electrode (TE) thickness of 5 to 20 nm showed unipolar type RS behavior, while by increasing the Ti TE thickness a gradual change of switching polarity from unipolar to bipolar with a completely bipolar type RS behavior for a Ti TE thickness of 40 nm is found. The switching in Pt/ZrO 2 /TiO 2 /Ti/Pt devices was unipolar, comparable to Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt cells. In contrast, bilayers with the reverse structure, Pt/TiO 2 /ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt, showed non-switching behavior. The effect of the cells stack structure on the polarity of the RS behavior was studied in detail for 20 nm thick ZrO 2 films grown by an ozone based ALD process and integrated into Pt/ZrO 2

  12. Performance Evaluation of 100 Gigabit Ethernet Switches under Bursty Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, A.; Manolova, Anna Vasileva

    2011-01-01

    Switch fabrics for 100 Gigabit Ethernet systems pose high demands in terms of delay and scalability. In this paper we analyze the performance of a Clos-based switch fabric under uniform and bursty traffic, and compare its performance to a crossbar-based switch design for benchmarking. In particular......, we focus on a Clos-design using a Space-Memory-Memory (SMM) configuration, which has recently gained increased interest due to its reduced hardware complexity. The traffic between the input and the central modules is distributed in either a static, random or Desynchronized Static Round Robin (DSRR...... switch only reveals a minor performance penalty, which can be compensated by the high scalability, robustness and low complexity of the Clos-based design for high speed switching systems....

  13. Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of Stem Cell Plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dorantes-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemias are the most common cancer in childhood and characterized by the uncontrolled production of hematopoietic precursor cells of the lymphoid or myeloid series within the bone marrow. Even when a relatively high efficiency of therapeutic agents has increased the overall survival rates in the last years, factors such as cell lineage switching and the rise of mixed lineages at relapses often change the prognosis of the illness. During lineage switching, conversions from lymphoblastic leukemia to myeloid leukemia, or vice versa, are recorded. The central mechanisms involved in these phenomena remain undefined, but recent studies suggest that lineage commitment of plastic hematopoietic progenitors may be multidirectional and reversible upon specific signals provided by both intrinsic and environmental cues. In this paper, we focus on the current knowledge about cell heterogeneity and the lineage switch resulting from leukemic cells plasticity. A number of hypothetical mechanisms that may inspire changes in cell fate decisions are highlighted. Understanding the plasticity of leukemia initiating cells might be fundamental to unravel the pathogenesis of lineage switch in acute leukemias and will illuminate the importance of a flexible hematopoietic development.

  14. Soliton-based ultrafast multi-wavelength nonlinear switching in dual-core photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajanca, P; Pysz, D; Michalka, M; Bugar, I; Andriukaitis, G; Balciunas, T; Fan, G; Baltuska, A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic experimental study of ultrafast multi-wavelength all-optical switching performance in a dual-core photonic crystal fibre is presented. The focus is on nonlinearly induced switching between the two output ports at non-excitation wavelengths, which are generated during nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of a dual-core photonic crystal fibre made of multicomponent glass. Spatial and spectral characteristics of the fibre output radiation were measured separately for both fibre cores under various polarization and intensity conditions upon selective, individual excitation of each fibre core. Polarization-controlled nonlinear switching performance at multiple non-excitation wavelengths was demonstrated in the long-wavelength optical communication bands and beyond. Depending on the input pulse polarization, narrowband switching operation at 1560 nm and 1730 nm takes place with double core extinction ratio contrasts of 9 dB and 14.5 dB, respectively. Moreover, our approach allows switching with simultaneous wavelength shift from 1650 to 1775 nm with extinction ratio contrast larger than 18 dB. In addition, non-reciprocal behaviour of the soliton fission process under different fibre core excitations was observed and its effect on the multi-wavelength nonlinear switching performance was explained, taking into account the slight dual-core structure asymmetry. The obtained results represent ultrafast all-optical switching with an extended dimension of wavelength shift, controllable with both the input radiation intensity and the polarization by simple propagation along a 14 mm long fibre. (paper)

  15. A New Time Calibration Method for Switched-capacitor-array-based Waveform Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Chen, C-T; Eclov, N; Ronzhin, A; Murat, P; Ramberg, E; Los, S; Moses, W; Choong, W-S; Kao, C-M

    2014-12-11

    We have developed a new time calibration method for the DRS4 waveform sampler that enables us to precisely measure the non-uniform sampling interval inherent in the switched-capacitor cells of the DRS4. The method uses the proportionality between the differential amplitude and sampling interval of adjacent switched-capacitor cells responding to a sawtooth-shape pulse. In the experiment, a sawtooth-shape pulse with a 40 ns period generated by a Tektronix AWG7102 is fed to a DRS4 evaluation board for calibrating the sampling intervals of all 1024 cells individually. The electronic time resolution of the DRS4 evaluation board with the new time calibration is measured to be ~2.4 ps RMS by using two simultaneous Gaussian pulses with 2.35 ns full-width at half-maximum and applying a Gaussian fit. The time resolution dependencies on the time difference with the new time calibration are measured and compared to results obtained by another method. The new method could be applicable for other switched-capacitor-array technology-based waveform samplers for precise time calibration.

  16. RENEWAL PROCESS IN QUEUING PROBLEM AND REPLACEMENT OF MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Abbas Laz*, Mohamed Gomma Elnour

    2016-01-01

    The paper is studying the renewal process. There are many fields in which it’s used for example: the renewable energy (solar energy, wind energy), maintenance and replacement decision models, queuing system and other field in electronics. In this study our objective is to find the probability density function related to a renewal at a given time. Also to drive the renewal equation, how to find the current lifetime and residual life time. We obtain that as expected value of a renewal process w...

  17. Gas tube-switched high voltage DC power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xu; Bray, James William; Sommerer, Timothy John; Chokhawala, Rahul

    2018-05-15

    A direct current (DC)-DC converter includes a transformer and a gas tube-switched inverter circuit. The transformer includes a primary winding and a secondary winding. The gas tube-switched inverter circuit includes first and second inverter load terminals and first and second inverter input terminals. The first and second inverter load terminals are coupled to the primary winding. The first and second inverter input terminals are couplable to a DC node. The gas tube-switched inverter circuit further includes a plurality of gas tube switches respectively coupled between the first and second inverter load terminals and the first and second inverter input terminals. The plurality of gas tube switches is configured to operate to generate an alternating current (AC) voltage at the primary winding.

  18. An enhanced model for minimizing fuel consumption under block-queuing in a drive-through service system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C.H.; Berglin, J. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

    2004-05-01

    We present a new model for determining the optimal block-size under block-queuing in a simple, single-channel queue at a drive-through service facility. With block-queuing, a queue is partitioned into an active section and a passive section, where drivers are asked to turn off their engines until the active section clears. Our model prescribes a block-size, i.e., a maximum number of vehicles in the active section, which minimizes the expected amount of fuel consumed in the queue. It can assess the effects of the traffic intensity, the service-time variance, and the proportion of compliant drivers in the passive section on the optimal block- size and on fuel consumption in the queue. (author)

  19. Distinguishing Representations as Origin and Representations as Input: Roles for Individual Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C.W. Edwards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely perceived that there is a problem in giving a naturalistic account of mental representation that deals adequately with meaning, interpretation or significance (semantic content. It is suggested here that this problem may arise partly from the conflation of two vernacular senses of representation: representation-as-origin and representation-as-input. The flash of a neon sign may in one sense represent a popular drink, but to function as representation it must provide an input to a ‘consumer’ in the street. The arguments presented draw on two principles – the neuron doctrine and the need for a venue for ‘presentation’ or ‘reception’ of a representation at a specified site, consistent with the locality principle. It is also argued that domains of representation cannot be defined by signal traffic, since they can be expected to include ‘null’ elements based on non-firing cells. In this analysis, mental representations-as-origin are distributed patterns of cell firing. Each firing cell is given semantic value in its own right - some form of atomic propositional significance – since different axonal branches may contribute to integration with different populations of signals at different downstream sites. Representations-as-input are patterns of local co-arrival of signals in the form of synaptic potentials in dendrites. Meaning then draws on the relationships between active and null inputs, forming ‘scenarios’ comprising a molecular combination of ‘premises’ from which a new output with atomic propositional significance is generated. In both types of representation, meaning, interpretation or significance pivots on events in an individual cell. (This analysis only applies to ‘occurrent’ representations based on current neural activity. The concept of representations-as-input emphasises the need for a ‘consumer’ of a representation and the dependence of meaning on the co-relationships involved in an

  20. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  1. Modeling Relief Demands in an Emergency Supply Chain System under Large-Scale Disasters Based on a Queuing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367

  2. Modeling Relief Demands in an Emergency Supply Chain System under Large-Scale Disasters Based on a Queuing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.

  3. Modeling relief demands in an emergency supply chain system under large-scale disasters based on a queuing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinhua; Hu, Wenfa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.

  4. SWITCH: a dynamic CRISPR tool for genome engineering and metabolic pathway control for cell factory construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Katherina García; Lehka, Beata Joanna; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-02-08

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly used as a cell factory. However, cell factory construction time is a major obstacle towards using yeast for bio-production. Hence, tools to speed up cell factory construction are desirable. In this study, we have developed a new Cas9/dCas9 based system, SWITCH, which allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to iteratively alternate between a genetic engineering state and a pathway control state. Since Cas9 induced recombination events are crucial for SWITCH efficiency, we first developed a technique TAPE, which we have successfully used to address protospacer efficiency. As proof of concept of the use of SWITCH in cell factory construction, we have exploited the genetic engineering state of a SWITCH strain to insert the five genes necessary for naringenin production. Next, the naringenin cell factory was switched to the pathway control state where production was optimized by downregulating an essential gene TSC13, hence, reducing formation of a byproduct. We have successfully integrated two CRISPR tools, one for genetic engineering and one for pathway control, into one system and successfully used it for cell factory construction.

  5. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-11-26

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed switching property is achieved with the use of a rapidly tunable microwave photonic filter with tens of gigahertz frequency tuning speed, where the tuning mechanism is based on the ultra-fast electro-optics Pockels effect. The RF switch has a wide operation bandwidth of 12 GHz and can go up to 40 GHz, depending on the bandwidth of the modulator used in the scheme. The proposed RF switch can either work as an ON/OFF switch or a two-channel switch, tens of picoseconds switching speed is experimentally observed for both type of switches.

  6. Resistive Switching of Ta2O5-Based Self-Rectifying Vertical-Type Resistive Switching Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sungyeon; Kim, Seong Keun; Choi, Byung Joon

    2018-01-01

    To efficiently increase the capacity of resistive switching random-access memory (RRAM) while maintaining the same area, a vertical structure similar to a vertical NAND flash structure is needed. In addition, the sneak-path current through the half-selected neighboring memory cell should be mitigated by integrating a selector device with each RRAM cell. In this study, an integrated vertical-type RRAM cell and selector device was fabricated and characterized. Ta2O5 as the switching layer and TaOxNy as the selector layer were used to preliminarily study the feasibility of such an integrated device. To make the side contact of the bottom electrode with active layers, a thick Al2O3 insulating layer was placed between the Pt bottom electrode and the Ta2O5/TaOxNy stacks. Resistive switching phenomena were observed under relatively low currents (below 10 μA) in this vertical-type RRAM device. The TaOxNy layer acted as a nonlinear resistor with moderate nonlinearity. Its low-resistance-state and high-resistance-state were well retained up to 1000 s.

  7. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng

    2014-08-01

    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  8. High Isolation Single-Pole Four-Throw RF MEMS Switch Based on Series-Shunt Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel design of single-pole four-throw (SP4T RF-MEMS switch employing both capacitive and ohmic switches. It is designed on high-resistivity silicon substrate and has a compact area of 1.06 mm2. The series or ohmic switches have been designed to provide low insertion loss with good ohmic contact. The pull-in voltage for ohmic switches is calculated to be 7.19 V. Shunt or capacitive switches have been used in each port to improve the isolation for higher frequencies. The proposed SP4T switch provides excellent RF performances with isolation better than 70.64 dB and insertion loss less than 0.72 dB for X-band between the input port and each output port.

  9. Modulation method for a multiple drive system based on a two-stage direct power conversion topology with reduced input current ripple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    operation. This is a cost effective topology compared to a standard matrix converter because the multiple three-phase loads share the cost of the controlled rectification stage. A new method to reduce the high frequency ripple from the input current is also proposed based on interleaving the switching...

  10. 23 CFR 661.43 - Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of... project that has been approved for funding and placed on the queue and then be reimbursed when IRRBP funds... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued...

  11. File list: InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control All cell types SRX...7314,ERX807291 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. High-power semiconductor RSD-based switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezuglov, V G; Galakhov, I V; Grusin, I A [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); and others

    1997-12-31

    The operating principle and test results of a high-power semiconductor RSD-based switch with the following operating parameters is described: operating voltage 25 kV, peak operating current 200 kA, maximum transferred charge 70 C. The switch is intended for use by high-power capacitor banks of state-of-the-art research facilities. The switch was evaluated for applicability in commercial pulsed systems. The possibility of increasing the peak operating current to 500 kA is demonstrated. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  17. Design of an Ultra-wideband Pseudo Random Coded MIMO Radar Based on Radio Frequency Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO ultra-wideband radar can detect the range and azimuth information of targets in real time. It is widely used for geological surveys, life rescue, through-wall tracking, and other military or civil fields. This paper presents the design of an ultra-wideband pseudo random coded MIMO radar that is based on Radio Frequency (RF switches and implements a MIMO radar system. RF switches are employed to reduce cost and complexity of the system. As the switch pressure value is limited, the peak power of the transmitting signal is 18 dBm. The ultra-wideband radar echo is obtained by hybrid sampling, and pulse compression is computed by Digital Signal Processors (DSPs embedded in an Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to simplify the signal process. The experiment illustrates that the radar system can detect the range and azimuth information of targets in real time.

  18. An Integrated Model of Patient and Staff Satisfaction Using Queuing Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komashie, Alexander; Mousavi, Ali; Clarkson, P John; Young, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the connection between patient satisfaction, waiting time, staff satisfaction, and service time. It uses a variety of models to enable improvement against experiential and operational health service goals. Patient satisfaction levels are estimated using a model based on waiting (waiting times). Staff satisfaction levels are estimated using a model based on the time spent with patients (service time). An integrated model of patient and staff satisfaction, the effective satisfaction level model, is then proposed (using queuing theory). This links patient satisfaction, waiting time, staff satisfaction, and service time, connecting two important concepts, namely, experience and efficiency in care delivery and leading to a more holistic approach in designing and managing health services. The proposed model will enable healthcare systems analysts to objectively and directly relate elements of service quality to capacity planning. Moreover, as an instrument used jointly by healthcare commissioners and providers, it affords the prospect of better resource allocation.

  19. File list: InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.ALL.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.20.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control All cell types...2392,ERX433647,ERX433677,ERX433717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.ALL.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. Obligatory participation of macrophages in an angiopoietin 2-mediated cell death switch

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sujata; Lobov, Ivan B.; Vallance, Jefferson E.; Tsujikawa, Kaoru; Shiojima, Ichiro; Akunuru, Shailaja; Walsh, Kenneth; Benjamin, Laura E.; Lang, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Macrophages have a critical function in the recognition and engulfment of dead cells. In some settings, macrophages also actively signal programmed cell death. Here we show that during developmentally scheduled vascular regression, resident macrophages are an obligatory participant in a signaling switch that favors death over survival. This switch occurs when the signaling ligand angiopoietin 2 has the dual effect of suppressing survival signaling in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and stim...

  3. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  4. File list: InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell ce10 Input control Input control All cell types SR...6,SRX188620,SRX005633,SRX560679,SRX015099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  5. Design of two and three input molecular logic gates using non-Watson-Crick base pairing-based molecular beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-03-21

    This study presents a single, resettable, and sensitive molecular beacon (MB) used to operate molecular-scale logic gates. The MB consists of a random DNA sequence, a fluorophore at the 5'-end, and a quencher at the 3'-end. The presence of Hg(2+), Ag(+), and coralyne promoted the formation of stable T-Hg(2+)-T, C-Ag(+)-C, and A2-coralyne-A2 coordination in the MB probe, respectively, thereby driving its conformational change. The metal ion or small molecule-mediated coordination of mismatched DNA brought the fluorophore and the quencher into close proximity, resulting in collisional quenching of fluorescence between the two organic dyes. Because thiol can bind Hg(2+) and remove it from the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB, adding thiol to a solution of the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB allowed the fluorophore and the quencher to be widely separated. A similar phenomenon was observed when replacing Hg(2+) with Ag(+). Because Ag(+) strongly binds to iodide, cyanide, and cysteine, they were capable of removing Ag(+) from the C-Ag(+)-C-based MB, restoring the fluorescence of the MB. Moreover, the fluorescence of the A2-coralyne-A2-based MB could be switched on by adding polyadenosine. Using these analytes as inputs and the MB as a signal transducer, we successfully developed a series of two-input, three-input, and set-reset logic gates at the molecular level.

  6. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoghyun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+ and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site. Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion.

  8. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  9. Observer-Based Robust Control of Uncertain Switched Fuzzy Systems with Combined Switching Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The observer-based robust control for a class of switched fuzzy (SF time-delay systems involving uncertainties and external disturbances is investigated in this paper. A switched fuzzy system, which differs from existing ones, is firstly employed to describe a nonlinear system. Next, a combined switching controller is proposed. The designed controller based on the observer instead of the state information integrates the advantages of both the switching controllers and the supplementary controllers but eliminates their disadvantages. The proposed controller provides good performance during the transient period, and the chattering effect is removed when the system state approaches the origin. Sufficient condition for the solvability of the robust control problem is given for the case that the state of system is not available. Since convex combination techniques are used to derive the delay-independent criteria, some subsystems are allowed to be unstable. Finally, various comparisons of the elaborated examples are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design approach.

  10. File list: InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Adp.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.Epd.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.PSC.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Epd.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Resistive switching in ZrO{sub 2} based metal-oxide-metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaenen, Irina

    2014-07-01

    detail for 20 nm thick ZrO{sub 2} films grown by an ozone based ALD process and integrated into Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt cells while the thickness of the electrochemically active electrode (Ti) was varied from 0 nm to 40 nm. Cells with a thin EAE (<20 nm Ti) exhibited a UP-type RS behavior, while cells with thick EAE (>20 nm Ti) showed BP switching characteristics at a lower current compliance as the UP switching cells. A detailed structural analysis of the ozone grown ZrO{sub 2} films revealed a polycrystalline structure of columnar shaped grains with a meta-stable cubic-tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase. In the second part of the thesis an empirical model for the polarity dependence of the RS in the ALD ZrO{sub 2} based devices as a function of the EAE thickness was suggested. The model assumed a columnar shaped microstructure and certain impurity content for the ZrO{sub 2} films. In addition, the results of current-voltage behavior, temperature dependency of the resistance states and impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements of different devices in different RS states were considered. Impedance spectroscopy measurements of UP and BP type switching devices with the same ZrO{sub 2} films but with different EAE thicknesses were carried out for the states prior to electroforming (pristine), after RS into the ON-state and after RS into the OFF-state. The different devices in their pristine states exhibited nearly identical IS characteristics while the ON and OFF states of the UP and BP devices revealed pronounced differences. In the model, the UP switching in ZrO{sub 2} based devices with thin EAE was described as a result of a noncomplete local reduction of the grain boundary cores, which might gave rise to a hard thermal breakdown and the formation of metallic like conduction paths. On the contrary, the suggested idea for BP switching of ZrO{sub 2} based devices with thick EAE based on the formation of local semiconducting oxygen depleted ZrO{sub 2-x} filament-like regions along

  17. File list: InP.Emb.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: InP.Adp.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: InP.Neu.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: InP.PSC.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: InP.PSC.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: InP.Bon.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: InP.YSt.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: InP.Myo.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Bon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: InP.PSC.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: InP.Myo.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: InP.Myo.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: InP.Myo.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. A Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Algorithm for a Maritime Cognitive Radio Communication System Based on a Queuing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of maritime digital communication, the demand for spectrum resources is increasing, and building a maritime cognitive radio communication system is an effective solution. In this paper, the problem of how to effectively allocate the spectrum for secondary users (SUs with different priorities in a maritime cognitive radio communication system is studied. According to the characteristics of a maritime cognitive radio and existing research about cognitive radio systems, this paper establishes a centralized maritime cognitive radio communication model and creates a simplified queuing model with two queues for the communication model. In the view of the behaviors of SUs and primary users (PUs, we propose a dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA algorithm based on the system status, and analyze it with a two-dimensional Markov chain. Simulation results show that, when different types of SUs have similar arrival rates, the algorithm can vary the priority factor according to the change of users’ status in the system, so as to adjust the channel allocation, decreasing system congestion. The improvement of the algorithm is about 7–26%, and the specific improvement is negatively correlated with the SU arrival rate.

  15. File list: InP.Bld.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: InP.Myo.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: InP.Utr.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: InP.Bld.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: InP.YSt.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: InP.YSt.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: InP.Bld.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: InP.Emb.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: InP.Gon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. A genetic bistable switch utilizing nonlinear protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daniel; Holtz, William J; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2012-07-09

    Bistability is a fundamental property in engineered and natural systems, conferring the ability to switch and retain states. Synthetic bistable switches in prokaryotes have mainly utilized transcriptional components in their construction. Using both transcriptional and enzymatic components, creating a hybrid system, allows for wider bistable parameter ranges in a circuit. In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable family of hybrid bistable switches in E. coli using both transcriptional components and an enzymatic component. The design contains two linked positive feedback loops. The first loop utilizes the lambda repressor, CI, and the second positive feedback loop incorporates the Lon protease found in Mesoplasma florum (mf-Lon). We experimentally tested for bistable behavior in exponential growth phase, and found that our hybrid bistable switch was able to retain its state in the absence of an input signal throughout 40 cycles of cell division. We also tested the transient behavior of our switch and found that switching speeds can be tuned by changing the expression rate of mf-Lon. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates the first use of dynamic expression of an orthogonal and heterologous protease to tune a nonlinear protein degradation circuit. The hybrid switch is potentially a more robust and tunable topology for use in prokaryotic systems.

  17. MODELING QUEUING SYSTEM OF INTERACTION BETWEEN TERMINAL DEVICES AND SERVICES PROVIDERS IN THE BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Mnatsakanyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the development of mathematical models and tools to optimize the system of queuing at the bank. The article discusses the mathematical aspects that will achieve redistribution of transaction flow, reduce the time of the request in the queue, increase the bank’s profit and gain competitive advantage.

  18. File list: InP.Unc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: InP.Neu.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell ce10 Input control Input control Unclassified SRX0...03829,SRX003827,SRX003828,SRX003826,SRX560679 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell ce10 Input control Input control Unclassified SRX0...03827,SRX003826,SRX560679,SRX003828,SRX003829 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Oth.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Others SRX668215,...RX371462,SRX376724,SRX512177,SRX512179 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Oth.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Adult SRX220301,SR...81442,SRX215625,SRX215627,SRX970862 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  19. A message-queuing framework for STAR's online monitoring and metadata collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Lauret, J; Betts, W

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience on migrating STARs Online Services (Run Control System, Data Acquisition System, Slow Control System and Subsystem Monitoring) from direct read/write database accesses to a modern non-blocking message-oriented infrastructure. Based on the Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and standards, this novel approach does not specify the message data structure, allowing great flexibility in its use. After careful consideration, we chose Google Protocol Buffers as our primary (de)serialization format for structured data exchange. This migration allows us to reduce the overall system complexity and greatly improve the reliability of the metadata collection and the performance of our online services in general. We will present this new framework through its software architecture overview, providing details about our staged and non-disruptive migration process as well as details of the implementation of pluggable components to provide future improvements without compromising stability and availability of services.

  20. APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE SERVER QUEUING SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN WOOD PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif GÜRAY

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, simulated of the single server queuing system(CNC at the door-joinery facilities. We simulated the system both by hand and computer programming with SIMAN languages. From the obtained results, we aimed to provide some suggestions to the manager. Because, the ending of the study, simulation showed the real system in some hypothesis. As a result of simulated system will have long queues in future time.

  1. File list: InP.Brs.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Breast SRX483143,S...ERX200438,SRX1078980,ERX200398,ERX200402,SRX396750 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Larvae SRX645428,S...287678,SRX1426944,SRX1426946,SRX1426948,SRX1426950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Pan.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.CDV.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Brs.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.CDV.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Pan.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Oth.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Pan.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Brs.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Breast SRX213411,S...,ERX200429,ERX200402,SRX396747,SRX396750,SRX403487 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016165,SR...X016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Brs.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.50.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Breast SRX483143,S...SRX403484,SRX1078982,SRX031066,SRX031214,SRX697687 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Oth.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Others SRX022481,S...1,SRX957691,SRX378545,SRX378544,SRX957693 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  16. Price and Service Discrimination in Queuing Systems: Incentive Compatibility of Gc\\mu Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jan A. Van Mieghem

    2000-01-01

    This article studies the optimal prices and service quality grades that a queuing system---the "firm"---provides to heterogeneous, utility-maximizing customers who measure quality by their experienced delay distributions. Results are threefold: First, delay cost curves are introduced that allow for a flexible description of a customer's quality sensitivity. Second, a comprehensive executable approach is proposed that analytically specifies scheduling, delay distributions and prices for arbitr...

  17. File list: InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...1772,SRX734236,SRX188957,SRX1004561,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX155777,SRX077858,SRX863785,SRX543682,SRX286206,SRX543691 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...X077858,SRX286206,SRX124697,SRX1183967,SRX124698,SRX543691 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...74812,SRX016558,SRX734236,SRX038682,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...88957,SRX093320,SRX038682,SRX502807,SRX497258,SRX497257 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...89952,SRX080360,SRX734236,SRX038683,SRX093320,SRX038682 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX124694,SRX543691,SRX543683,SRX367635,SRX286206,SRX543682 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  5. Photonics in Switching. Organization of the 1993 Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Palm Springs, California on March 15 - 17, 1993. Technical Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-17

    placed on the number of inputs and outputs. For the TeO2 material used in this design, the TB is approximately 1000. Due to the over-resolved...Design of the acoustooptic crossbar switch Figure 2 shows a numerical simulation of the momentum space of an 8 by 8 switch in TeO2 . This switch...results Figure 4 shows switching results from a preliminary demonstration of a three by three switch in a beam-steered flint glass cell. The scope trace

  6. Optimization of magnetic switches for single particle and cell transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300 Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Joint Institute, University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murdoch, David M. [Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kim, CheolGi [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-28

    The ability to manipulate an ensemble of single particles and cells is a key aim of lab-on-a-chip research; however, the control mechanisms must be optimized for minimal power consumption to enable future large-scale implementation. Recently, we demonstrated a matter transport platform, which uses overlaid patterns of magnetic films and metallic current lines to control magnetic particles and magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled cells; however, we have made no prior attempts to optimize the device geometry and power consumption. Here, we provide an optimization analysis of particle-switching devices based on stochastic variation in the particle's size and magnetic content. These results are immediately applicable to the design of robust, multiplexed platforms capable of transporting, sorting, and storing single cells in large arrays with low power and high efficiency.

  7. Switched 4-to-1 Transimpedance Combining Amplifier for Receiver Front-End Circuit of Static Unitary Detector-Based LADAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Gyu Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser detection and ranging (LADAR systems are commonly used to acquire real-time three-dimensional (3D images using the time-of-flight of a short laser pulse. A static unitary detector (STUD-based LADAR system is a simple method for obtaining real-time high-resolution 3D images. In this study, a switched 4-to-1 transimpedance combining amplifier (TCA is implemented as a receiver front-end readout integrated circuit for the STUD-based LADAR system. The 4-to-1 TCA is fabricated using a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology, and it consists of four independent current buffers, a two-stage signal combiner, a balun, and an output buffer in one single integrated chip. In addition, there is a switch on each input current path to expand the region of interest with multiple photodetectors. The core of the TCA occupies an area of 92 μm × 68 μm, and the die size including I/O pads is 1000 μm × 840 μm. The power consumption of the fabricated chip is 17.8 mW for a supplied voltage of 1.8 V and a transimpedance gain of 67.5 dBΩ. The simulated bandwidth is 353 MHz in the presence of a 1 pF photodiode parasitic capacitance for each photosensitive cell.

  8. File list: InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Gon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Spl.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Spl.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Pan.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Noise-constrained switching times for heteroclinic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabio Schittler; Voit, Maximilian; Timme, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Heteroclinic computing offers a novel paradigm for universal computation by collective system dynamics. In such a paradigm, input signals are encoded as complex periodic orbits approaching specific sequences of saddle states. Without inputs, the relevant states together with the heteroclinic connections between them form a network of states—the heteroclinic network. Systems of pulse-coupled oscillators or spiking neurons naturally exhibit such heteroclinic networks of saddles, thereby providing a substrate for general analog computations. Several challenges need to be resolved before it becomes possible to effectively realize heteroclinic computing in hardware. The time scales on which computations are performed crucially depend on the switching times between saddles, which in turn are jointly controlled by the system's intrinsic dynamics and the level of external and measurement noise. The nonlinear dynamics of pulse-coupled systems often strongly deviate from that of time-continuously coupled (e.g., phase-coupled) systems. The factors impacting switching times in pulse-coupled systems are still not well understood. Here we systematically investigate switching times in dependence of the levels of noise and intrinsic dissipation in the system. We specifically reveal how local responses to pulses coact with external noise. Our findings confirm that, like in time-continuous phase-coupled systems, piecewise-continuous pulse-coupled systems exhibit switching times that transiently increase exponentially with the number of switches up to some order of magnitude set by the noise level. Complementarily, we show that switching times may constitute a good predictor for the computation reliability, indicating how often an input signal must be reiterated. By characterizing switching times between two saddles in conjunction with the reliability of a computation, our results provide a first step beyond the coding of input signal identities toward a complementary coding for

  19. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2011-04-29

    This paper investigates the effect of different switched diversity configurations on the implementation complexity and achieved performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. A low-complexity model of the relay station is adopted, wherein single-input single-output antenna configuration is employed. Each of the transmitter and the receiver however employs multiple antennas to improve the overall link performance. Single-phase and two-phase based receive switching strategies are investigated assuming optimum first hop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the simple scheme in which the switched diversity is applied independently over the two hops is studied using tight upper bounds. Thorough performance comparisons and switching thresholds optimization for the aforementioned strategies are presented. Simulation results are also provided to validate the mathematical development and to verify the numerical computations.

  20. Application of queuing theory in banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Costa de Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the intense competition in the current economy and the increasing necessity of having more customers and keeping them loyal, this paper aims to apply the well known Queuing Theory in a bank agency to identify improvement opportunities in customer waiting time, from the assumption that the analyzed lines follow the Poisson’s distribution. This assumption results from the comparison between such distribution to the customers' arrival data in all analyzed lines. It was also found that there are queues with seasonality in demand, while others showed a regular demand. From the study performed, improvements in the management of this bank agency may be made, for example, the reallocation of staff in certain periods for functions with higher demand. It was concluded, therefore, that the application of the theory is feasible and can help to increase the competitive advantages of the agency.

  1. Double input converters for different voltage sources with isolated charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalash Sattayarak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the double input converters for different voltage input sources with isolated charger coils. This research aims to increase the performance of the battery charger circuit. In the circuit, there are the different voltage levels of input source. The operating modes of the switch in the circuit use the microcontroller to control the battery charge and to control discharge mode automatically when the input voltage sources are lost from the system. The experimental result of this research shows better performance for charging at any time period of the switch, while the voltage input sources work together. Therefore, this research can use and develop to battery charger for present or future.

  2. Uji Performa Software-based Openflow Switch Berbasis Openwrt

    OpenAIRE

    Kartadie, Rikie; Suryanto, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Perkembangan pesat Software-Defined Network telah dirasakan oleh vendor vendor besar. HP, Google dan IBM, mulai merubah pola routing-switching pada network mereka dari pola routingswitching tradisional ke pola infrastruktur routing-switching Software-defined Network. Untuk melakukan eksperimen tentang OpenFlow, para peneliti sering kali harus menggunakan perangkat hardware/dedicated switch OpenFlow yang dikeluarkan oleh beberapa vendor dengan harga yang tinggi. Kenyataannya, software-based sw...

  3. File list: InP.Prs.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.CDV.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Bon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Prs.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Kid.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.CDV.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Bon.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.CDV.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Kid.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. Novel, Four-Switch, Z-Source Three-Phase Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Robert; Muntean, Nicolae; Boldea, Ion

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new z-source three phase inverter topology. The proposed topology combines the advantages of a traditional four-switch three-phase inverter with the advantages of the z impedance network (one front-end diode, two inductors and two X connected capacitors). This new topology......, besides the self-boost property, has low switch count and it can operate as a buck-boost inverter. In contrast to standard four-switch three-phase inverter which operates at half dc input voltage the proposed four-switch z-source inverter, by self boosting, brings the output voltage at same (or higher......) value as in six switch standard three-phase inverter. The article presents the derivation of the equations describing the operation of the converter based on space vector analysis, validation through digital simulations in PSIM and preliminary experimental results on a laboratory setup with a dsPIC30F...

  18. Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: sachin.b.umbarkar@gmail.com [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  19. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.NoD.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control No description... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.NoD.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.NoD.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.NoD.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.NoD.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.NoD.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.NoD.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control No description htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.NoD.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  9. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi-directional piezoel......This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  10. Novel Step-Up DC/DC Converter with No Right Half Plane Zero and Reduced Switched Voltage Stress Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    and the voltage transfer gain is obtained. It is also demonstrated that the voltage stress on all semiconductor devices is restricted to input voltage which allows the utilization of a power switch with lower drain source resistance. In order to further increase the voltage gain another switched capacitor voltage......Novel step-up DC/DC converter is introduced in this paper. This converter is realized with adding the switched capacitor voltage multiplier cell to the three switch step-down DC/DC converter that has been proposed in the literature. The proposed converter is analyzed in the steady state...

  11. File list: InP.EmF.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.EmF.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.EmF.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  15. A microfluidic device for studying cell signaling with multiple inputs and adjustable amplitudes and frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Zubaidah; Chon, James W. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Cell function is largely controlled by an intricate web of macromolecular interactions called signaling networks. It is known that the type and the intensity (concentration) of stimulus affect cell behavior. However, the temporal aspect of the stimulus is not yet fully understood. Moreover, the process of distinguishing between two stimuli by a cell is still not clear. A microfluidic device enables the delivery of a precise and exact stimulus to the cell due to the laminar flow established inside its micro-channel. The slow stream delivers a constant stimulus which is adjustable according to the experiment set up. Moreover, with controllable inputs, microfluidic facilitates the stimuli delivery according to a certain pattern with adjustable amplitude, frequency and phase. Several designs of PDMS microfluidic device has been produced in this project via photolithography and soft lithography processes. To characterize the microfluidic performance, two experiments has been conducted. First, by comparing the fluorescence intensity and the lifetime of fluorescein in the present of KI, mixing extent between two inputs was observed using Frequency Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). Furthermore, the input-output relationship of fluorescein concentration delivered was also drawn to characterize the amplitude, frequency and phase of the inputs. Second experiment involved the cell culturing inside microfluidic. Using NG108-15 cells, proliferation and differentiation were observed based on the cell number and cell physiological changes. Our results demonstrate that hurdle design gives 86% mixing of fluorescein and buffer. Relationship between inputoutput fluorescein concentrations delivered has also been demonstrated and cells were successfully cultured inside the microfluidic.

  16. High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2017-02-01

    We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.

  17. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, H. M.; Yan, Z. B.; Chan, N. Y.; Au, K.; Wong, C. M.; Leung, C. W.; Zhang, F. Y.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure.

  18. Biological 2-Input Decoder Circuit in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions. PMID:24694115

  19. Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2014-08-15

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.

  20. Optical burst switching based satellite backbone network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Cen; Wu, Jian

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel time slot based optical burst switching (OBS) architecture for GEO/LEO based satellite backbone network. This architecture can provide high speed data transmission rate and high switching capacity . Furthermore, we design the control plane of this optical satellite backbone network. The software defined network (SDN) and network slice (NS) technologies are introduced. Under the properly designed control mechanism, this backbone network is flexible to support various services with diverse transmission requirements. Additionally, the LEO access and handoff management in this network is also discussed.

  1. State-of-the-art piezoelectric transformer-based switch mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Inductorless switch mode power supplies based on piezoelectric transformers are used to replace conventional transformers in high power density switch mode power supplies. Even though piezoelectric-based converters exhibit a high d egree of nonlinearity, it is desirable to use piezoelectric transfo...... discusses power supplies with the trend evaluation of piezoelectric transformer-based converter topologies and control methods. The challenges of piezoelectric transformers regarding soft switching capability and nonlinearity are addressed. This paper can be used as a guideline f or choosing a proper...... topology of piezoelectric-based switch mode power supply and a control method for the required application....

  2. Constructing large scale SCI-based processing systems by switch elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.; Kristiansen, E.; Skaali, B.; Bogaerts, A.; Divia, R.; Mueller, H.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to study some of the design criteria for the switch elements to form the interconnection of large scale SCI-based processing systems. The approved IEEE standard 1596 makes it possible to couple up to 64K nodes together. In order to connect thousands of nodes to construct large scale SCI-based processing systems, one has to interconnect these nodes by switch elements to form different topologies. A summary of the requirements and key points of interconnection networks and switches is presented. Two models of the SCI switch elements are proposed. The authors investigate several examples of systems constructed for 4-switches with simulations and the results are analyzed. Some issues and enhancements are discussed to provide the ideas behind the switch design that can improve performance and reduce latency. 29 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  3. A Lévy input fluid queue with input and workload regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmowski, Z.B.; Vlasiou, M.; Zwart, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a queuing model with the workload evolving between consecutive i.i.d. exponential timers $\\{e_q^{(i)}\\}_{i=1,2,\\ldots}$ according to a spectrally positive Lévy process $Y_i(t)$ that is reflected at zero, and where the environment $i$ equals 0 or 1. When the exponential clock $e_q^{(i)}$

  4. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  5. Arduino Based RFID Line Switching Using SSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of line switching cannot be overemphasized as they are used to connect and disconnect substations to and from a distribution grid. At the cradle of technology line switching was achieved via the use of manual switches or fuses which could endanger life as a result of electrocution when expose during maintenance. This ill prompted the development of automated line switching using relays and contactors. With time this tends to fail as a result of wearing of the contact which is as a result of arcing and low voltage. To avert all these ills this paper presents Arduino based Radio Frequency Identification RFID line switching using Solid State Relay SSR. This is to ensure the safety of operators or technologist and to also avert the problem associated with relays and contactors using SSR. This was achieved using RFID RC-522 reader ardriuno Uno SSR and other discrete components. The system was tested and worked perfectly reducing the risk of electrocution and eliminating damage wearing of the contacts common with contactors and relays.

  6. Plasticity of the cis-regulatory input function of a gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham E Mayo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcription rate of a gene is often controlled by several regulators that bind specific sites in the gene's cis-regulatory region. The combined effect of these regulators is described by a cis-regulatory input function. What determines the form of an input function, and how variable is it with respect to mutations? To address this, we employ the well-characterized lac operon of Escherichia coli, which has an elaborate input function, intermediate between Boolean AND-gate and OR-gate logic. We mapped in detail the input function of 12 variants of the lac promoter, each with different point mutations in the regulator binding sites, by means of accurate expression measurements from living cells. We find that even a few mutations can significantly change the input function, resulting in functions that resemble Pure AND gates, OR gates, or single-input switches. Other types of gates were not found. The variant input functions can be described in a unified manner by a mathematical model. The model also lets us predict which functions cannot be reached by point mutations. The input function that we studied thus appears to be plastic, in the sense that many of the mutations do not ruin the regulation completely but rather result in new ways to integrate the inputs.

  7. "Plug and play" logic gates based on fluorescence switching regulated by self-assembly of nucleotide and lanthanide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-06-25

    Molecular logic gates in response to chemical, biological, or optical input signals at a molecular level have received much interest over the past decade. Herein, we construct "plug and play" logic systems based on the fluorescence switching of guest molecules confined in coordination polymer nanoparticles generated from nucleotide and lanthanide ions. In the system, the addition of new modules directly enables new logic functions. PASS 0, YES, PASS 1, NOT, IMP, OR, and AND gates are successfully constructed in sequence. Moreover, different logic gates (AND, INH, and IMP) can be constructed using different guest molecules and the same input combinations. The work will be beneficial to the future logic design and expand the applications of coordination polymers.

  8. Resistance switching memory in perovskite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The resistance switching behavior has recently attracted great attentions for its application as resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to a variety of advantages such as simple structure, high-density, high-speed and low-power. As a leading storage media, the transition metal perovskite oxide owns the strong correlation of electrons and the stable crystal structure, which brings out multifunctionality such as ferroelectric, multiferroic, superconductor, and colossal magnetoresistance/electroresistance effect, etc. The existence of rich electronic phases, metal–insulator transition and the nonstoichiometric oxygen in perovskite oxide provides good platforms to insight into the resistive switching mechanisms. In this review, we first introduce the general characteristics of the resistance switching effects, the operation methods and the storage media. Then, the experimental evidences of conductive filaments, the transport and switching mechanisms, and the memory performances and enhancing methods of perovskite oxide based filamentary RRAM cells have been summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the switching mechanisms and the performances of the uniform RRAM cells associating with the carrier trapping/detrapping and the ferroelectric polarization switching have been discussed. Finally, the advices and outlook for further investigating the resistance switching and enhancing the memory performances are given

  9. Study of all optical switching behaviour in semiconductor microresonator with nano-active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, R; Aryan, H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the behaviour of carriers in spontaneous patterns formation and patterns switching has been studied. Results demonstrate that with increasing length of cavity the range of required input field amplitude for patterns formation increased slightly and also the minimum perturbation coefficient for switching decreased greatly. Increasing nonradiative recombination rate of carriers about ten percent appeared that required input field amplitude for patterns formation raised more than before, albeit the minimum perturbation coefficient for switching and switching and switching time dose not vary considerably.

  10. Study of all optical switching behaviour in semiconductor microresonator with nano-active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, R; Aryan, H, E-mail: r_kheradmand@tabrizu.ac.i, E-mail: aryan86@ms.tabrizu.ac.i [Photonics Group, Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, Tabriz University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    In this paper the behaviour of carriers in spontaneous patterns formation and patterns switching has been studied. Results demonstrate that with increasing length of cavity the range of required input field amplitude for patterns formation increased slightly and also the minimum perturbation coefficient for switching decreased greatly. Increasing nonradiative recombination rate of carriers about ten percent appeared that required input field amplitude for patterns formation raised more than before, albeit the minimum perturbation coefficient for switching and switching and switching time dose not vary considerably.

  11. Remote media vision-based computer input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnia, Hamid R.; Chen, Ching-Yi

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a vision-based computer input device which has been built at the University of Georgia. The user of this system gives commands to the computer without touching any physical device. The system receives input through a CCD camera; it is PC- based and is built on top of the DOS operating system. The major components of the input device are: a monitor, an image capturing board, a CCD camera, and some software (developed by use). These are interfaced with a standard PC running under the DOS operating system.

  12. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs

  13. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Modeling and Control of a Dual-Input Isolated Full-Bridge Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a steady-state model, a large-signal (LS) model and an ac small-signal (SS) model for a recently proposed dual-input transformer-isolated boost converter are derived respectively by the switching flow-graph (SFG) nonlinear modeling technique. Based upon the converter’s model...

  15. Ethernet Networks for Real-Time Use in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Meirosu, C; Martin, B

    2005-01-01

    Ethernet became today's de-facto standard technology for local area networks. Defined by the IEEE 802.3 and 802.1 working groups, the Ethernet standards cover technologies deployed at the first two layers of the OSI protocol stack. The architecture of modern Ethernet networks is based on switches. The switches are devices usually built using a store-and-forward concept. At the highest level, they can be seen as a collection of queues and mathematically modelled by means of queuing theory. However, the traffic profiles on modern Ethernet networks are rather different from those assumed in classical queuing theory. The standard recommendations for evaluating the performance of network devices define the values that should be measured but do not specify a way of reconciling these values with the internal architecture of the switches. The introduction of the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard provided a direct gateway from the LAN to the WAN by the means of the WAN PHY. Certain aspects related to the actual use of WAN ...

  16. A fuzzy expert system for predicting the performance of switched reluctance motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaeian, B.; Moallem, M.; Lucas, Caro

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy expert system for predicting the performance of a switched reluctance motor has been developed. The design vector consists of design parameters, and output performance variables are efficiency and torque ripple. An accurate analysis program based on Improved Magnetic Equivalent Circuit method has been used to generate the input-output data. These input-output data is used to produce the initial fuzzy rules for predicting the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor. The initial set of fuzzy rules with triangular membership functions has been devised using a table look-up scheme. The initial fuzzy rules have been optimized to a set of fuzzy rules with Gaussian membership functions using gradient descent training scheme. The performance prediction results for a 6/8, 4 kw, Switched Reluctance Motor shows good agreement with the results obtained from Improved Magnetic Equivalent Circuit method or Finite Element analysis. The developed fuzzy expert system can be used for fast prediction of motor performance in the optimal design process or on-line control schemes of Switched Reluctance motor

  17. Performance Test of Openflow Agent on Openflow Software-Based Mikrotik RB750 Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikie Kartadie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A network is usually developed by several devices such as router, switch etc. Every device forwards data package manipulation with complicated protocol planted in its hardware. An operator is responsible for running configuration either to manage rules or application applied in the network. Human error may occur when device configuration run manually by operator. Some famous vendors, one of them is MikroTik, has also been implementing this OpenFlow on its operation. It provides the implementation of SDN/OpenFlow architecture with affordable cost. The second phase research result showed that switch OF software-based MikroTik resulted higher latency value than both mininet and switch OF software-based OpenWRT. The average gap value of switch OF software-based MikroTik is 2012 kbps lower than the value of switch OF software-based OpenWRT. The average gap value of throughput bandwidth protocol UDP switch OF software-based MikroTik is 3.6176 kBps lower than switch OF software-based OpenWRT and it is 8.68 kBps lower than mininet. The average gap throughput jitter protokol UDP of switch OF software-based MiktoTik is 0.0103ms lower than switch OF software-based OpenWRT and 0.0093ms lower than mininet. 

  18. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-01

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  19. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-28

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  20. Switch/router architectures shared-bus and shared-memory based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aweya, James

    2018-01-01

    A practicing engineer's inclusive review of communication systems based on shared-bus and shared-memory switch/router architectures. This book delves into the inner workings of router and switch design in a comprehensive manner that is accessible to a broad audience. It begins by describing the role of switch/routers in a network, then moves on to the functional composition of a switch/router. A comparison of centralized versus distributed design of the architecture is also presented. The author discusses use of bus versus shared-memory for communication within a design, and also covers Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and configuration tools. Written in a simple style and language to allow readers to easily understand and appreciate the material presented, Switch/Router Architectures: Shared-Bus and Shared-Memory Based Systems discusses the design of multilayer switches—starting with the basic concepts and on to the basic architectures. It describes the evolution of multilayer switch designs and highli...

  1. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  2. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-06-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental data show that an Au nanodisk array, coated with rotaxane molecular machines, switches its localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) reversibly when it is exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants. Conversely, bare Au nanodisks and disks coated with mechanically inert control compounds, do not display the same switching behavior. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), these observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound "molecular machines" can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices. ©2009 IEEE.

  3. High-speed 2 × 2 silicon-based electro-optic switch with nanosecond switch time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Jun, Xu; Shao-Wu, Chen; Hai-Hua, Xu; Yang, Sun; Yu-De, Yu; Jin-Zhong, Yu; Qi-Ming, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A 2 × 2 electro-optic switch is experimentally demonstrated using the optical structure of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a submicron rib waveguide and the electrical structure of a PIN diode on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The switch behaviour is achieved through the plasma dispersion effect of silicon. The device has a modulation arm of 1 mm in length and cross-section of 400 nm×340 nm. The measurement results show that the switch has a V π L π figure of merit of 0.145 V·cm and the extinction ratios of two output ports and cross talk are 40 dB, 28 dB and −28 dB, respectively. A 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 90 MHz and a switch time of 6.8 ns for the rise edge and 2.7 ns for the fall edge are also demonstrated

  4. A numerical simulation model of valence-change-based resistive switching

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Due to their superior scalability and performance, nanoscale resistive switches based on the valence-change mechanism are considered promising candidates for future nonvolatile memory and logic applications. These devices are metal-oxide-metal structures that can be reversibly switched between different resistance states by electrical signals. Typically, they contain one Schottky-like and one ohmic-like metal-oxide contact and exhibit bipolar switching. The switching mechanism and the initial...

  5. MOSFET Switching Circuit Protects Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A small-footprint, full surface-mount-component printed circuit board employs MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) power switches to switch high currents from any input power supply from 3 to 30 V. High-force shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators generally require high current (up to 9 A at 28 V) to actuate. SMA wires (the driving element of the actuators) can be quickly overheated if power is not removed at the end of stroke, which can damage the wires. The new analog driver prevents overheating of the SMA wires in an actuator by momentarily removing power when the end limit switch is closed, thereby allowing complex control schemes to be adopted without concern for overheating. Either an integral pushbutton or microprocessor-controlled gate or control line inputs switch current to the actuator until the end switch line goes from logic high to logic low state. Power is then momentarily removed (switched off by the MOSFET). The analog driver is suited to use with nearly any SMA actuator.

  6. Intelligent switches of integrated lightwave circuits with core telecommunication functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhaky, Nahum; Duer, Reuven; Berns, Neil; Tal, Eran; Vinikman, Shirly; Schoenwald, Jeffrey S.; Shani, Yosi

    2001-05-01

    We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion lossvariable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.

  7. Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan

    2015-03-01

    Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.

  8. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  9. Magnonic interferometric switch for multi-valued logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balynsky, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Khivintsev, Yuri; Bhowmick, Tonmoy; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Dudko, Galina; Filimonov, Yuri; Liu, Guanxiong; Jiang, Chenglong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Lake, Roger; Khitun, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a possible use of the magnonic interferometric switches in multi-valued logic circuits. The switch is a three-terminal device consisting of two spin channels where input, control, and output signals are spin waves. Signal modulation is achieved via the interference between the source and gate spin waves. We report experimental data on a micrometer scale prototype based on the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 structure. The output characteristics are measured at different angles of the bias magnetic field. The On/Off ratio of the prototype exceeds 13 dB at room temperature. Experimental data are complemented by the theoretical analysis and the results of micro magnetic simulations showing spin wave propagation in a micrometer size magnetic junction. We also present the results of numerical modeling illustrating the operation of a nanometer-size switch consisting of just 20 spins in the source-drain channel. The utilization of spin wave interference as a switching mechanism makes it possible to build nanometer-scale logic gates, and minimize energy per operation, which is limited only by the noise margin. The utilization of phase in addition to amplitude for information encoding offers an innovative route towards multi-state logic circuits. We describe possible implementation of the three-value logic circuits based on the magnonic interferometric switches. The advantages and shortcomings inherent in interferometric switches are also discussed.

  10. Retinal input to efferent target amacrine cells in the avian retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sarah H.; Azizi, Nason; Weller, Cynthia; Wilson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The bird visual system includes a substantial projection, of unknown function, from a midbrain nucleus to the contralateral retina. Every centrifugal, or efferent, neuron originating in the midbrain nucleus makes synaptic contact with the soma of a single, unique amacrine cell, the target cell (TC). By labeling efferent neurons in the midbrain we have been able to identify their terminals in retinal slices and make patch clamp recordings from TCs. TCs generate Na+ based action potentials triggered by spontaneous EPSPs originating from multiple classes of presynaptic neurons. Exogenously applied glutamate elicited inward currents having the mixed pharmacology of NMDA, kainate and inward rectifying AMPA receptors. Exogenously applied GABA elicited currents entirely suppressed by GABAzine, and therefore mediated by GABAA receptors. Immunohistochemistry showed the vesicular glutamate transporter, vGluT2, to be present in the characteristic synaptic boutons of efferent terminals, whereas the GABA synthetic enzyme, GAD, was present in much smaller processes of intrinsic retinal neurons. Extracellular recording showed that exogenously applied GABA was directly excitatory to TCs and, consistent with this, NKCC, the Cl− transporter often associated with excitatory GABAergic synapses, was identified in TCs by antibody staining. The presence of excitatory retinal input to TCs implies that TCs are not merely slaves to their midbrain input; instead, their output reflects local retinal activity and descending input from the midbrain. PMID:20650017

  11. Switched Flip-Flop based Preprocessing Circuit for ISFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kollár

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a preprocessing circuit for ISFETs (Ion-sensitive field-effecttransistors to measure hydrogen-ion concentration in electrolyte is presented. A modifiedflip-flop is the main part of the circuit. The modification consists in replacing the standardtransistors by ISFETs and periodically switching the supply voltage on and off.Concentration of hydrogen ions to be measured discontinues the flip-flop value symmetry,which means that by switching the supply voltage on the flip-flop goes to one of two stablestates, ‘one’ or ‘zero’. The recovery of the value symmetry can be achieved by changing abalanced voltage, which is incorporated to the flip-flop, to bring the flip-flop to a 50%position (probability of ‘one’ equals to probability of ‘zero’. Thus, the balanced voltagereflects the measured concentration of hydrogen ions. Its magnitude is set automatically byusing a feedback circuit whose input is connected to the flip-flop output. The preprocessingcircuit, as the whole, is the well-known δ modulator in which the switched flip-flop servesas a comparator and a sampling circuit. The advantages of this approach in comparison tothose of standard approaches are discussed. Finally, theoretical results are verified bysimulations with TSPICE and a good agreement is reported.

  12. A new soft switched push pull current fed converter for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshad, Majid; Farzanehfard, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new zero voltage switching current fed push pull dc-dc converter is proposed for fuel cell generation system. The auxiliary circuit in this converter, not only absorbs the voltage surge across the switches at turn off instance, but also provides zero voltage switching condition for all converter switches. Therefore, the converter efficiency is increased and size and weight of the converter can be decreased. Also implementation of control circuit is very simple since the converter is PWM controlled. In this paper, the proposed dc-dc converter operating modes are analyzed and to verify the converter operation a laboratory prototype is implemented and the experimental results are presented.

  13. Priority Queuing on the Docket: Universality of Judicial Dispute Resolution Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Mukherjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes court priority queuing behavior by examining the time lapse between when a case enters a court's docket and when it is ultimately disposed of. Using data from the Supreme courts of the United States, Massachusetts, and Canada we show that each court's docket features a slow decay with a decreasing tail. This demonstrates that, in each of the courts examined, the vast majority of cases are resolved relatively quickly, while there remains a small number of outlier cases that take an extremely long time to resolve. We discuss the implications for this on legal systems, the study of the law, and future research.

  14. Variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, Thierry A.; Tarantola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Computational models are intensively used in engineering for risk analysis or prediction of future outcomes. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in these purposes. Although several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs only a few are proposed in the literature in the case of dependent inputs. This is explained by the fact that the theoretical framework for the independent case is set and a univocal set of variance-based sensitivity indices is defined. In the present work, we propose a set of variance-based sensitivity indices to perform sensitivity analysis of models with dependent inputs. These measures allow us to distinguish between the mutual dependent contribution and the independent contribution of an input to the model response variance. Their definition relies on a specific orthogonalisation of the inputs and ANOVA-representations of the model output. In the applications, we show the interest of the new sensitivity indices for model simplification setting. - Highlights: ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in engineering. ► Several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs. ► We define a set of variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs. ► Inputs mutual contributions are distinguished from their independent contributions. ► Analytical and computational tests are performed and discussed.

  15. Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Young-Jin; Choi, Yeongyu; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for reducing the response time of a fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell by using two-dimensional confinement of the liquid crystals. Through both numerical calculations and experiments, we show that the switching speed can be increased by several fold in a fringe-field switching cell by simply using a rubbing angle of zero, which causes virtual walls to be built when an electric field is applied between the interdigitated electrodes and the common electrode, w...

  16. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBotta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  17. Broadband nonvolatile photonic switching based on optical phase change materials: beyond the classical figure-of-merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihang; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Junying; Soref, Richard; Gu, Tian; Hu, Juejun

    2018-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a broadband, nonvolatile on-chip switch design in the telecommunication C-band with record low loss and crosstalk. The unprecedented device performance builds on: 1) a new optical phase change material (O-PCM) Ge 2 Sb 2 Se 4 Te 1 (GSST), which exhibits significantly reduced optical attenuation compared to traditional O-PCMs, and 2) a nonperturbative design that enables low-loss device operation beyond the classical figure-of-merit (FOM) limit. We further demonstrate that the 1-by-2 and 2-by-2 switches can serve as basic building blocks to construct nonblocking and nonvolatile on-chip switching fabric supporting arbitrary numbers of input and output ports.

  18. Superconducting spin switch based on superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrle, Jan; Mueller, Claus; Obermeier, Guenter; Schreck, Matthias; Gsell, Stefan; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard; Zdravkov, Vladimir; Morari, Roman; Sidorencko, Anatoli; Prepelitsa, Andrei; Antropov, Evgenii; Socrovisciiuc, Alexei; Nold, Eberhard; Tagirov, Lenar

    2011-01-01

    Very rapid developing area, spintronics, needs new devices, based on new physical principles. One of such devices - a superconducting spin-switch, consists of ferromagnetic and superconducting layers, and is based on a new phenomenon - reentrant superconductivity. The tuning of the superconducting and ferromagnetic layers thickness is investigated to optimize superconducting spin-switch effect for Nb/Cu 41 Ni 59 based nanoscale layered systems.

  19. Precise alignment of a longitudinal Pockels Cell for Q-switch operation Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisperuza, D.; Botero, G.; Bastidas, A.

    2009-01-01

    The failure to accurately center optical components may, especially in the case of high gain of the Nd:YAG lasers, produce strong parasitic off-axis laser action capable of causing severe component damage typically to the Pockels cell. We report a precise longitudinal alignment of the Pockels cell by modulating the laser polarization using an experimental setup of circular dichroism. This procedure is based on the use of an analyzer at 0 o or 45 o of the Pockels cell axes, and it allows us to adjust the Q-switching delay for best pulse shape, maximum output energy and to reduce the lack of symmetry of the spot laser considerably. (Author)

  20. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Kuti Lusala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication resources among multiple connections. Combining these two techniques allows mitigating the poor resource usage inherent to circuit switching. In this way Quality of Service “QoS” is easily provided for the streaming traffic through the circuit-switched sub-router while the packet-switched sub-router handles best-effort traffic. The proposed hybrid router architectures were synthesized, placed and routed on an FPGA. Results show that a practicable Network-on-Chip “NoC” can be built using the proposed router architectures. 7 × 7 mesh NoCs were simulated in SystemC. Simulation results show that the probability of establishing paths through the NoC increases with the number of sub-channels and has its highest value when combining SDM with TDM, thereby significantly reducing contention in the NoC.

  1. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  2. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-05-25

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  3. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I

    2016-05-25

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  4. Moving Reflector Type Micro Optical Switch for High-Power Transfer in a MEMS-Based Safety and Arming System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Kevin R; Fan, Lawrence; Voe, Don L

    2003-01-01

    ...) system for use in underwater weapons. In this switch, an etched vertical sidewall reflector is electrostatically actuated in and out of the optical path between input and output optical fibers...

  5. A New Topology for UPQC Based on Reduced-Switch-Count Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Ajami, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mohsen; Seyfi, Ebrahim; Atashbahar, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Recently, reduced switch count converter switch numerous advantages such as low cost and weight, small size and high reliability have been introduced to be used in unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). In this paper a novel topologyfor UPQC based on back-to-backB4 converter and its control system are proposed. The conventional UPQC consists of twelve switches while the proposed topology for UPQC has 8 switches. By reducing the number of switches, the price of the whole system and losses a...

  6. A New Topology for UPQC Based on Reduced-Switch-Count Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Ajami, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mohsen; Seyfi, Ebrahim; Atashbahar, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Recently, reduced switch count converter switch numerous advantages such as low cost and weight, small size and high reliability have been introduced to be used in unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). In this paper a novel topologyfor UPQC based on back-to-backB4 converter and its control system are proposed. The conventional UPQC consists of twelve switches while the proposed topology for UPQC has 8 switches. By reducing the number of switches, the price of the whole system and losses a...

  7. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholes, N; Date, A; Beaujean, P; Hauk, P; Kanwar, M; Ostermeier, M

    2016-02-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Quadratic stabilisability of multi-agent systems under switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongqiang; Ji, Zhijian; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the stabilisability of multi-agent systems (MASs) under switching topologies. Necessary and/or sufficient conditions are presented in terms of graph topology. These conditions explicitly reveal how the intrinsic dynamics of the agents, the communication topology and the external control input affect stabilisability jointly. With the appropriate selection of some agents to which the external inputs are applied and the suitable design of neighbour-interaction rules via a switching topology, an MAS is proved to be stabilisable even if so is not for each of uncertain subsystem. In addition, a method is proposed to constructively design a switching rule for MASs with norm-bounded time-varying uncertainties. The switching rules designed via this method do not rely on uncertainties, and the switched MAS is quadratically stabilisable via decentralised external self-feedback for all uncertainties. With respect to applications of the stabilisability results, the formation control and the cooperative tracking control are addressed. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  9. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    metal surfaces, focusing on electronic and vibrational spectroscopy in one case and scanning tunneling microscopy studies in the other. Original research articles describe results in many aspects of the field, including: Self-assembly, self-organization, and controlled growth of molecular layers on various substrates. Highly-ordered arrays provide model systems with extraordinary structural properties, allowing one to adjust interactions between molecules and between molecule and substrate, and can be robustly prepared from solution, an essential prerequisite for applications. Conformational or electronic switching of molecules adsorbed at metal and semiconductor surfaces. These studies highlight the elementary processes governing molecular switching at surfaces as well as the wide range of possible stimuli. Carbon-based substrates such as graphene or carbon nanotubes. These substrates are attractive due to their effective two-dimensionality which implies that switching of adsorbed molecules can effect a significant back-action on the substrate. Mechanisms of conformational switching. Several contributions study the role of electron-vibron coupling and heating in current-induced conformational switching. We hope that the collection of articles presented here will stimulate and encourage researchers in surface physics and interfacial chemistry to contribute to the still emerging field of molecular switches at surfaces. We wish to acknowledge the support and input from many colleagues in preparing this special section. A significant part of this work has been conducted in the framework of the Sonderforschungsbereich 658 Elementary Processes in Molecular Switches at Surfaces of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, to which we are grateful for financial support. Molecular surfaces at switches contents Molecular switches at surfacesMartin Weinelt and Felix von Oppen Optically and thermally induced molecular switching processes at metal surfacesPetra Tegeder Effects of

  10. High frequency electromechanical memory cells based on telescoping carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A M; Lozovik, Y E; Kulish, A S; Bichoutskaia, E

    2010-07-01

    A new method to increase the operational frequency of electromechanical memory cells based on the telescoping motion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through the selection of the form of the switching voltage pulse is proposed. The relative motion of the walls of carbon nanotubes can be controlled through the shape of the interwall interaction energy surface. This allows the use of the memory cells in nonvolatile or volatile regime, depending on the structure of carbon nanotube. Simulations based on ab initio and semi-empirical calculations of the interwall interaction energies are used to estimate the switching voltage and the operational frequency of volatile cells with the electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The lifetime of nonvolatile memory cells is also predicted.

  11. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bouchaala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF, namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  12. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914

  13. A network-flow based valve-switching aware binding algorithm for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kai-Han; You, Sheng-Chi; Minhass, Wajid Hassan

    2013-01-01

    -flow based resource binding algorithm based on breadth-first search (BFS) and minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) in architectural-level synthesis. The experimental results show that our methodology not only makes significant reduction of valve-switching activities but also diminishes the application completion......Designs of flow-based microfluidic biochips are receiving much attention recently because they replace conventional biological automation paradigm and are able to integrate different biochemical analysis functions on a chip. However, as the design complexity increases, a flow-based microfluidic...... biochip needs more chip-integrated micro-valves, i.e., the basic unit of fluid-handling functionality, to manipulate the fluid flow for biochemical applications. Moreover, frequent switching of micro-valves results in decreased reliability. To minimize the valve-switching activities, we develop a network...

  14. A Broadband Ultrathin Nonlinear Switching Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarnousheh Farahani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ultrathin planar nonlinear metamaterial slab is designed and simulated. Nonlinearity is provided through placing diodes in each metamaterial unit cell. The diodes are auto-biased and activated by an incident wave. The proposed structure represents a broadband switching property between two transmission and reflection states depending on the intensity of the incident wave. High permittivity values are presented creating a near zero effective impedance at low power states, around the second resonant mode of the structure unit cell; as the result, the incident wave is reflected. Increasing the incident power to the level which can activate the loaded diodes in the structure results in elimination of the resonance and consequently a drop in the permittivity values near the permeability one as well as a switch to the transmission state. A full wave as well as a nonlinear simulations are performed. An optimization method based on weed colonization is applied to the unit cell of the metamaterial slab to achieve the maximum switching bandwidth. The structure represents a 24% switching bandwidth of a 10 dB reduction in the reflection coefficient.

  15. All-optical switching in lithium niobate directional couplers with cascaded nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiek, R.; Baek, Y.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Stegeman, G.I.; Baumann, I.; Sohler, W.

    1996-01-01

    We report on intensity-dependent switching in lithium niobate directional couplers. Large nonlinear phase shifts that are due to cascading detune the coupling between the coupler branches, which makes all-optical switching possible. Depending on the input intensity, the output could be switched

  16. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Yoon, Jong-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor

  17. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsu [Ensemble Center for Automotive Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong-Yun [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor.

  18. Pseudo Last Useful Instant Queuing Strategy for Handovers in Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kiamouche; M. Benslama

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative strategy of queuing handover called Pseudo Last Useful Instant PLUI scheme for Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Systems LEO MSSs. The PLUI scheme uses the same approach as the Last Useful Instant LUI scheme previously proposed in literature, with less complex implementation. Simulation tests were carried out using Dynamic Channel Allocation DCA in order to evaluate the performance of this scheme and also an analytical approach has been p...

  19. A Discrete Event Simulation Model for Evaluating the Performances of an M/G/C/C State Dependent Queuing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Ruzelan; M. Nawawi, Mohd Kamal; Kawsar, Luthful A.; Ghani, Noraida A.; Kamil, Anton A.; Mustafa, Adli

    2013-01-01

    M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed. PMID:23560037

  20. Complete achromatic and robustness electro-optic switch between two integrated optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kyoseva, Elica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of electro-optic modulator and optical switching device, based on current integrated optics technique. The advantages of our optical switching device are broadband of input light wavelength, robustness against varying device length and operation voltages, with reference to previous design. Conforming to our results of previous paper [Huang et al, phys. lett. a, 90, 053837], the coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape. while detuning has a sign flip at maximum coupling, we called it as with a sign flip of phase mismatch model. The a sign flip of phase mismatch model can produce complete robust population transfer. In this paper, we enhance this device to switch light intensity controllable, by tuning external electric field based on electro-optic effect.

  1. Generalized Multi-Cell Switched-Inductor and Switched-Capacitor Z-source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Chiang Loh, Poh; Zhu, Miao

    2013-01-01

    . Their boosting gains are, therefore, limited in practice. To overcome these shortcomings, the generalized switched-inductor and switched-capacitor Z-source inverters are proposed, whose extra boosting abilities and other advantages have already been verified in simulation and experiment....

  2. A Survey of Wireless Fair Queuing Algorithms with Location-Dependent Channel Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca VARGATU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of wireless networks has brought more and more attention to topics related to fair allocation of resources, creation of suitable algorithms, taking into account the special characteristics of wireless environment and insurance fair access to the transmission channel, with delay bound and throughput guaranteed. Fair allocation of resources in wireless networks requires significant challenges, because of errors that occur only in these networks, such as location-dependent and bursty channel errors. In wireless networks, frequently happens, because interference of radio waves, that a user experiencing bad radio conditions during a period of time, not to receive resources in that period. This paper analyzes some resource allocation algorithms for wireless networks with location dependent errors, specifying the base idea for each algorithm and the way how it works. The analyzed fair queuing algorithms differ by the way they treat the following aspects: how to select the flows which should receive additional services, how to allocate these resources, which is the proportion received by error free flows and how the flows affected by errors are compensated.

  3. Mathematical modeling analysis of regenerative solid oxide fuel cells in switching mode conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinfang; Xue, Xingjian

    A 2D transient mathematical model is developed for regenerative solid oxide cells operated in both SOFC mode and SOEC mode. The steady state performance of the model is validated using experimental results of in-house prepared NiO-YSZ/YSZ/LSM cell under different operating temperatures. The model is employed to investigate complicated multi-physics processes during the transient process of mode switching. Simulation results indicate that the trend of internal parameter distributions, including H 2/O 2/H 2O and ionic potentials, flip when the operating cell is switched from one mode to another. However, the electronic potential shows different behaviors. At H 2 electrode, electronic potential keeps at zero voltage level, while at O 2 electrode, it increases from a relatively low level in SOFC mode to a relatively high level in SOEC mode. Transient results also show that an overshooting phenomenon occurs for mass fraction distribution of water vapor at H 2 side when the operating cell switches from SOFC mode to SOEC mode. The mass fractions of O 2 and H 2 as well as charge (electrons and ions) potentials may quickly follow the operating mode changes without over-shootings. The simulation results facilitate the internal mechanism understanding for regenerative SOFCs.

  4. Evidence for thermally assisted threshold switching behavior in nanoscale phase-change memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gallo, Manuel; Athmanathan, Aravinthan; Krebs, Daniel; Sebastian, Abu

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in phase-change materials are still debated. In particular, the so-called threshold switching phenomenon that allows the current density to increase steeply when a sufficiently high voltage is applied is still not well understood, even though there is wide consensus that threshold switching is solely of electronic origin. However, the high thermal efficiency and fast thermal dynamics associated with nanoscale phase-change memory (PCM) devices motivate us to reassess a thermally assisted threshold switching mechanism, at least in these devices. The time/temperature dependence of the threshold switching voltage and current in doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanoscale PCM cells was measured over 6 decades in time at temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 160 °C. We observe a nearly constant threshold switching power across this wide range of operating conditions. We also measured the transient dynamics associated with threshold switching as a function of the applied voltage. By using a field- and temperature-dependent description of the electrical transport combined with a thermal feedback, quantitative agreement with experimental data of the threshold switching dynamics was obtained using realistic physical parameters

  5. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  6. The importance of the rotor in hydrazone-based molecular switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH-activated E/Z isomerization of a series of hydrazone-based systems having different functional groups as part of the rotor (R = COMe, CN, Me, H, was studied. The switching efficiency of these systems was compared to that of a hydrazone-based molecular switch (R = COOEt whose E/Z isomerization is fully reversible. It was found that the nature of the R group is critical for efficient switching to occur; the R group should be a moderate H-bond acceptor in order to (i provide enough driving force for the rotor to move upon protonation, and (ii stabilize the obtained Z configuration, to achieve full conversion.

  7. A nonlinear plasmonic waveguide based all-optical bidirectional switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Xiaoqiang; Pang, Xingxing; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Bin; Guo, Yixuan; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an all-optical switching with a nanometer coupled ring resonator is demonstrated based on the nonlinear material. By adjusting the light intensity, we implement the resonance wavelength from 880 nm to 940 nm in the nonlinear material structure monocyclic. In the bidirectional switch structure, the center wavelength (i.e. 880 nm) is fixed. By changing the light intensity from I = 0 to I = 53 . 1 MW /cm2, the function of optical switching can be obtained. The results demonstrate that both the single-ring cavity and the T-shaped double-ring structure can realize the optical switching effect. This work takes advantage of the simple structure. The single-ring cavity plasmonic switches have many advantages, such as nanoscale size, low pumping light intensity, ultrafast response time (femtosecond level), etc. It is expected that the proposed all-optical integrated devices can be potentially applied in optical communication, signal processing, and signal sensing, etc.

  8. Micro optical fiber display switch based on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kun; Heng, Khee-Hang

    2001-09-01

    This paper reports on a research effort to design, microfabricate and test an optical fiber display switch based on magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) principal. The switch is driven by the Lorentz force and can be used to turn on/off the light. The SU-8 photoresist and UV light source were used for prototype fabrication in order to lower the cost. With a magnetic field supplied by an external permanent magnet, and a plus electrical current supplied across the two inert sidewall electrodes, the distributed body force generated will produce a pressure difference on the fluid mercury in the switch chamber. By change the direction of current flow, the mercury can turn on or cut off the light pass in less than 10 ms. The major advantages of a MHD-based micro-switch are that it does not contain any solid moving parts and power consumption is much smaller comparing to the relay type switches. This switch can be manufactured by molding gin batch production and may have potential applications in extremely bright traffic control,, high intensity advertising display, and communication.

  9. A High-Voltage Low-Power Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter Based on GaN and SiC Devices for LED Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on switched-capacitor DC-DC converters has focused on low-voltage and/or high-power ranges where the efficiencies are dominated by conduction loss. Switched-capacitor DC-DC converters at high-voltage (> 100 V) low-power (high efficiency and high power density...... are anticipated to emerge. This paper presents a switched-capacitor converter with an input voltage up to 380 V (compatible with rectified European mains) and a maximum output power of 10 W. GaN switches and SiC diodes are analytically compared and actively combined to properly address the challenges at high......-voltage low-current levels, where switching loss becomes significant. Further trade-off between conduction loss and switching loss is experimentally optimized with switching frequencies. Three variant designs of the proposed converter are implemented, and the trade-off between the efficiency and the power...

  10. Effect of input spectrum on the spectral switch characteristics in a white-light Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundavanam, Maruthi M; Viswanathan, Nirmal K; Rao, D Narayana

    2009-12-01

    We report here a detailed experimental study to demonstrate the effect of source spectral characteristics such as spectral bandwidth (Deltalambda), peak wavelength (lambda(0)), and shape of the spectrum on the spectral shifts and spectral switches measured due to temporal correlation in a white-light Michelson interferometer operated in the spectral domain. Behavior of the spectral switch characteristics such as the switch position, switch amplitude, and switch symmetry are discussed in detail as a function of optical path difference between the interfering beams. The experimental results are compared with numerical calculations carried out using interference law in the spectral domain with modified source spectral characteristics. On the basis of our results we feel that our study is of critical importance in the selection of source spectral characteristics to further improve the longitudinal resolution or the measurement sensitivity in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and microscopy.

  11. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance the Differentiation of Human Switched Memory B Lymphocytes into Plasma Cells in Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bonnaure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of human B lymphocytes into plasma cells is one of the most stirring questions with regard to adaptive immunity. However, the terminal differentiation and survival of plasma cells are still topics with much to be discovered, especially when targeting switched memory B lymphocytes. Plasma cells can migrate to the bone marrow in response to a CXCL12 gradient and survive for several years while secreting antibodies. In this study, we aimed to get closer to niches favoring plasma cell survival. We tested low oxygen concentrations and coculture with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC from human bone marrow. Besides, all cultures were performed using an animal protein-free medium. Overall, our model enables the generation of high proportions of CD38+CD138+CD31+ plasma cells (≥50% when CD40-activated switched memory B lymphocytes were cultured in direct contact with mesenchymal stem cells. In these cultures, the secretion of CXCL12 and TGF-β, usually found in the bone marrow, was linked to the presence of MSC. The level of oxygen appeared less impactful than the contact with MSC. This study shows for the first time that expanded switched memory B lymphocytes can be differentiated into plasma cells using exclusively a serum-free medium.

  12. Intraglomerular inhibition maintains mitral cell response contrast across input frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.

  13. Mechanisms of current conduction in Pt/BaTiO3/Pt resistive switching cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.K.; Zhang, T.J.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, D.F.; Duan, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The 80-nm-thickness BaTiO 3 (BT) thin film was prepared on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by the RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Pt/BT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The current–voltage characteristic measurements were performed. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was found in the Pt/BT/Pt cell. The current–voltage curves were well fitted in different voltage regions at the high resistance state (HRS) and the low resistance state (LRS), respectively. The conduction mechanisms are concluded to be Ohmic conduction and Schottky emission at the LRS, while space-charge-limited conduction and Poole–Frenkel emission at the HRS. The electroforming and switching processes were explained in terms of the valence change mechanism, in which oxygen vacancies play a key role in forming conducting paths. - Highlights: ►Pt/BaTiO 3 /Pt cell shows the bipolar resistive switching behavior. ►The current–voltage curves were well fitted for different conduction mechanisms. ►The electroforming and switching processes were explained.

  14. Polyaniline-based memristive microdevice with high switching rate and endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkin, D. A.; Emelyanov, A. V.; Demin, V. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Feigin, L. A.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) based memristive devices have emerged as promising candidates for hardware implementation of artificial synapses (the key components of neuromorphic systems) due to their high flexibility, low cost, solution processability, three-dimensional stacking capability, and biocompatibility. Here, we report on a way of the significant improvement of the switching rate and endurance of PANI-based memristive devices. The reduction of the PANI active channel dimension leads to the increase in the resistive switching rate by hundreds of times in comparison with the conventional one. The miniaturized memristive device was shown to be stable within at least 104 cyclic switching events between high- and low-conductive states with a retention time of at least 103 s. The obtained results make PANI-based memristive devices potentially widely applicable in neuromorphic systems.

  15. Chicken globin gene transcription is cell lineage specific during the time of the switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, R.; Martinson, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Posttranscriptional silencing of embryonic globin gene expression occurs during hemoglobin switching in chickens. Here the authors use Percoll density gradients to fractionate the red blood cells of 5-9 day embryos in order to determine the cellular source and the timing of this posttranscriptional process. By means of nuclear run-on transcription in vitro they show that it is within mature primitive cells that production of embryonic globin mRNA is terminated posttranscriptionally. In contrast, young definitive cells produce little (or no) embryonic globin mRNA because of regulation at the transcriptional level. Thus the lineage specificity of embryonic and adult globin gene expression is determined transcriptionally, and the posttranscriptional process described by Landes et al. is a property of the senescing primitive cells, not a mechanism operative in the hemoglobin switch. This conclusion is supported by [ 3 H]leucine incorporation experiments on Percoll-fractionated cells which reveal no posttranscriptional silencing of the embryonic genes during the early stages of the switch. In the course of these studies they have noticed a strong transcriptional pause near the second exon of the globin genes which is induced by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) and which resembles a natural pause near that position

  16. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poittevin, Marine; Lozeron, Pierre; Hilal, Rose; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of cerebral blood flow after stroke induces cerebral tissue injury through multiple mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in blood vessel walls play a key role in cerebral blood flow control. Cerebral ischemia triggers these cells to switch to a phenotype that will be either detrimental or beneficial to brain repair. Moreover, SMC can be primarily affected genetically or by toxic metabolic molecules. After stroke, this pathological phenotype has an impact on the incidence, pattern, severity, and outcome of the cerebral ischemic disease. Although little research has been conducted on the pathological role and molecular mechanisms of SMC in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases, some therapeutic targets have already been identified and could be considered for further pharmacological development. We examine these different aspects in this review.

  17. Mode Switching for the Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channel Based on Delay and Channel Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect channel state information degrades the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications; its effects on single-user (SU and multiuser (MU MIMO transmissions are quite different. In particular, MU-MIMO suffers from residual interuser interference due to imperfect channel state information while SU-MIMO only suffers from a power loss. This paper compares the throughput loss of both SU and MU-MIMO in the broadcast channel due to delay and channel quantization. Accurate closed-form approximations are derived for achievable rates for both SU and MU-MIMO. It is shown that SU-MIMO is relatively robust to delayed and quantized channel information, while MU-MIMO with zero-forcing precoding loses its spatial multiplexing gain with a fixed delay or fixed codebook size. Based on derived achievable rates, a mode switching algorithm is proposed, which switches between SU and MU-MIMO modes to improve the spectral efficiency based on average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, normalized Doppler frequency, and the channel quantization codebook size. The operating regions for SU and MU modes with different delays and codebook sizes are determined, and they can be used to select the preferred mode. It is shown that the MU mode is active only when the normalized Doppler frequency is very small, and the codebook size is large.

  18. Correspondence between visual and electrical input filters of ON and OFF mouse retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, S.; Jalligampala, A.; Zrenner, E.; Rathbun, D. L.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Over the past two decades retinal prostheses have made major strides in restoring functional vision to patients blinded by diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Presently, implants use single pulses to activate the retina. Though this stimulation paradigm has proved beneficial to patients, an unresolved problem is the inability to selectively stimulate the on and off visual pathways. To this end our goal was to test, using white noise, voltage-controlled, cathodic, monophasic pulse stimulation, whether different retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in the wild type retina have different electrical input filters. This is an important precursor to addressing pathway-selective stimulation. Approach. Using full-field visual flash and electrical and visual Gaussian noise stimulation, combined with the technique of spike-triggered averaging (STA), we calculate the electrical and visual input filters for different types of RGCs (classified as on, off or on-off based on their response to the flash stimuli). Main results. Examining the STAs, we found that the spiking activity of on cells during electrical stimulation correlates with a decrease in the voltage magnitude preceding a spike, while the spiking activity of off cells correlates with an increase in the voltage preceding a spike. No electrical preference was found for on-off cells. Comparing STAs of wild type and rd10 mice revealed narrower electrical STA deflections with shorter latencies in rd10. Significance. This study is the first comparison of visual cell types and their corresponding temporal electrical input filters in the retina. The altered input filters in degenerated rd10 retinas are consistent with photoreceptor stimulation underlying visual type-specific electrical STA shapes in wild type retina. It is therefore conceivable that existing implants could target partially degenerated photoreceptors that have only lost their outer segments, but not somas, to selectively activate the on and off

  19. Noise and crosstalk in two quorum-sensing inputs of Vibrio fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Joel T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the puzzles in bacterial quorum sensing is understanding how an organism integrates the information gained from multiple input signals. The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri regulates its bioluminescence through a quorum sensing mechanism that receives input from three pheromone signals, including two acyl homoserine lactone (HSL signals. While the role of the 3-oxo-C6 homoserine lactone (3OC6HSL signal in activating the lux genes has been extensively studied and modeled, the role of the C8 homoserine lactone (C8HSL is less obvious, as it can either activate luminescence or block its activation. It remains unclear how crosstalk between C8HSL and 3OC6HSL affects the information that the bacterium obtains through quorum sensing. Results We have used microfluidic methods to measure the response of individual V.fischeri cells to combinations of C8HSL and 3OC6HSL. By measuring the fluorescence of individual V.fischeri cells containing a chromosomal gfp-reporter for the lux genes, we study how combinations of exogenous HSLs affect both the population average and the cell-to-cell variability of lux activation levels. At the level of a population average, the crosstalk between the C8HSL and 3OC6HSL inputs is well-described by a competitive inhibition model. At the level of individual cells, the heterogeneity in the lux response depends only on the average degree of activation, so that the noise in the output is not reduced by the presence of the second HSL signal. Overall we find that the mutual information between the signal inputs and the lux output is less than one bit. A nonlinear correlation between fluorescence and bioluminescence outputs from lux leads to different noise properties for these reporters. Conclusions The lux genes in V.fischeri do not appear to distinguish between the two HSL inputs, and even with two signal inputs the regulation of lux is extremely noisy. Hence the role of crosstalk from the C8HSL input

  20. Switch in Site of Inhibition: A Strategy for Structure-Based Discovery of Human Topoisomerase IIα Catalytic Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A study of structure-based modulation of known ligands of hTopoIIα, an important enzyme involved in DNA processes, coupled with synthesis and in vitro assays led to the establishment of a strategy of rational switch in mode of inhibition of the enzyme’s catalytic cycle. 6-Arylated derivatives of known imidazopyridine ligands were found to be selective inhibitors of hTopoIIα, while not showing TopoI inhibition and DNA binding. Interestingly, while the parent imidazopyridines acted as ATP-competitive inhibitors, arylated derivatives inhibited DNA cleavage similar to merbarone, indicating a switch in mode of inhibition from ATP-hydrolysis to the DNA-cleavage stage of catalytic cycle of the enzyme. The 6-aryl-imidazopyridines were relatively more cytotoxic than etoposide in cancer cells and less toxic to normal cells. Such unprecedented strategy will encourage research on “choice-based change” in target-specific mode of action for rapid drug discovery. PMID:25941559

  1. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in Al2O3 bilayer-based atomic switches: multilevel resistive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-01

    Atomic switches are considered to be building blocks for future non-volatile data storage and internet of things. However, obtaining device structures capable of ultrahigh density data storage, high endurance, and long data retention, and more importantly, understanding the switching mechanisms are still a challenge for atomic switches. Here, we achieved improved resistive switching performance in a bilayer structure containing aluminum oxide, with an oxygen-deficient oxide as the top switching layer and stoichiometric oxide as the bottom switching layer, using atomic layer deposition. This bilayer device showed a high on/off ratio (105) with better endurance (∼2000 cycles) and longer data retention (104 s) than single-oxide layers. In addition, depending on the compliance current, the bilayer device could be operated in four different resistance states. Furthermore, the depth profiles of the hourglass-shaped conductive filament of the bilayer device was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  2. Adaptive Synchronization for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems with Switching Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridho Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a multi-agent extension of output-feedback model reference adaptive control (MRAC, designed to synchronize a network of heterogeneous uncertain agents. The implementation of this scheme is based on multi-agent matching conditions. The practical advantage of the proposed MRAC is the possibility of handling the case of the unknown dynamics of the agents only by using the output and the control input of its neighbors. In addition, it is reasonable to consider the case when the communication topology is time-varying. In this work, the time-varying communication leads to a switching control structure that depends on the number of the predecessor of the agents. By using the switching control structure to handle the time-varying topologies, we show that synchronization can be achieved. The multi-agent adaptive switching controller is first analyzed, and numerical simulations based on formation control of simplifier quadcopter dynamics are provided.

  3. Composition-ratio influence on resistive switching behavior of solution-processed InGaZnO-based thin-film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Inchan; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-11-01

    The influence of composition ratio on the bipolar resistive switching behavior of resistive switching memory devices based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) using the spin-coating process was investigated. To study the stoichiometric effects of the a-IGZO films on device characteristics, four devices with In/Ga/Zn stoichiometries of 1:1:1, 3:1:1, 1:3:1, and 1:1:3 were fabricated and characterized. The 3:1:1 film showed an ohmic behavior and the 1:1:3 film showed a rectifying switching behavior. The current-voltage characteristics of the a-IGZO films with stoichiometries of 1:1:1 and 1:3:1, however, showed a bipolar resistive memory switching behavior. We found that the three-fold increase in the gallium content ratio reduces the reset voltage from -0.9 to - 0.4 V and enhances the current ratio of high to low resistive states from 0.7 x 10(1) to 3 x 10(1). Our results show that the increase in the Ga composition ratio in the a-IGZO-based ReRAM cells effectively improves the device performance and reliability by increasing the initial defect density in the a-IGZO films.

  4. Mechanism for resistive switching in chalcogenide-based electrochemical metallization memory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhuge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that in chalcogenide-based electrochemical metallization (ECM memory cells (e.g., As2S3:Ag, GeS:Cu, and Ag2S, the metal filament grows from the cathode (e.g., Pt and W towards the anode (e.g., Cu and Ag, whereas filament growth along the opposite direction has been observed in oxide-based ECM cells (e.g., ZnO, ZrO2, and SiO2. The growth direction difference has been ascribed to a high ion diffusion coefficient in chalcogenides in comparison with oxides. In this paper, upon analysis of OFF state I–V characteristics of ZnS-based ECM cells, we find that the metal filament grows from the anode towards the cathode and the filament rupture and rejuvenation occur at the cathodic interface, similar to the case of oxide-based ECM cells. It is inferred that in ECM cells based on the chalcogenides such as As2S3:Ag, GeS:Cu, and Ag2S, the filament growth from the cathode towards the anode is due to the existence of an abundance of ready-made mobile metal ions in the chalcogenides rather than to the high ion diffusion coefficient.

  5. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  6. Investigation of patterning effects in ultrafast SOA-based optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    , has been proposed based on the idea of driving the SOA at two saturation extremes by two periodic pulse trains. The predictive power of the periodic method is verified by comparing its results with those obtained by using ordinary PRBS patterns. Finally, the effectiveness of the periodic method...... is exploited by analyzing in detail the performance properties of a specific type of switch over large parameter regions. Besides allowing an investigation of patterning effects, the periodic method also simultaneously provides such figures of merit as output power and pulsewidth....... that limits the ultimate speed at which SOA-based switches can be operated. In this paper, we investigate the patterning effects of SOA-based switches using a systematic approach. A simple condition for the lower bound limit of the bit pattern length that should be adopted in the performance evaluations...

  7. Resistive switching in microscale anodic titanium dioxide-based memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, V.; Zaffora, A.; Lullo, G.; Santamaria, M.; Di Franco, F.; Lo Cicero, U.; Mosca, M.; Macaluso, R.

    2018-01-01

    The potentiality of anodic TiO2 as an oxide material for the realization of resistive switching memory cells has been explored in this paper. Cu/anodic-TiO2/Ti memristors of different sizes, ranging from 1 × 1 μm2 to 10 × 10 μm2 have been fabricated and characterized. The oxide films were grown by anodizing Ti films, using three different process conditions. Measured IV curves have shown similar asymmetric bipolar hysteresis behaviors in all the tested devices, with a gradual switching from the high resistance state to the low resistance state and vice versa, and a ROFF/RON ratio of 80 for the thickest oxide film devices.

  8. Enhanced protein and biochemical production using CRISPRi-based growth switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Grünberger, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    functionality of the growth switches. Decoupling of growth from production of biochemicals was demonstrated for mevalonate, a precursor for isoprenoid compounds. Mass yield of mevalonate was increased by 41%, and production was maintained for more than 45 h after activation of the pyrF-based growth switch...

  9. Reversible light-controlled conductance switching of azobenzene-based metal/polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakula, Christina; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Strunskus, Thomas; Faupel, Franz; Zargarani, Dordaneh; Herges, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    We present a new concept of light-controlled conductance switching based on metal/polymer nanocomposites with dissolved chromophores that do not have intrinsic current switching ability. Photoswitchable metal/PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by physical vapor deposition of Au and Pt clusters, respectively, onto spin-coated thin poly(methylmethacrylate) films doped with azo-dye molecules. High dye concentrations were achieved by functionalizing the azo groups with tails and branches, thus enhancing solubility. The composites show completely reversible optical switching of the absorption bands upon alternating irradiation with UV and blue light. We also demonstrate reversible light-controlled conductance switching. This is attributed to changes in the metal cluster separation upon isomerization based on model experiments where analogous conductance changes were induced by swelling of the composite films in organic vapors and by tensile stress.

  10. QKD-Based Secured Burst Integrity Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2016-03-01

    The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. It is quite evident that people prefer optical communication when it comes to large amount of data involving its transmission. The concept of switching in networks has matured enormously with several researches, architecture to implement and methods starting with Optical circuit switching to Optical Burst Switching. Optical burst switching is regarded as viable solution for switching bursts over networks but has several security vulnerabilities. However, this work exploited the security issues associated with Optical Burst Switching with respect to integrity of burst. This proposed Quantum Key based Secure Hash Algorithm (QKBSHA-512) with enhanced compression function design provides better avalanche effect over the conventional integrity algorithms.

  11. Altered kinetics of nonhomologous end joining and class switch recombination in ligase IV-deficient B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Yu, Kefei

    2008-11-24

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination (CSR) is believed to occur through the generation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the long and repetitive switch regions. Although implied, the role of the major vertebrate DSB repair pathway, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), in CSR has been controversial. By somatic gene targeting of DNA ligase IV (Lig4; a key component of NHEJ) in a B cell line (CH12F3) capable of highly efficient CSR in vitro, we found that NHEJ is required for efficient CSR. Disruption of the Lig4 gene in CH12F3 cells severely inhibits the initial rate of CSR and causes a late cell proliferation defect under cytokine stimulation. However, unlike V(D)J recombination, which absolutely requires NHEJ, CSR accumulates to a substantial level in Lig4-null cells. The data revealed a fast-acting NHEJ and a slow-acting alterative end joining of switch region breaks during CSR.

  12. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Parsapoor, Amir; Moallem, Mehdi; Lucas, Caro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  13. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  14. Chemical switches and logic gates based on surface modified semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Szacilowski; Wojciech, Macyk [Jagiellonian Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Photoelectrochemical properties of multicomponent photo-electrodes based on titanium dioxide and cadmium sulfide powders modified with hexacyanoferrate complexes have been examined. Photocurrent responses were recorded as functions of applied potential and photon energy. Surprisingly, the photocurrent can be switched between positive and negative values as a result of potential or photon energy changes. This new effect called Photo Electrochemical Photocurrent Switching (PEPS) opens a possibility of new chemical switches and logic gates construction. Boolean logic analysis and a tentative mechanism of the device are discussed. (authors)

  15. Immobilizing Organic-Based Molecular Switches into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Promising Strategy for Switching in Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Bo; Meng, Yi; Xie, Yang; Du, Ke; Sue, Andrew C-H; Wang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Organic-based molecular switches (OMS) are essential components for the ultimate miniaturization of nanoscale electronics and devices. For practical applications, it is often necessary for OMS to be incorporated into functional solid-state materials. However, the switching characteristics of OMS in solution are usually not transferrable to the solid state, presumably because of spatial confinement or inefficient conversion in densely packed solid phase. A promising way to circumvent this issue is harboring the functional OMS within the robust and porous environment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as their organic components. In this feature article, recent research progress of OMS-based MOFs is briefly summarized. The switching behaviors of OMS under different stimuli (e.g., light, redox, pH, etc.) in the MOF state are first introduced. After that, the technological applications of these OMS-based MOFs in different areas, including CO 2 adsorption, gas separation, drug delivery, photodynamic therapy, and sensing, are outlined. Finally, perspectives and future challenges are discussed in the conclusion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A theoretical and experimental study of neuromorphic atomic switch networks for reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillin, Henry O; Aguilera, Renato; Shieh, Hsien-Hang; Avizienis, Audrius V; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K

    2013-09-27

    Atomic switch networks (ASNs) have been shown to generate network level dynamics that resemble those observed in biological neural networks. To facilitate understanding and control of these behaviors, we developed a numerical model based on the synapse-like properties of individual atomic switches and the random nature of the network wiring. We validated the model against various experimental results highlighting the possibility to functionalize the network plasticity and the differences between an atomic switch in isolation and its behaviors in a network. The effects of changing connectivity density on the nonlinear dynamics were examined as characterized by higher harmonic generation in response to AC inputs. To demonstrate their utility for computation, we subjected the simulated network to training within the framework of reservoir computing and showed initial evidence of the ASN acting as a reservoir which may be optimized for specific tasks by adjusting the input gain. The work presented represents steps in a unified approach to experimentation and theory of complex systems to make ASNs a uniquely scalable platform for neuromorphic computing.

  17. Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danson John

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB noise figure. MEMS switches are used to implement a variable matching network that allows the PA to realize up to 37% PAE improvement at low input powers.

  18. Wireless Nanoionic-Based Radio Frequency Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A nanoionic switch connected to one or more rectenna modules is disclosed. The rectenna module is configured to receive a wireless signal and apply a first bias to change a state of the nanoionic switch from a first state to a second state. The rectenna module can receive a second wireless signal and apply a second bias to change the nanoionic switch from the second state back to the first state. The first bias is generally opposite of the first bias. The rectenna module accordingly permits operation of the nanoionic switch without onboard power.

  19. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  20. All ITO-based transparent resistive switching random access memory using oxygen doping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transparent memory would be useful in invisible electronics. In this work, for the first time we present a feasibility of stable unipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics with reset current of sub-micron ampere for the fully transparent ITO/oxygen-doped ITO/ITO memory capacitors, i.e., all ITO structures, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 80% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test to evaluate a reliability for the proposed memory devices, we observed a stable endurance of >100 cycles and a retention time of >10 4  s at 85 °C, with a current ratio of ∼10 2 to ∼10 3 . This result indicates that this transparent memory by engineering the amount of oxygen ions within the ITO films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent ITO/O-doped ITO/ITO RRAM cells have investigated. • All ITO-based RRAM cell is achieved using oxygen doping method. • Good endurance and long retention time were observed.

  1. Design of a bistable switch to control cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Diego A; Chaves, Madalena

    2015-12-06

    Bistable switches are widely used in synthetic biology to trigger cellular functions in response to environmental signals. All bistable switches developed so far, however, control the expression of target genes without access to other layers of the cellular machinery. Here, we propose a bistable switch to control the rate at which cells take up a metabolite from the environment. An uptake switch provides a new interface to command metabolic activity from the extracellular space and has great potential as a building block in more complex circuits that coordinate pathway activity across cell cultures, allocate metabolic tasks among different strains or require cell-to-cell communication with metabolic signals. Inspired by uptake systems found in nature, we propose to couple metabolite import and utilization with a genetic circuit under feedback regulation. Using mathematical models and analysis, we determined the circuit architectures that produce bistability and obtained their design space for bistability in terms of experimentally tuneable parameters. We found an activation-repression architecture to be the most robust switch because it displays bistability for the largest range of design parameters and requires little fine-tuning of the promoters' response curves. Our analytic results are based on on-off approximations of promoter activity and are in excellent qualitative agreement with simulations of more realistic models. With further analysis and simulation, we established conditions to maximize the parameter design space and to produce bimodal phenotypes via hysteresis and cell-to-cell variability. Our results highlight how mathematical analysis can drive the discovery of new circuits for synthetic biology, as the proposed circuit has all the hallmarks of a toggle switch and stands as a promising design to control metabolic phenotypes across cell cultures. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki [Chicago U., EFI; Liu, Tiehui Ted [Fermilab; Olsen, Jamieson [Fermilab; Iizawa, Tomoya [Waseda U.; Mitani, Takashi [Waseda U.; Korikawa, Tomohiro [Waseda U.; Yorita, Kohei [Waseda U.; Annovi, Alberto [Frascati; Beretta, Matteo [Frascati; Gatta, Maurizio [Frascati; Sotiropoulou, C-L. [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Kordas, Konstantinos [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Kimura, Naoki [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Cremonesi, Matteo [Chicago U., EFI; Yin, Hang [Fermilab; Xu, Zijun [Peking U.

    2015-04-27

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker are clustered and organized into overlapping eta-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking engines. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over full mesh backplanes and optic fibers. The board and system level design concepts and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  3. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Y; The ATLAS collaboration; Olsen, J; Iizawa, T; Mitani, T; Korikawa, T; Yorita, K; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Gatta, M; Sotiropoulou, C; Gkaitatzis, S; Kordas, K; Kimura, N; Cremonesi, M; Yin, H; Xu, Z

    2014-01-01

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker must be clustered and organized into overlapping eta-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking processors. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over a full-mesh backplane. The board and system level performance studies and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  4. A progress report of the switch-based data acquisition system prototype project and the application of switches from industry to high-energy physics event building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.; Booth, A.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype of a data acquisition system based on a new scalable, highly-parallel, open-system architecture is being developed at Fermilab. The major component of the new architecture, the parallel event builder, is based on a telecommunications industry technique used in the implementation of switching systems, a barrel-shift switch. The architecture is scalable both in the expandability of the number of input channels and in the throughput of the system. Because of its scalability, the system is well suited for low to high-rate experiments, test beams and all SSC detectors. The architecture is open in that as new technologies are developed and made into commercial products (e.g., arrays of processors and workstations and standard data links), these new products can be easily integrated into the system with minimal system modifications and no modifications to the system's basic architecture. Scalability and openness should guarantee that the data acquisition system does not become obsolete during the lifetime of the experiment. The paper first gives a description of the architecture and the prototype project and then details both the prototype project's software and hardware status including details of some architecture simulation studies. Suggestions for future R and D work on the new data acquisition system architecture are then described. The paper concludes by examining interconnection networks from industry and their application to event building and to other areas of high-energy physics data acquisition systems

  5. Design of frequency-encoded data-based optical master-slave-JK flip-flop using polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sumana; Mandal, Dhoumendra; Mandal, Mrinal Kanti; Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2017-06-01

    An optical data processing and communication system provides enormous potential bandwidth and a very high processing speed, and it can fulfill the demands of the present generation. For an optical computing system, several data processing units that work in the optical domain are essential. Memory elements are undoubtedly essential to storing any information. Optical flip-flops can store one bit of optical information. From these flip-flop registers, counters can be developed. Here, the authors proposed an optical master-slave (MS)-JK flip-flop with the help of two-input and three-input optical NAND gates. Optical NAND gates have been developed using semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). The nonlinear polarization switching property of an SOA has been exploited here, and it acts as a polarization switch in the proposed scheme. A frequency encoding technique is adopted for representing data. A specific frequency of an optical signal represents a binary data bit. This technique of data representation is helpful because frequency is the fundamental property of a signal, and it remains unaltered during reflection, refraction, absorption, etc. throughout the data propagation. The simulated results enhance the admissibility of the scheme.

  6. Ergonomic problems regarding the interactive touch input via screens in onboard and ground-based flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhausen, K. P.; Gaertner, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    A significant problem concerning the integration of display and switching functions is related to the fact that numerous informative data which have to be processed by man must be read from only a few display devices. A satisfactory ergonomic design of integrated display devices and keyboards is in many cases difficult, because not all functions which can be displayed and selected are simultaneously available. A technical solution which provides an integration of display and functional elements on the basis of the highest flexibility is obtained by using a cathode ray tube with a touch-sensitive screen. The employment of an integrated data input/output system is demonstrated for the cases of onboard and ground-based flight control. Ergonomic studies conducted to investigate the suitability of an employment of touch-sensitive screens are also discussed.

  7. Zero-Voltage Switching PWM Strategy Based Capacitor Current-Balancing Control for Half-Bridge Three-Level DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The current imbalance among the two input capacitors is one of the important issues of the half-bridge threelevel (HBTL) DC/DC converter, which would affect system performance and reliability. In this paper, a zero-voltage switching (ZVS) pulse-wide modulation (PWM) strategy including two operation...

  8. Optical-cell model based on the lasing competition of mode structures with different Q-factors in high-power semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podoskin, A. A., E-mail: podoskin@mail.ioffe.ru; Shashkin, I. S.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    A model describing the operation of a completely optical cell, based on the competition of lasing of Fabry-Perot cavity modes and the high-Q closed mode in high-power semiconductor lasers is proposed. Based on rate equations, the conditions of lasing switching between Fabry-Perot modes for ground and excited lasing levels and the closed mode are considered in the case of increasing internal optical loss under conditions of high current pump levels. The optical-cell operation conditions in the mode of a high-power laser radiation switch (reversible mode-structure switching) and in the mode of a memory cell with bistable irreversible lasing switching between mode structures with various Q-factors are considered.

  9. Sick of queuing? The Registration Service has the answer

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the year, CERN's Registration Service, in its fully renovated premises, launched a new initiative to save you time and to optimise the work of its staff.   One free-to-download application, two ticket printers and three screens: behind this simple-looking system sits an ingenious process (see the slideshow) that will enable you to avoid long waiting times at CERN's Registration Service. The Service delivers some 22 000 badges each year, reaching a peak of 700 per week, and is therefore one of the few places at CERN where queuing is the norm.  But that could all change thanks to Qminder, an app that allows users to monitor the waiting times in Building 55 from their smartphones. From today, you can take a virtual ticket using your device and see how long you will have to wait before your case is handled by the next available member of staff.  “The system can also provide statistics on waiting times in the various registration service...

  10. 2x1 prototype plasma-electrode pockels cell (PEPC) for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M. A.

    1996-10-01

    A large aperture optical switch based on plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) technology is an integral part of the National Ignition Facility (NIP) laser design. This optical switch will trap the input optical pulse in the NIF amplifier cavity for four gain passes and then switch the high-energy output optical pulse out of the cavity. The switch will consist of arrays of plasma electrode Pockels cells working in conjunction with thin-film, Brewster's angle polarizes. The 192 beams in the NIF will be arranged in 4x2 bundles. To meet the required beam-to-beam spacing within each bundle, we have proposed a NIF PEPC design based on a 4x1 mechanical module (column) which is in turn comprised of two electrically independent 2x1 PEPC units. In this paper, we report on the design a single 2x1 prototype module and experimental tests of important design issues using our single, 32 cm aperture PEPC prototype. The purpose the 2x1 prototype is to prove the viability of a 2x1 PEPC and to act, as an engineering test bed for the NIF PEPC design

  11. Cross-Platform Android/iOS-Based Smart Switch Control Middleware in a Digital Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With technological and economic development, people’s lives have been improved substantially, especially their home environments. One of the key aspects of these improvements is home intellectualization, whose core is the smart home control system. Furthermore, as smart phones have become increasingly popular, we can use them to control the home system through Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GSM. This means that control with phones is more convenient and fast and now becomes the primary terminal controller in the smart home. In this paper, we propose middleware for developing a cross-platform Android/iOS-based solution for smart switch control software, focus on the Wi-Fi based communication protocols between the cellphone and the smart switch, achieved a plugin-based smart switch function, defined and implemented the JavaScript interface, and then implemented the cross-platform Android/iOS-based smart switch control software; also the scenarios are illustrated. Finally, tests were performed after the completed realization of the smart switch control system.

  12. Theoretical investigation of a photoconductively switched high-voltage spark gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broks, B.H.P.; Hendriks, J.; Brok, W.J.M.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, a photoconductively switched high-voltage spark gap with an emphasis on theswitching behavior is modeled. It is known experimentally that not all of the voltage that is present at the input of the spark gap is switched, but rather a fraction of it drops across the spark gap.

  13. A Novel Switching-Based Control Framework for Improved Task Performance in Teleoperation System With Asymmetric Time-Varying Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Di-Hua; Xia, Yuanqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the adaptive control for task-space teleoperation systems with constrained predefined synchronization error, where a novel switched control framework is investigated. Based on multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals method, the stability of the resulting closed-loop system is established in the sense of state-independent input-to-output stability. Compared with previous work, the developed method can simultaneously handle the unknown kinematics/dynamics, asymmetric varying time delays, and prescribed performance control in a unified framework. It is shown that the developed controller can guarantee the prescribed transient-state and steady-state synchronization performances between the master and slave robots, which is demonstrated by the simulation study.

  14. Designing of all optical generalized circuit for two-input binary and multi-valued logical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Panchatapa; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a generalized all optical circuit of two-input logical operation (both binary and multi-valued), using an optical nonlinear material (OPNLM) based switch. The inputs of the logic gates are represented by different polarization states of light. This model is simple, practical and very much useful for future all optical information processing. Proposed scheme can work for different wavelengths and for different materials. The simulation result with the nonlinear material gold nanoparticle embedded in optically transparent matrices alumina (Al2O3) is also presented in the paper.

  15. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  16. Cellular Decision Making by Non-Integrative Processing of TLR Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Kellogg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells receive a multitude of signals from the environment, but how they process simultaneous signaling inputs is not well understood. Response to infection, for example, involves parallel activation of multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs that converge on the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway. Although we increasingly understand inflammatory responses for isolated signals, it is not clear how cells process multiple signals that co-occur in physiological settings. We therefore examined a bacterial infection scenario involving co-stimulation of TLR4 and TLR2. Independent stimulation of these receptors induced distinct NF-κB dynamic profiles, although surprisingly, under co-stimulation, single cells continued to show ligand-specific dynamic responses characteristic of TLR2 or TLR4 signaling rather than a mixed response, comprising a cellular decision that we term “non-integrative” processing. Iterating modeling and microfluidic experiments revealed that non-integrative processing occurred through interaction of switch-like NF-κB activation, receptor-specific processing timescales, cell-to-cell variability, and TLR cross-tolerance mediated by multilayer negative feedback.

  17. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  18. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency

  19. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  20. Novel viral vectors utilizing intron splice-switching to activate genome rescue, expression and replication in targeted cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Andaloussi Samir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of virus infection depends from the precise coordination of viral gene expression and genome replication. The ability to control and regulate these processes is therefore important for analysis of infection process. Viruses are also useful tools in bio- and gene technology; they can efficiently kill cancer cells and trigger immune responses to tumors. However, the methods for constructing tissue- or cell-type specific viruses typically suffer from low target-cell specificity and a high risk of reversion. Therefore novel and universal methods of regulation of viral infection are also important for therapeutic application of virus-based systems. Methods Aberrantly spliced introns were introduced into crucial gene-expression units of adenovirus vector and alphavirus DNA/RNA layered vectors and their effects on the viral gene expression, replication and/or the release of infectious genomes were studied in cell culture. Transfection of the cells with splice-switching oligonucleotides was used to correct the introduced functional defect(s. Results It was demonstrated that viral gene expression, replication and/or the release of infectious genomes can be blocked by the introduction of aberrantly spliced introns. The insertion of such an intron into an adenovirus vector reduced the expression of the targeted gene more than fifty-fold. A similar insertion into an alphavirus DNA/RNA layered vector had a less dramatic effect; here, only the release of the infectious transcript was suppressed but not the subsequent replication and spread of the virus. However the insertion of two aberrantly spliced introns resulted in an over one hundred-fold reduction in the infectivity of the DNA/RNA layered vector. Furthermore, in both systems the observed effects could be reverted by the delivery of splice-switching oligonucleotide(s, which corrected the splicing defects. Conclusions Splice-switch technology, originally developed for

  1. Design of convergent switched systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input

  2. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  3. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  4. A 4 × 2 switch matrix in QFN24 package for 0.5–3 GHz application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuzhe; Mu Pengfei; Gong Renjie; Wan Jing; Zhang Yulin; Yan Yuepeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 4 × 2 switching matrix implemented in the Win 0.5 μm GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor process, it covers the 0.5–3 GHz frequency range. The switch matrix is composed of 4 SPDT switch whose two output ports can simultaneously select the input port and a 4 to 8 bit digital decoder, both the radio frequency (RF) part and the digital part are integrated into one single chip. The chip is packaged in a low cost QFN24 plastic package. On chip shunt, capacitors at the input ports are taken to compensate for the bonding wire inductance effect. The designed switch matrix shows a good measured performance: the insertion loss is less than 5.5 dB, the isolation is no worse than 30 dB, the return loss of input ports and output ports is better than −10 dB, the input 1 dB compression point is better than 25.6 dBm, and the OIP3 is better than 37 dBm. The chip size of the switch matrix is only 1.45 × 1.45 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. About influence of input rate random part of nonstationary queue system on statistical estimates of its macroscopic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korelin, Ivan A.; Porshnev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    A model of the non-stationary queuing system (NQS) is described. The input of this model receives a flow of requests with input rate λ = λdet (t) + λrnd (t), where λdet (t) is a deterministic function depending on time; λrnd (t) is a random function. The parameters of functions λdet (t), λrnd (t) were identified on the basis of statistical information on visitor flows collected from various Russian football stadiums. The statistical modeling of NQS is carried out and the average statistical dependences are obtained: the length of the queue of requests waiting for service, the average wait time for the service, the number of visitors entered to the stadium on the time. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by the following parameters: the number of visitors who entered at the time of the match; time required to service all incoming visitors; the maximum value; the argument value when the studied dependence reaches its maximum value. The dependences of these parameters on the energy ratio of the deterministic and random component of the input rate are investigated.

  6. A Zero Input Current Ripple ZVS/ZCS Boost Converter with Boundary-Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to achieve zero ripple conditions, the use of a ripple mirror (RM circuit for the boost converter is proposed. The operation modes are studied and steady-state analyses performed to show the merits of the proposed converter. It is found that the proposed RM circuit technique can provide much better flexibility than the two-phase interleaved boost converter for locating the zero ripple operating point in the design stage. In addition, the choice of using a boundary-mode control is mainly based on the consideration of achieving both ZVS (zero voltage switching/ZCS (zero current switching soft-switching and constant on-time control for the converter. To verify the performance of the proposed converter, a 48 V input and 200 W/200 V output prototype is constructed. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  7. Human lymphoma mutations reveal CARD11 as the switch between self-antigen–induced B cell death or proliferation and autoantibody production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelall, Yogesh S.; Wang, James Q.; Law, Hsei-Di; Domaschenz, Heather; Fung, Herman K.H.; Kallies, Axel; Nutt, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tolerance and immunity are actively acquired in parallel through a poorly understood ability of antigen receptors to switch between signaling death or proliferation of antigen-binding lymphocytes in different contexts. It is not known whether this tolerance-immunity switch requires global rewiring of the signaling apparatus or if it can arise from a single molecular change. By introducing individual CARD11 mutations found in human lymphomas into antigen-activated mature B lymphocytes in mice, we find here that lymphoma-derived CARD11 mutations switch the effect of self-antigen from inducing B cell death into T cell–independent proliferation, Blimp1-mediated plasmablast differentiation, and autoantibody secretion. Our findings demonstrate that regulation of CARD11 signaling is a critical switch governing the decision between death and proliferation in antigen-stimulated mature B cells and that mutations in this switch represent a powerful initiator for aberrant B cell responses in vivo. PMID:23027925

  8. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  9. Study of the Switching Errors in an RSFQ Switch by Using a Computerized Test Setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Hoon; Baek, Seung Hun; Yang, Jung Kuk; Kim, Jun Ho; Kang, Joon Hee

    2005-01-01

    The problem of fluctuation-induced digital errors in a rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuit has been a very important issue. In this work, we calculated the bit error rate of an RSFQ switch used in superconductive arithmetic logic unit (ALU). RSFQ switch should have a very low error rate in the optimal bias. Theoretical estimates of the RSFQ error rate are on the order of 10 -50 per bit operation. In this experiment, we prepared two identical circuits placed in parallel. Each circuit was composed of 10 Josephson transmission lines (JTLs) connected in series with an RSFQ switch placed in the middle of the 10 JTLs. We used a splitter to feed the same input signal to both circuits. The outputs of the two circuits were compared with an RSFQ exclusive OR (XOR) to measure the bit error rate of the RSFQ switch. By using a computerized bit-error-rate test setup, we measured the bit error rate of 2.18 x 10 -12 when the bias to the RSFQ switch was 0.398 mA that was quite off from the optimum bias of 0.6 mA.

  10. Wireless Chalcogenide Nanoionic-Based Radio-Frequency Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    A new nonvolatile nanoionic switch is powered and controlled through wireless radio-frequency (RF) transmission. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass doped with a metal ion, such as silver, comprises the operational portion of the switch. For the switch to function, an oxidizable electrode is made positive (anode) with respect to an opposing electrode (cathode) when sufficient bias, typically on the order of a few tenths of a volt or more, is applied. This action causes the metal ions to flow toward the cathode through a coordinated hopping mechanism. At the cathode, a reduction reaction occurs to form a metal deposit. This metal deposit creates a conductive path that bridges the gap between electrodes to turn the switch on. Once this conductive path is formed, no further power is required to maintain it. To reverse this process, the metal deposit is made positive with respect to the original oxidizable electrode, causing the dissolution of the metal bridge thereby turning the switch off. Once the metal deposit has been completely dissolved, the process self-terminates. This switching process features the following attributes. It requires very little to change states (i.e., on and off). Furthermore, no power is required to maintain the states; hence, the state of the switch is nonvolatile. Because of these attributes the integration of a rectenna to provide the necessary power and control is unique to this embodiment. A rectenna, or rectifying antenna, generates DC power from an incident RF signal. The low voltages and power required for the nanoionic switch control are easily generated from this system and provide the switch with a novel capability to be operated and powered from an external wireless device. In one realization, an RF signal of a specific frequency can be used to set the switch into an off state, while another frequency can be used to set the switch to an on state. The wireless, miniaturized, and nomoving- part features of this switch make it

  11. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms

  12. CD8 Follicular T Cells Promote B Cell Antibody Class Switch in Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Kristen M; Davini, Dan; Lawrence, Travis J; Mullins, Genevieve N; Manansala, Miguel; Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Pinney, James M; Davis, Jason K; Beaudin, Anna E; Sindi, Suzanne S; Gravano, David M; Hoyer, Katrina K

    2018-05-09

    CD8 T cells can play both a protective and pathogenic role in inflammation and autoimmune development. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of CD8 T cells to function as T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the germinal center in the context of infection. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in autoimmunity and contributes to autoimmune pathogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we show that CD8 T cells acquire a CD4 Tfh profile in the absence of functional regulatory T cells in both the IL-2-deficient and scurfy mouse models. Depletion of CD8 T cells mitigates autoimmune pathogenesis in IL-2-deficient mice. CD8 T cells express the B cell follicle-localizing chemokine receptor CXCR5, a principal Tfh transcription factor Bcl6, and the Tfh effector cytokine IL-21. CD8 T cells localize to the B cell follicle, express B cell costimulatory proteins, and promote B cell differentiation and Ab isotype class switching. These data reveal a novel contribution of autoreactive CD8 T cells to autoimmune disease, in part, through CD4 follicular-like differentiation and functionality. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Active RF Pulse Compression Using An Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator like sources, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  14. Software development for a switch-based data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, A. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Black, D.; Walsh, D. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1991-12-01

    We report on the software aspects of the development of a switch-based data acquisition system at Fermilab. This paper describes how, with the goal of providing an integrated systems engineering'' environment, several powerful software tools were put in place to facilitate extensive exploration of all aspects of the design. These tools include a simulation package, graphics package and an Expert System shell which have been integrated to provide an environment which encourages the close interaction of hardware and software engineers. This paper includes a description of the simulation, user interface, embedded software, remote procedure calls, and diagnostic software which together have enabled us to provide real-time control and monitoring of a working prototype switch-based data acquisition (DAQ) system.

  15. Non-Stationary Single-Channel Queuing System Features Research in Context of Number of Served Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porshnev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work devoted to researching of mathematical model of non-stationary queuing system (NQS. Arrival rate in studied NQS λ(t is similar to rate which observed in practice in a real access control system of objects of mass events. Dependence of number of serviced requests from time was calculated. It is proven that the ratio value of served requests at the beginning of event to all served requests described by a deterministic function, depending on the average service rate μ¯$\\bar \\mu $ and the maximum value of the arrival rate function λ(t.

  16. Development of FET-switched induction accelerator cells for heavy-ion fusion recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.A.; Cravey, W.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Kirbie, H.C.; Ollis, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The ''recirculator,'' a recirculating heavy-ion induction accelerator, has been identified as a promising approach for an inertial fusion driver. One of the technical challenges to building a recirculator is the requirement for a modulator that can drive the induction accelerator cells at repetition rates ≥ 100 kHz with variable pulse width and pulse repetition rate capability. A high repetition rate modulator and cell is presently being developed for use on a proposed heavy-ion recirculator. The goal is to develop an array of field-effect transistors to switch 5 kV, 1 μs pulses onto a Metglas induction core at pulse rates exceeding 100 kHz. Each transistor in the array is driven by a fiber-optic isolated gate signal that is powered by a dc/dc converter. The circuit architecture provides for core reset between pulses and produces bursts of pulses that are variable in pulse width and prf. The transistor switching array, energy storage capacitors, reset circuit and cell core are all combined into a single compact, low-impedance package. Progress of this development work will be presented with supporting data

  17. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme in short-range open-access and over-loaded femtocells. It is assumed that the available orthogonal channels for the femtocell network are distributed among operating access points in close vicinity, where each of which knows its allocated channels a priori. For the case when the feedback links are capacity-limited and the available channels can be universally shared and simultaneously used, the paper presents enhanced schemes to identify a channel to serve the desired scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those of the single-threshold switched-based scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Properties of uncharged water-soluble tetra({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine free base: Viable switching of the optical response by means of H{sub 3}O{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Placido [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici - CNR, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D' Alcontres, 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Lupo, Fabio; Fragala, Ignazio; Scamporrino, Emilio [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Gulino, Antonino, E-mail: agulino@unict.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    An uncharged water-soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis and luminescence measurements. The polyether substituents render water soluble this uncharged phthalocyanine. Relevant changes are observed in emission measurements upon protonation. The phthalocyanine free base and its protonated forms can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions as inputs, being the intensity of the luminescence spectra the output. Binary codes 1 or 0 can be assigned to the high luminescent phthalocyanine free base state or to the low luminescent protonated state, respectively. The read-out procedure is fast and the system is reversible. In addition, the exploiting of the luminescent properties of the present water soluble phthalocyanine could be of relevance also for biological applications (photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An uncharged water soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalocyanine protonation changes the luminescence output. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} as inputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The read-out procedure is fast and reversible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binary codes are assigned to the high and low luminescent states, respectively.

  19. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  20. Acousto-Optic Q-Switched Fiber Laser-Based Intra-Cavity Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zongliang; Wang, Fupeng; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-12-25

    We proposed a new method for gas detection in photoacoustic spectroscopy based on acousto-optic Q-switched fiber laser by merging a transmission PAS cell (resonant frequency f ₀ = 5.3 kHz) inside the fiber laser cavity. The Q-switching was achieved by an acousto-optic modulator, achieving a peak pulse power of ~679 mW in the case of the acousto-optic modulation signal with an optimized duty ratio of 10%. We used a custom-made fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530.37 nm (the absorption peak of C₂H₂) to select the laser wavelength. The system achieved a linear response (R² = 0.9941) in a concentration range from 400 to 7000 ppmv, and the minimum detection limit compared to that of a conventional intensity modulation system was enhanced by 94.2 times.

  1. Synthetic Biology Platform for Sensing and Integrating Endogenous Transcriptional Inputs in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Bartolomeo; Mailand, Erik; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2016-08-30

    One of the goals of synthetic biology is to develop programmable artificial gene networks that can transduce multiple endogenous molecular cues to precisely control cell behavior. Realizing this vision requires interfacing natural molecular inputs with synthetic components that generate functional molecular outputs. Interfacing synthetic circuits with endogenous mammalian transcription factors has been particularly difficult. Here, we describe a systematic approach that enables integration and transduction of multiple mammalian transcription factor inputs by a synthetic network. The approach is facilitated by a proportional amplifier sensor based on synergistic positive autoregulation. The circuits efficiently transduce endogenous transcription factor levels into RNAi, transcriptional transactivation, and site-specific recombination. They also enable AND logic between pairs of arbitrary transcription factors. The results establish a framework for developing synthetic gene networks that interface with cellular processes through transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Microcontroller-Based Automatic Transfer Switching System for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Most industries still employ the manual method of power supply changeover, ... This paper presents a Microcontroller-Based Automatic Transfer Switching System ..... and currently has special research interest in Wireless.

  3. A Novel Single Switch Transformerless Quadratic DC/DC Buck-Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; A. Gorji, Saman; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    A novel quadratic buck-boost DC/DC converter is presented in this study. The proposed converter utilizes only one active switch and can step-up/down the input voltage, while the existing single switch quadratic buck/boost converters can only work in step-up or step-down mode. First, the proposed ...

  4. Operation of a homeostatic sleep switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Diogo; Donlea, Jeffrey M; Talbot, Clifford B; Song, Seoho M; Thurston, Alexander J F; Miesenböck, Gero

    2016-08-18

    Sleep disconnects animals from the external world, at considerable risks and costs that must be offset by a vital benefit. Insight into this mysterious benefit will come from understanding sleep homeostasis: to monitor sleep need, an internal bookkeeper must track physiological changes that are linked to the core function of sleep. In Drosophila, a crucial component of the machinery for sleep homeostasis is a cluster of neurons innervating the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of the central complex. Artificial activation of these cells induces sleep, whereas reductions in excitability cause insomnia. dFB neurons in sleep-deprived flies tend to be electrically active, with high input resistances and long membrane time constants, while neurons in rested flies tend to be electrically silent. Correlative evidence thus supports the simple view that homeostatic sleep control works by switching sleep-promoting neurons between active and quiescent states. Here we demonstrate state switching by dFB neurons, identify dopamine as a neuromodulator that operates the switch, and delineate the switching mechanism. Arousing dopamine caused transient hyperpolarization of dFB neurons within tens of milliseconds and lasting excitability suppression within minutes. Both effects were transduced by Dop1R2 receptors and mediated by potassium conductances. The switch to electrical silence involved the downregulation of voltage-gated A-type currents carried by Shaker and Shab, and the upregulation of voltage-independent leak currents through a two-pore-domain potassium channel that we term Sandman. Sandman is encoded by the CG8713 gene and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to dopamine. dFB-restricted interference with the expression of Shaker or Sandman decreased or increased sleep, respectively, by slowing the repetitive discharge of dFB neurons in the ON state or blocking their entry into the OFF state. Biophysical changes in a small population of neurons are thus linked to the

  5. Input-profile-based software failure probability quantification for safety signal generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2009-01-01

    The approaches for software failure probability estimation are mainly based on the results of testing. Test cases represent the inputs, which are encountered in an actual use. The test inputs for the safety-critical application such as a reactor protection system (RPS) of a nuclear power plant are the inputs which cause the activation of protective action such as a reactor trip. A digital system treats inputs from instrumentation sensors as discrete digital values by using an analog-to-digital converter. Input profile must be determined in consideration of these characteristics for effective software failure probability quantification. Another important characteristic of software testing is that we do not have to repeat the test for the same input value since the software response is deterministic for each specific digital input. With these considerations, we propose an effective software testing method for quantifying the failure probability. As an example application, the input profile of the digital RPS is developed based on the typical plant data. The proposed method in this study is expected to provide a simple but realistic mean to quantify the software failure probability based on input profile and system dynamics.

  6. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  7. Design of an IPTV Multicast System for Internet Backbone Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Szymanski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an IPTV multicast system for the Internet backbone network is presented and explored through extensive simulations. In the proposed system, a resource reservation algorithm such as RSVP, IntServ, or DiffServ is used to reserve resources (i.e., bandwidth and buffer space in each router in an IP multicast tree. Each router uses an Input-Queued, Output-Queued, or Crosspoint-Queued switch architecture with unity speedup. A recently proposed Recursive Fair Stochastic Matrix Decomposition algorithm used to compute near-perfect transmission schedules for each IP router. The IPTV traffic is shaped at the sources using Application-Specific Token Bucker Traffic Shapers, to limit the burstiness of incoming network traffic. The IPTV traffic is shaped at the destinations using Application-Specific Playback Queues, to remove residual network jitter and reconstruct the original bursty IPTV video streams at each destination. All IPTV traffic flows are regenerated at the destinations with essentially zero delay jitter and essentially-perfect QoS. The destination nodes deliver the IPTV streams to the ultimate end users using the same IPTV multicast system over a regional Metropolitan Area Network. It is shown that all IPTV traffic is delivered with essentially-perfect end-to-end QoS, with deterministic bounds on the maximum delay and jitter on each video frame. Detailed simulations of an IPTV distribution system, multicasting several hundred high-definition IPTV video streams over several essentially saturated IP backbone networks are presented.

  8. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  9. Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Jung–Min Yang

    2016-01-01

    Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the ...

  10. A behavioral simulator for switched-capacitor sigma-delta modulator analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San, H. Y.; Rezaul Hasan, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a PC-based simulator for state of the art oversampled switched-capacitor sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters is presented. The proposed simulator employs behavioral model of switched-capacitor integrator and non-linear quantizer to stimulate the system. The behavioral simulation of the integrator is also verified with SPICE. The simulator is fully integrated and standalone. It integrates an input netlist file interpreter, a behavioral simulator, a generic part library and a powerful post-processor to evaluate the SNR, SDR And TSNR. Both passive and active sensitivities can be investigated by the proposed simulator. The simulator is coded in C++, and is very fast

  11. Simulator comparison of thumball, thumb switch, and touch screen input concepts for interaction with a large screen cockpit display format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted comparing three different input methods for interfacing to a large screen, multiwindow, whole flight deck display for management of transport aircraft systems. The thumball concept utilized a miniature trackball embedded in a conventional side arm controller. The multifunction control throttle and stick (MCTAS) concept employed a thumb switch located in the throttle handle. The touch screen concept provided data entry through a capacitive touch screen installed on the display surface. The objective and subjective results obtained indicate that, with present implementations, the thumball concept was the most appropriate for interfacing with aircraft systems/subsystems presented on a large screen display. Not unexpectedly, the completion time differences between the three concepts varied with the task being performed, although the thumball implementation consistently outperformed the other two concepts. However, pilot suggestions for improved implementations of the MCTAS and touch screen concepts could reduce some of these differences.

  12. A queuing application to the radiology service at Hotel Dieu de France hospital (Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaib, Ali Hani

    1995-08-01

    Engineering management is becoming a vital element for the success of any service or industry. Managerial tools are being used to enhance the quality of a service or an industry and decrease its cost. Hospital services all over the world are making use of the tools in order to provide better and cheaper health care. In Lebanon, most services, including hospitals, are poorly taking advantage of the available managerial tools. this research will provide an example of applying queuing theory to the radiology service at a hospital. Supported by data from a field study, it will provide a model to predict the behavior of the service and suggest strategies that can enhance the service and increase profit. (author)

  13. Electrical Switching in Thin Film Structures Based on Transition Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pergament

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical switching, manifesting itself in the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics with S- and N-type NDR (negative differential resistance, is inherent in a variety of materials, in particular, transition metal oxides. Although this phenomenon has been known for a long time, recent suggestions to use oxide-based switching elements as neuristor synapses and relaxation-oscillation circuit components have resumed the interest in this area. In the present review, we describe the experimental facts and theoretical models, mainly on the basis of the Mott transition in vanadium dioxide as a model object, of the switching effect with special emphasis on the emerging applied potentialities for oxide electronics.

  14. Fast and flexible selection with a single switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Broderick

    Full Text Available Selection methods that require only a single-switch input, such as a button click or blink, are potentially useful for individuals with motor impairments, mobile technology users, and individuals wishing to transmit information securely. We present a single-switch selection method, "Nomon," that is general and efficient. Existing single-switch selection methods require selectable options to be arranged in ways that limit potential applications. By contrast, traditional operating systems, web browsers, and free-form applications (such as drawing place options at arbitrary points on the screen. Nomon, however, has the flexibility to select any point on a screen. Nomon adapts automatically to an individual's clicking ability; it allows a person who clicks precisely to make a selection quickly and allows a person who clicks imprecisely more time to make a selection without error. Nomon reaps gains in information rate by allowing the specification of beliefs (priors about option selection probabilities and by avoiding tree-based selection schemes in favor of direct (posterior inference. We have developed both a Nomon-based writing application and a drawing application. To evaluate Nomon's performance, we compared the writing application with a popular existing method for single-switch writing (row-column scanning. Novice users wrote 35% faster with the Nomon interface than with the scanning interface. An experienced user (author TB, with 10 hours practice wrote at speeds of 9.3 words per minute with Nomon, using 1.2 clicks per character and making no errors in the final text.

  15. Electrochemical structure-switching sensing using nanoplasmonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patskovsky, Sergiy; Dallaire, Anne-Marie; Blanchard-Dionne, Andre-Pierre; Meunier, Michel [Department of Engineering Physics, Laser Processing and Plasmonics Laboratory, Polytechnique, Montreal, Station Centre-ville, QC (Canada); Vallee-Belisle, Alexis [Laboratory of Biosensors and Nanomachines, Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In this article, the implementation of electrochemical plasmonic nanostructures functionalized with DNA-based structure-switching sensors is presented. eNanoSPR devices with open and microfluidic measurement cells are developed on the base of nanohole arrays in 100 nm gold film and applied for combined microscopic and electrochemical surface plasmon (eSPR) visualization. eSPR voltammograms and spectroscopy are performed using planar three electrode schematic with plasmonic nanostructure operated as working electrode. Limit of detection of eNanoSPR devices for oligonucleotide hybridization is estimated in the low nanomolar and applications for structure-switching electro-plasmonic sensing in complex liquids are discussed. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. VME Switch for CERN's PS Analog Video System

    CERN Document Server

    Acebes, I; Heinze, W; Lewis, J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    Analog video signal switching is used in CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex to route the video signals coming from Beam Diagnostics systems to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR). Traditionally, this has been done with custom electromechanical relay-based cards controlled serially via CAMAC crates. In order to improve the robustness and maintainability of the system, while keeping it analog to preserve the low latency, a VME card based on Analog Devices' AD8116 analog matrix chip has been developed. Video signals go into the front panel and exit the switch through the P2 connector of the VME backplane. The module is a 16 input, 32 output matrix. Larger matrices can be built using more modules and bussing their outputs together, thanks to the high impedance feature of the AD8116. Another VME module takes the selected signals from the P2 connector and performs automatic gain to send them at nominal output level through its front panel. This paper discusses both designs and presents experimental test results.

  17. Asymmetrical Interleaved DC/DC Switching Converters for Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Applications—Part 2: Control-Oriented Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garces

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A previous article has presented the members of the asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family as very appropriate candidates to interface between photovoltaic or fuel cell generators and their loads because of their reduced ripple and increased current processing capabilities. After a review of the main modeling methods suitable for high-order converters operating, as the asymmetrical interleaved converters (AIC ones, in discontinuous current conduction mode a full-order averaged model has been adapted and improved to describe the dynamic behavior of AIC. The excellent agreement between the mathematical model predictions, the switched simulations and the experimental results has allowed for satisfactory design of a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR in a fuel-cell application example, which demonstrates the usefulness of the improved control-oriented modeling approach when the switching converters operate in discontinuous conduction mode.

  18. The Effect of Input-Based Instruction Type on the Acquisition of Spanish Accusative Clitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare structured input (SI) with other input-based instructional treatments. The input-based instructional types include: input flood (IF), text enhancement (TE), SI activities, and focused input (FI; SI without implicit negative feedback). Participants included 145 adult learners enrolled in an intermediate…

  19. A zero-voltage-switched three-phase interleaved buck converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Huang, Bing-Siang; Lin, Jing-Yuan; Pham, Phu Hieu; Chen, Po-Hao; Chiu, Huang-Jen

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a three-phase interleaved buck converter which is composed of three identical paralleled buck converters. The proposed solution has three shunt inductors connected between each other of three basic buck conversion units. With the help of the shunt inductors, the MOSFET parasitic capacitances will resonate to achieve zero-voltage-switching. Furthermore, the decreasing rate of the current through the free-wheeling diodes is limited, and therefore, their reverse-recovery losses can be minimised. The active power switches are controlled by interleaved pulse-width modulation signals to reduce the input and output current ripples. Therefore, the filtering capacitances on the input and output sides can be reduced. The power efficiency is measured to be as high as 98% in experiment with a prototype circuit.

  20. Acousto-Optic Q-Switched Fiber Laser-Based Intra-Cavity Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinduan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a new method for gas detection in photoacoustic spectroscopy based on acousto-optic Q-switched fiber laser by merging a transmission PAS cell (resonant frequency f0 = 5.3 kHz inside the fiber laser cavity. The Q-switching was achieved by an acousto-optic modulator, achieving a peak pulse power of ~679 mW in the case of the acousto-optic modulation signal with an optimized duty ratio of 10%. We used a custom-made fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530.37 nm (the absorption peak of C2H2 to select the laser wavelength. The system achieved a linear response (R2 = 0.9941 in a concentration range from 400 to 7000 ppmv, and the minimum detection limit compared to that of a conventional intensity modulation system was enhanced by 94.2 times.