WorldWideScience

Sample records for input design strategies

  1. Strategies of Transition to Sustainable Agriculture in Iran II- Inputs Replacement and Designing Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2018-02-01

    , natural resources could be used more efficiently. Eliminate the use of nonrenewable off farm human inputs that have the potential to harm the environment or the health of farmers, farm workers, or consumers. Mitigation and adaptation strategies in relation to climate change and quantization of transition period from common to sustainable agriculture to reduce economic risks for farmers were regarded in the agro-ecosystem design. Conclusion In general, although different studies were performed in the replacement of ecological inputs instead of common inputs in Iran, needed policy is necessary to transfer findings of these researches to fields. Although the complete studies were not carried out about designing agro-ecosystem, the existence of enough results for two previous steps (increasing inputs efficiency and its replacement could be basic for this step. Therefore, deep researches and studies based on site potential in the ecosystem level should be done in the final step of transition to sustainable agriculture.

  2. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascina, Filippo; Bellomo, Domenico; Maiwald, Thomas; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Ciminelli, Caterina; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2009-10-15

    Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of complex pathologies like cancer: acquiring information for a system understanding of complex reaction networks is time consuming and expensive. Stimulus response experiments (SRE) have been used to gain a deeper insight into the details of biochemical mechanisms underlying cell life and functioning. Optimisation of the input time-profile, however, still remains a major area of research due to the complexity of the problem and its relevance for the task of information retrieval in systems biology-related experiments. We have addressed the problem of quantifying the information associated to an experiment using the Fisher Information Matrix and we have proposed an optimal experimental design strategy based on evolutionary algorithm to cope with the problem of information gathering in Systems Biology. On the basis of the theoretical results obtained in the field of control systems theory, we have studied the dynamical properties of the signals to be used in cell stimulation. The results of this study have been used to develop a microfluidic device for the automation of the process of cell stimulation for system identification. We have applied the proposed approach to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor pathway and we observed that it minimises the amount of parametric uncertainty associated to the identified model. A statistical framework based on Monte-Carlo estimations of the uncertainty ellipsoid confirmed the superiority of optimally designed experiments over canonical inputs. The proposed approach can be easily extended to multiobjective formulations that can also take advantage of identifiability analysis. Moreover, the availability of fully automated

  3. Robust input design for nonlinear dynamic modeling of AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Nowrouz Mohammad; Valadi, Mehrdad

    2017-09-01

    Input design has a dominant role in developing the dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) through system identification. Optimal input design is the process of generating informative inputs that can be used to generate the good quality dynamic model of AUVs. In a problem with optimal input design, the desired input signal depends on the unknown system which is intended to be identified. In this paper, the input design approach which is robust to uncertainties in model parameters is used. The Bayesian robust design strategy is applied to design input signals for dynamic modeling of AUVs. The employed approach can design multiple inputs and apply constraints on an AUV system's inputs and outputs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to solve the constraint robust optimization problem. The presented algorithm is used for designing the input signals for an AUV, and the estimate obtained by robust input design is compared with that of the optimal input design. According to the results, proposed input design can satisfy both robustness of constraints and optimality. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Input Enhancement Work for Learning Politeness Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Safari, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of input enhancement on the acquisition of English politeness strategies by intermediate EFL learners. Two groups of freshman English majors were randomly assigned to the experimental (enhanced input) group and the control (mere exposure) group. Initially, a TOEFL test and a discourse completion test (DCT)…

  5. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  6. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  7. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  8. Divide and control: split design of multi-input DNA logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2015-01-18

    Logic gates made of DNA have received significant attention as biocompatible building blocks for molecular circuits. The majority of DNA logic gates, however, are controlled by the minimum number of inputs: one, two or three. Here we report a strategy to design a multi-input logic gate by splitting a DNA construct.

  9. On Optimal Input Design and Model Selection for Communication Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal model (structure) selection and input design which minimize the worst case identification error for communication systems are provided. The problem is formulated using metric complexity theory in a Hilbert space setting. It is pointed out that model selection and input design can be handled independently. Kolmogorov n-width is used to characterize the representation error introduced by model selection, while Gel fand and Time n-widths are used to represent the inherent error introduced by input design. After the model is selected, an optimal input which minimizes the worst case identification error is shown to exist. In particular, it is proven that the optimal model for reducing the representation error is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model, and the optimal input is an impulse at the start of the observation interval. FIR models are widely popular in communication systems, such as, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

  10. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  11. Third order TRANSPORT with MAD [Methodical Accelerator Design] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided design codes for particle accelerators. Among the topics discussed are: input beam description; parameters and algebraic expressions; the physical elements; beam lines; operations; and third-order transfer matrix

  12. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  13. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  14. NIKIEhT input in the energy strategy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Gabaraev, B.A.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Dzhalavyan, A.V.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Murav'ev, E.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigations performed by specialists at Research and Design Institute of Electrical Technology together with other enterprises, institutes, and organizations concerning the formulation of a strategy for the development of nuclear power in Russia in the first half of the 21st century are presented. The individual stages of the work, key assumptions, ideas, and recommendations, on which the strategy is based, the initiatives which the President of the Russian Federation advanced at the millennium summit held at the United Nations, and the international INPRO project initiated by Russia are examined. It is concluded that innovative development and a transition to building as quickly as possible nuclear power objects that meet the requirements and demands of the new century are necessary [ru

  15. Input design for linear dynamic systems using maxmin criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Hansen, Lars H.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of input design for maximizing the smallest eigenvalue of the information matrix for linear dynamic systems. The optimization of the smallest eigenvalue is of interest in parameter estimation and parameter change detection problems. We describe a simple cutting...

  16. Salt Repository Project input to seismic design: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Program (SRP) Input to Seismic Design (ISD) documents the assumptions, rationale, approaches, judgments, and analyses that support the development of seismic-specific data and information to be used for shaft design in accordance with the SRP Shaft Design Guide (SDG). The contents of this document are divided into four subject areas: (1) seismic assessment, (2) stratigraphy and material properties for seismic design, (3) development of seismic design parameters, and (4) host media stability. These four subject areas have been developed considering expected conditions at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The ISD should be used only in conjunction with seismic design of the exploratory and repository shafts. Seismic design considerations relating to surface facilities are not addressed in this document. 54 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Conceptual Design of GRIG (GUI Based RETRAN Input Generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyung Jin; Hwang, Su Hyun; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Jang, Chan Su; Um, Kil Sup

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance methodology using advanced transient analysis code, it is essential to generate the basic input of transient analysis code by rigorous QA procedures. There are various types of operating NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Korea such as Westinghouse plants, KSNP(Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant), APR1400 (Advance Power Reactor), etc. So there are some difficulties to generate and manage systematically the input of transient analysis code reflecting the inherent characteristics of various types of NPPs. To minimize the user faults and investment man power and to generate effectively and accurately the basic inputs of transient analysis code for all domestic NPPs, it is needed to develop the program that can automatically generate the basic input, which can be directly applied to the transient analysis, from the NPP design material. ViRRE (Visual RETRAN Running Environment) developed by KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) and KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) provides convenient working environment for Kori Unit 1/2. ViRRE shows the calculated results through on-line display but its capability is limited on the convenient execution of RETRAN. So it can not be used as input generator. ViSA (Visual System Analyzer) developed by KAERI is a NPA (Nuclear Plant Analyzer) using RETRAN and MARS code as thermal-hydraulic engine. ViSA contains both pre-processing and post-processing functions. In the pre-processing, only the trip data cards and boundary conditions can be changed through GUI mode based on pre-prepared text-input, so the capability of input generation is very limited. SNAP (Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package) developed by Applied Programming Technology, Inc. and NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) provides efficient working environment for the use of nuclear safety analysis codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-M codes. SNAP covers wide aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis from model creation through data analysis

  18. A Performance Analytical Strategy for Network-on-Chip Router with Input Buffer Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, J.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a performance analytical strategy is proposed for Network-on-Chip router with input buffer architecture. First, an analytical model is developed based on semi-Markov process. For the non-work-conserving router with small buffer size, the model can be used to analyze the schedule delay and the average service time for each buffer when given the related parameters. Then, the packet average delay in router is calculated by using the model. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of our strategy by simulation. By comparing our analytical results to simulation results, we show that our strategy successfully captures the Network-on-Chip router performance and it performs better than the state-of-art technology. Therefore, our strategy can be used as an efficiency performance analytical tool for Network-on-Chip design.

  19. Optimal Input Strategy for Plug and Play Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal operation of a plant, which goal is to maintain production at minimum cost. The system considered in this work consists of a joined plant and redundant input systems. It is assumed that each input system contributes to a flow of goods into the joined pa...... the performance of the plant. The results are applied to a coal fired power plant where an additional new fuel system, gas, becomes available....

  20. On Optimal Input Design for Feed-forward Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Per; Wahlberg, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers optimal input design when the intended use of the identified model is to construct a feed-forward controller based on measurable disturbances. The objective is to find a minimum power excitation signal to be used in a system identification experiment, such that the corresponding model-based feed-forward controller guarantees, with a given probability, that the variance of the output signal is within given specifications. To start with, some low order model problems are an...

  1. Media and message strategies: consumer input for hospital advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexner, W A; Berkowitz, E N

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the results of the study suggest that a potentially large segment of consumers views advertising as an appropriate way to communicate about hospital services and rates. These consumers are unique not by traditional measures of audience/patient sociodemographic characteristics, but rather by their values and outlook toward hospitals and health care providers. Effective hospital advertising should recognize this segment's perspective in the message that are part of overall advertising strategy.

  2. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    as the poetics of construction, thus it may be considered as an essential activity in the development of the architectural design process.  Similar to the complex nature of the tectonic, the design process is an ongoing movement of interpretation, mediation, and decision making where the skills of the architect...

  3. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft - Input, Appendix 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The NDARC code performs design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance analysis, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. The principal tasks (sizing, mission analysis, flight performance analysis) are shown in the figure as boxes with heavy borders. Heavy arrows show control of subordinate tasks. The aircraft description consists of all the information, input and derived, that denes the aircraft. The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. This information can be the result of the sizing task; can come entirely from input, for a fixed model; or can come from the sizing task in a previous case or previous job. The aircraft description information is available to all tasks and all solutions. The sizing task determines the dimensions, power, and weight of a rotorcraft that can perform a specified set of design conditions and missions. The aircraft size is characterized by parameters such as design gross weight, weight empty, rotor radius, and engine power available. The relations between dimensions, power, and weight generally require an iterative solution. From the design flight conditions and missions, the task can determine the total engine power or the rotor radius (or both power and radius can be fixed), as well as the design gross weight, maximum takeoff weight, drive system torque limit, and fuel tank capacity. For each propulsion group, the engine power or the rotor radius can be sized. Missions are defined for the sizing task, and for the mission performance analysis. A mission consists of a number of mission segments, for which time, distance, and fuel burn are evaluated. For the sizing task, certain missions are designated to be used for design gross weight calculations; for

  4. Just Ask: Using Faculty Input to Inform Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Palmer, Megan M.; Welch, Julie L.; Walvoord, Emily C.; Dankoski, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty members today are bombarded with information, yet limited in time and attention. Managing communication with faculty is an increasingly important function of faculty development offices. This study explored how communication frameworks can be paired with web design principles and attention economics to increase the effectiveness of…

  5. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    , that new developments often employ very modest research on the subject and often very little has been done in order to challenge traditional concepts and to invent new sustainable concepts for redevelopment. In order to avoid mistakes in urban redevelopment we need to learn from research and evaluation...... of the best planning practice. But what might be just as important is to learn from concept development practice, which can give us a comprehensive understanding of our complex cities and make us develop a way of experiencing the unique qualities of the architectural typologies at the site. Finally...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  6. Robust synergetic control design under inputs and states constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Saeid; Araújo, Rui; Sadati, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robust-constrained control methodology for discrete-time linear parameter-varying (DT-LPV) systems is proposed based on a synergetic control theory (SCT) approach. It is shown that in DT-LPV systems without uncertainty, and for any unmeasured bounded additive disturbance, the proposed controller accomplishes the goal of stabilising the system by asymptotically driving the error of the controlled variable to a bounded set containing the origin and then maintaining it there. Moreover, given an uncertain DT-LPV system jointly subject to unmeasured and constrained additive disturbances, and constraints in states, input commands and reference signals (set points), then invariant set theory is used to find an appropriate polyhedral robust invariant region in which the proposed control framework is guaranteed to robustly stabilise the closed-loop system. Furthermore, this is achieved even for the case of varying non-zero control set points in such uncertain DT-LPV systems. The controller is characterised to have a simple structure leading to an easy implementation, and a non-complex design process. The effectiveness of the proposed method and the implications of the controller design on feasibility and closed-loop performance are demonstrated through application examples on the temperature control on a continuous-stirred tank reactor plant, on the control of a real-coupled DC motor plant, and on an open-loop unstable system example.

  7. Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  8. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: ENHANCED DESIGN ALTERNATIVE V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b, Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. Performance credit of the inner barrier material is not taken in this calculation. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative V are provided in a Design Input Request (CRWMS M and O 1999e, Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations, Item 3)

  9. Using Human Motion Intensity as Input for Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Gade, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    of a town square, human occupancy and motion intensities are used to generate situated or topologies presenting new adaptive methods for urban design. These methods incorporate local or as design drivers for canopy, pavement and furniture layout. The urban design solution may be congured due to various...

  10. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  11. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping, E-mail: wangxiaoping@hust.edu.cn; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-09-07

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  12. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  13. Establishing appropriate inputs when using the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide to design rigid pavements in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Each design input in the Mechanistic-Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG) required for the design of Jointed Plain Concrete : Pavements (JPCPs) is introduced and discussed in this report. Best values for Pennsylvania conditions were established and : recom...

  14. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft. Appendix 6; Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  15. NDARC NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft - Input, Appendix 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) software is an aircraft system analysis tool that supports both conceptual design efforts and technology impact assessments. The principal tasks are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to meet specified requirements, including vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) operation, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of conditions. For broad and lasting utility, it is important that the code have the capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and weights of advanced rotor concepts. The architecture of the NDARC code accommodates configuration exibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization. Initially the software is implemented with low-fidelity models, typically appropriate for the conceptual design environment. An NDARC job consists of one or more cases, each case optionally performing design and analysis tasks. The design task involves sizing the rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions. The analysis tasks can include off-design mission performance calculation, flight performance calculation for point operating conditions, and generation of subsystem or component performance maps. For analysis tasks, the aircraft description can come from the sizing task, from a previous case or a previous NDARC job, or be independently generated (typically the description of an existing aircraft). The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated; and the aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. Description and analysis of conventional rotorcraft configurations is facilitated, while retaining the capability to model novel and advanced concepts. Specific rotorcraft configurations considered are single-main-rotor and tail

  16. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Monib

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M and O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used

  17. Sensitivity of seismic design parameters to input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wium, D.J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The probabilistic method introduced by Cornell (1968) has been used to a large extent for this purpose. Due to its probabilistic approach, this technique provides a sound basis for studying the influence of the dominant parameters in such a model. Although the Southern African region is not well known for its seismicity, a number of events in the recent past has focussed the attention on some seismically active areas where special attention may be needed in defining the correct design parameters. The relatively sparse historical seismic data has been used to develop a mathematical model which represents this region. This paper briefly discusses this model, and uses it as a basis for evaluating the influence of the uncertainty in each of the principal parameters, being the seismicity of the region, the attenuation of seismic waves after an event, and models that can be used to arrive at engineering design values. (orig./HP)

  18. Sustainability as an Input for the Design of Olympic Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DORALP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, hosting the Olympic Games has been seen as an opportunity to create urban development. The post-Games use of sport venues, the fulfillment of a city’s housing needs by using Olympic Village buildings and the renewal of transport and other infrastructure that accompanies hosting of the Games may be considered indicators for the success of the International Olympic Games. But the city and its citizen do not benefit from these investments in the design of new structures if that design is not carried out in the light of wellplanned urban development projecting. Local and international studies on sustainability, particularly since the 1980s, have shown that sustainable urbanization is only achievable with sustainable development planning. Therefore economic, social and environmental development needs to be provided. If the last Olympic cities are examined in relation to this aspect, it will be seen that an understanding of such factors is reflected in their development. Throughout the history of the modern Games host cities have considered them as an opportunity for development, but cities are now heading towards the implementation of more sensitive actions for the future generation, social and environmental values with the improvement in the approach of sustainable development.

  19. Strategy update in a design and consulting company

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviniemi, Juha

    2017-01-01

    The target company of the present thesis is a small engineering company specialising in electrical design. The company’s current development stage and changes in its operating environment call for a strategy up-date. The objective of this study was to formulate key conclusions based on an analysis of the company’s current strategy and its operating environment which will later act as an input to the company’s strategy process. The strategy process itself is left outside the scope of this...

  20. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M and O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M and O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M and O and DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, ''Performance

  1. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  2. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; K.G. Mast; J.H. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

  3. PLEX as input and evaluation tool in persuasive game design : Pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dooren, M.M.M.; Spijkerman, R.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Hendriks, V.M.; Visch, V.T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives in game design is to create game experiences that enhance the motivation to start and continue to play the game. To gain insight into which game experiences can be evolved by the game, designers have been using PLEX cards in the user input phase or in the product

  4. Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...

  5. Design and Implementation of Kana-Input Navigation System for Kids based on the Cyber Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsuda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, it has increased the opportunity for young children to experience the personal computer in elementary schools. However, in order to use computer, many domestic barriers have confronted young children (Kids because they cannot read difficult Kanji characters and had not learnt Roman alphabet yet. As a result, they cannot input text strings by JIS Kana keyboard. In this research, we developed Kana-Input NaVigation System for kids (KINVS based on the Cyber Assistant System (CAS. CAS is a Human-Style Software Robot based on the 3D-CG real-time animation and voice synthesis technology. KINVS enables to input Hiragana/Katakana characters by mouse operation only (without keyboard operation and CAS supports them by using speaking, facial expression, body action and sound effects. KINVS displays the 3D-Stage like a classroom. In this room, Blackboard, Interactive parts to input Kana-characters, and CAS are placed. As some results of preliminary experiments, it is definitely unfit for Kids to double-click objects quickly or to move the Scrollbar by mouse dragging. So, mouse input method of KINVS are designed to use only single click and wheeler rotation. To input characters, Kids clicks or rotates the Interactive Parts. KINVS reports all information by voice speaking and Kana subtitles instead of Kanji text. Furthermore, to verify the functional feature of KINVS, we measured how long Kids had taken to input long text by using KINVS.

  6. Iterative Prototyping of Strategy Implementation Workshop Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a strategy implementation workshop design can be developed and tested while minimizing the time spent on developing the design. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study at a diesel engine company shows how iterative prototyping...... can be used to structure the design process of a strategy implementation workshop. Findings: Strategy implementation workshop design can be developed in resource-constrained environments through iterative prototyping of the workshop design. Each workshop iteration can generate value in its own right...... draw on his/her experience as well as add to his/her knowledge base. Originality/value: Introducing iterative prototyping in an organizational context can facilitate fast yet structured development of a rigorous workshop design. Strategy consultants are provided with empirical examples of how...

  7. MPC for LPV Systems Based on Parameter-Dependent Lyapunov Function with Perturbation on Control Input Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornchai Bumroongsri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear parameter varying (LPV systems is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. The first step is derived by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov function and the second step is derived by using the perturbation on control input strategy. In order to achieve good control performance, the bounds on the rate of variation of the parameters are taken into account in the controller synthesis. An overall algorithm is proved to guarantee robust stability. The controller design is illustrated with two case studies of continuous stirred-tank reactors. Comparisons with other MPC algorithms for LPV systems have been undertaken. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better control performance.

  8. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2017-10-31

    Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the "open loop sensitivity" of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  9. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the “open loop sensitivity” of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  10. Non-collocated fuzzy logic and input shaping control strategy for elastic joint manipulator: vibration suppression and time response analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidifar, Mohammed Amin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidifar, Ali Amin, E-mail: rashidifar_58@yahoo.com [Computer Science, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conventional model-based control strategies are very complex and difficult to synthesize due to high complexity of the dynamics of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid control schemes for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, initially a collocated proportional-derivative (P D)-type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non-collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller and input shaping scheme for vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero-vibration-derivative-derivative (ZVDD) shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed. (Author)

  11. Radiotracer design strategies for neurocardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Hutchins, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear cardiologists have expended an inordinate amount of effort studying the open-quotes plumbingclose quotes of the heart but very little effort on the open-quotes wiringclose quotes. L. Rossi declared in 1988, open-quotes today's desultory information about basic changes in the heart's innervation, if compared with current knowledge about diseases of cardiac muscle and vessels, is largely attributable to an aura of forbidding technical difficulty.close-quote During the past three years, radiotracers have been developed for use in studies of cardiac nerve function by positron emission tomography (PET). The first clinical PET studies in this area were reported in 1990. This chapter discusses the strategies that led to the tracers presently available and the possible nature of future neuronal markers

  12. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  13. Strategies for innovation in multicomponent reaction design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-03-17

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-19th century when Strecker first produced alpha-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in MCRs. In part, the pharmaceutical industry has fueled this resurgence because of the growing need to assemble libraries of structurally complex substances for evaluation as lead compounds in drug discovery and development programs. The application of MCRs to that increasingly important objective remains limited by the relatively small number of such reactions that can be broadly applied to prepare biologically relevant or natural-product-like molecular frameworks. We were interested in applying logic-based approaches, such as our single reactant replacement (SRR) approach, as a way both to improve known MCRs and to design new multiple-component routes to bioactive structures. This Account provides several examples that illustrate the use of SRR with known MCRs as starting points for synthetic innovation in this area. As part of our working hypothesis, we initially explored strategies for engineering improvements into known MCRs, either by increasing the dimensionality--that is, changing an n-component to an (n + 1)-component reaction--or broadening the scope of useful input structures, or both. By exhaustively applying retrosynthetic analysis to the cognate MCR to identify and exploit alternative entry points into the overall reaction manifold, we have devised several such re-engineered MCRs. Serendipitous findings have also augmented the yield of useful developments from our logic-inspired approach. In some cases, we have identified surprising links between different compound families that provide useful new entry points

  14. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Continuous Pre-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the creation of .tables for input into Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) from Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables (representing waste package corrosion degradation over time) for the License Application Design Selection (LADS) analysis of the effects of continuous pre-closure ventilation. Ventilation during the operational phase of the repository could remove considerable water from the system, as well as reduce temperatures. Pre-closure ventilation is LADS Design Feature 7

  15. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  16. A Strategy for Uncertainty Visualization Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    143–156, Magdeburg , Germany . [11] Thomson, J., Hetzler, E., MacEachren, A., Gahegan, M. and Pavel, M. (2005), A Typology for Visualizing Uncertainty...and Stasko [20] to bridge analytic gaps in visualization design, when tasks in the strategy overlap (and therefore complement) design frameworks

  17. Multimedia Matrix: A Cognitive Strategy for Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Annette C.

    This instructional development project evaluates the effect of a matrix-based strategy to assist multimedia authors in acquiring and applying principles for effective multimedia design. The Multimedia Matrix, based on the Park and Hannafin "Twenty Principles and Implications for Interactive Multimedia" design, displays a condensed…

  18. Input that Contradicts Young Children's Strategy for Mapping Novel Words Affects Their Phonological and Semantic Interpretation of Other Novel Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Merriman, William E.; Barnett, Michelle; Hanba, Jessica; Van Haitsma, Kylee S.

    2004-01-01

    Children tend to choose an entity they cannot already label, rather than one they can, as the likely referent of a novel noun. The effect of input that contradicts this strategy on the interpretation of other novel nouns was investigated. In pre- and posttests, 4-year-olds were asked to judge whether novel nouns referred to "name-similar" familiar…

  19. Design of LQG Controller for Active Suspension without Considering Road Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the road conditions are completely unknown in the design of a suspension controller, an improved linear quadratic and Gaussian distributed (LQG controller is proposed for active suspension system without considering road input signals. The main purpose is to optimize the vehicle body acceleration, pitching angular acceleration, displacement of suspension system, and tire dynamic deflection comprehensively. Meanwhile, it will extend the applicability of the LQG controller. Firstly, the half-vehicle and road input mathematical models of an active suspension system are established, with the weight coefficients of each evaluating indicator optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA. Then, a simulation model is built in Matlab/Simulink environment. Finally, a comparison of simulation is conducted to illustrate that the proposed LQG controller can obtain the better comprehensive performance of vehicle suspension system and improve riding comfort and handling safety compared to the conventional one.

  20. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  1. Design of a Programmable Gain, Temperature Compensated Current-Input Current-Output CMOS Logarithmic Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Gu; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a programmable gain, temperature compensated, current-mode CMOS logarithmic amplifier that can be used for biomedical signal processing. Unlike conventional logarithmic amplifiers that use a transimpedance technique to generate a voltage signal as a logarithmic function of the input current, the proposed approach directly produces a current output as a logarithmic function of the input current. Also, unlike a conventional transimpedance amplifier the gain of the proposed logarithmic amplifier can be programmed using floating-gate trimming circuits. The synthesis of the proposed circuit is based on the Hart's extended translinear principle which involves embedding a floating-voltage source and a linear resistive element within a translinear loop. Temperature compensation is then achieved using a translinear-based resistive cancelation technique. Measured results from prototypes fabricated in a 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the amplifier has an input dynamic range of 120 dB and a temperature sensitivity of 230 ppm/°C (27 °C- 57°C), while consuming less than 100 nW of power.

  2. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: HIGHER THERMAL LOADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by the higher thermal loading repository design feature and, (2) post-processing of these results into tables of waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems version 5.19.01 (RIP) computer program (Golder Associates 1998). Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA), with the exception that the higher thermal loading Design Feature (Design Feature 26) of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) analysis was analyzed. Higher thermal loading would keep the drift temperature above the boiling point of water for a longer period of time, thereby minimizing moisture around the waste packages during a longer post-closure period. The higher thermal loading would also affect the surrounding rock, which may have adverse effects. The only failure mechanism of this feature would be if the effects on the surrounding rock were determined to be unacceptable. As a result of the change in waste package placement relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently different waste package failure histories (as calculated by WAPDEG) result

  3. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  4. Disaggregated seismic hazard and the elastic input energy spectrum: An approach to design earthquake selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Martin Colby

    1998-12-01

    The design earthquake selection problem is fundamentally probabilistic. Disaggregation of a probabilistic model of the seismic hazard offers a rational and objective approach that can identify the most likely earthquake scenario(s) contributing to hazard. An ensemble of time series can be selected on the basis of the modal earthquakes derived from the disaggregation. This gives a useful time-domain realization of the seismic hazard, to the extent that a single motion parameter captures the important time-domain characteristics. A possible limitation to this approach arises because most currently available motion prediction models for peak ground motion or oscillator response are essentially independent of duration, and modal events derived using the peak motions for the analysis may not represent the optimal characterization of the hazard. The elastic input energy spectrum is an alternative to the elastic response spectrum for these types of analyses. The input energy combines the elements of amplitude and duration into a single parameter description of the ground motion that can be readily incorporated into standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis methodology. This use of the elastic input energy spectrum is examined. Regression analysis is performed using strong motion data from Western North America and consistent data processing procedures for both the absolute input energy equivalent velocity, (Vsbea), and the elastic pseudo-relative velocity response (PSV) in the frequency range 0.5 to 10 Hz. The results show that the two parameters can be successfully fit with identical functional forms. The dependence of Vsbea and PSV upon (NEHRP) site classification is virtually identical. The variance of Vsbea is uniformly less than that of PSV, indicating that Vsbea can be predicted with slightly less uncertainty as a function of magnitude, distance and site classification. The effects of site class are important at frequencies less than a few Hertz. The regression

  5. A glucose meter evaluation co-designed with both health professional and consumer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Harmony; Chan, Huan; Logan, Florence J; Heenan, Helen F; Taylor, Lynne; Murray, Chris; Florkowski, Christopher M; Frampton, Christopher M A; Lunt, Helen

    2013-11-22

    Health consumer's input into assessment of medical device safety is traditionally given either as part of study outcome (trial participants) or during post marketing surveillance. Direct consumer input into the methodological design of device assessment is less common. We discuss the difference in requirements for assessment of a measuring device from the consumer and clinician perspectives, using the example of hand held glucose meters. Around 80,000 New Zealanders with diabetes recently changed their glucose meter system, to enable ongoing access to PHARMAC subsidised meters and strips. Consumers were most interested in a direct comparison of their 'old' meter system (Accu-Chek Performa) with their 'new' meter system (CareSens brand, including the CareSens N POP), rather than comparisons against a laboratory standard. This direct comparison of meter/strip systems showed that the CareSens N POP meter read around 0.6 mmol/L higher than the Performa system. Whilst this difference is unlikely to result in major errors in clinical decision making such as major insulin dosing errors, this information is nevertheless of interest to consumers who switched meters so that they could maintain access to PHARMAC subsidised meters and strips. We recommend that when practical, the consumer perspective be incorporated into study design related to medical device assessment.

  6. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Continuous Post-Closure Ventilation Design- Open Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; P.K. Mast; R. Howard; J.H. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b). Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by the open loop option of the post-closure ventilation design and, (2) post-processing of these results into tables of waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems version 5.19.0 1 (RIP) computer program (Golder Associates 1998). Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA), with the exception that the open loop option of the post-closure ventilation License Application Design Selection (LADS) Design Alternative (Design Alternative 3b) was analyzed. The open loop post-closure ventilation design alternative, under which airways to the surface remain open after repository closure, could result in substantial cooling and drying of the potential repository. In open loop post-closure ventilation, expanded air heated by waste decay would move up an exhaust shaft, pulling denser, cooler air into the repository through intake shafts. The exchange of air with the atmosphere could remove more heat and moisture. As a result of the enhanced ventilation relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently different waste package failure histories (as calculated by WAPDEG) result

  7. Mathematical design of a novel input/instruction device using a moving acoustic emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianchao; Guo, Yukun; Li, Jingzhi; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the mathematical design of a novel input/instruction device using a moving emitter. The emitter acts as a point source and can be installed on a digital pen or worn on the finger of the human being who desires to interact/communicate with the computer. The input/instruction can be recognized by identifying the moving trajectory of the emitter performed by the human being from the collected wave field data. The identification process is modelled as an inverse source problem where one intends to identify the trajectory of a moving point source. There are several salient features of our study which distinguish our result from the existing ones in the literature. First, the point source is moving in an inhomogeneous background medium, which models the human body. Second, the dynamical wave field data are collected in a limited aperture. Third, the reconstruction method is independent of the background medium, and it is totally direct without any matrix inversion. Hence, it is efficient and robust with respect to the measurement noise. Both theoretical justifications and computational experiments are presented to verify our novel findings.

  8. Sensitivity of traffic input parameters on rutting performance of a flexible pavement using Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hossain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The traffic input parameters in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG are: (a general traffic inputs, (b traffic volume adjustment factors, and (c axle load spectra (ALS. Of these three traffic inputs, the traffic volume adjustment factors specifically monthly adjustment factor (MAF and the ALS are widely considered to be important and sensitive factors, which can significantly affect design of and prediction of distress in flexible pavements. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity of ALS and MAF traffic inputs on rutting distress of a flexible pavement. The traffic data of four years (from 2008 to 2012 were collected from an instrumented test section on I-35 in Oklahoma. Site specific traffic input parameters were developed. It was observed that significant differences exist between the MEPDG default and developed site-specific traffic input values. However, the differences in the yearly ALS and MAF data, developed for these four years, were not found to be as significant when compared to one another. In addition, quarterly field rut data were measured on the test section and compared with the MEPDG predicted rut values using the default and developed traffic input values for different years. It was found that significant differences exist between the measured rut and the MEPDG (AASHTOWare-ME predicted rut when default values were used. Keywords: MEPDG, Rut, Level 1 inputs, Axle load spectra, Traffic input parameters, Sensitivity

  9. MSM actuators: design rules and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, Benedikt; Janocha, Hartmut [Laboratory of Process Automation (LPA), Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Riccardi, Leonardo; Naso, David [Department of Electronics and Electrical Science (DEE), Politecnico di Bari (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are comparatively new active materials which can be used for several industrial applications, ranging from precise positioning systems to advanced robotics. Beyond the material research, which deals with the basic thermo-magneto-mechanical properties of the crystals, the design as well as the control of the actuators displacement is an essential challenge. This paper addresses those two topics, trying to give to the reader a useful overview of existing results, but also presents new ideas. First, it introduces and discusses in details some possible designs, with a special emphasis on innovative actuator design concepts which are able to exploit the particular potentialities of MSM elements. The second focus of the paper is on the problem of designing a controller, i.e., an algorithm that allows to obtain a required performance from the actuator. The proposed control strategies try to take into account two main characteristics of MSM elements: the hysteresis and the temperature dependence. The effectiveness of the strategies is emphasized by experimental results performed on a commercially available MSM actuator demonstrator. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    heuristic strategy that leads to 'socially optimal' solutions, yielding a maximum number of contention-free cells being scheduled. A novel mixed digital-analog circuit has been designed to implement the MUCS core functionality. The MUCS circuit maps the cell scheduling computation to the capacitor charging and discharging procedures that are conducted fully in parallel. The design has a uniform circuit structure, low interconnect counts, and low chip I/O counts. Using 2 μm CMOS technology, the design operates on a 100 MHz clock and finds a near-optimal solution within a linear processing time. The circuit has been verified at the transistor level by HSPICE simulation. During this research, a five-port IQ-based optoelectronic iPOINT ATM switch has been developed and demonstrated. It has been fully functional with an aggregate throughput of 800 Mb/s. The second-generation IQ-based switch is currently under development. Equipped with iiQueue modules and MUCS module, the new switch system will deliver a multi-gigabit aggregate throughput, eliminate HOL blocking, provide per-VC QoS, and achieve near-100% link bandwidth utilization. Complete documentation of input modules and trunk module for the existing testbed, and complete documentation of 3DQ, iiQueue, and MUCS for the second-generation testbed are given in this dissertation.

  11. Effect of Orifice Nozzle Design and Input Power on Two-Phase Flow and Mass Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hei Cheon [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    It is necessary to investigate the input power as well as the mass transfer characteristics of the aeration process in order to improve the energy efficiency of an aerobic water treatment. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of orifice nozzle design and input power on the flow and mass transfer characteristics of a vertical two-phase flow. The mass ratio, input power, volumetric mass transfer coefficient, and mass transfer efficiency were calculated using the measured data. It was found that as the input power increases the volumetric mass transfer coefficient increases, while the mass ratio and mass transfer efficiency decrease. The mass ratio, volumetric mass transfer coefficient, and mass transfer efficiency were higher for the orifice configuration with a smaller orifice nozzle area ratio. An empirical correlation was proposed to estimate the effect of mass ratio, input power, and Froude number on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient.

  12. Systematic Design Method and Experimental Validation of a 2-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism with Excellent Input and Output Decoupling Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The output and input coupling characteristics of the compliant parallel mechanism (CPM bring difficulty in the motion control and challenge its high performance and operational safety. This paper presents a systematic design method for a 2-degrees-of-freedom (DOFs CPM with excellent decoupling performance. A symmetric kinematic structure can guarantee a CPM with a complete output decoupling characteristic; input coupling is reduced by resorting to a flexure-based decoupler. This work discusses the stiffness design requirement of the decoupler and proposes a compound flexure hinge as its basic structure. Analytical methods have been derived to assess the mechanical performances of the CPM in terms of input and output stiffness, motion stroke, input coupling degree, and natural frequency. The CPM’s geometric parameters were optimized to minimize the input coupling while ensuring key performance indicators at the same time. The optimized CPM’s performances were then evaluated by using a finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was constructed and experimental validations were carried out to test the performance of the CPM and verify the effectiveness of the design method. The design procedure proposed in this paper is systematic and can be extended to design the CPMs with other types of motion.

  13. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  14. Effect Assessment the Impact of Filler Types on the Input Design Parameter of Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar S. Neham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements of flexible pavements (safety, economy, limited the stresses on the natural subgrade and a smooth ride, good quality material of surface course must be used so to prevent pavement distresses caused by the different types of loadings (structural and environmental loadings, while the resilient modulus is important input data when flexible pavement was designed, it is selected to show its effect by different types of mineral filler as a partial replacement. In this paving mix, to improve the quality of the mix material and to represent the effect of these replacements materials on the elastic characterization by measuring the resilient modulus of hot mix asphalt (HMA: Fly Ash (FA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, Hydrated Lime (HL and Silica Fume (SF are used as a partial percent of filler (Limestone Dust (LSD replacement, where these materials are locally available including (40-50 penetration grade asphalt binder. To achieve the goal of study; asphalt concrete mixes are prepared at their optimum asphalt content using Marshall Method of mix design. Four replacement percent’s were used; 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 percent by total weight of aggregate for each filler types. According to ASTM D4123 criteria (Resilient Modulus was tested by UTM¬25. Mixes modified with (FA, (OPC, (HL and (SF were found to have average improvement in the value of Resilient Modulus by (13.37, 9.63, 11.14, 24.00 % at 1.5 percent of filler replacement and by (24.54, 16.63, 18.73, 38.31 % at 3.0 percent of filler replacement also the percent of improvement is: (39.55, 26.36, 29.82, 58.30 at 4.5percent of filler replacement sequentially.

  15. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance.

  16. A Fractual Mechanical Testing and Design Strategy for FRC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    1999-01-01

    A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications.......A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications....

  17. IMPACT OF USER IT AND INTERNET SKILLS ON ONLINE BANKING,INPUT TO INNOVATIVE BANKING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shan e Raza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Online-banking is now widely being introduced by banks. This Strategic move issupported by aim to reduce branch/resources costs and offer more convenience tothe consumers. Alongside users are becoming more frequent in IT /internet day-by-day. This provides good match to the success ofOnline-banking.Employee’s skills and user’s skills were also considered by scholars to see theeffect on adoption of online banking. Author has found that these user skills werenot standardized. Author tried to fill this gap byusing Eurostat classification ofskills in terms of user’s Computer and internet skills [Appendix. 1]. The objectiveof this study is threefold, thus understanding theuser perception about fear ofonline theft/misuse, Complexity and effect on individual’s efficiency by usingonline banking.A questionnaire has been sent to users and resultsthus verified 02 of 03hypothesis. Despite higher level of skills and experience, users have concernswith the security and complexity of the method. Theresults are analyzed in asimple graphical fashion in order to provide quickunderstanding to the reader.Concluding, despite certain limitations, this studygives value to the literature andopens new research horizons for online banking strategies. It provides a commoncriterion for understanding user skills and their perceptions about theapplication/usability of online banking using EU classification. Consequentlycounter actions can be taken by the banks to satisfy users concerns and improvethe structure of online banking.

  18. Nature-Inspired Design : Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability.

  19. An improved input shaping design for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear 3D overhead crane with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Mohammad Javad; Mohamed, Z.; Sudin, S.; Buyamin, S.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ahmad, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes an improved input shaping scheme for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear three dimensional (3D) overhead crane with friction using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Using this approach, a higher payload sway reduction is obtained as the input shaper is designed based on a complete nonlinear model, as compared to the analytical-based input shaping scheme derived using a linear second order model. Zero Vibration (ZV) and Distributed Zero Vibration (DZV) shapers are designed using both analytical and PSO approaches for sway control of rail and trolley movements. To test the effectiveness of the proposed approach, MATLAB simulations and experiments on a laboratory 3D overhead crane are performed under various conditions involving different cable lengths and sway frequencies. Their performances are studied based on a maximum residual of payload sway and Integrated Absolute Error (IAE) values which indicate total payload sway of the crane. With experiments, the superiority of the proposed approach over the analytical-based is shown by 30-50% reductions of the IAE values for rail and trolley movements, for both ZV and DZV shapers. In addition, simulations results show higher sway reductions with the proposed approach. It is revealed that the proposed PSO-based input shaping design provides higher payload sway reductions of a 3D overhead crane with friction as compared to the commonly designed input shapers.

  20. A literature review of the effects of computer input device design on biomechanical loading and musculoskeletal outcomes during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Garza, J L; Young, J G

    2015-01-01

    Extended use of conventional computer input devices is associated with negative musculoskeletal outcomes. While many alternative designs have been proposed, it is unclear whether these devices reduce biomechanical loading and musculoskeletal outcomes. To review studies describing and evaluating the biomechanical loading and musculoskeletal outcomes associated with conventional and alternative input devices. Included studies evaluated biomechanical loading and/or musculoskeletal outcomes of users' distal or proximal upper extremity regions associated with the operation of alternative input devices (pointing devices, mice, other devices) that could be used in a desktop personal computing environment during typical office work. Some alternative pointing device designs (e.g. rollerbar) were consistently associated with decreased biomechanical loading while other designs had inconsistent results across studies. Most alternative keyboards evaluated in the literature reduce biomechanical loading and musculoskeletal outcomes. Studies of other input devices (e.g. touchscreen and gestural controls) were rare, however, those reported to date indicate that these devices are currently unsuitable as replacements for traditional devices. Alternative input devices that reduce biomechanical loading may make better choices for preventing or alleviating musculoskeletal outcomes during computer use, however, it is unclear whether many existing designs are effective.

  1. Design of an Input-Parallel Output-Parallel LLC Resonant DC-DC Converter System for DC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Y. L.; Chen, T. R.; Chang, H. M.; Wei, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    Compared with the centralized power system, the distributed modularized power system is composed of several power modules with lower power capacity to provide a totally enough power capacity for the load demand. Therefore, the current stress of the power components in each module can then be reduced, and the flexibility of system setup is also enhanced. However, the parallel-connected power modules in the conventional system are usually controlled to equally share the power flow which would result in lower efficiency in low loading condition. In this study, a modular power conversion system for DC micro grid is developed with 48 V dc low voltage input and 380 V dc high voltage output. However, in the developed system control strategy, the numbers of power modules enabled to share the power flow is decided according to the output power at lower load demand. Finally, three 350 W power modules are constructed and parallel-connected to setup a modular power conversion system. From the experimental results, compared with the conventional system, the efficiency of the developed power system in the light loading condition is greatly improved. The modularized design of the power system can also decrease the power loss ratio to the system capacity.

  2. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleemi, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process

  3. Identification of Sources of Endotoxin Exposure as Input for Effective Exposure Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Gröllers-Mulderij, Mariska; van de Runstraat, Annemieke; Duisterwinkel, Anton; Terwoert, Jeroen; Spaan, Suzanne

    2018-02-13

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of endotoxins on product samples from potatoes, onions, and seeds, representing a relevant part of the agro-food industry in the Netherlands, to gather valuable insights in possibilities for exposure control measures early in the process of industrial processing of these products. Endotoxin levels on 330 products samples from companies representing the potato, onion, and seed (processing) industry (four potato-packaging companies, five potato-processing companies, five onion-packaging companies, and four seed-processing companies) were assessed using the Limulus Amboecyte Lysate (LAL) assay. As variation in growth conditions (type of soil, growth type) and product characteristics (surface roughness, dustiness, size, species) are assumed to influence the level of endotoxin on products, different types, and growth conditions were considered when collecting the samples. Additionally, waste material, rotten products, felt material (used for drying), and process water were collected. A large variation in the endotoxin levels was found on samples of potatoes, onions, and seeds (overall geometric standard deviation 17), in the range between 0.7 EU g-1 to 16400000 EU g-1. The highest geometric mean endotoxin levels were found in plant material (319600 EU g-1), followed by soil material (49100 EU g-1) and the outer side of products (9300 EU g-1), indicating that removal of plant and soil material early in the process would be an effective exposure control strategy. The high levels of endotoxins found in the limited number of samples from rotten onions indicate that these rotten onions should also be removed early in the process. Mean endotoxin levels found in waste material (only available for seed processing) is similar to the level found in soil material, although the range is much larger. On uncleaned seeds, higher endotoxin levels were found than on cleaned seeds, indicating that cleaning processes are important

  4. Existing pavement input information for the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate the Iowa Department of Transportations (DOTs) existing Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) with respect to the input information required for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Des...

  5. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  6. Logistics Sourcing Strategies in Supply Chain Design

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    A company's logistics sourcing strategy determines whether it structures and organizeslogistics within the company or company group or integrates logistics upstream and downstreamin the supply chain. First, three different types of logistics sourcing strategies in supply chaindesign are described and the theoretical background for the development of these strategies,including both transaction cost theory and network theory, is analyzed. Two special casesabout logistics sourcing strategy decis...

  7. Active living by design sustainability strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M Katherine; Lee, Joanne J; Brennan, Laura K

    2012-11-01

    Despite substantial increases in improving the translation of health promotion research into practice, community initiatives still struggle with maintaining changes once grant funding has ended. Researchers, funders, and community practitioners are interested in practices that maintain and sustain their efforts. This qualitative study conducted a content analysis of evaluation findings from Active Living by Design (ALbD) to identify activities that community coalitions implemented to maintain their initiative and secure ongoing influence in communities. Investigators analyzed data from interviews, focus groups, and the Progress Reporting System to identify sustainability approaches clustering into five areas: partnership expansion, sustainable funding, permanent advisory committees, policy change, and institution/organization change. Partnership expansion occurred across sectors and disciplines and into broader geographic areas. Additional funding extended beyond grants to earned income streams and dedicated tax revenues. Permanent advisory committees were established to inform decision makers about a range of active living impacts. Policy changes in zoning and comprehensive plans ensured maintenance of health-promoting built environments. Sustainability through institution/organization changes led to allocation of dedicated staff and incorporation of active living values into agency missions. Active Living by Design partnerships defined and messaged their projects to align with policymakers' interests and broad partnership audiences. They found innovative supporters and adapted their original vision to include quality of life, nonmotorized transport, and other complementary efforts that expanded their reach and influence. These sustainability strategies altered awareness within communities, changed community decision-making processes, and created policy changes that have the potential to maintain environments that promote physical activity for years to come

  8. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however, it is un......In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however......, it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  9. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.

  10. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply with Minimized Circuit Input-to-Output Parasitic Capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Petersen, Lars Press; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 300-Watt isolated power supply for MOS gate driver circuit in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the developed power supply is having a very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, thus maximizing its noise immunity. This makes...

  11. H-Infinity robust controller design for the synchronization of master-slave chaotic systems with disturbance input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the robust control problems for the synchronization of master-slave chaotic systems with disturbance input. By constructing a series of Lyapunov functions, novel H-Infinity robust synchronization controllers are designed, whose control regulation possess the characteristic of simpleness and explicitness. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  12. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  13. Interactive Spacecraft Trajectory Design Strategies Featuring Poincare Map Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlei, Wayne R.

    Space exploration efforts are shifting towards inexpensive and more agile vehicles. Versatility regarding spacecraft trajectories refers to the agility to correct deviations from an intended path or even the ability to adapt the future path to a new destination--all with limited spaceflight resources (i.e., small DeltaV budgets). Trajectory design methods for such nimble vehicles incorporate equally versatile procedures that allow for rapid and interactive decision making while attempting to reduce Delta V budgets, leading to a versatile trajectory design platform. A versatile design paradigm requires the exploitation of Poincare map topology , or the interconnected web of dynamical structures, existing within the chaotic dynamics of multi-body gravitational models to outline low-Delta V transfer options residing nearby to a current path. This investigation details an autonomous procedure to extract the periodic orbits (topology nodes) and correlated asymptotic flow structures (or the invariant manifolds representing topology links). The autonomous process summarized in this investigation (termed PMATE) overcomes discontinuities on the Poincare section that arise in the applied multi-body model (the planar circular restricted three-body problem) and detects a wide variety of novel periodic orbits. New interactive capabilities deliver a visual analytics foundation for versatile spaceflight design, especially for initial guess generation and manipulation. Such interactive strategies include the selection of states and arcs from Poincare section visualizations and the capabilities to draw and drag trajectories to remove dependency on initial state input. Furthermore, immersive selection is expanded to cull invariant manifold structures, yielding low-DeltaV or even DeltaV-free transfers between periodic orbits. The application of interactive design strategies featuring a dense extraction of Poincare map topology is demonstrated for agile spaceflight with a simple

  14. Wandering as a design strategy for infrastructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reusel, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The notion of design gradually diverges from its conceptualization as framed design projects that focus on the production of objects. It shifts to open-ended processes that are oriented toward the creation of services and the congregation of organizations. In the participatory design (PD) scene the emerging future-oriented design-after-design approach is understood as a process of ‘infrastructuring’. The co-design process of Recup’Kitchen is described as an example of an infrastructuring desi...

  15. Design strategies for human relations in services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Perik, E.M.; Secomandi, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree of control that designers might have over human relations in services. For this purpose, a number of speculative service designs were devised to address work-related stress. We focus on three of the generated designs, where design interventions have made changes to

  16. Sequential designs for sensitivity analysis of functional inputs in computer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruth, J.; Roustant, O.; Kuhnt, S.

    2015-01-01

    Computer experiments are nowadays commonly used to analyze industrial processes aiming at achieving a wanted outcome. Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in exploring the actual impact of adjustable parameters on the response variable. In this work we focus on sensitivity analysis of a scalar-valued output of a time-consuming computer code depending on scalar and functional input parameters. We investigate a sequential methodology, based on piecewise constant functions and sequential bifurcation, which is both economical and fully interpretable. The new approach is applied to a sheet metal forming problem in three sequential steps, resulting in new insights into the behavior of the forming process over time. - Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis method for functional and scalar inputs is presented. • We focus on the discovery of most influential parts of the functional domain. • We investigate economical sequential methodology based on piecewise constant functions. • Normalized sensitivity indices are introduced and investigated theoretically. • Successful application to sheet metal forming on two functional inputs

  17. Generation IV nuclear plant design strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation Generation IV nuclear reactor design criteria are examined under the light of known nuclear properties of fissile and fertile nuclei. Their conflicting nature is elucidated along with the resulting inevitability of a multitude of designs. The designs selected as candidates for further development are evaluated with respect to their potential to serve the different design criteria, thereby revealing their more difficult aspects of realization and the strong research challenges lying ahead

  18. The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Kwok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In design studio projects we often see schemes with inspired, yet unvalidated, gestural sketches related to wishful green strategies. Yellow and blue magic arrows represent hypotheses about the behavior of daylight and/or air flow in and about buildings. This paper provides an overview of The Green Studio Handbook, recently published as a resource for designers seeking clear guidelines for integrating green design strategies into the conceptual and schematic phases of design. The book contains a discussion of the integration of green strategies and how building form, orientation, and spatial layout are critical to the proper performance of certain green strategies; 40 green design strategies in six broad topic areas, each providing acatalog of information for common strategies that must be implemented at the schematic design phase; and nine case studies that show how various green strategies work together in a finished building. This paper provides excerpts of several design strategies and one case study and suggests a variety of ways that the book may be used.Keywords: green design, case studies, education, schematic design

  19. Design and Control of a Multiple Input DC/DC Converter for Battery/Ultra-capacitor Based Electric Vehicle Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi-input con......Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi...

  20. Design and evaluation of nonverbal sound-based input for those with motor handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyabukkana, Proadpran; Chanjaradwichai, Supadaech; Suchato, Atiwong

    2013-03-01

    Most personal computing interfaces rely on the users' ability to use their hand and arm movements to interact with on-screen graphical widgets via mainstream devices, including keyboards and mice. Without proper assistive devices, this style of input poses difficulties for motor-handicapped users. We propose a sound-based input scheme enabling users to operate Windows' Graphical User Interface by producing hums and fricatives through regular microphones. Hierarchically arranged menus are utilized so that only minimal numbers of different actions are required at a time. The proposed scheme was found to be accurate and capable of responding promptly compared to other sound-based schemes. Being able to select from multiple item-selecting modes helps reducing the average time duration needed for completing tasks in the test scenarios almost by half the time needed when the tasks were performed solely through cursor movements. Still, improvements on facilitating users to select the most appropriate modes for desired tasks should improve the overall usability of the proposed scheme.

  1. Collaborative Design Strategy: Knowledge exchange for roof design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Roozenburg, N.; Chen, L-L; Stappers, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the (Dutch) Building Industry sub optimal use of knowledge by participants during the design phase causes damage and failure costs, as well as it hinders innovative sustainable solutions. Therefore a design tool was developed to support design knowledge exchange between different design team

  2. Integrated Design as an Evolutive Transdisciplinary Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Bujar Bajçinovci; Florina Jerliu

    2016-01-01

    New challenges should stimulate new research, in order to provide better and higher quality of life. The essence of transdisciplinary design consists of different professions closely related to architectural design aiming for better and qualitative solutions, which with new findings exceed the usual and conventional disciplinary boundaries. Incentive mechanism for lateral thinking in the design process is accomplished when all the team members overcome a conventional barrier, in creating fund...

  3. Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized

  4. Linking Design to Business Strategy Through Functional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses how designers, conducting design projects in specific organization's, can assure that the design of IT is appropriately linked to the organizations overall business strategy. A case study is presented in the form of a design project in a small public organization. Functional...... analysis was used as a means to clarify how a specific needed information system could support the organization's new business strategy. Using functional analysis in the design project had a powerful effect: it seriously challenged the organization's business strategy and revealed that the system...... to the relation between an organization's IT-projects and its business strategy and by suggesting that it is the responsibility of the designers, conducting design projects, to assure that this task is taken proper care of. Practical guidelines for this purpose are given....

  5. Provocative design for unprovocative designers : Strategies for triggering personal dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozkaramanli, D.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Traditional design approaches stimulate the creation of products that make daily interactions more efficient, comfortable, and pleasant. In contrast, provocative design approaches, such as critical design, have a different focus: they aim to challenge the status quo through products that expose

  6. Strategies for Designing and Developing Services for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    Product/service-systems (PSS) are in effect an approach to designing integrated products and services with a focus on both customer activities and product life cycle considerations. Literature offers a range of serviceoriented design strategies from product-oriented DfX approaches to more customer......-oriented approaches such as integrated solutions and service design. These design strategies are mapped out in relation to how applicable they are to different types of services. Case studies from two industrial companies are used to confront the existing literature in order to begin to understand how manufacturing...... companies may align their business strategies with their product and service development activities....

  7. Strategies for Designing and Developing Services for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian Ronald; Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Tim C.

    2010-01-01

    Product/service-systems (PSS) are in effect an approach to designing integrated products and services with a focus on both customer- and product life cycleactivities . Literature offers a range of service-oriented design strategies from product-oriented DfX approaches to more customer...... manufacturing companies may align their product and service development activities with their business strategies.......-oriented approaches such as integrated solutions and service design. These design strategies are mapped out in relation to how applicable they are to different types of services. Case studies from two industrial companies are used to confront the existing literature in order to improve understanding of how...

  8. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  9. Evolving a Method to Capture Science Stakeholder Inputs to Optimize Instrument, Payload, and Program Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.; Bailin, S.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing Frontier, a highly adaptable, stably reconfigurable, web-accessible intelligent decision engine capable of optimizing design as well as the simulating operation of complex systems in response to evolving needs and environment.

  10. Input-Parallel Output-Parallel Three-Level DC/DC Converters With Interleaving Control Strategy for Minimizing and Balancing Capacitor Ripple Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Gong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the input-parallel output-parallel (IPOP) three-level (TL) DC/DC converters associated with the interleaving control strategy are proposed for minimizing and balancing the capacitor ripple currents. The proposed converters consist of two four-switch half-bridge three-level (HBTL) DC...

  11. A three-phase to three-phase series-resonant power converter with optimal input current waveforms, Part I: control strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.

    1988-01-01

    A control strategy for multiphase-input multiphase-output AC to AC series-resonant (SR) power converters is presented. After reviewing some basics in SR power converters, a hierarchy of control mechanisms is presented, together with their respective theoretical backgrounds and practical limitations.

  12. appropriate strategies for designing contemporary art museums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... such as (aesthetic style designed for the set, easy access to the collections and availability of educational .... Thus, any decisions to encounter different cultures can help the ... effect of museum attraction on cultural tourism status in the ..... Making the space dynamic and attractive by providing adequate ...

  13. Nature inspired design : Strategies towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Kandachar, P.V.; Karana, E.; Peck, D.P.; Wever, R.

    2010-01-01

    Current design practices focus on eco-efficiency as the main approach in the field of sustainable product development. This approach mainly aims at improving existing products and services. Environmental product performance can be greatly improved using ecoefficiency but in many cases the

  14. Strategies for Teaching Brainstorming in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan; Farrington, Shawn; Tennenhouse, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has been an important aspect of economic and scientific success in the United States for decades. Hobday, Coffey, Saalfeld, and Colwell (2011) suggested that, in order to produce innovative ideas, one must have a design-thinking mentality. This article provides the readers with an example of brainstorming techniques that have been…

  15. Strategies for Optimal Design of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...

  16. SKIRT: The design of a suite of input models for Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, M.; Camps, P.

    2015-09-01

    The Monte Carlo method is the most popular technique to perform radiative transfer simulations in a general 3D geometry. The algorithms behind and acceleration techniques for Monte Carlo radiative transfer are discussed extensively in the literature, and many different Monte Carlo codes are publicly available. On the contrary, the design of a suite of components that can be used for the distribution of sources and sinks in radiative transfer codes has received very little attention. The availability of such models, with different degrees of complexity, has many benefits. For example, they can serve as toy models to test new physical ingredients, or as parameterised models for inverse radiative transfer fitting. For 3D Monte Carlo codes, this requires algorithms to efficiently generate random positions from 3D density distributions. We describe the design of a flexible suite of components for the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The design is based on a combination of basic building blocks (which can be either analytical toy models or numerical models defined on grids or a set of particles) and the extensive use of decorators that combine and alter these building blocks to more complex structures. For a number of decorators, e.g. those that add spiral structure or clumpiness, we provide a detailed description of the algorithms that can be used to generate random positions. Advantages of this decorator-based design include code transparency, the avoidance of code duplication, and an increase in code maintainability. Moreover, since decorators can be chained without problems, very complex models can easily be constructed out of simple building blocks. Finally, based on a number of test simulations, we demonstrate that our design using customised random position generators is superior to a simpler design based on a generic black-box random position generator.

  17. Review of climatic input data for wind load design in accordance with SANS 10160-3

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam MW

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available factor QWE that provides for the wind engineering procedures, such as the wind speed profile and pressure coefficients. The characteristic wind load is then given by Equation 4, where CoV is the coefficient of variation (σV/µV): QW,k = QWE (µV + 2....59 σV)2 = QWE µVk2(1+ 2.59 CoVV)2 (6) Design wind load The design wind load can be obtained by determining the wind speed according to Equation 4 for an exceedance probability (PF) that corresponds with the appropriate target reliability (β...

  18. Interdisciplinary Information Design with an Empowerment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    An innovative research into a model for ICT enabled Empowerment. By deliberate use of ICT and a feedback-focused communication model in a prototyping process, e-health information based on an empowerment strategy is evaluated. Overall a risk-driven spiral model is applied for Progress...... and Complexity handling in order to ensure success. The process model devised has a proactive approach to interdisciplinary teamwork, organisational web maturity, and the post-modern user's interaction with ICT. The research is performed and evaluated in cooperation with an interdisciplinary team of health......'s perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived...

  19. Design or development? Beyond the LP-STS debate; inputs from a Volvo truck case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, BS; De Witte, MC; van der Zwaan, AH

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will show that the debate between advocates of Lean production and the socio-technical approach has concentrated too much on the design aspect of the production structure, while neglecting the development aspect of teamwork. This paper addresses the question whether it is

  20. Amalgamating sustainable design strategies into architectural curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Elseragy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    In the era of climate change, rising sea levels, the hole in the ozone layer and current food crisis, sustainability is no longer a matter of choice; it is a must. While the term sustainability manages to embed itself in all aspects of contemporary life, sustainability in the built environment requires special attention. Designs created by architects and planners play a fundamental part in shaping the way we live, behave and interact with our surroundings. Smith (2001) argued that...

  1. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menolascina, F.; Bellomo, D.; Maiwald, T.; Bevilacqua, V.; Ciminelli, C.; Paradiso, A.; Tommasi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the

  2. Design of a Code-Maker Translator Assistive Input Device with a Contest Fuzzy Recognition Algorithm for the Severely Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an assistive system for the severe physical disabilities, named “code-maker translator assistive input device” which utilizes a contest fuzzy recognition algorithm and Morse codes encoding to provide the keyboard and mouse functions for users to access a standard personal computer, smartphone, and tablet PC. This assistive input device has seven features that are small size, easy installing, modular design, simple maintenance, functionality, very flexible input interface selection, and scalability of system functions, when this device combined with the computer applications software or APP programs. The users with severe physical disabilities can use this device to operate the various functions of computer, smartphone, and tablet PCs, such as sending e-mail, Internet browsing, playing games, and controlling home appliances. A patient with a brain artery malformation participated in this study. The analysis result showed that the subject could make himself familiar with operating of the long/short tone of Morse code in one month. In the future, we hope this system can help more people in need.

  3. Plant Friendly Input Design for Parameter Estimation in an Inertial System with Respect to D-Efficiency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Jakowluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System identification, in practice, is carried out by perturbing processes or plants under operation. That is why in many industrial applications a plant-friendly input signal would be preferred for system identification. The goal of the study is to design the optimal input signal which is then employed in the identification experiment and to examine the relationships between the index of friendliness of this input signal and the accuracy of parameter estimation when the measured output signal is significantly affected by noise. In this case, the objective function was formulated through maximisation of the Fisher information matrix determinant (D-optimality expressed in conventional Bolza form. As setting such conditions of the identification experiment we can only talk about the D-suboptimality, we quantify the plant trajectories using the D-efficiency measure. An additional constraint, imposed on D-efficiency of the solution, should allow one to attain the most adequate information content  from the plant which operating point is perturbed in the least invasive (most friendly way. A simple numerical example, which clearly demonstrates the idea presented in the paper, is included and discussed.

  4. Reliability-Oriented Design and Analysis of Input Capacitors in Single-Phase Transformer-less Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    While 99% efficiency has been reported, the target of 20 years of service time imposes new challenge to cost-effective solutions for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are the weak-link in terms of reliability and lifetime in single-phase PV systems....... A reliability-oriented design guideline is proposed in this paper for the input capacitors in single-phase transformer-less PV inverters. The guideline ensures that the service time requirement is to be accomplished under different power levels and ambient temperature profiles. The theoretical analysis has been...... demonstrated by a 1 kW single-phase PV inverter....

  5. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  6. Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mharakurwa Sungano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the importance of local sustainability, and consider somewhat urgently how individual endemic countries can plan and implement the programmes that are currently financed, for the most part, by donor institutions. On an immediate basis research should be more focused on a data driven approach to control. This will entail new thinking on the role of local infrastructure and in training of local scientists in local universities in epidemiology and field malariology so that expanded control programmes can become operational. Donor agencies should encourage and facilitate development of career opportunities for such personnel so that local expertise is available to contribute appropriately.

  7. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability

  8. HIV-1 Eradication Strategies: Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent developments have generated renewed interest in the possibility of curing HIV-1 infection. This review describes some of the practical challenges that will need to be overcome if curative strategies are to be successful. Recent findings The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells is the major barrier to curing the infection. The most widely discussed approach to curing the infection involves finding agents that reverse latency in resting CD4+ T cells, with the assumption that the cells will then die from viral cytopathic effects or be lysed by host cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge is the development of in vitro models that can be used to explore mechanisms and identify latency reversing agents (LRA). Although several models have been developed, including primary cell models, none of them may fully capture the quiescent state of the cells that harbor latent HIV-1 in vivo. An additional problem is that LRA that do not cause T cell activation may not lead to the death of infected cells. Finally, measuring the effects of LRAs in vivo is complicated by the lack of correlation between different assays for the latent reservoir. Summary Progress on these practical issues is essential to finding a cure. PMID:23698561

  9. RAMI strategies in the IFMIF Test Facilities design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abal, Javier, E-mail: javier.abal@upc.edu [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Dies, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, José Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bargalló, Enric [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Casal, Natalia; García, Ángela [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martínez, Gonzalo; Tapia, Carlos; De Blas, Alfredo [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We have implemented fault tolerant design strategies so that the strong availability requirements are met. • The evolution to the present design of the signal and cooling lines inside the TTC has also been compared. • The RAMI analyses have demonstrated a strong capability in being a complementary tool in the design of IFMIF Test Facilities. -- Abstract: In this paper, a RAMI analysis of the different stages in Test Facilities (TF) design is described. The comparison between the availability results has been a milestone not only to evaluate the major unavailability contributors in the updates but also to implement fault tolerant design strategies when possible. These strategies encompass a wide range of design activities: from the definition of degraded modes of operation in the Test Facilities to specific modifications in the test modules in order to guarantee their fail safe operation.

  10. RAMI strategies in the IFMIF Test Facilities design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal, Javier; Dies, Javier; Arroyo, José Manuel; Bargalló, Enric; Casal, Natalia; García, Ángela; Martínez, Gonzalo; Tapia, Carlos; De Blas, Alfredo; Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have implemented fault tolerant design strategies so that the strong availability requirements are met. • The evolution to the present design of the signal and cooling lines inside the TTC has also been compared. • The RAMI analyses have demonstrated a strong capability in being a complementary tool in the design of IFMIF Test Facilities. -- Abstract: In this paper, a RAMI analysis of the different stages in Test Facilities (TF) design is described. The comparison between the availability results has been a milestone not only to evaluate the major unavailability contributors in the updates but also to implement fault tolerant design strategies when possible. These strategies encompass a wide range of design activities: from the definition of degraded modes of operation in the Test Facilities to specific modifications in the test modules in order to guarantee their fail safe operation

  11. SENSORIAL STRATEGIES IN THE DESIGN OF PUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wishes to establish new criteria regarding the aesthetic revitalisation of public means of transport in the big cities of Romania, using the principles of sensorial design. Unlike France, country in which the public transport systems in big cities have been reconfigured and permanently improved by adopting new technical solutions, new materials and upholsteries, in Romania, the rough economic context from the last decades led to the purchase of used vehicles from the West; fact which gradually led to the increase of the aesthetic level of pollution in big cities. Taking into account that in the near-by future one cannot see any financial solutions for renewing the vehicle parks, in Iași, the TRAMCLUB NGO initiated the project “The aesthetic revitalisation of RATP [1] Iași public means of transport”, in partnership with RATP Iași and two private companies as sponsors. The project foresees the aesthetic integration of means of transport in the urban aesthetics through a chromatic unification and increasing the quality of the travel experience by adopting a unitary upholstery resistant to wear and with a high level of washability. With the support of the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design (“G. Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, a workshop for students of all study years was organised, with the purpose of choosing the best version of chairs reupholstering, in full accordance with the new visual identity.

  12. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  13. User input in iterative design for prevention product development: leveraging interdisciplinary methods to optimize effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Guillen, Melissa; Steger, Arielle L; Getz, Melissa L; Smith, Kelley A; Ramirez, Jaime J; Kojic, Erna M

    2017-10-01

    The development of HIV-preventive topical vaginal microbicides has been challenged by a lack of sufficient adherence in later stage clinical trials to confidently evaluate effectiveness. This dilemma has highlighted the need to integrate translational research earlier in the drug development process, essentially applying behavioral science to facilitate the advances of basic science with respect to the uptake and use of biomedical prevention technologies. In the last several years, there has been an increasing recognition that the user experience, specifically the sensory experience, as well as the role of meaning-making elicited by those sensations, may play a more substantive role than previously thought. Importantly, the role of the user-their sensory perceptions, their judgements of those experiences, and their willingness to use a product-is critical in product uptake and consistent use post-marketing, ultimately realizing gains in global public health. Specifically, a successful prevention product requires an efficacious drug, an efficient drug delivery system, and an effective user. We present an integrated iterative drug development and user experience evaluation method to illustrate how user-centered formulation design can be iterated from the early stages of preclinical development to leverage the user experience. Integrating the user and their product experiences into the formulation design process may help optimize both the efficiency of drug delivery and the effectiveness of the user.

  14. Design for experience where technology meets design and strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jinwoo

    2015-01-01

    Presents a strategic perspective and design methodology that guide the process of developing digital products and services that provide 'real experience' to users. Only when the material experienced runs its course to fulfilment is it then regarded as 'real experience' that is distinctively senseful, evaluated as valuable, and harmoniously related to others. Based on the theoretical background of human experience, the book focuses on these three questions: How can we understand the current dominant designs of digital products and services? What are the user experience factor

  15. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Repository Horizon Elevation - 2-Level AML 50% and Near Maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the WAPDEG version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b). Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by a two-tier thermal loading repository design. Also documented is the post-processing of these results into tables of waste-package-degradation-time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer program. Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) as defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (CRWMS M and O 1998a). Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document--Chapter 5, Waste Package Degradation Modeling And Abstraction, pp. 5-27 to 5-29, with the exception that a two-tier thermal loading design feature as specified in the License Application Design Selection (LADS) study was analyzed. The particular design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the repository horizon elevation and layout within the Topopah Springs Member of Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the modification consists of adding a second level, 50-m above the base case repository layout. Two options were considered, representing two variations in thermal loading. In Design Feature 25e (designated DF25e), each level has an Areal Mass Loading (AML) of 42.5 MTU/acre (i.e., half the VA base case). In Design Feature 25f (designated DF25), each level has an AML of 64MTU/acre. As a result of the change in waste package placement relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently

  16. Reinforcement-Learning-Based Robust Controller Design for Continuous-Time Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-07-01

    The design of stabilizing controller for uncertain nonlinear systems with control constraints is a challenging problem. The constrained-input coupled with the inability to identify accurately the uncertainties motivates the design of stabilizing controller based on reinforcement-learning (RL) methods. In this paper, a novel RL-based robust adaptive control algorithm is developed for a class of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input constraints. The robust control problem is converted to the constrained optimal control problem with appropriately selecting value functions for the nominal system. Distinct from typical action-critic dual networks employed in RL, only one critic neural network (NN) is constructed to derive the approximate optimal control. Meanwhile, unlike initial stabilizing control often indispensable in RL, there is no special requirement imposed on the initial control. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop optimal control system and the estimated weights of the critic NN are proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, the derived approximate optimal control is verified to guarantee the uncertain nonlinear system to be stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the present approach.

  17. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. H∞ Excitation Control Design for Stochastic Power Systems with Input Delay Based on Nonlinear Hamiltonian System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents H∞ excitation control design problem for power systems with input time delay and disturbances by using nonlinear Hamiltonian system theory. The impact of time delays introduced by remote signal transmission and processing in wide-area measurement system (WAMS is well considered. Meanwhile, the systems under investigation are disturbed by random fluctuation. First, under prefeedback technique, the power systems are described as a nonlinear Hamiltonian system. Then the H∞ excitation controller of generators connected to distant power systems with time delay and stochasticity is designed. Based on Lyapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee the rationality and validity of the proposed control law. The closed-loop systems under the control law are asymptotically stable in mean square independent of the time delay. And we through a simulation of a two-machine power system prove the effectiveness of the results proposed in this paper.

  19. Design and implementation of an efficient single layer five input majority voter gate in quantum-dot cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ali Newaz; Waheed, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental logical element of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuit is majority voter gate (MV). The efficiency of a QCA circuit is depends on the efficiency of the MV. This paper presents an efficient single layer five-input majority voter gate (MV5). The structure of proposed MV5 is very simple and easy to implement in any logical circuit. This proposed MV5 reduce number of cells and use conventional QCA cells. However, using MV5 a multilayer 1-bit full-adder (FA) is designed. The functional accuracy of the proposed MV5 and FA are confirmed by QCADesigner a well-known QCA layout design and verification tools. Furthermore, the power dissipation of proposed circuits are estimated, which shows that those circuits dissipate extremely small amount of energy and suitable for reversible computing. The simulation outcomes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed circuit.

  20. Radiation data input for the design of dry or semi-dry U tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Before discussion of design criteria for the handling of dry or semi-dry tailings, it is necessary to obtain an insight into the radiation levels associated with the tailings particles and to study the basic physical properties of dry tailings. This article presents the experimental results of assessing Ra and specific alpha-activity distribution with respect to particle size of the Ranger (RUM) and Nabarlek (QML) uranium mines dry tailings samples. The variation of Rn emanation coefficient versus particle size of dry tailings has also been measured. The nuclear-track detection technique, gamma spectrometry and alpha counting were used for the above measurements. Surface Rn flux from the hypothetical Nabarlek semi-infinite dry tailings pile is 32 Bq m -2 s -1 and the Rn flux for Ranger is 10 Bq m -2 s -1 . The theoretical exposure rates for 1 m above these hypothetical tailings piles are 0.95 microC kg -1 h -1 and 0.28 microC kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The derived air alpha-contamination limits (DAAC) for the tailings dust were calculated to be 1.2 Bq m -3 for workers and 0.034 Bq m -3 for a member of the public. The limit for workers corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.79 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 2.2 mg m -3 for RUM tailings. The DAAC limit for the public corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.022 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 0.064 mg m -3 for RUM tailings

  1. Adder design using a 5-input majority gate in a novel “multilayer gate design paradigm” for quantum dot cellular automata circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rohit; Ghosh, Bahniman; Gupta, Shoubhik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel design paradigm for circuits designed in quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) technology. Previously reported QCA circuits in the literature have generally been designed in a single layer which is the main logical block in which the inverter and majority gate are on the base layer, except for the parts where multilayer wire crossing was used. In this paper the concept of multilayer wire crossing has been extended to design logic gates in multilayers. Using a 5-input majority gate in a multilayer, a 1-bit and 2-bit adder have been designed in the proposed multilayer gate design paradigm. A comparison has been made with some adders reported previously in the literature and it has been shown that circuits designed in the proposed design paradigm are much more efficient in terms of area, the requirement of QCA cells in the design and the input–output delay of the circuit. Over all, the availability of one additional spatial dimension makes the design process much more flexible and there is scope for the customizability of logic gate designs to make the circuit compact. (paper)

  2. Designing Search UX Strategies for eCommerce Success

    CERN Document Server

    Nudelman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Best practices, practical advice, and design ideas for successful ecommerce search A glaring gap has existed in the market for a resource that offers a comprehensive, actionable design patterns and design strategies for ecommerce search-but no longer. With this invaluable book, user experience designer and user researcher Greg Nudelman shares his years of experience working on popular ecommerce sites as he tackles even the most difficult ecommerce search design problems. Nudelman helps you create highly effective and intuitive ecommerce search design solutions and he takes a unique forward-thi

  3. A Waterfall Design Strategy for Using Social Media for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Terence C.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media can create a rich learning environment that crosses all content areas. The key to creating this environment is for instructors and designers to match appropriate social media software with the intended learning outcome. This article describes an instructional design strategy that helps educators create learning activities that…

  4. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoang, Thuc T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McPherson, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Rob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  5. Thermally adapted design strategy of colonial houses in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaryama, I. G. N.; Ekasiwi, S. N. N.; Mappajaya, A.; Ulum, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Colonial buildings, including houses, have been considered as a representation of climate-responsive architecture. The design was thought to be a hybrid model of Dutch and tropical architecture. It was created by way of reinventing tropical and Dutch architecture design principles, and expressed in a new form, i.e. neither resembling Dutch nor tropical building. Aside from this new image, colonial house does show good climatic responses. Previous researches on colonial house generally focus on qualitative assessment of climate performance of the building. Yet this kind of study tends to concentrate on building elements, e.g. wall, window, etc. The present study is designed to give more complete picture of architecture design strategy of the house by exploring and analysing thermal performance of colonial buildings and their related architecture design strategies. Field measurements are conducted during the dry season in several colonial building in Surabaya. Air temperature and humidity are both taken, representing internal and external thermal conditions of the building. These data are then evaluated to determine thermal performance of the house. Finally, various design strategies are examined in order to reveal their significant contributions to its thermal performance. Results of the study in Surabaya confirm findings of the previous researches that are conducted in other locations, which stated that thermal performance of the house is generally good. Passive design strategies such as mass effect and ventilation play an important role in determining performance of the building.

  6. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Appropriate teaching and learning strategies for the architectural design process in pedagogic design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Soliman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The national qualification framework of a country requires a certain level of knowledge and complexity of skills for an academic degree to be recognized. For architectural programs, student workload is heavy on design courses. Therefore, each course must be carefully developed to ensure that students are not overloaded. Teaching and learning strategies have different implications for courses, which occasionally result in overloading the students. This research aims to study the three main pillars of teaching and learning strategies for each design phase in pedagogic design studios. The most appropriate model for each teaching and learning strategy, including a set of the three main pillars, is then identified for each design phase. A practical strategy for managing design studios is also determined. The aforementioned three pillars are as follows: teaching and learning methods, assigned tasks or study aspects, and design communication techniques. Two research methods, namely, a literature review and a survey among design educators, are adopted. The literature review examines aspects that contribute to the design process and its phases, teaching methods, design skills, communication methods, and studio management strategies. On the basis of the literature review, the background of developments and practices in the design education process are used as constructive tools to develop the survey for design educators. Through the survey, the pillars of teaching and learning strategies that are frequently practiced in design studios are evaluated. Results of this study are classified into three ranks using the nature break classification method for numerical values. Subsequently, three priority models that correspond to teaching and learning strategies, as well as to the required skills and capabilities, are established. A group-based strategy with an interdisciplinary approach is also determined to be the most suitable technique for managing the

  8. On Adaptive Extended Different Life Cycle of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of following the whole lifespan of product and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces enterprises of different nature, enterprises at different developing stage will adopt different mode strategy. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated in different developing stages such as company development period, crisis predicament period, lasting steadies period, improving by payback period, issues steadies secondary period, declining go and live period, enterprise should pursue different mode product tactics of research and development such as shrinking strategy, consolidating strategy, innovation keeping forging ahead strategy. Enterprise should break regular management mode to introduce different research and development mode to promote enterprise's competitiveness effectively.

  9. Design, Experiments and Simulation of Voltage Transformers on the Basis of a Differential Input D-dot Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid.

  10. Design, experiments and simulation of voltage transformers on the basis of a differential input D-dot sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Gao, Can; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-17

    Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid.

  11. Reinventing classics: the hidden design strategies of renowned chefs

    OpenAIRE

    Agogué , Marine; Hatchuel , Armand

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Reinventing classics is a well-used yet complex design pattern. Indeed, a reinterpreted classic needs to relate to the original object while simultaneously challenging the initial model and providing a new and fresh look to the well established classic. However, this design strategy remains understudied, and we aimed to contribute to the literature by addressing the lack of theoretical models for reinventing classics. Reinterpreting tradition is a key process for chefs...

  12. Supply chain implications of sustainable design strategies for electronics products

    OpenAIRE

    De Coster, R; Bateman, RJ; Plant, AVC

    2012-01-01

    Increasing legislative and consumer pressures on manufacturers to improve sustainability necessitates that manufacturers consider the overall life cycle and not be scope restricted in creating products. Product strategies to improve sustainability have design implications as many of the decisions made during the design stage will then determine the environmental performance of the final product. Coordination across the supply chain is potentially beneficial as products with improved energy ef...

  13. Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…

  14. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  15. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Myung Ki [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed.

  16. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Myung Ki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed

  17. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2016-01-01

    with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N......A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized...... carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground...

  18. Strategies for the generation of parametric images of [11C]PIB with plasma input functions considering discriminations and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Paul; Brooks, David J; Turkheimer, Federico E; Archer, Hilary A; Hinz, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    Pittsburgh compound B or [11C]PIB is an amyloid imaging agent which shows a clear differentiation between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls. However the observed signal difference in other forms of dementia such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is smaller, and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) subjects and some healthy elderly normals may show intermediate levels of [11C]PIB binding. The cerebellum, a commonly used reference region for non-specific tracer uptake in [11C]PIB studies in AD may not be valid in Prion disorders or monogenic forms of AD. The aim of this work was to: 1-compare methods for generating parametric maps of [11C]PIB retention in tissue using a plasma input function in respect of their ability to discriminate between AD subjects and controls and 2-estimate the test-retest reproducibility in AD subjects. 12 AD subjects (5 of which underwent a repeat scan within 6 weeks) and 10 control subjects had 90 minute [11C]PIB dynamic PET scans, and arterial plasma input functions were measured. Parametric maps were generated with graphical analysis of reversible binding (Logan plot), irreversible binding (Patlak plot), and spectral analysis. Between group differentiation was calculated using Student's t-test and comparisons between different methods were made using p values. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). We found that the 75 min value of the impulse response function showed the best group differentiation and had a higher ICC than volume of distribution maps generated from Logan and spectral analysis. Patlak analysis of [11C]PIB binding was the least reproducible.

  19. Application of Evolution Strategies to the Design of Tracking Filters with a Large Number of Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García Herrero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of evolution strategies to the design of interacting multiple model (IMM tracking filters in order to fulfill a large table of performance specifications. These specifications define the desired filter performance in a thorough set of selected test scenarios, for different figures of merit and input conditions, imposing hundreds of performance goals. The design problem is stated as a numeric search in the filter parameters space to attain all specifications or at least minimize, in a compromise, the excess over some specifications as much as possible, applying global optimization techniques coming from evolutionary computation field. Besides, a new methodology is proposed to integrate specifications in a fitness function able to effectively guide the search to suitable solutions. The method has been applied to the design of an IMM tracker for a real-world civil air traffic control application: the accomplishment of specifications defined for the future European ARTAS system.

  20. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  1. Strategies and arguments of ergonomic design for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Antonio; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Rossi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Referring to the discussion recently promoted by the Sub-Technical Committee n°4 "Ergonomics and design for sustainability", in this paper will be shown the early results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability. In particular, the research is based on the comparison between the common thematic structure characterizing Ergonomics, with the principles of Sustainable Development and with criteria adopted from other disciplines already oriented toward Sustainability. The paper identifies an early logical-interpretative model and describes possible and relevant Strategies of Ergonomic design for sustainability, which are connected in a series of specific Sustainable Arguments.

  2. A design strategy for magnetorheological dampers using porous valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W; Robinson, R; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    To design a porous-valve-based magnetorheological (MR) damper, essential design parameters are presented. The key elements affecting the damper performance are identified using flow analysis in porous media and an empirical magnetic field distribution in the porous valve. Based on a known MR fluid, the relationship between the controllable force of the damper and the porous valve characteristics, i.e. porosity and tortuosity, is developed. The effect of the porosity and tortuosity on the field-off damping force is exploited by using semi-empirical flow analysis. The critical flow rate for the onset of nonlinear viscous damping force is determined. Using the above design elements, an MR damper using by-pass porous valve is designed and tested. The experimental damper force and equivalent damping are compared with the predicted results to validate this design strategy.

  3. A design strategy for magnetorheological dampers using porous valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W; Robinson, R; Wereley, N M [Smart Structures Laboratory, Alfred Gessow Rotorcraft Center, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    To design a porous-valve-based magnetorheological (MR) damper, essential design parameters are presented. The key elements affecting the damper performance are identified using flow analysis in porous media and an empirical magnetic field distribution in the porous valve. Based on a known MR fluid, the relationship between the controllable force of the damper and the porous valve characteristics, i.e. porosity and tortuosity, is developed. The effect of the porosity and tortuosity on the field-off damping force is exploited by using semi-empirical flow analysis. The critical flow rate for the onset of nonlinear viscous damping force is determined. Using the above design elements, an MR damper using by-pass porous valve is designed and tested. The experimental damper force and equivalent damping are compared with the predicted results to validate this design strategy.

  4. Multidimensional (OLAP) Analysis for Designing Dynamic Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, A.; Deliyska, B.

    2010-10-01

    Learning strategy in an intelligent learning system is generally elaborated on the basis of assessment of the following factors: learner's time for reaction, content of the learning object, amount of learning material in a learning object, learning object specification, e-learning medium and performance control. Current work proposes architecture for dynamic learning strategy design by implementing multidimensional analysis model of learning factors. The analysis model concerns on-line analytical processing (OLAP) of learner's data structured as multidimensional cube. Main components of the architecture are analysis agent for performing the OLAP operations on learner data cube, adaptation generator and knowledge selection agent for performing adaptive navigation in the learning object repository. The output of the analysis agent is involved in dynamic elaboration of learning strategy that fits best to learners profile and behavior. As a result an adaptive learning path for individual learner and for learner groups is generated.

  5. Design Requirements, Epistemic Uncertainty and Solution Development Strategies in Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Linden J.; Onarheim, Balder; Christensen, Bo Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential involvement of “epistemic uncertainty” in mediating between complex design requirements and strategic switches in software design strategies. The analysis revealed that the designers produced an initial “first-pass” solution to the given design brief in a bre...... a view of software design as involving a mixed breadth-first and depth-first solution development approach, with strategic switching to depth-first design being triggered by requirement complexity and being mediated by associated feelings of uncertainty....

  6. Designing multiple ligands - medicinal chemistry strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphy, Richard; Rankovic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely recognised over the recent years that parallel modulation of multiple biological targets can be beneficial for treatment of diseases with complex etiologies such as cancer asthma, and psychiatric disease. In this article, current strategies for the generation of ligands with a specific multi-target profile (designed multiple ligands or DMLs) are described and a number of illustrative example are given. Designing multiple ligands is frequently a challenging endeavour for medicinal chemists, with the need to appropriately balance affinity for 2 or more targets whilst obtaining physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that are consistent with the administration of an oral drug. Given that the properties of DMLs are influenced to a large extent by the proteomic superfamily to which the targets belong and the lead generation strategy that is pursued, an early assessment of the feasibility of any given DML project is essential.

  7. Parameters Design for Logarithmic Quantizer Based on Zoom Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of designing suitable parameters for logarithmic quantizer such that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. Based on zoom strategy, we propose two methods for quantizer parameters design, under which it ensures that the state of the closed-loop system can load in the invariant sets after some certain moments. Then we obtain that the quantizer is unsaturated, and thus the quantization errors are bounded under the time-varying logarithm quantization strategy. On that basis, we obtain that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. A benchmark example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods, and the comparison results are illustrated.

  8. Diabetes City: How Urban Game Design Strategies Can Help Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, Martin

    Computer Games are about to leave their “electronic shells” and enter the city. So-called Serious Pervasive Games (SPGs) [1] allow for hybrid - simultaneously physical and virtual - experiences, applying technologies of ubiquitous computing, communication and “intelligent” interfaces. They begin to focus on non-entertaining purposes. The following article a) presents game design strategies as a missing link between pervasive computing, Ambient Intelligence and user’s everyday life. Therefore it spurs a discussion how Pervasive Healthcare focusing on the therapy and prevention of chronic diseases can benefit from urban game design strategies. b) Moreover the article presents the development and work in progress of “DiabetesCity“ - an educational game prototype for young diabetics.

  9. Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.

  10. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  11. A proposal of optimal sampling design using a modularity strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, A.; Giustolisi, O.; Laucelli, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    In real water distribution networks (WDNs) are present thousands nodes and optimal placement of pressure and flow observations is a relevant issue for different management tasks. The planning of pressure observations in terms of spatial distribution and number is named sampling design and it was faced considering model calibration. Nowadays, the design of system monitoring is a relevant issue for water utilities e.g., in order to manage background leakages, to detect anomalies and bursts, to guarantee service quality, etc. In recent years, the optimal location of flow observations related to design of optimal district metering areas (DMAs) and leakage management purposes has been faced considering optimal network segmentation and the modularity index using a multiobjective strategy. Optimal network segmentation is the basis to identify network modules by means of optimal conceptual cuts, which are the candidate locations of closed gates or flow meters creating the DMAs. Starting from the WDN-oriented modularity index, as a metric for WDN segmentation, this paper proposes a new way to perform the sampling design, i.e., the optimal location of pressure meters, using newly developed sampling-oriented modularity index. The strategy optimizes the pressure monitoring system mainly based on network topology and weights assigned to pipes according to the specific technical tasks. A multiobjective optimization minimizes the cost of pressure meters while maximizing the sampling-oriented modularity index. The methodology is presented and discussed using the Apulian and Exnet networks.

  12. Designing equitable antiretroviral allocation strategies in resource-constrained countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Wilson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the

  13. AGROECOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Canuto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is the debate on principles and strategies for designing sustainable agricultural systems. The paper builds on a broad approach to principles, moving to the more specific approach to strategies and finalizing with a micro-scale perspective on the practice of drawings and the consequences of each possible option. The objective is first of all to put to the debate the dialectic between conceptual plurality and unity in Agroecology. The problem in focus is to situate more clearly what are sustainable agroecosystems and, as a consequence, how to connect principles and strategies to make them viable. Regarding the theoretical reference, we use the classic authors of Agroecology and some critical articles on the conceptual question. The methodology that gives foundation to the approach is based on the author's theoretical and practical experience, with a qualitative, subjective and intuitive character. The results are only the presentation of ideas in order to contribute to the conceptual debate now in vogue and also to glimpse, on a smaller scale, the practical issue of sustainable agroecosystems designs.

  14. Paradigms for adaptive statistical information designs: practical experiences and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2012-11-10

    design. We highlight the substantial risk of planning the sample size for confirmatory trials when information is very uninformative and stipulate the advantages of adaptive statistical information designs for planning exploratory trials. Practical experiences and strategies as lessons learned from more recent adaptive design proposals will be discussed to pinpoint the improved utilities of adaptive design clinical trials and their potential to increase the chance of a successful drug development. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. DESIGNING STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Nur Ubay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at designing strategies for improving total quality management at CV XYZ and PT HIJ. The research locations were selected intentionally with the consideration that the company is a middle class company that started to apply a study in line with the research topic. The experts were chosen using an approach method. This research used a descriptive approach and quantitative analysis through questionnaires using purposive sampling. The stages began with data processing, i.e. testing the questionnaire quality through validity and reliability tests, making a causality diagram, evaluating the implementation levels of each company by giving evaluation scales based on the existing condition, making House of Quality (HOQ using QFD methods, and then analyzing the problem solutions produced from the QFD methods with 5W + IH analysis, and finally determining the improvement priorities using Fuzzy AHP methods. The results were the strategies for improving total quality management /TQM of CV XYZ, namely the factor that plays the most important role was improving the quality management performance. The actor that has the competence to carry out the TQM improvement is the director. The prioritized goal to be achieved is a commitment to improve the quality of goods and services.  The prioritized strategy used in improving TQM is carrying out SOP consistently.Keywords: strategies, improvement, TQM, manufacturing company, fuzzy AHPABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan merancang strategi peningkatan manajemen mutu terpadu pada CV XYZ dan PT HIJ. Pemilihan lokasi penelitian dilakukan secara sengaja dengan pertimbangan bahwa perusahaan tersebut merupakan perusahaan kelas menengah yang mulai menerapkan kajian sesuai dengan topik penelitian. Penentuan pakar dilakukan dengan metode pendekatan secara sengaja. Adapun penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif dan analisa kuantitatif dengan menyebarkan kuesioner secara sengaja (purposive sampling

  16. Design strategy for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin A; Williams, Benjamin S

    2016-10-31

    The development of quantum dot cascade lasers has been proposed as a path to obtain terahertz semiconductor lasers that operate at room temperature. The expected benefit is due to the suppression of nonradiative electron-phonon scattering and reduced dephasing that accompanies discretization of the electronic energy spectrum. We present numerical modeling which predicts that simple scaling of conventional quantum well based designs to the quantum dot regime will likely fail due to electrical instability associated with high-field domain formation. A design strategy adapted for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers is presented which avoids these problems. Counterintuitively, this involves the resonant depopulation of the laser's upper state with the LO-phonon energy. The strategy is tested theoretically using a density matrix model of transport and gain, which predicts sufficient gain for lasing at stable operating points. Finally, the effect of quantum dot size inhomogeneity on the optical lineshape is explored, suggesting that the design concept is robust to a moderate amount of statistical variation.

  17. Design optimization of radial flux permanent magnetwind generator for highest annual energy input and lower magnet volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, J.; Rajabi-Sebdani, M.; Ebrahimi, B. M. (Univ. of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)); Khan, M. A. (Univ. of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa))

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective optimization method to maximize annual energy input (AEI) and minimize permanent magnet (PM) volume in use. For this purpose, the analytical model of the machine is utilized. Effects of generator specifications on the annual energy input and PM volume are then investigated. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) parameters and dimensions are then optimized using genetic algorithm incorporated with an appropriate objective function. The results show an enhancement in PMSG performance. Finally 2D time stepping finite element method (2D TSFE) is used to verify the analytical results. Comparison of the results validates the optimization method

  18. Designing of all optical generalized circuit for two-input binary and multi-valued logical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Panchatapa; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a generalized all optical circuit of two-input logical operation (both binary and multi-valued), using an optical nonlinear material (OPNLM) based switch. The inputs of the logic gates are represented by different polarization states of light. This model is simple, practical and very much useful for future all optical information processing. Proposed scheme can work for different wavelengths and for different materials. The simulation result with the nonlinear material gold nanoparticle embedded in optically transparent matrices alumina (Al2O3) is also presented in the paper.

  19. The Problem Solver and The Artisan Designer: Strategies for Utilizing Design Idea Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inie, Nanna; Endo, Allison; Dow, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive qualitative study investigating how professional designers utilize personal idea archives. While we know that designers archive creative ideas in different formats and on different platforms, we know little about if and how designers utilize...... these idea archives in their daily practice. Through a series of interviews (n=20) and walkthroughs of design idea archives, we identified two archetypal strategies. The Problem Solver is concerned with the task at hand, keeps relevant ideas around, and discards them when the ideas have served their purpose...

  20. Towards a strategy of reliable fusion first-wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    Fusion first walls are subject to a large number of possible failure mechanisms, including erosion due to sputtering, arcing, blistering and vaporization and crack growth due to thermal and magnetic stresses. Each of these failure mechanisms is poorly characterized and has the potential of being severe. A strategy for designing reliably in the face of great uncertainty is discussed. Topological features beneficial to reactor availability are identified. The integration of limiter pumping with rf wave launching is discussed, as a means of simplifying reactor design. The concept of a sewer limiter is introduced, as a possible long-life limiter topology. The concept of flexible armor is discussed, as a means of extending maximum life

  1. System Design Strategies of Post-Accident Monitoring System for a PGSFR in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Jeong, Kwang-il; Keum, Jong-yong; Seong, Seung-hwan

    2013-06-01

    Monitoring systems of a PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) in Korea provide alarms, integrity information in the reactor building, sodium-water reaction information in the steam generator, fuel failure information, and supporting information for maintenance and inspection. In particular, a Post-Accident Monitoring System (PAMS) provides primary information for operators to assess the plant conditions and perform their role in bringing the plant to a safe condition during an accident. Some PAM variables can be allocated as more two types. It is important for system designers to confirm the suitability of the selection of PAM variables. In addition, the PAMS is a position 4 display against common cause failures of safety I and C systems. The position 4 display should be independent and diverse from the safety I and C systems. The diversity of safety I and C equipment has led to an increase in the design and verification and validation cost. Thus, this paper proposes the system design strategies on the PAMS design problems of the PGSFR in KOREA. The results will be input into a conceptual system design for the PAMS of the PGSFR in KOREA. (authors)

  2. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  3. Strategy revealing phenotypic differences among synthetic oscillator designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2014-09-19

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are numerous differences that are poorly understood. Utilizing synthetic biology to uncover basic principles of simpler circuits is a way to advance understanding of natural circadian clocks and rhythms. Following this strategy, we address the following questions: What are the implications of different architectures and molecular modes of transcriptional control for the phenotypic repertoire of genetic oscillators? Are there designs that are more realizable or robust? We compare synthetic oscillators involving one of three architectures and various combinations of the two modes of transcriptional control using a methodology that provides three innovations: a rigorous definition of phenotype, a procedure for deconstructing complex systems into qualitatively distinct phenotypes, and a graphical representation for illuminating the relationship between genotype, environment, and the qualitatively distinct phenotypes of a system. These methods provide a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire, facilitate comparisons of alternatives, and assist the rational design of synthetic gene circuitry. In particular, the results of their application here reveal distinctive phenotypes for several designs that have been studied experimentally as well as a best design among the alternatives that has yet to be constructed and tested.

  4. A Minimum Shuffle Core Design Strategy for ESBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, A.A.; Fawcett, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) is GEH's next evolution of advanced BWR technology. There are 1132 fuel bundles in the core and the thermal power is 4500 MWt. Similar to conventional plants there is an outage after a specified period of operation, when the plant shuts down. During the outage a specified fraction of fuel bundles are discharged from the core, it is loaded with the same fraction of fresh fuel, and fuel is shuffled to obtain an optimum core design that meets the goals for a successful operation of the next cycle. The discharge, load, and the associated shuffles are time-consuming and expensive tasks that impact the overall outage schedule and costs. Therefore, there is an incentive to keep maneuvers to a minimum and to perform them more efficiently. The benefits for a large core, such as the ESBWR with 1132 fuel bundles, are escalated. This study focuses on a core reload design strategy to minimize the total number of shuffles during an outage. A traditional equilibrium cycle is used as a reference basis, which sets the reference number of shuffles. In the minimum shuffle core design however, a set of two equilibrium cycles (N and N+1, referred to as a 'bi- equilibrium' cycle) is envisioned where the fresh fuel of cycle N (that becomes the once-burnt fuel of cycle N+1) ideally does not move in the two cycles. The cost of fuel efficiency is determined for obtaining such a core loading by comparing it to the traditional equilibrium cycle. There are several additional degrees of freedom when designing a bi-equilibrium cycle that could be utilized, and the potential benefits of these flexibilities are assessed. In summary, the feasibility of a minimum shuffle fuel cycle and core design for an ESBWR is studied. The cost of fuel efficiency is assessed in comparison to the traditional design. (authors)

  5. The sphinx project: experimental verification of design inputs for a transmuter with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Uhlir, J.; Vanicek, J.

    2002-01-01

    The current proposals for high-active long-lived (more then 10 4 years) waste from spent nuclear fuel disposal calls forth an increasing societal mistrust towards nuclear power. These problems are highly topical in the Czech Republic, a country which is operating nuclear power and accumulating spent fuel from PWRs and is further located on an inland and heavily populous Central European region. The proposed project, known under the acronym SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incineration by Neutron flux) deals with a solution to some of the principle problems through a very promising means of radioactive waste treatment. In particular, high-level wastes from spent nuclear fuel could be treated using this method, which is based on the transmutation of radionuclides through the use of a nuclear reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides (Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor - MSTR) which might be a subcritical system driven by a suitable neutron source. Its superiority also lies in the fact that it makes possible to utilize actinides contained, by others, in spent nuclear fuel and so to reach a positive energy effect. After the first three-year stage of Research and Development which has been focused mostly on computer analyses of neutronics and corresponding physical characteristics, the next three-year stage of this programme will be devoted to experimental verification of inputs for the design of a demonstration transmuter using molten fluoride fuel. The Research and Development part of the SPHINX project in the area of fuel cycle of the MSTR is focused in the first place on the development of suitable technology for the preparation of an introductory liquid fluoride fuel for MSTR and subsequently on the development of suitable fluoride pyrometallurgical technology for the separation of the transmuted elements from the non-transmuted ones. The idea of the introductory fuel preparation is based on the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel using the Fluoride Volatility Method

  6. Design of two and three input molecular logic gates using non-Watson-Crick base pairing-based molecular beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-03-21

    This study presents a single, resettable, and sensitive molecular beacon (MB) used to operate molecular-scale logic gates. The MB consists of a random DNA sequence, a fluorophore at the 5'-end, and a quencher at the 3'-end. The presence of Hg(2+), Ag(+), and coralyne promoted the formation of stable T-Hg(2+)-T, C-Ag(+)-C, and A2-coralyne-A2 coordination in the MB probe, respectively, thereby driving its conformational change. The metal ion or small molecule-mediated coordination of mismatched DNA brought the fluorophore and the quencher into close proximity, resulting in collisional quenching of fluorescence between the two organic dyes. Because thiol can bind Hg(2+) and remove it from the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB, adding thiol to a solution of the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB allowed the fluorophore and the quencher to be widely separated. A similar phenomenon was observed when replacing Hg(2+) with Ag(+). Because Ag(+) strongly binds to iodide, cyanide, and cysteine, they were capable of removing Ag(+) from the C-Ag(+)-C-based MB, restoring the fluorescence of the MB. Moreover, the fluorescence of the A2-coralyne-A2-based MB could be switched on by adding polyadenosine. Using these analytes as inputs and the MB as a signal transducer, we successfully developed a series of two-input, three-input, and set-reset logic gates at the molecular level.

  7. Design strategy for control of inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor power plant safety is assured through a combination of engineered barriers to radiation release (e.g., reactor containment) in combination with active reactor safety systems to shut the reactor down and remove decay heat. While not specifically identified as safety systems, the control systems responsible for continuous operation of plant subsystems are the first line of defense for mitigating radiation releases and for plant protection. Inherently safe reactors take advantage of passive system features for decay-heat removal and reactor shutdown functions normally ascribed to active reactor safety systems. The advent of these reactors may permit restructuring of the present control system design strategy. This restructuring is based on the fact that authority for protection against unlikely accidents is, as much as practical, placed upon the passive features of the system instead of the traditional placement upon the PPS. Consequently, reactor control may be simplified, allowing the reliability of control systems to be improved and more easily defended

  8. Design of Mobile Learning strategies through blended learning enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Boude Figueredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation that developed in the municipality of Fusagasuga in late 2013 by the University of La Sabana are presented, whose objective was to determine the contribution of a process of teacher training in the design of strategies for mobile learning. A methodological level a qualitative study, with exploratory scope, was conducted through a case study. In it, 245 teachers participated in 13 educational institu-tions. The main results show that teachers recognize the importance of using mobile devices to support the development of their teaching practices, and promote the participation of their students as well as some aspects that hinder and facilitate the development of this type of training processes. The main conclusion is that although the use of devices is increasingly in classrooms, this use does not respond to a didactic planning by the teacher.

  9. Mechanism Design of Fashion Virtual Enterprise under Monitoring Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a revenue sharing contract to prevent the moral hazard is one of the most important issues in virtual enterprise (VE. As the partners’ productive effort level cannot be observed by the owner and other partners, there is usually moral hazard problem in VE. To mitigate the moral hazard, the owner sets the monitoring effort with monitoring cost. Considering a risk-neutral owner and multiple downside risk-averse partners, the owner’s problem of determining the monitoring effort and incentive intensity to maximize his profit while the partners determine their productive effort to maximize their profit is addressed. The principal agent based model of this problem is proposed. By solving the model, the optimal strategy of owner and partner is derived. By comparing with the no monitoring scenario, we find that implementing suitable monitoring strategy can reduce the moral hazard effectively. Finally, by analyzing the partners’ risk attitude, the result reveals that the lower the risk level of the partner is, the more the owner wants. These results suggest that VE should not only focus on the risk attitude but also on monitoring.

  10. Report on planning of input earthquake vibration for design of vibration controlling structure, in the Tokai Works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-05-01

    When adopting a vibration controlling structure for a nuclear facility building, it is necessary to evaluate a little longer frequency vibration properly. Although various evaluation methods are proposed, there is no finished method. And, to the earthquake itself to investigate, some factors such as effect of surface wave, distant great earthquake, and so on must be considered, and further various evaluations and investigations are required. Here is reported on an evaluation method of the input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design establishing on adoption of the vibration controlling structure using a vibration control device comprising of laminated rubber and lead damper for the buildings of reprocessing facility in Tokai Works. The input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design shown in this report is to be adopted for a vibration controlling facility buildings in the Tokai Works. (G.K.)

  11. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  12. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M and O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes

  13. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  14. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-11-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent an emerging new class of functional crystalline solid-state materials. In the early discovery of this now rapidly growing class of materials significant challenges were often encountered. However, MOFs today, with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining to energy and environmental sustainability. A variety of design strategies have been enumerated in the literature which rely on the use of predesigned building blocks paving the way towards potentially more predictable structures. The two major design strategies presented in this work are the molecular building block (MBB) and supermolecular building block (SBB) -based approaches for the rationale assembly of functional MOF materials with the desired structural features. In this context, we targeted two highly connected MOF platforms, namely rht-MOF and shp-MOF. These two MOF platforms are classified based on their topology, defined as the underlying connectivity of their respective net, as edge transitive binodal nets; shp being (4,12)-connected net and rht being (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets were deliberately targeted due to the limited number of possible nets for connecting their associated basic building units. Two highly porous materials were designed and successfully constructed; namely Y-shp-MOF-5 and rht-MOF-10. The Y-shp-MOF-5 features a phenomenal water stability with an exquisite behavior when exposed to water, positioning this microporous material as the best adsorbent for moisture control applications. The shp-MOF platform proved to be modular to ligand functionalization and thus imparting significant behavioral changes when hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalized ligands were introduced on the resultant MOF. On the other hand, rht

  15. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Khadivar; Shohreh Nasri Nasr Abadi; Elham Fallah

    2014-01-01

    knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical found...

  16. Third-Order Transport with MAD Input: A Computer Program for Designing Charged Particle Beam Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Karl

    1998-10-28

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems.

  17. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-01-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation

  18. Designing the input vector to ANN-based models for short-term load forecast in electricity distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.J.; Martins, A.G.; Pires, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present trend to electricity market restructuring increases the need for reliable short-term load forecast (STLF) algorithms, in order to assist electric utilities in activities such as planning, operating and controlling electric energy systems. Methodologies such as artificial neural networks (ANN) have been widely used in the next hour load forecast horizon with satisfactory results. However, this type of approach has had some shortcomings. Usually, the input vector (IV) is defined in a arbitrary way, mainly based on experience, on engineering judgment criteria and on concern about the ANN dimension, always taking into consideration the apparent correlations within the available endogenous and exogenous data. In this paper, a proposal is made of an approach to define the IV composition, with the main focus on reducing the influence of trial-and-error and common sense judgments, which usually are not based on sufficient evidence of comparative advantages over previous alternatives. The proposal includes the assessment of the strictly necessary instances of the endogenous variable, both from the point of view of the contiguous values prior to the forecast to be made, and of the past values representing the trend of consumption at homologous time intervals of the past. It also assesses the influence of exogenous variables, again limiting their presence at the IV to the indispensable minimum. A comparison is made with two alternative IV structures previously proposed in the literature, also applied to the distribution sector. The paper is supported by a real case study at the distribution sector. (author)

  19. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei [North Electronic Device Research Institution, P.O. Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  20. The Strategy Blueprint: A Strategy Process Computer-Aided Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea, Adina Ioana; Febriani, Tania Rizki; Daneva, Maya; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Strategy has always been a main concern of organizations because it dictates their direction, and therefore determines their success. Thus, organizations need to have adequate support to guide them through their strategy formulation process. The goal of this research is to develop a computer-based tool, known as ‘the Strategy Blueprint’, consisting of a combination of nine strategy techniques, which can help organizations define the most suitable strategy, based on the internal and external f...

  1. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  2. Evaluation of an adaptive game that uses EEG measures validated during the design process as inputs to a biocybernetic loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eEwing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocybernetic adaptation is a form of physiological computing whereby real-time data streaming from the brain and body is used by a negative control loop to adapt the user interface. This paper describes the development of an adaptive game system that is designed to maximize player engagement by utilizing changes in real-time EEG to adjust the level of game demand. The research consists of four main stages (1 the development of a conceptual framework upon which to model the interaction between person and system, (2 the validation of the psychophysiological inference underpinning the loop, (3 the construction of a working prototype, and (4 an evaluation of the adaptive game. Two studies are reported; the first demonstrates the sensitivity of EEG power in the (frontal theta and (parietal alpha bands to changing levels of game demand. These variables were then reformulated within the working biocybernetic control loop designed to maximize player engagement. The second study evaluated the performance of an adaptive game of Tetris with respect to system behavior and user experience. Important issues for the design and evaluation of closed-loop interfaces are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of an Adaptive Game that Uses EEG Measures Validated during the Design Process as Inputs to a Biocybernetic Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Kate C; Fairclough, Stephen H; Gilleade, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Biocybernetic adaptation is a form of physiological computing whereby real-time data streaming from the brain and body is used by a negative control loop to adapt the user interface. This article describes the development of an adaptive game system that is designed to maximize player engagement by utilizing changes in real-time electroencephalography (EEG) to adjust the level of game demand. The research consists of four main stages: (1) the development of a conceptual framework upon which to model the interaction between person and system; (2) the validation of the psychophysiological inference underpinning the loop; (3) the construction of a working prototype; and (4) an evaluation of the adaptive game. Two studies are reported. The first demonstrates the sensitivity of EEG power in the (frontal) theta and (parietal) alpha bands to changing levels of game demand. These variables were then reformulated within the working biocybernetic control loop designed to maximize player engagement. The second study evaluated the performance of an adaptive game of Tetris with respect to system behavior and user experience. Important issues for the design and evaluation of closed-loop interfaces are discussed.

  4. Teaching strategies to promote concept learning by design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD).

  5. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...

  6. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  7. Design of a 60 MW CFB gasification system (CGAS) for Uganda : utilising rice husks as input fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanyire, F. [Gulu Univ., Gulu (Uganda). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering; Bagamuhunda, D.B. [Uganda Industrial Research Inst., Technology Development Centre, Kampala (Uganda)

    2010-07-01

    In Uganda, biomass comprises more than 95 per cent of the total energy supply. Agricultural residues are a major source of energy that can be converted into producer gas in biomass gasifiers. The high poverty levels in Uganda can be attributed in part to the fact that more than 90 per cent of the population does not have access to electricity due to limited and unreliable electricity produced in the country. A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification system was designed in this study in order to generate a system for the effective use of agricultural wastes for energy production. Rice husks were used as the feedstock for a power output of 60 MW. The gasification system was designed using ERGUN CFB software with available theoretical and experimental data. The design comprises a reactor subsystem, air distribution plate, cyclone, air inlet and fuel feeding systems. The reactor is 10 m high and has a fuel flow rate of 8.1 kg/s. The inlet air flow rate is 11 m{sup 3}/s and the fluidization velocity is 0.9 m/s, with a pressure drop in the bed of 1.5 kPa. The inlet gas velocity of the reactor is 25.2 m/s with about 99 per cent cyclone efficiency and less than 1 kPa pressure drop in cyclone. It has a cold gas efficiency of 50 per cent. It was concluded that the gasifier can produce 60 MW of electricity from locally available and environmentally sound biomass energy sources.

  8. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  9. Anti-windup adaptive PID control design for a class of uncertain chaotic systems with input saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahoun, A H

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the stabilization problem of actuators saturation in uncertain chaotic systems is investigated via an adaptive PID control method. The PID control parameters are auto-tuned adaptively via adaptive control laws. A multi-level augmented error is designed to account for the extra terms appearing due to the use of PID and saturation. The proposed control technique uses both the state-feedback and the output-feedback methodologies. Based on Lyapunov׳s stability theory, new anti-windup adaptive controllers are proposed. Demonstrative examples with MATLAB simulations are studied. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed adaptive PID controllers. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monado, F.; Permana, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8 % HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance. (author)

  11. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monado, Fiber; Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Permana, Sidik; Aziz, Ferhat; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8% HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance

  12. Passive Design Strategies to Enhance Natural Ventilation in Buildings "Election of Passive Design Strategies to Achieve Natural Ventilation in Iraqi Urban Environment with Hot Arid Climate"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M.Ismael Abdul Razzaq Kamoona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the natural ventilation in buildings is one of effective strategies for achieving energy efficiency in buildings by employing methods and ways of passive design, as well as its efficiency in providing high ranges of thermal comfort for occupants in buildings and raises their productivity. Because the concept of natural ventilation for many people confined to achieve through the windows and openings only, become necessary to provide this research to demonstrate the various passive design strategies for natural ventilation. Then, research problem: Insufficient knowledge about the importance and mechanism of the application of passive design strategies for natural ventilation in buildings. The research objective is: Analysis of passive design strategies to achieve natural ventilation in buildings, for the purpose of the proper selection of them to Iraqi urban environment. Accordingly, the research included two parts: First, the theoretical part, which dealt with the conceptual framework of natural ventilation and deriving the most important aspects in it, in order to adopted as a base for the practical part of the research. Second: the practical part, which analyzed examples of buildings projects that employed various design strategies for natural ventilation, according to the theoretical framework that has been drawn. The main conclusion is, Necessity to adopt various passive design strategies for natural ventilation in Iraqi urban environment with hot dry climate, as they have a significant impact in reducing the energy consumption for the purposes of ventilation and cooling, as well as for its efficiency in improving air quality in indoor environments of buildings.

  13. NATURAL VENTILATION: A PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGY IN DESIGNING HOTEL LOBBIES – CASES FROM TROPICAL MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik Abdul Rahman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When the Malaysian government increased electricity tariff by up to 12% in early 2006 and also another increase in early July 2008, most commercial buildings were affected by the move. The hardest hit would be the hotel industry as they are among the economic forefronts of the nation. Already burdened with the rigorous efforts of filling their rooms with guests, they now have to re-strategize to sustain business. Energy bills to pay for cooling have always been the biggest burden. Cooling the air is an intangible and a never-ending wasteful activity. Cold room for food is on for 24 hours for obvious reasons. To overcome this, one strategy was considered to be part and parcel of the overall building design so as to contribute to the reduction of the high dependency of energy consumption for cooling. The challenge here is to reduce electricity consumption without compromising the comfort of the guests and also reduce the overhead costs to give a more competitive edge in hotel room rates. Among other passive design elements this paper considers two natural ventilation occurrences and locations that can be relied upon for Malaysian hotel designs.

  14. The Strategy Blueprint : A Strategy Process Computer-Aided Design Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldea, Adina Ioana; Febriani, Tania Rizki; Daneva, Maya; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Strategy has always been a main concern of organizations because it dictates their direction, and therefore determines their success. Thus, organizations need to have adequate support to guide them through their strategy formulation process. The goal of this research is to develop a computer-based

  15. HotSpot Wizard 3.0: web server for automated design of mutations and smart libraries based on sequence input information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbalova, Lenka; Stourac, Jan; Martinek, Tomas; Bednar, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2018-05-23

    HotSpot Wizard is a web server used for the automated identification of hotspots in semi-rational protein design to give improved protein stability, catalytic activity, substrate specificity and enantioselectivity. Since there are three orders of magnitude fewer protein structures than sequences in bioinformatic databases, the major limitation to the usability of previous versions was the requirement for the protein structure to be a compulsory input for the calculation. HotSpot Wizard 3.0 now accepts the protein sequence as input data. The protein structure for the query sequence is obtained either from eight repositories of homology models or is modeled using Modeller and I-Tasser. The quality of the models is then evaluated using three quality assessment tools-WHAT_CHECK, PROCHECK and MolProbity. During follow-up analyses, the system automatically warns the users whenever they attempt to redesign poorly predicted parts of their homology models. The second main limitation of HotSpot Wizard's predictions is that it identifies suitable positions for mutagenesis, but does not provide any reliable advice on particular substitutions. A new module for the estimation of thermodynamic stabilities using the Rosetta and FoldX suites has been introduced which prevents destabilizing mutations among pre-selected variants entering experimental testing. HotSpot Wizard is freely available at http://loschmidt.chemi.muni.cz/hotspotwizard.

  16. Fluorescence signalling of the transition metal ions: Design strategy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    strategy based on the choice of the fluorophore component. N B SANKARAN, S ... skill for the development of fluorosensors of this kind. Further, the ... salts of the transition metal ions have been used for studying the influence of the metal ions.

  17. Designing supply chain strategy by using shared information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew

    2006-01-01

    of retailer demands, and allocated inventories along the supply chain to ensure high fill-rates to its customers (the toy retailers). However, this supply chain strategy was ineffective. It generated high mismatch of supply and demand, and consequently high costs on obsolete inventory, markdown and lost sales...

  18. Enhancing the Design and Analysis of Flipped Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Martin; Bokosmaty, Rena; Brown, Melanie; Browne, Chris; Gao, Qi; Hanson, Julie; Kupatadze, Ketevan

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous calls in the literature for research into the flipped learning approach to match the flood of popular media articles praising its impact on student learning and educational outcomes. This paper addresses those calls by proposing pedagogical strategies that promote active learning in "flipped" approaches and improved…

  19. Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations

  20. A hybrid approach to designing inbound-resupply strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, Wout; Vernimmen, Bert; Raa, Birger; Witlox, Frank

    A new hybrid approach was developed to determine the optimal inbound-resupply strategy when suppliers ship goods to receivers. The optimal reorder level was calculated on the basis of a simulation of the distribution of demand and the lead time of the various sourcing alternatives. An evolutionary

  1. Designing a Knowledge Mobilization Strategy: Leading through Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Steven

    2015-01-01

    As district leaders consider professional learning opportunities for educators, mobilizing new thought and actions across an entire system is a vexing challenge. Classroom-based learning may unfortunately be viewed as juxtaposed to district-based learning. It becomes essential for district leaders to develop knowledge mobilization strategies which…

  2. Designing Instructional Strategies which Facilitate Learning for Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Jones, Beau Fly

    The "state of the craft" of instruction within the context of the mastery learning model is discussed. Little has been said in the past about specific instructional strategies that are applicable to particular instructional units or objectives, or to the daily classroom life of teachers. This paper is organized into six major sections. The first…

  3. Outcomes of a systematically designed strategy for the implementation of sex education in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiefferink, C.H.; Poelman, J.; Linthorst, M.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Wijngaarden, J.C.M. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a systematically designed innovation strategy on teachers' implementation of a sex education curriculum and its related determinants. A quasi-experimental group design was used to assess the effectiveness of the innovation strategy. Teachers filled in

  4. Advanced Energy Efficiency Design Strategies In Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2000-08-17

    This paper presents two US retail building projects that were designed and constructed using the energy design process. These buildings, the BigHorn Center in Silverthorne, Colorado, and the Zion National Park Visitor Center in Springdale, Utah, were both completed and occupied during the spring of 2000.

  5. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlan Burdick

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  6. Strategies for economic design of unbraced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Weynand, K.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In frame design for optimal economy, beam and column properties, as well as the properties of the joints, should be selected in such a way that economy can be achieved during fabrication. A method by which an impression of the possible layout of rigid joints can be obtained in a very early design

  7. Test Information Targeting Strategies for Adaptive Multistage Testing Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.; Burgin, William

    Adaptive multistage testlet (MST) designs appear to be gaining popularity for many large-scale computer-based testing programs. These adaptive MST designs use a modularized configuration of preconstructed testlets and embedded score-routing schemes to prepackage different forms of an adaptive test. The conditional information targeting (CIT)…

  8. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  9. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  10. Overlapping research and design phases through participatory strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casciola, Lara Clare; Vasco, Maria Crucera; Grøndal, Esben

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design and deploy......This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design...... and deployment of service concepts within a systemic environment. Topics introduced as part of the program’s curriculum in this semester that contribute to engaging students in this type of thinking include both technical (production systems, IT systems) and social (user participation and social innovation......) aspects. As the case study is discussed, note will be taken of the influence of this educational approach in the design team’s choices throughout the project process. Through this exploration, a discussion can be held on the opportunities and challenges presented to students as they attempt to combine...

  11. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  12. Designing a Minimal Intervention Strategy to Control Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell

    2017-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible. Logical models are presented which reflect changes in the risk that age cohorts of animals have for their potential to transmit T. solium. Interventions that include a combined application of vaccination, plus chemotherapy in young animals, are the most effective. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-24

    The Strategy Guideline describes how to model and interpret results of models for above grade walls. The Measure Guideline analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Warme Und Feuchte Instationar) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.

  14. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  15. Appropriate strategies for designing contemporary art museums with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... of attracting more people in sociocultural spaces of the country ( case study: Sari, Mazandaran) ... So the assumption that qualitative factors such as (aesthetic style designed for the set, easy ...

  16. CODP Co operative design process - from urban strategy to detail

    OpenAIRE

    Thunberg, Pär; Philipson, Olof

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates the cooperation between architect and engineer. The context of the investigation is the design of buildings for a sustainable society. The goal of the project is to further the development of the sustainable built society by increasing the knowledge of the interdisciplinary cooperation between these two fields. The focus is a close cooperation already from the start of a project. By involving both fields in the early design stages it is thought that the knowledge and...

  17. Strategies for Establishing Service Oriented Design in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Service orientation is a broadly discussed design paradigm for information systems engineering. Only recently there have been several contributions to individual dimensions of service orientation like service definition, service modeling, service management or service governance. However, a combination of useful solutions for partial problems might not constitute an effective overall approach to service orientation. We argue that the establishment of service orientation is a wicked [design] p...

  18. European DEMO design strategy and consequences for materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, G.; Biel, W.; Gilbert, M. R.; Kemp, R.; Taylor, N.; Wenninger, R.

    2017-09-01

    Demonstrating the production of net electricity and operating with a closed fuel-cycle remain unarguably the crucial steps towards the exploitation of fusion power. These are the aims of a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) proposed to be built after ITER. This paper briefly describes the DEMO design options that are being considered in Europe for the current conceptual design studies as part of the Roadmap to Fusion Electricity Horizon 2020. These are not intended to represent fixed and exclusive design choices but rather ‘proxies’ of possible plant design options to be used to identify generic design/material issues that need to be resolved in future fusion reactor systems. The materials nuclear design requirements and the effects of radiation damage are briefly analysed with emphasis on a pulsed ‘low extrapolation’ system, which is being used for the initial design integration studies, based as far as possible on mature technologies and reliable regimes of operation (to be extrapolated from the ITER experience), and on the use of materials suitable for the expected level of neutron fluence. The main technical issues arising from the plasma and nuclear loads and the effects of radiation damage particularly on the structural and heat sink materials of the vessel and in-vessel components are critically discussed. The need to establish realistic target performance and a development schedule for near-term electricity production tends to favour more conservative technology choices. The readiness of the technical (physics and technology) assumptions that are being made is expected to be an important factor for the selection of the technical features of the device.

  19. Organic and Low-Input Dairy Farming: Avenues to Enhance Sustainability and Competitiveness in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Scollan, Nigel; Padel, Susanne; Halberg, Niels; Hermansen, J.E.; Nicholas, Pip; Rinne, Marketta; Zanoli, Raffaele; Zollitsch, Werner; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Whether farming strategies built on continuing input intensification or relying on integrated natural resource management are more sustainable and competitive is at the core of the agricultural development debate. The five-year (2011–16) Sustainable Organic and Low Input Dairying (SOLID) project, funded by the European Commission, involved 25 partners across 10 European countries and was designed to support innovation in European organic and low-input dairy farming. Results show that such sys...

  20. Strategy Guideline. Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy's research team Building Science Corporation, 1) describes how to model and interpret results of models for above-grade walls, and 2) analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above-grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Wärme und Feuchte instationär) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.

  1. Fuel lattice design using heuristics and new strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, J. A.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pelta, D. A. [ETS Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Granada, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Campos S, Y., E-mail: juanjose.ortiz@inin.gob.m [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work show some results of the fuel lattice design in BWRs when some allocation pin rod rules are not taking into account. Heuristics techniques like Path Re linking and Greedy to design fuel lattices were used. The scope of this work is to search about how do classical rules in design fuel lattices affect the heuristics techniques results and the fuel lattice quality. The fuel lattices quality is measured by Power Peaking Factor and Infinite Multiplication Factor at the beginning of the fuel lattice life. CASMO-4 code to calculate these parameters was used. The analyzed rules are the following: pin rods with lowest uranium enrichment are only allocated in the fuel lattice corner, and pin rods with gadolinium cannot allocated in the fuel lattice edge. Fuel lattices with and without gadolinium in the main diagonal were studied. Some fuel lattices were simulated in an equilibrium cycle fuel reload, using Simulate-3 to verify their performance. So, the effective multiplication factor and thermal limits can be verified. The obtained results show a good performance in some fuel lattices designed, even thought, the knowing rules were not implemented. A fuel lattice performance and fuel lattice design characteristics analysis was made. To the realized tests, a dell workstation was used, under Li nux platform. (Author)

  2. Fuel lattice design using heuristics and new strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, J. A.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R.; Pelta, D. A.; Campos S, Y.

    2010-10-01

    This work show some results of the fuel lattice design in BWRs when some allocation pin rod rules are not taking into account. Heuristics techniques like Path Re linking and Greedy to design fuel lattices were used. The scope of this work is to search about how do classical rules in design fuel lattices affect the heuristics techniques results and the fuel lattice quality. The fuel lattices quality is measured by Power Peaking Factor and Infinite Multiplication Factor at the beginning of the fuel lattice life. CASMO-4 code to calculate these parameters was used. The analyzed rules are the following: pin rods with lowest uranium enrichment are only allocated in the fuel lattice corner, and pin rods with gadolinium cannot allocated in the fuel lattice edge. Fuel lattices with and without gadolinium in the main diagonal were studied. Some fuel lattices were simulated in an equilibrium cycle fuel reload, using Simulate-3 to verify their performance. So, the effective multiplication factor and thermal limits can be verified. The obtained results show a good performance in some fuel lattices designed, even thought, the knowing rules were not implemented. A fuel lattice performance and fuel lattice design characteristics analysis was made. To the realized tests, a dell workstation was used, under Li nux platform. (Author)

  3. Investigation of Architectural Strategies in Relation to Daylight and Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Iversen, Anne; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    his paper investigates the use of daylight in three architecturally successful buildings. The aim is to discuss the challenges and opportunities of architectural daylight strategies in relation to integrated design. All these buildings were designed with the focus on a strategy of using daylight...... to create well-lit, exciting spaces and spatial sequences. The original ideas, thoughts, and decisions behind the designs and daylight strategy are compared with answers in questionnaires from test subjects who have experienced the space and lighting conditions created. The results indicate...... that the architectural daylight strategies formulated by the architects and engineers at the beginning of the design process are actually experienced by the “users” in the existing buildings. The architectural daylight strategy was different in each of the three libraries, and analysis of the results shows that daylight...

  4. Small Column Ion Exchange Design and Safety Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, T.; Rios-Armstrong, M.; Edwards, R.; Herman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) is a transformational technology originally developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-30) office and is now being deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to significantly increase overall salt processing capacity and accelerate the Liquid Waste System life-cycle. The process combines strontium and actinide removal using Monosodium Titanate (MST), Rotary Microfiltration, and cesium removal using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST, specifically UOP IONSIV(reg s ign)IE-911 ion exchanger) to create a low level waste stream to be disposed in grout and a high level waste stream to be vitrified. The process also includes preparation of the streams for disposal, e.g., grinding of the loaded CST material. These waste processing components are technically mature and flowsheet integration studies are being performed including glass formulations studies, application specific thermal modeling, and mixing studies. The deployment program includes design and fabrication of the Rotary Microfilter (RMF) assembly, ion-exchange columns (IXCs), and grinder module, utilizing an integrated system safety design approach. The design concept is to install the process inside an existing waste tank, Tank 41H. The process consists of a feed pump with a set of four RMFs, two IXCs, a media grinder, three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), and all supporting infrastructure including media receipt and preparation facilities. The design addresses MST mixing to achieve the required strontium and actinide removal and to prevent future retrieval problems. CST achieves very high cesium loadings (up to 1,100 curies per gallon (Ci/gal) bed volume). The design addresses the hazards associated with this material including heat management (in column and in-tank), as detailed in the thermal modeling. The CST must be size reduced for compatibility with downstream processes. The design addresses material transport into and out of the grinder and

  5. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority

  6. From value chain to value constellation: designing interactive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, R; Ramírez, R

    1993-01-01

    In today's fast-changing competitive environment, strategy is no longer a matter of positioning a fixed set of activities along that old industrial model, the value chain. Successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value by new combinations of players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings grow more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the ongoing reconfiguration and integration of its competencies and customers. The authors provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational practices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national association have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations to enlarge their role, competencies, and profits. French public-service concessionaires have mastered the art of conducting a creative dialogue between their customers--local governments in France and around the world--and a perpetually expanding set of infrastructure competencies.

  7. Active Learning Methods and Technology: Strategies for Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    The demands in higher education are on the rise. Charged with teaching more content, increased class sizes and engaging students, educators face numerous challenges. In design education, educators are often torn between the teaching of technology and the teaching of theory. Learning the formal concepts of hierarchy, contrast and space provide the…

  8. Four Papers on Contemporary Software Design Strategies for Statistical Methodologists

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Vincent; Cook, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Software design impacts much of statistical analysis and, as technology changes, dramatically so in recent years, it is exciting to learn how statistical software is adapting and changing. This leads to the collection of papers published here, written by John Chambers, Duncan Temple Lang, Michael Lawrence, Martin Morgan, Yihui Xie, Heike Hofmann and Xiaoyue Cheng.

  9. Using Pull Strategy for Curricula Design on Entrepreneurship Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, M.H.M.; Van der Meer, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Universities are deeply involved in stimulating their students in entrepreneurship where they focus on designing programs based on existing knowledge form pedagogics and didactical concepts. Although the Total Entrepreneurial Activity is increasing, the results are not satisfying in all cases. The

  10. Designing from Heritage : Strategies for Conservation and Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.C.; de Jonge, W.

    2017-01-01

    This book – the third in the Rondeltappe series – reflects the philosophy and didactic approach of Heritage and Architecture (H&A) section of the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment (Delft University of Technology). H&A has three chairs: Design, Cultural Value and Technology.

  11. Procurement strategy formation : (re-)designing rail infrastructure project alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Henrico; Dorée, André

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the reasoning behind the development of new procurement approaches by public sector clients. Design/methodology/approach – A case study approach focuses on a procurement development process by a public sector client. It investigates the

  12. Designing and Deploying Programming Courses: Strategies, Tools, Difficulties and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    Designing and deploying programming courses is undoubtedly a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt to analyze important aspects of a sequence of two courses on imperative-procedural and object-oriented programming in a non-CS majors Department is made. This analysis is based on a questionnaire filled in by fifty students in a voluntary…

  13. Design strategies for integration of green roofs in sustainable housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Friedman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are the integration of plant material and its supporting structures in buildings. Such an approach provides a habitat for local flora and fauna, helps manage storm water, reduces heat demand in winter and the cooling load in the summer, enhances the aesthetic values of dwellings, provides the occupants with comfort and amenities and strengthens environmental responsibility. Because roofs represent approximately 40 percent to 50 percent of the surfaces in urban areas, green roofs have an important role in drainage and as a result water management as well. In fact, when a green roof is installed on 50 percent or more of the roof’s surface, it guarantees 2 points and can contribute 7 additional points toward LEED certification - almost 20 percent of the required rating. This paper classifies green roofs and offers strategies for their integration in residential buildings and examines their benefits, construction principles and applications.

  14. A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Jinhyoung; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum–classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch–Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method. (paper)

  15. A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum-classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch-Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method.

  16. An automated supernova search and the design strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design considerations for an automated supernova search are reviewed. If supernova are to be found a week after explosion well before light maximum of both Types I and II, and if a rate of finding of 52 per year is justified, then one needs to keep roughly 5000 galaxies under surveillance out of a full set of 15,000 galaxies at ≅50 Mpc distance. For detection at 1% of Type I maximum light requires a 30-inch telescope, 10 photoelectrons per pixel threshold, a 128 x 128 pixel photodetector operating with a 3-second integration time, and 2 seconds to slew and settle ≅1 0 . A system designed to perform this function in real-time is described. 7 refs

  17. Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example, with the growth of social media (O'Brien, 2011), the number ... three tourism journals for the past 20 years. This goes .... The festival. Vision, mission, motivation of the festival .... designer of Boom, the festival is “a space for an experience” to “gather ... as expected: e.g. an app to support car-sharing. In spite of ...

  18. A normative probabilistic design of a fair governmental decision strategy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Kracík, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-3 (2004), s. 1-15 ISSN 1057-9214 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Grant - others:ESF(FR) TED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : fully probabilistic design * E-democracy * multiple participant decision making Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0106249.pdf

  19. Using Learning Analytics to Characterize Student Experimentation Strategies in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo; Goldstein, Molly Hathaway; Purzer, Senay; Magana, Alejandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering design is a complex process both for students to participate in and for instructors to assess. Informed designers use the key strategy of conducting experiments as they test ideas to inform next steps. Conversely, beginning designers experiment less, often with confounding variables. These behaviours are not easy to assess in…

  20. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development : A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  1. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  2. SSV Launch Monitoring Strategies: HGDS Design Implementation Through System Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Marc D.; Crimi, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    With over 500,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, it is of vital importance to monitor the space shuttle vehicle (SSV) from external tank (ET) load through launch. The Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) was installed as the primary system responsible for monitoring fuel leaks within the orbiter and ET. The HGDS was designed to obtain the lowest possible detection limits with the best resolution while monitoring the SSV for any hydrogen, helium, oxygen, or argon as the main requirement. The HGDS is a redundant mass spectrometer used for real-time monitoring during Power Reactant Storage and Distribution (PRSD) load and ET load through launch or scrub. This system also performs SSV processing leak checks of the Tail Service Mast (TSM) umbilical quick disconnects (QD's), Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate (GUCP) QD's and supports auxiliary power unit (APU) system tests. From design to initial implementation and operations, the HGDS has evolved into a mature and reliable launch support system. This paper will discuss the operational challenges and lessons learned from facing design deficiencies, validation and maintenance efforts, life cycle issues, and evolving requirements

  3. Design Strategy of Information Construction Based on User Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jundong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of the Internet products, the information construction is one of the important factors to determine that whether a product is friendly. It is a challenge for every information architect to discover new innovations on the basis of established user habits. In practice, we often found that the development of many new functions did not meet the needs of users and many functions would be improved by users themselves, the fact of which shows the strong desire of users to participate in the development of products. Therefore, this article proposes an information architecture method based on the “users’ partially involved”, that is, when the main framework of a product is determined and the detailed architecture of part of the functions is proposed by users themselves, builders will help users to dig and organize their requirements and eventually integrate them into the design of architecture. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, the article takes the virtual products for social service based on "surrounding geographic information" as an example. A comparison experiment was conducted on the effectiveness of the design of user-participant information architecture, and the experimental results were evaluated.

  4. BARRIER DESIGN STRATEGIES TO CONTROL NOISE INGRESS INTO DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise source for buildings adjacent to streets is traffic-generated predominantly. Where people are mostly spend their time indoors, it is important for buildings to have screening or blocking to control noise intrusion into living spaces. But this blocking should also permit airflow. This is important for middle to low-cost domestic buildings, which do not employ conditioned ventilation. A common feature of Indonesian buildings, fence, is studied to perform noise barrier. The fence -a barrier to be- should obey three factors: position, dimension, and material. All these three factors were studied to seek compromised design for acoustic performance and natural ventilation purpose. Domestic building situated in the urban area of Yogyakarta was studying to see the most possible design of the barrier to be. There are two calculation methods employed to investigate the proposed design. The study shows that it is possible to gain minimum of 10 dB noise reduction by placing windows within the shadow effect of approximately 1.5 height fence-barrier.

  5. Human Pathogens on Plants: Designing a Multidisciplinary Strategy for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2014-10-15

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  6. Human pathogens on plants: designing a multidisciplinary strategy for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  7. Design Strategy of Information Construction Based on User Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Jundong

    2017-01-01

    In the design of the Internet products, the information construction is one of the important factors to determine that whether a product is friendly. It is a challenge for every information architect to discover new innovations on the basis of established user habits. In practice, we often found that the development of many new functions did not meet the needs of users and many functions would be improved by users themselves, the fact of which shows the strong desire of users to participate i...

  8. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  9. Design and Engineering Strategies for Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossi, Alessandro

    Thousands of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of prokaryotic, fungal, plant, or animal origin have been identified, and their potential as lead compounds for the design of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of infection, for stimulating the immune system, or in countering septic shock has been widely recognized. Added to this is their possible use in prophylaxis of infectious diseases for animal or plant protection, for disinfection of surgical instruments or industrial surfaces, and for food preservation among other commercially important applications. Since the early eighties, AMPs have been subject to a vast number of studies aimed at understanding what determines their potency and spectrum of activities against bacterial or fungal pathogens, and at maximizing these while limiting cytotoxic activities toward host cells. Much research has also been directed toward understanding specific mechanisms of action underlying the antimicrobial activity and selectivity, to be able to redesign the peptides for optimal performance. A central theme in the mode of action of many AMPs is their dynamic interaction with biological membranes, which involves various properties of these peptides such as, among others, surface hydrophobicity and polarity, charge, structure, and induced conformational variations. These features are often intimately interconnected so that engineering peptides to independently adjust any one property in particular is not an easy task. However, solid-phase peptide synthesis allows the use of a large repertoire of nonproteinogenic amino acids that can be used in the rational design of peptides to finely tune structural and physicochemical properties and precisely probe structure-function relationships.

  10. Reflecting Societal Values in Designing Flood Risk Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Office of Public Works (OPW began the National Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM Programme through a series of pilot studies. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA Framework was developed through the pilot studies that integrated a number of objectives related to a wide range of potential impacts and benefits into the core of process of appraising and selecting suitable flood risk management measures for a given area or location, and then for prioritising national investments for different schemes and projects. This MCA Framework, that provides a systematic process of developing a non-monetised but numerical indicator of benefit and impact, has since been implemented nationally in the preparation of the Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs. A key feature of the MCA is that it should represent societal values. To this end, nationally representative quantitative research was undertaken to determine global weights that reflect the perceived importance of each of the objectives for reducing economic, social and environmental / cultural risks in flood management strategies. Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, in conjunction with a pair-wise comparison of criteria relating to these risks, was utilised to determine weights. In excess of 1,000 structured interviews were completed where the relative importance of these objectives were assessed using a seven-point scale. The weighting given to each of the 13 specific objectives identified broadly followed expectations, with risk to people followed by risk to homes and properties being respectively the first and second most important, although some were given greater or less weighting than expected. The national application of the MCA Framework, using the weighted objectives based on this process, through the CFRAM Programme has generally lead to the identification of appropriate and, based on local consultation, acceptable options for each community.

  11. Peptide/protein-polymer conjugates: synthetic strategies and design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Marc A; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2008-06-21

    This feature article provides a compilation of tools available for preparing well-defined peptide/protein-polymer conjugates, which are defined as hybrid constructs combining (i) a defined number of peptide/protein segments with uniform chain lengths and defined monomer sequences (primary structure) with (ii) a defined number of synthetic polymer chains. The first section describes methods for post-translational, or direct, introduction of chemoselective handles onto natural or synthetic peptides/proteins. Addressed topics include the residue- and/or site-specific modification of peptides/proteins at Arg, Asp, Cys, Gln, Glu, Gly, His, Lys, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr and Val residues and methods for producing peptides/proteins containing non-canonical amino acids by peptide synthesis and protein engineering. In the second section, methods for introducing chemoselective groups onto the side-chain or chain-end of synthetic polymers produced by radical, anionic, cationic, metathesis and ring-opening polymerization are described. The final section discusses convergent and divergent strategies for covalently assembling polymers and peptides/proteins. An overview of the use of chemoselective reactions such as Heck, Sonogashira and Suzuki coupling, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, Click chemistry, Staudinger ligation, Michael's addition, reductive alkylation and oxime/hydrazone chemistry for the convergent synthesis of peptide/protein-polymer conjugates is given. Divergent approaches for preparing peptide/protein-polymer conjugates which are discussed include peptide synthesis from synthetic polymer supports, polymerization from peptide/protein macroinitiators or chain transfer agents and the polymerization of peptide side-chain monomers.

  12. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies

  13. Design of Robust Controllers for a Multiple Input-Multiple Output Control System with Uncertain Parameters Application to the Lateral and Longitudinal Modes of the KC-135 Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    input/output relationship. These are obtained from the design specifications (10:68i-684). Note that the first digit of the subscript of bkj refers...to the output and the second digit to the input. Thus, bkj is.a function of the response requirements on the output, Yk’ due to the input, r.. 169 . A...NXPMAX pNYPMAX, IPLOT) C C C* LIBARY OF PLOT SUBR(OUTINES PSNTCT NLIEPRINTER ONLY~ C* C C C SUP’ LPLOTS C C C DIMENSION IXY(101,71)918UF(100) COMMON /HOPY

  14. Trusted Service Scheduling and Optimization Strategy Design of Service Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more Web services raise the demands of personalized service recommendation; there exist some recommendation technologies, which improve the qualities of service recommendation by using service ranking and collaborative filtering. However, privacy and security are also important issues in service scheduling process; social relationships have been the key factors of interpersonal communication; service selection based on user preferences has become an inevitable trend. Starting from user demand preferences, this paper analyzes social topology and service demand information and obtains trusted social relationships; then we construct the fusion model of service historical preferences and potential ones; according to social service recommendation demands, TSRSR algorithm has completed designing. Through experiments, TSRSR algorithm is much better than the others, which can effectively improve potential preferences’ learning. Furthermore, the research results of this paper have more significance to study the security and privacy of service recommendation.

  15. Design strategies for organic semiconductors beyond the molecular formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Zachary B; Müllen, Klaus; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-09-01

    Organic semiconducting materials based on polymers and molecular systems containing an electronically delocalized structure are the basis of emerging optoelectronic technologies such as plastic solar cells and flexible transistors. For isolated molecules, guidelines exist that rely on the molecular formula to tailor the frontier (highest occupied or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital energy levels and optical absorption profiles. Much less control can be achieved over relevant properties, however, as one makes the transition to the ensemble behaviour characteristic of the solid state. Polymeric materials are also challenging owing to the statistical description of the average number of repeat units. Here we draw attention to the limitations of molecular formulae as predictive tools for achieving properties relevant to device performances. Illustrative examples highlight the relevance of organization across multiple length scales, and how device performances--although relevant for practical applications--poorly reflect the success of molecular design.

  16. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  17. Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that Incorporate Structural Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineer's perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for "graceful" rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction, these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus modeling efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni

  18. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  19. Tailoring DNA vaccines: designing strategies against HER2 positive cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMarchini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The crucial role of HER2 in epithelial transformation and its selective overexpression on cancer tissues makes it an ideal target for cancer immunotherapies such as passive immunotherapy with Trastuzumab. There are, however, a number of concerns regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies which include resistance, repeated treatments, considerable costs and side effects that make active immunotherapies against HER2 desirable alternative approaches. The efficacy of anti-HER2 DNA vaccination has been widely demonstrated in transgenic cancer-prone mice, which recapitulate several features of human breast cancers. Nonetheless, the rational design of a cancer vaccine able to trigger a long lasting immunity, and thus prevent tumor recurrence in patients, would require the understanding of how tolerance and immunosuppression regulate antitumor immune responses and, at the same time, the identification of the most immunogenic portions of the target protein. We herein retrace the findings that led to our most promising DNA vaccines that, by encoding human/rat chimeric forms of HER2, are able to circumvent peripheral tolerance. Preclinical data obtained with these chimeric DNA vaccines have provided the rationale for their use in an ongoing phase I clinical trial (EudraCT 2011-001104-34.

  20. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  1. Strategies in architectural design and urban planning in the context of energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the design concepts in architecture and urban planning, created on demands of energy efficiency, that apply in early stages of design process a schematic design, i.e. in the phase of creating the basis of architectural or planning solution, are analyzed in this paper. These design strategies have a role to be comprehensive enough to provide application of their key potentials, but at the same time they need to remain simple enough and not burden a designer with inadequate number of information. Design models for passive heating, passive cooling and natural lighting that refer to the buildings mainly have been considered, together with the principles for the settlements or building groups. Guiding a design concept towards the one of described design principles e.g. their application within the diurnal and seasonal cycles, depends on local climatic conditions and type of building (residential, commercial or educational. The presentation of a model is followed by the explanation of the phenomena of impacts/influences (climate program and answers (the concept, passive components related to a certain strategy, and by the illustration of a strategy on a realized object (case study. Issues of design strategies on energy efficiency are considered through different levels, e.g. through spatial organization, form and added components of buildings, as well as structure and characteristics of elements of external structures - facades and roofs.

  2. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  3. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (1) the technology-driven promotion response...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international accreditation...

  4. Model-based Organization Manning, Strategy, and Structure Design via Team Optimal Design (TOD) Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Chopra, Kari; Paley, Michael; Levchuk, Yuri; Clark, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative Team Optimal Design (TOD) methodology and its application to the design of optimized manning for E-10 Multi-sensor Command and Control Aircraft. The E-10 (USAF, 2002...

  5. Educational strategies for architectural design management : the design of a new curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Halman, J.I.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is about the design of a new curriculum on Architectural Design Management Systems. This curriculum is embedded in the Stan Ackermans lnstitute(SAI). The SAI is a school for continuing post graduate education on technological design. First some recent developments in the building industry

  6. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  7. Usability Design Strategies for Children: Developing Children's Learning and Knowledge in Decreasing Their Dental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an example of how usability design strategies for children can be designed into educational material using CD-ROM based multimedia application for assisting parents and teachers to develop children's learning and knowledge in decreasing as well as motivate children aged 7-9 years old to reduce their anxious feelings towards…

  8. Reasoning Strategies in the Context of Engineering Design with Everyday Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcelo; Blikstein, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    "Making" represents an increasingly popular label for describing a form of engineering design. While making is growing in popularity, there are still open questions about the strategies that students are using in these activities. Assessing and improving learning in making/ engineering design contexts require that we have a better…

  9. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate.

  10. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate

  11. Trends in observable passive solar design strategies for existing homes in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzner, Kelly; Cox, Kristin; Machmer, Brian; Klotz, Leidy

    2013-01-01

    Passive design strategies are among the most cost-effective methods to reduce energy consumption in buildings. However, the prevalence of these strategies in existing U.S. homes is not well understood. To help address this issue, this research evaluated a nationally-representative sample of 1000 existing homes distributed geographically across the U.S. Using satellite images, each building was evaluated for three passive design strategies: orientation, roof color, and level of shading. Several statistically significant regional trends were identified. For example, existing homes in the High Plains, Ohio Valley, Northwest, and Southern regions show a statistically significant trend towards orientation in the East–West direction, an effective passive design strategy. Less intuitively, in terms of what would seem to be optimal passive design, buildings in the High Plains and Ohio Valley generally have lighter roof colors than buildings in the warmer Southwest region. At the national level, no statistically significant trends were found towards the passive design strategies evaluated. These trends give us no reason to believe they were a major consideration in the design of existing homes. Policy measures and education may be required to take advantage of the opportunity for cost-effective energy savings through more widespread passive solar design. - Highlights: ► GoogleMaps to examine implementation of cost-effective, observable passive solar strategies in U.S. houses. ► No national trends toward passive solar design in U.S.—a missed opportunity. ► Some regional passive solar trends in U.S. for house orientation, roof color

  12. Design strategy for the combined system of shunt passive and series active filters

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hideki; Akagi, Hirofumi

    1991-01-01

    A design strategy for the combined power filter for a three-phase twelve-pulse thyristor rectifier is proposed. The shunt passive filter, which can minimize the output voltage of the series active filter, is designed and tested in a prototype model. A specially designed shunt passive filter makes it possible to reduce the required rating of the series active filter to 60% compared with a conventional shunt passive filter

  13. Case-based learning in VTLE: An effective strategy for improving learning design

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Ortiz, Lourdes; Sangrà, Albert; Maina, Marcelo Fabián

    2014-01-01

    This article presents preliminary research from an instructional design perspective on the design of the case method as an integral part of pedagogy and technology. Key features and benefits using this teaching and learning strategy in a Virtual Teaching and Learning Environment (VTLE) are identified, taking into account the requirements of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) for a competence-based curricula design. The implications of these findings for a learning object appro...

  14. Design for experience in the fashion industry: coping strategies in the era of homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    PETERMANS, Ann; Kent, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to focus on how the globalised fashion industry impacts on the way that strategies of clothing brands are translated into the design of their retail environments. The first research question explores the conceptualisation of retail environments by retailers, designers and planners so that they can continue to be perceived as ‘unique’ by customers. The second asks whether retailers, designers and planners can manage the trend towards homogenization in the near future. ...

  15. Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment. - Highlights: • Primary energy implications of different design strategies were analysed. • The improved building alternatives had 19–34% lower operation primary energy use. • The improved building alternatives had higher production primary energy use. • Still, the improved building alternatives had lower overall primary energy use. • Design strategies should be combined with careful building frame material choice.

  16. What can Design Bring to Strategy? Designing Thinking as a Tool for Innovation and Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kathryn Best

    2011-01-01

    This publication by Kathryn Best accompanied the Lector’s inauguration as head of the research group Cross-media, Brand, Reputation & Design Management (CBRD) in January 2011. The book outlines current debates around the Creative Industries, business and design education and the place of ’well

  17. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  18. Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew Owen

    This study identifies three distinct levels of text-image integration in page design in a linear relationship of lesser to greater integration: prose primary, prose subsumed, and fully integrated strategies. Science textbook pages were redesigned according to these holistic design strategies for 158 7th-grade students. There were three separate treatment tests, as well as a pre-test and post-test, and pilot tests with both undergraduate students and the subjects themselves. Subjects found the fully integrated strategy to produce the most visually interesting designs and the prose primary strategy to produce the least interesting, with prose subsumed definitively in between (according to 95% confidence intervals). The strategy employed significantly altered interest in science subject matter in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0446), where a Student's t-test revealed that the prose subsumed strategy produced higher interest in subject matter than prose primary. The strategy employed significantly altered comprehension of abstract relationships in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0202), where a Student's t-test revealed that the fully integrated strategy resulted in greater comprehension than prose primary. For the same treatment condition significant differences were found through ANOVA for factual-level knowledge (P=0.0289) but not conceptual-level knowledge ( P=0.0586). For factual-level knowledge prose primary resulted in lesser comprehension than both prose subsumed and fully integrated. Comprehension is defined according to cognitive load theory. No strategy impact on perception of task difficulty was found. This study was approved by North Carolina State University's Institutional Review Board and Wake County Public School System's Research Review Committee.

  19. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  20. Design Driven Innovation as a Differentiation Strategy - in the Context of Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosarrat Farhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though, in the automotive industry, technology is considered as a source of innovation and development, emerging change in consumer perception has brought industry focus on design. Evolution of this industry is closely related to the convergence of technology and design. In such context, implication of design driven innovation strategy in the automotive industry has potential to be explored and to create sustained competitive advantage through balancing customers’ need, technological opportunities and product meaning. The aim of this paper is to give a holistic view of design driven innovation as a differentiation strategy in the automotive industry and its implication for strategic management through some relevant research reviews and empirical information. On the contrary, this research lacks detailed description on industry practice to provide greater breadth, since it attempts to correlate the strategic concept of design with the dynamic capability of a firm in that particular industry.

  1. GAROS input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.

  2. Designing System Reforms: Using a Systems Approach to Translate Incident Analyses into Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J. M.; van Mulken, Michelle R. H.; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Advocates of systems thinking approaches argue that accident prevention strategies should focus on reforming the system rather than on fixing the “broken components.” However, little guidance exists on how organizations can translate incident data into prevention strategies that address the systemic causes of accidents. This article describes and evaluates a series of systems thinking prevention strategies that were designed in response to the analysis of multiple incidents. The study was undertaken in the led outdoor activity (LOA) sector in Australia, which delivers supervised or instructed outdoor activities such as canyoning, sea kayaking, rock climbing and camping. The design process involved workshops with practitioners, and focussed on incident data analyzed using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique. A series of reflection points based on the systemic causes of accidents was used to guide the design process, and the AcciMap technique was used to represent the prevention strategies and the relationships between them, leading to the creation of PreventiMaps. An evaluation of the PreventiMaps revealed that all of them incorporated the core principles of the systems thinking approach and many proposed prevention strategies for improving vertical integration across the LOA system. However, the majority failed to address the migration of work practices and the erosion of risk controls. Overall, the findings suggest that the design process was partially successful in helping practitioners to translate incident data into prevention strategies that addressed the systemic causes of accidents; refinement of the design process is required to focus practitioners more on designing monitoring and feedback mechanisms to support decisions at the higher levels of the system. PMID:28066296

  3. A methodology for the sustainable design and implementation strategy of CO2 utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Nguyen, Tuan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    design and analysis is discussed as only limited amounts of process data is available for determining the optimal processing path and in the third stage the issue of implementation strategy is considered. As examples, two CO2 utilization methods for methanol production, combined reforming and direct...... synthesis are considered. Methanol plants employing such methods are developed using synthesis-design and simulation tools and their evaluation indicators are calculated under various implementation strategies. It is demonstrated that integrating or replacing an existing conventional methanol plant...

  4. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  5. Quality by design for herbal drugs: a feedforward control strategy and an approach to define the acceptable ranges of critical quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Li, Yao; Guo, Zhengtai; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) has been widely accepted and applied in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. There are still two key issues to be addressed in the implementation of QbD for herbal drugs. The first issue is the quality variation of herbal raw materials and the second issue is the difficulty in defining the acceptable ranges of critical quality attributes (CQAs). To propose a feedforward control strategy and a method for defining the acceptable ranges of CQAs for the two issues. In the case study of the ethanol precipitation process of Danshen (Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza) injection, regression models linking input material attributes and process parameters to CQAs were built first and an optimisation model for calculating the best process parameters according to the input materials was established. Then, the feasible material space was defined and the acceptable ranges of CQAs for the previous process were determined. In the case study, satisfactory regression models were built with cross-validated regression coefficients (Q(2) ) all above 91 %. The feedforward control strategy was applied successfully to compensate the quality variation of the input materials, which was able to control the CQAs in the 90-110 % ranges of the desired values. In addition, the feasible material space for the ethanol precipitation process was built successfully, which showed the acceptable ranges of the CQAs for the concentration process. The proposed methodology can help to promote the implementation of QbD for herbal drugs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Life cycle design and design management strategies in fashion apparel manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutia, R.; Mendes, FD; Ventura, A.

    2017-10-01

    The generation of solid textile waste in the process of development and clothing production is an error that causes serious damages to the environment and must be minimized. The greatest volume of textile residues is generated by the department of cut, such as textiles parings and snips that are not used in the productive process. (MILAN et al, 2007). One way to conceive new products environmently conscious is turned to the adoption of a methodology based on Life Cycle Design (LCD) and Design Management.

  7. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica

    2017-11-30

    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. STRATEGY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ANALYSIS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES ON THE BASIS OF THE SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikin Vladimir Genrikhovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors highlight three problems of the age of information technologies and proposes the strategy for their resolution in relation to the computer-aided design of civil engineering structures. The authors express their concerns in respect of globalization of software programmes designated for the analysis of civil engineering structures and employed outside of Russia. The problem of the poor quality of the input data has reached Russia. Lately, the rate of accidents of buildings and structures has been growing not only in Russia. Control over efficiency of design projects is hardly performed. This attitude should be changed. Development and introduction of CAD along with the application the efficient methods of projection of behaviour of building structures are in demand. Computer-aided calculations have the function of a logical nucleus, and they need proper control. The system approach to computer-aided calculations and technologies designated for the projection of accidents is formulated by the authors. Two tasks of the system approach and fundamentals of the strategy for its implementation are formulated. The study of cases of negative results of computer-aided design of engineering structures was performed and multi-component design patterns were developed. Conclusions concerning the results of researches aimed at regular and wide-scale implementation of the strategy fundamentals are formulated. Organizational and innovative actions concerning the projected behaviour of civil engineering structures proposed in the strategy are to facilitate: safety and reliability improvement of buildings and structures; saving of building materials and resources; improvement of labour efficiency of designers; modernization and improvement of accuracy of projected behaviour of buildings and building standards; closer ties between civil and building engineering researchers and construction companies; development of competitive environment to boost

  9. Computational Fragment-Based Drug Design: Current Trends, Strategies, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yuemin; Xie, Xiang-Qun Sean

    2018-04-09

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an effective methodology for drug development for decades. Successful applications of this strategy brought both opportunities and challenges to the field of Pharmaceutical Science. Recent progress in the computational fragment-based drug design provide an additional approach for future research in a time- and labor-efficient manner. Combining multiple in silico methodologies, computational FBDD possesses flexibilities on fragment library selection, protein model generation, and fragments/compounds docking mode prediction. These characteristics provide computational FBDD superiority in designing novel and potential compounds for a certain target. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest advances, ranging from commonly used strategies to novel concepts and technologies in computational fragment-based drug design. Particularly, in this review, specifications and advantages are compared between experimental and computational FBDD, and additionally, limitations and future prospective are discussed and emphasized.

  10. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia

  11. A strategy for reducing turnaround time in design optimization using a distributed computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katherine C.; Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need to explore methods for reducing lengthly computer turnaround or clock time associated with engineering design problems. Different strategies can be employed to reduce this turnaround time. One strategy is to run validated analysis software on a network of existing smaller computers so that portions of the computation can be done in parallel. This paper focuses on the implementation of this method using two types of problems. The first type is a traditional structural design optimization problem, which is characterized by a simple data flow and a complicated analysis. The second type of problem uses an existing computer program designed to study multilevel optimization techniques. This problem is characterized by complicated data flow and a simple analysis. The paper shows that distributed computing can be a viable means for reducing computational turnaround time for engineering design problems that lend themselves to decomposition. Parallel computing can be accomplished with a minimal cost in terms of hardware and software.

  12. Novel design methods and control strategies for oil and gas offshore power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo

    content), or when the thermal stresses on the working fluid should be minimized. Additionally, the controller is demonstrated to improve the dynamic flexibility of the plant compared to the reference controller designed by the gas turbine manufacturer.The model predictive control can reduce the frequency......This doctoral thesis is devoted to the research of innovative design methods and control strategies for power systems supplying future and existing oshore oil and gas facilities.The author uses these methods to address five research challenges: i) the definitionof the optimal waste heat recovery...... technology, ii) the identification of the best working fluid to design ecient, light and cost-competitive waste heat recovery units, iii) the integration of dynamic criteria in the project phase to discard infeasible designs, iv) the development of a novel control strategy to optimally operate the power...

  13. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani, E-mail: nova.zp@gmail.com, E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id [Visual Communication Design Study Program, Faculty of Art and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  14. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster's mitigation communication and education strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won't be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  15. Implementing Universal Design Strategies in Municipalities - A Multidisciplinary Approach to Universal Design and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Based on a national program, the regional authorities stimulated each of the 18 municipalities in Telemark 2012-15 to plan and build promenades with universal design. The cooperation between different disciplines was an important factor for good results. The project continues from 2016.

  16. Strategies of design, development and activation of the Nova control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Nova and Novette are large complex experimental laser facilities which require extensive and sophisticated control systems for their successful operation. Often, in major controls projects, certain invisible aspects of the project, such as overall strategy, management, resources and historical constraints, have a more profound effect upon success than any specific hardware/software design. The design and performance of the Nova/Novette laser control system will be presented with special emphasis upon these often controversial aspects

  17. Reasoning Strategies in the Context of Engineering Design with Everyday Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Worsley, Marcelo; Blikstein, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    ‘‘Making’’ represents an increasingly popular label for describing a form of engineering design. While making is growing in popularity, there are still open questions about the strategies that students are using in these activities. Assessing and improving learning in making/ engineering design contexts require that we have a better understanding of where students’ ideas are coming from and a better way to characterize student progress in open-ended learning environments. In this article, we ...

  18. Strategies of design, development and activation of the Nova control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, F.W.

    1983-06-30

    Nova and Novette are large complex experimental laser facilities which require extensive and sophisticated control systems for their successful operation. Often, in major controls projects, certain invisible aspects of the project, such as overall strategy, management, resources and historical constraints, have a more profound effect upon success than any specific hardware/software design. The design and performance of the Nova/Novette laser control system will be presented with special emphasis upon these often controversial aspects.

  19. A conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade are reviewed from the perspective of formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. The basis for the design strategy is set by enumerating both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber. Past concepts are then reviewed to identify conceptual design approaches and physical configurations that enhance the positive aspects and minimize the negative aspects. A detailed description of the engineering considerations is given, including such topics as the selection of a liquid metal, control of radiation damage, selection of structural material, control of tritium breeding and extraction, control of wall stress, and designing for a given rep-rate. Finally, a design strategy is formulated which accomodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate. (orig.)

  20. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  1. Reprocessing input data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2009-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…

  3. User-Centered Design Strategies for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Gonzalez, Ricardo, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In today's society, educational opportunities have evolved beyond the traditional classroom setting. Most universities have implemented virtual learning environments in an effort to provide more opportunities for potential or current students seeking alternative and more affordable learning solutions. "User-Centered Design Strategies for…

  4. Linking Serious Game Narratives with Pedagogical Theories and Pedagogical Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troyer, Olga; Van Broeckhoven, Frederik; Vlieghe, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Narrative-based serious games present pedagogical content and interventions through an interactive narrative. To ensure effective learning in such kind of serious games, designers are not only faced with the challenge of creating a compelling narrative, but also with the additional challenge of incorporating suitable pedagogical strategies.…

  5. Design and Implementation of Cancellation Tasks for Visual Search Strategies and Visual Attention in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan; Huang, Hsiu-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computer-assisted cancellation test system (CACTS) to understand the visual attention performance and visual search strategies in school children. The main aim of this paper is to present our design and development of the CACTS and demonstrate some ways in which computer techniques can allow the educator not only to obtain more…

  6. Designing efficient nitrous oxide sampling strategies in agroecosystems using simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasish Saha; Armen R. Kemanian; Benjamin M. Rau; Paul R. Adler; Felipe Montes

    2017-01-01

    Annual cumulative soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions calculated from discrete chamber-based flux measurements have unknown uncertainty. We used outputs from simulations obtained with an agroecosystem model to design sampling strategies that yield accurate cumulative N2O flux estimates with a known uncertainty level. Daily soil N2O fluxes were simulated for Ames, IA (...

  7. A balancing act? The implications of mixed strategies for performance measurement system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how firms design performance measurement systems (PMSs) to support the pursuit of mixed strategies. In particular, we examine the implications of firms' joint strategic emphasis on both low cost and differentiation for their use of performance measurement and incentive

  8. A low-power multi port register file design using a low-swing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2012-01-01

    A low-power register file is designed by using a low-swing strategy and modified NAND address decoders. The proposed low-swing strategy is based on the feedback scheme and uses dynamic logic to reduce the active feedback power. This method contains two parts: WRITE and READ strategy. In the WRITE low-swing scheme, the modified memory cell is used to support low-swing WRITE. The modified NAND decoder not only dissipates less power, but also enables a great deal of area reduction. Compared with the conventional single-ended register file, the low-swing strategy saves 34.5% and 51.15% bit-line power in WRITE and READ separately. The post simulation results indicate a 39.4% power improvement when the twelve ports are all busy. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Huang, Qunying; Zhao, Zhumin; Hu, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. • The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. • Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented. - Abstract: Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation since 2011, and China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. In this paper, the development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor are proposed. The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented.

  10. Durable past - sustainable future; Heritage-based design; Designing from Heritage. Strategies for Conservation and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard van Koningsbruggen

    2018-06-01

    elkaar. De opleidingsnaam vanaf 2004, ‘rMIT ’, weerspiegelde deze koers van versmelten. De ontwerpopgave werd verbonden met onderzoek van de cultuurhistorische waarde van gebouw en omgeving en met dat van technologiespecialisten die zich concentreren op materialen (en hun schade, duurzaamheid en energietransitie. Dit leidde tot de drie leerstoelgebieden Design, Cultural Value en Technology en de huidige naam voor deze masteropleiding: Heritage & Architecture. In een gelijkbenige ‘leerstoeldriehoek’ werd de versmelting verbeeld.

  11. Design and Promotion Strategy of Marketing Platform of Aquatic Auction based on Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianliang

    For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.

  12. Design and Printing Strategies in 3D Bioprinting of Cell-Hydrogels: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia Min; Yeong, Wai Yee

    2016-11-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging technology that allows the assembling of both living and non-living biological materials into an ideal complex layout for further tissue maturation. Bioprinting aims to produce engineered tissue or organ in a mechanized, organized, and optimized manner. Various biomaterials and techniques have been utilized to bioprint biological constructs in different shapes, sizes and resolutions. There is a need to systematically discuss and analyze the reported strategies employed to fabricate these constructs. We identified and discussed important design factors in bioprinting, namely shape and resolution, material heterogeneity, and cellular-material remodeling dynamism. Each design factors are represented by the corresponding process capabilities and printing parameters. The process-design map will inspire future biomaterials research in these aspects. Design considerations such as data processing, bio-ink formulation and process selection are discussed. Various printing and crosslinking strategies, with relevant applications, are also systematically reviewed. We categorized them into 5 general bioprinting strategies, including direct bioprinting, in-process crosslinking, post-process crosslinking, indirect bioprinting and hybrid bioprinting. The opportunities and outlook in 3D bioprinting are highlighted. This review article will serve as a framework to advance computer-aided design in bioprinting technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  14. Design for a Crane Metallic Structure Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Inverse Reliability Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Ning; Zhi, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainties in parameters such as materials, loading, and geometry are inevitable in designing metallic structures for cranes. When considering these uncertainty factors, reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) offers a more reasonable design approach. However, existing RBDO methods for crane metallic structures are prone to low convergence speed and high computational cost. A unilevel RBDO method, combining a discrete imperialist competitive algorithm with an inverse reliability strategy based on the performance measure approach, is developed. Application of the imperialist competitive algorithm at the optimization level significantly improves the convergence speed of this RBDO method. At the reliability analysis level, the inverse reliability strategy is used to determine the feasibility of each probabilistic constraint at each design point by calculating its α-percentile performance, thereby avoiding convergence failure, calculation error, and disproportionate computational effort encountered using conventional moment and simulation methods. Application of the RBDO method to an actual crane structure shows that the developed RBDO realizes a design with the best tradeoff between economy and safety together with about one-third of the convergence speed and the computational cost of the existing method. This paper provides a scientific and effective design approach for the design of metallic structures of cranes.

  15. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  16. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  17. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  18. Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for the resolution of the problem of input saturation in nonlinear multivariable process control by means of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END. Input saturation can have serious consequences particularly in multivariable control because it may lead to very undesirable system behaviour and quite often system instability. Many authors have searched for systematic techniques for designing multivariable control systems in which saturation may occur in any of the control variables (inputs, manipulated variables. No generally accepted method seems to have been presented so far which gives a solution in closed form. The method of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END can be applied directly to the case of saturation control variables by deriving as many control strategies as there are combinations of saturating control variables. The method is demonstrated by the multivariable control of a simulated Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC with very convincing results.

  19. Performance Assessment Strategies: A computational framework for conceptual design of large roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Turrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using engineering performance evaluations to explore design alternatives during the conceptual phase of architectural design helps to understand the relationships between form and performance; and is crucial for developing well-performing final designs. Computer aided conceptual design has the potential to aid the design team in discovering and highlighting these relationships; especially by means of procedural and parametric geometry to support the generation of geometric design, and building performance simulation tools to support performance assessments. However, current tools and methods for computer aided conceptual design in architecture do not explicitly reveal nor allow for backtracking the relationships between performance and geometry of the design. They currently support post-engineering, rather than the early design decisions and the design exploration process. Focusing on large roofs, this research aims at developing a computational design approach to support designers in performance driven explorations. The approach is meant to facilitate the multidisciplinary integration and the learning process of the designer; and not to constrain the process in precompiled procedures or in hard engineering formulations, nor to automatize it by delegating the design creativity to computational procedures. PAS (Performance Assessment Strategies as a method is the main output of the research. It consists of a framework including guidelines and an extensible library of procedures for parametric modelling. It is structured on three parts. Pre-PAS provides guidelines for a design strategy-definition, toward the parameterization process. Model-PAS provides guidelines, procedures and scripts for building the parametric models. Explore-PAS supports the solutions-assessment based on numeric evaluations and performance simulations, until the identification of a suitable design solution. PAS has been developed based on action research. Several case studies

  20. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Tabak, Rachel G; Pilar, Meagan; Ramsey, Alex T; Baumann, Ana A; Kryzer, Emily; Lewis, Ericka M; Padek, Margaret; Powell, Byron J; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-01

    The need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions. We reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention); had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized); design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)]; data type (e.g., quantitative); D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Of the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52%) studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge) increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17%) or observational (6%). Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre-post, matched pair cluster design) were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%), with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52%) reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE-AIM ( n  = 16 each), followed by

  1. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mazzucca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions.MethodsWe reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention; had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized; design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT]; data type (e.g., quantitative; D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion.ResultsOf the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52% studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17% or observational (6%. Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre–post, matched pair cluster design were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%, with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52% reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE

  2. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  3. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    The building sector in the United States represents more than 40% of the nation's energy consumption. Energy efficiency design strategies and renewable energy are keys to reduce building energy demand. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on buildings have been the fastest growing market in the PV industry. This growth poses challenges for buildings qualified to serve in this market sector. Electricity produced from solar energy is intermittent. Matching building electricity demand with PV output can increase PV system efficiency. Through experimental methods and case studies, computer simulations were used to investigate the priorities of energy efficiency design strategies that decreased electricity demand while producing load profiles matching with unique output profiles from PV. Three building types (residential, commercial, and industrial) of varying sizes and use patterns located in 16 climate zones were modeled according to ASHRAE 90.1 requirements. Buildings were analyzed individually and as a group. Complying with ASHRAE energy standards can reduce annual electricity consumption at least 13%. With energy efficiency design strategies, the reduction could reach up to 65%, making it possible for PV systems to meet reduced demands in residential and industrial buildings. The peak electricity demand reduction could be up to 71% with integration of strategies and PV. Reducing lighting power density was the best single strategy with high overall performances. Combined strategies such as zero energy building are also recommended. Electricity consumption reductions are the sum of the reductions from strategies and PV output. However, peak electricity reductions were less than their sum because they reduced peak at different times. The potential of grid stress reduction is significant. Investment incentives from government and utilities are necessary. The PV system sizes on net metering interconnection should not be limited by legislation existing in

  4. The design and analysis of a teaching and learning strategy in Biophysics Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aiziczon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and analysis of a teaching and learning strategy of Biophysics in the Medical career, in the mark of the Ausubelian Significant Learning Model, to overtake the Model of Transmission-Reception of knowledge. It is an integrative Module constructed from our previous theoretical Model and based on the authors' previous works (AIZICZON; CUDMANI, 2004, 2005, 2007. We analyze applications of conceptual maps strategy and the previous organizing in Medical Education (AUSUBEL, 1981; MOREIRA, 1983, 1999 promoting the integration of concepts allowing the progressive differentiation and the integrative reorganization as well as the formative evaluation. In this work we analyze the experience with teachers.

  5. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This strategy paper identifies and defines the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) for source waste sites in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. This paper provides the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess and approve the Environmental Restoration Contractor's (ERC) approach to RD/RA. Additionally, DOE is requesting review/agreement from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on the strategy presented in this document in order to expedite remedial activities

  6. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1–12 years. Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50% significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (−0.44 to −3.1 h/day and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  7. Assessment of Passive vs. Active Strategies for a School Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation study to reduce heating and cooling energy demand of a school building in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of passive vs. active approaches on energy savings in buildings using EnergyPlus simulation. By controlling lighting, the energy saving of the original school building design was found most significant, and increased by 32% when the design was improved. It is noteworthy that energy saving potential of each room varies significantly depending on the rooms’ thermal characteristics and orientation. Thus, the analysis of energy saving should be introduced at the individual space level, not at the whole building level. Additionally, the simulation studies should be involved for rational decision-making. Finally, it was concluded that priority should be given to passive building design strategies, such as building orientation, as well as control and utilization of solar radiation. These passive energy saving strategies are related to urban, architectural design, and engineering issues, and are more beneficial in terms of energy savings than active strategies.

  8. Gathering Requirements for Teacher Tools: Strategies for Empowering Teachers Through Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuk, Camillia; Gerard, Libby; Lim-Breitbart, Jonathan; Linn, Marcia

    2016-02-01

    Technology can enhance teachers' practice in multiple ways. It can help them better understand patterns in their students' thinking, manage class progress at individual and group levels, and obtain evidence to inform modifications to curriculum and instruction. Such technology is most effective when it is aligned with teachers' goals and expectations. Participatory methods, which involve teachers closely in the design process, are widely recommended for establishing accurate design requirements that address users' needs. By collaborating with researchers, teachers can contribute their professional expertise to shape the tools of their practice, and ultimately ensure their sustained use. However, there is little guidance available for maintaining effective teacher-researcher design partnerships. We describe four strategies for engaging teachers in designing tools intended to support and enhance their practice within a web-based science learning environment: discussing physical artifacts, reacting to scenarios, customizing prototypes, and writing user stories. Using design artifacts and documents of teachers' reflections, we illustrate how we applied these techniques over 5 years of annual professional development workshops, and examine their affordances for eliciting teachers' ideas. We reflect on how these approaches have helped inform technology refinements and innovations. We moreover discuss the further benefits these strategies have had in encouraging teachers to reflect on their own practice and on the roles of technology in supporting it; and in allowing researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between technology, teaching, and design.

  9. Optimal structural design of the midship of a VLCC based on the strategy integrating SVM and GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wang, Deyu

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a hybrid process of modeling and optimization, which integrates a support vector machine (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA), was introduced to reduce the high time cost in structural optimization of ships. SVM, which is rooted in statistical learning theory and an approximate implementation of the method of structural risk minimization, can provide a good generalization performance in metamodeling the input-output relationship of real problems and consequently cuts down on high time cost in the analysis of real problems, such as FEM analysis. The GA, as a powerful optimization technique, possesses remarkable advantages for the problems that can hardly be optimized with common gradient-based optimization methods, which makes it suitable for optimizing models built by SVM. Based on the SVM-GA strategy, optimization of structural scantlings in the midship of a very large crude carrier (VLCC) ship was carried out according to the direct strength assessment method in common structural rules (CSR), which eventually demonstrates the high efficiency of SVM-GA in optimizing the ship structural scantlings under heavy computational complexity. The time cost of this optimization with SVM-GA has been sharply reduced, many more loops have been processed within a small amount of time and the design has been improved remarkably.

  10. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  11. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana; Khan, M. K.; Munive, J. E.

    2014-07-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective.

  12. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milana; Khan, M K; Munive, J E

    2014-01-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective

  13. Evolutionary optimization and game strategies for advanced multi-disciplinary design applications to aeronautics and UAV design

    CERN Document Server

    Periaux, Jacques; Lee, Dong Seop Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many complex aeronautical design problems can be formulated with efficient multi-objective evolutionary optimization methods and game strategies. This book describes the role of advanced innovative evolution tools in the solution, or the set of solutions of single or multi disciplinary optimization. These tools use the concept of multi-population, asynchronous parallelization and hierarchical topology which allows different models including precise, intermediate and approximate models with each node belonging to the different hierarchical layer handled by a different Evolutionary Algorithm. The efficiency of evolutionary algorithms for both single and multi-objective optimization problems are significantly improved by the coupling of EAs with games and in particular by a new dynamic methodology named “Hybridized Nash-Pareto games”. Multi objective Optimization techniques and robust design problems taking into account uncertainties are introduced and explained in detail. Several applications dealing with c...

  14. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines of architecture and health promotion can work together to challenge the regulations that dictate design practice and ultimately bridge that gap for long-term change. The overarching aim is to undertake further evidenced-based research that will inform best practice in the planning and design of workplaces to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase opportunities for physical activity. Method Within this wide objective this paper focuses in particular on the idea of stairs-versus-lift movement strategies within office buildings. By examining building design guidelines from a health promotion perspective we expose a central dichotomy, where health promotion posters say “Take the stairs instead” whereas the language of building design suggests that the lift is best. Results From a design point of view, the National Codes of Construction (NCC, formally known as the Building Codes of Australia (BCA, the essential technical regulation for all building design and construction, primarily addresses the concepts of ‘egress’ and ‘travel distance’ for escape in the event of fire, and building access in terms of universal access. Additionally, The Property Council of Australia’s Guide to Office Building Quality prioritises lift performance criteria along with the quality and experience of lift use as a major grading factor. There is no provision in either set of standards for staircase quality and experience. Conclusion The stairs, despite being promoted

  15. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  16. Strategies of Energy Efficiency Design in Traditional Kangbaiwan Mansion in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is one of the highest energy consuming sectors in the world as well as in China, it is urgent to seek an energy efficiency way of sustainable architecture development. From the perspective of tradition, this paper focus on strategies of energy efficiency design that contained in excellent vernacular dwellings. On the basis of analyzing an example of Kangbaiwan Mansion, it illustrates the advantage of environment ecosystem, and summarizes the physical and cultural characteristic of its buildings, especially the climate-adapting overall arrangement and sustainable strategies of natural ventilation and passive solar gain, which can be a fertile source of modern energy efficiency architecture design as well as a proper way of inheriting the outstanding traditional culture.

  17. A Strategy for Material-specific e-Textile Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gowrishankar, Ramyah; Bredies, Katharina; Ylirisku, Salu

    2017-01-01

    The interaction design of e-Textile products are often characterized by conventions adopted from electronic devices rather than developing interactions that can be specific to e-Textiles. We argue that textile materials feature a vast potential for the design of novel digital interactions....... Especially the shape-reformation capabilities of textiles may inform the design of expressive and aesthetically rewarding applications. In this chapter, we propose ways in which the textileness of e-Textiles can be better harnessed. We outline an e-Textile Interaction Design strategy that is based...... on defining the material-specificity of e-Textiles as its ability to deform in ways that match the expectations we have of textile materials. It embraces an open-ended exploration of textile-related interactions (for e.g. stretching, folding, turning-inside-out etc.) and their potential for electronic...

  18. Simulation based design strategy for EMC compliance of components in hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Uwe; Ndip, Ivan; Hoene, Eckard; Guttowski, Stephan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); Tschoban, Christian; Lang, Klaus-Dieter [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The design of components for the power train of hybrid vehicles needs to take into account EMC compliance standards related to hazardous electromagnetic fields. Using a simulation based design strategy allows for virtual EMC tests in parallel to the mechanical / electrical power design and thus reduces (re-)design time and costs. Taking as an example a high-voltage battery for a hybrid vehicle the emitted magnetic fields outside the battery are examined. The simulation stategy is based on 3D EM simulations using a full-wave and an eddy current solver. The simulation models are based on the actual CAD data from the mechanical construction resulting in and a high geometrical aspect ratio. The impact of simulation specific aspects such as boundary conditions and excitation is given. It was found that using field simulations it is possible to identify noise sources and coupling paths as well as aid the construction of the battery. (orig.)

  19. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  20. Design a Smart Control Strategy to Implement an Intelligent Energy Safety and Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Min Wang; Ming-Ta Yang

    2014-01-01

    The energy saving and electricity safety are today a cause for increasing concern for homes and buildings. Integrating the radio frequency identification (RFID) and ZigBee wireless sensor network (WSN) mature technologies, the paper designs a smart control strategy to implement an intelligent energy safety and management system (IESMS) which performs energy measuring, controlling, monitoring, and saving of the power outlet system. The presented RFID and billing module is used to identify user...

  1. Designing a community engagement strategy for Limerick Smarter travel using focus groups and precedent studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinane, Kathleen Clair

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research aims to create a rational basis for designing and implementing a plan for Limerick Smarter Travel. This plan will pay particular attention to community engagement. This research establishes a rationale for a community engagement strategy. Precedent studies also provide direct guidance for this rationale. The objective of the plan is to develop a local culture of Smarter Travel in Limerick communities using best international practice, and thereby achieving behav...

  2. Development strategy and process models for phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Petrushevskaya, A. A.; Lipatnikov, V. A.; Smirnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The strategy of quality of electronics insurance is represented as most important. To provide quality, the processes sequence is considered and modeled by Markov chain. The improvement is distinguished by simple database means of design for manufacturing for future step-by-step development. Phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics is supposed. The MatLab modelling results showed effectiveness increase. New tools and software should be more effective. The primary digital model is proposed to represent product in the processes sequence from several processes till the whole life circle.

  3. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  4. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  5. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy Design for Heavy Hybrid Electric Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the hybrid powertrain, the control is highly involved to improve the collaborations of the different components. For the specific powertrain, the components' sizing just gives the possibility to propel the vehicle and the control will realize the function of the propulsion. Definitely the components' sizing also gives the constraints to the control design, which cause a close coupling between the sizing and control strategy design. This paper presents a parametric study focused on sizing of the powertrain components and optimization of the power split between the engine and electric motor for minimizing the fuel consumption. A framework is put forward to accomplish the optimal sizing and control design for a heavy parallel pre-AMT hybrid truck under the natural driving schedule. The iterative plant-controller combined optimization methodology is adopted to optimize the key parameters of the plant and control strategy simultaneously. A scalable powertrain model based on a bilevel optimization framework is built. Dynamic programming is applied to find the optimal control in the inner loop with a prescribed cycle. The parameters are optimized in the outer loop. The results are analysed and the optimal sizing and control strategy are achieved simultaneously.

  6. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  7. Dual-Input Isolated Full-Bridge Boost DC-DC Converter Based on the Distributed Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new two-input isolated boost dc-dc converter based on a distributed multi-transformer structure which is suitable for hybrid renewable energy systems is investigated and designed. With a novel transformer winding-connecting strategy, the two input ports can be decoupled completely...... and the single-input mode, respectively. The main advantage of the proposed topology is that the four transformers and the secondary rectifiers are fully utilized whether the converter is connected with two input power sources or only one input. Although the four transformers are employed, the nominal powers...... of each transformer and rectifier are both reduced by four times. Furthermore, some special issues on converter design, such as increasing number of the input ports, the magnetic integration and the ground loop decoupling are discussed. A 2 kW prototype was built and tested. Experiments on the converter...

  8. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  9. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  10. Comparing in-service multi-input loads applied on non-stiff components submitted to vibration fatigue to provide specifications for robust design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Corre Gwenaëlle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on applications from the automotive industry, on mechanical components submitted to vibration loads. On one hand, the characterization of loading for dimensioning new structures in fatigue is enriched and updated by customer data analysis. On the other hand, the loads characterization also aims to provide robust specifications for simulation or physical tests. These specifications are needed early in the project, in order to perform the first durability verification activities. At this time, detailed information about the geometry and the material is rare. Vibration specifications need to be adapted to a calculation time or physical test durations in accordance with the pace imposed by the projects timeframe. In the trucks industry, the dynamic behaviour can vary significantly from one configuration of truck to another, as the trucks architecture impacts the load environment of the components. The vibration specifications need to be robust by taking care of the diversity of vehicles and markets considered in the scope of the projects. For non-stiff structures, the lifetime depends, among other things, on the frequency content of the loads, as well as the interactions between the components of the multi-input loads. In this context, this paper proposes an approach to compare sets of variable amplitude multi-input loads applied on non-stiff structures. The comparison is done in terms of damage, with limited information on the structure where the loads sets are applied on. The methodology is presented, as well as an application. Activities planned to validate the methodology are also exposed.

  11. Lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants considering degradation of geothermal resource productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budisulistyo, Denny; Wong, Choon Seng; Krumdieck, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new lifetime strategy for binary plants considering thermal resource degradations. • The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as indicators. • The results indicate that the design based on point 2 has the best revenue. • Improving plant performance by parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. - Abstract: This work proposes a lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants which takes into account heat resource degradation. A model of the resource temperature and mass flow rate decline over a 30 year plant life is developed from a survey of data. The standard approach to optimise a basic subcritical cycle of n-pentane working fluid and select component sizes is used for the resource characteristics in years 1, 7, 15 and 30. The performances of the four plants designed for the different resource conditions are then simulated over the plant life to obtain the best lifetime design. The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as the measures of merit. The production history of a real geothermal well in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is used as a case study for the lifetime design strategy. The results indicate that the operational parameters (such as mass flow rate of n-pentane, inlet turbine pressure and air mass flow rate) and plant performance (net power output) decrease over the whole plant life. The best lifetime plant design was at year 7 with partly degraded conditions. This condition has the highest net present value at USD 6,894,615 and energy return on investment at 4.15. Detailed thermo-economic analysis was carried out with the aim of improving the plant performance to overcome the resource degradation in two ways: operational parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. The results shows that mass flow rates of n-pentane and air cooling should be adjusted to maintain the performance over the plant life. The plant design can also be adapted by installing a recuperator

  12. Optimization strategies for cask design and container loading in long term spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    As delays are incurred in implementing reprocessing and in planning for geologic repositories, storage of increasing quantities of spent fuel for extended durations is becoming a growing reality. Accordingly, effective management of spent fuel continues to be a priority topic. In response, the IAEA has organized a series of meetings to identify cask loading optimisation issues in preparation for a technical publication on Optimization Strategies for Cask/Container Loading in Long Term Spent Fuel Storage. This publication outlines the optimisation process for cask design, licensing and utilization, describing three principal groups of optimization activities in terms of relevant technical considerations such as criticality, shielding, structural design, operations, maintenance and retrievability. The optimization process for cask design, licensing, and utilization is outlined. The general objectives for the design of storage casks, including storage casks that are intended to be transportable, are summarized. The nature of optimization within the design process is described. The typical regulatory and licensing process is outlined, focusing on the roles of safety regulations, the regulator, and the designer/applicant in the optimization process. Based on the foregoing, a description of the three principal groups of optimization activities is provided. The subsequent chapters of this document then describe the specific optimization activities within these three activity groups, in each of the several design disciplines

  13. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  14. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler`s typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house`s need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  15. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy - but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical, and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive Solar Design Strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Home is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: the guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; the worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; and the worked example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  16. Development of MIDAS/SMR Input Deck for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Oh, H. K.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, J. H.; Yoo, K. J.; Kwun, S. K.; Hur, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop MIDAS/SMR code basic input deck for the severe accidents by simulating the steady state for the SMART plant. SMART plant is an integrated reactor developed by KAERI. For the assessment of reactor safety and severe accident management strategy, it is necessary to simulate severe accidents using the MIDAS/SMR code which is being developed by KAERI. The input deck of the MIDAS/SMR code for the SMART plant is prepared to simulate severe accident sequences for the users who are not familiar with the code. A steady state is obtained and the results are compared with design values. The input deck will be improved through the simulation of the DBAs and severe accidents. The base input deck of the MIDAS/SMR code can be used to simulate severe accident scenarios after improvement. Source terms and hydrogen generation can be analyzed through the simulation of the severe accident. The information gained from analyses of severe accidents is expected to be helpful to develop the severe accident management strategy

  17. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  18. Input and execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.

    1986-11-01

    This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)

  19. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  20. Effective strategy making: Co-designing scenarios as a tool for effective strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vogelij

    2015-08-01

    -producing, as making together a product and collaboration towards a strategy, defined as a common exploration of possibilities. The interactions of the participants in the strategy making process, potentially creating trust and enhancing social cohesion, may be more important than the resulting concept for a development strategy. Therefore our attention focused on the way strategies are made in the black box of specific processes. The interactions aiming at co-ownership and collaboration are central in this novel ’interactions approach’. The resulting strategy does not necessarily contain (infra structural projects; a spatial strategy concerns a selected localised policy and argumentative framework for future development. Societal relevance Being a planning consultant with over forty years of experience in practice, the author highly values practical applicability in society. Understanding of practice-related factors for effectiveness of strategy making is important because effective public management saves costs for society; a framework expressing the aimed-for direction of development provides clarity for private initiatives; an agreed strategy helps to coordinate sector policies; several EU and national subsidies for projects require a locally agreed structural frame. Because a development vision concerns the direction of an envisaged development, its effectiveness is defined in terms of performance of the argumentative framework based on the story lines developed in the discussions during the strategy making process. Our search aims at identifying recommendations for enhanced chances for performing strategies in praxis. Approach A theoretical frame was composed based on literature in the fields of planning theory, policy analysis and design. Research questions were formulated concerning the importance of the process related variables: open process management, coownership, co-design, the application of scenarios and visualizations. Concerning the importance of the place

  1. Design and control strategy for a hybrid green energy system for mobile telecommunication sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-07-01

    The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithm-based technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system's components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

  2. Formation Design Strategy for SCOPE High-Elliptic Formation Flying Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    The new formation design strategy using simulated annealing (SA) optimization is presented. The SA algorithm is useful to survey a whole solution space of optimum formation, taking into account realistic constraints composed of continuous and discrete functions. It is revealed that this method is not only applicable for circular orbit, but also for high-elliptic orbit formation flying. The developed algorithm is first tested with a simple cart-wheel motion example, and then applied to the formation design for SCOPE. SCOPE is the next generation geomagnetotail observation mission planned in JAXA, utilizing a formation flying techonology in a high elliptic orbit. A distinctive and useful heuristics is found by investigating SA results, showing the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  3. An Integrated Mixed Methods Research Design: Example of the Project Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The presentation focused on an so called integrated mixed method research design example on a basis of a Czech Science Foundation Project Nr. GAP407/12/0432 "Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences". All main integrated parts of the mixed methods research design were discussed: the aim, theoretical framework, research question, methods and validity threats. Prezentace se zaměřovala na tzv. integrovaný vícemetodový výzkumný design na...

  4. IDENTIFYING PRODUCT AND PRICE STRATEGIES FOR DESIGNING TRANSACTIONAL BANKING PACKAGES ADDRESSED TO SMES (CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuca Simona-Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper has the aim to provide guidelines for designing efficient product and price strategies, through proposed business cases which could be used especially for banking products addressed to SMEs. While identifying the optimal product and price strategy and designing the product catalogue structure, the marketing specialist should definitely consider existing portfolio behaviour and estimate the growing potential (if possible, overall portfolio, with focus on accurately defining the additional impact of the newly proposed product/ products. A business case contains estimations for results to be generated by products to be launched or optimized. This paper presents complex schemes for business case scenarios for migration of existing portfolio to the new products, but also considers new clients acquisition based on important features of the products. The pricing strategy is not a simple task to manage. Especially when speaking about transactional packages (for which the price is lower than separate services included, some segments or clusters may generate loss to the bank if they already used the services at a higher price than the one of the package. Therefore, the decision of setting up specific prices needs to be based on an accurate and complex analysis, as presented in current paper. The assumptions used in a business case need to be relevant for the entire process of designing and launching a product, therefore they can always be adjusted for better calculation of the impact. No matter if the assumptions and prices remain as in the initial proposal or not, the steps to be followed are the same. Segmentation also plays an important role in designing the product strategy, since the target for a product or product catalogue can be represented by a segment, a sub segment or a cluster of many segments. Not always the initial segmentation represents the clustering for the product strategy. Sometimes, behaviour of existing clients

  5. Design and construction strategies for reducing embodied impacts from buildings – Case study analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Tove; Nehasilova, Marie; Moncaster, Alice

    2018-01-01

    , individual building projects. This is done by a systematic analysis of the Annex 57 case study collection as well as additional scientific literature. While it should be noted that the actual EEG savings at building level illustrated in this collection of studies are only applicable to each specific case...... of national energy mixes. Stakeholders therefore have a growing interest in understanding the possibilities for reducing em- bodied impacts in buildings. In the IEA EBC project ‘Annex 57’ a broad call for case studies was launched with the aim to identify design strategies for reducing embodied energy and GHG...... emissions (EEG) from buildings. The aim of this paper is to identify and provide a collected and comprehensive overview of quantitative reduction potentials of the particular EEG reduction strategies which should be considered by the stakeholders engaged in, and with the capacity to influence the outcome of...

  6. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a user's guide'' that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  7. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a ``user`s guide`` that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  8. Competition and convergence between auditory and cross-modal visual inputs to primary auditory cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Ting; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neocortex is capable of considerable plasticity after sensory deprivation or damage to input pathways, especially early in development. Although plasticity can often be restorative, sometimes novel, ectopic inputs invade the affected cortical area. Invading inputs from other sensory modalities may compromise the original function or even take over, imposing a new function and preventing recovery. Using ferrets whose retinal axons were rerouted into auditory thalamus at birth, we were able to examine the effect of varying the degree of ectopic, cross-modal input on reorganization of developing auditory cortex. In particular, we assayed whether the invading visual inputs and the existing auditory inputs competed for or shared postsynaptic targets and whether the convergence of input modalities would induce multisensory processing. We demonstrate that although the cross-modal inputs create new visual neurons in auditory cortex, some auditory processing remains. The degree of damage to auditory input to the medial geniculate nucleus was directly related to the proportion of visual neurons in auditory cortex, suggesting that the visual and residual auditory inputs compete for cortical territory. Visual neurons were not segregated from auditory neurons but shared target space even on individual target cells, substantially increasing the proportion of multisensory neurons. Thus spatial convergence of visual and auditory input modalities may be sufficient to expand multisensory representations. Together these findings argue that early, patterned visual activity does not drive segregation of visual and auditory afferents and suggest that auditory function might be compromised by converging visual inputs. These results indicate possible ways in which multisensory cortical areas may form during development and evolution. They also suggest that rehabilitative strategies designed to promote recovery of function after sensory deprivation or damage need to take into

  9. Improved predictive modeling of white LEDs with accurate luminescence simulation and practical inputs with TracePro opto-mechanical design software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chao-hsi; Freniere, Edward R.; Smith, Linda

    2009-02-01

    The use of white LEDs for solid-state lighting to address applications in the automotive, architectural and general illumination markets is just emerging. LEDs promise greater energy efficiency and lower maintenance costs. However, there is a significant amount of design and cost optimization to be done while companies continue to improve semiconductor manufacturing processes and begin to apply more efficient and better color rendering luminescent materials such as phosphor and quantum dot nanomaterials. In the last decade, accurate and predictive opto-mechanical software modeling has enabled adherence to performance, consistency, cost, and aesthetic criteria without the cost and time associated with iterative hardware prototyping. More sophisticated models that include simulation of optical phenomenon, such as luminescence, promise to yield designs that are more predictive - giving design engineers and materials scientists more control over the design process to quickly reach optimum performance, manufacturability, and cost criteria. A design case study is presented where first, a phosphor formulation and excitation source are optimized for a white light. The phosphor formulation, the excitation source and other LED components are optically and mechanically modeled and ray traced. Finally, its performance is analyzed. A blue LED source is characterized by its relative spectral power distribution and angular intensity distribution. YAG:Ce phosphor is characterized by relative absorption, excitation and emission spectra, quantum efficiency and bulk absorption coefficient. Bulk scatter properties are characterized by wavelength dependent scatter coefficients, anisotropy and bulk absorption coefficient.

  10. Design of Underwater Robot Lines Based on a Hybrid Automatic Optimization Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing Lyu; Weilin Luo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid automatic optimization strategy is proposed for the design of underwater robot lines. Isight is introduced as an integration platform. The construction of this platform is based on the user programming and several commercial software including UG6.0, GAMBIT2.4.6 and FLUENT12.0. An intelligent parameter optimization method, the particle swarm optimization, is incorporated into the platform. To verify the strategy proposed, a simulation is conducted on the underwater robot model 5470, which originates from the DTRC SUBOFF project. With the automatic optimization platform, the minimal resistance is taken as the optimization goal;the wet surface area as the constraint condition; the length of the fore-body, maximum body radius and after-body’s minimum radius as the design variables. With the CFD calculation, the RANS equations and the standard turbulence model are used for direct numerical simulation. By analyses of the simulation results, it is concluded that the platform is of high efficiency and feasibility. Through the platform, a variety of schemes for the design of the lines are generated and the optimal solution is achieved. The combination of the intelligent optimization algorithm and the numerical simulation ensures a global optimal solution and improves the efficiency of the searching solutions.

  11. PAT Design Strategy for Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks by Electrical Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of water distribution networks, large energy savings can be yielded by exploiting the head drop due to the network pressure control strategy, i.e., for leak reductions. Hydropower in small streams is already exploited, but technical solutions combining efficiency and economic convenience are still required. In water distribution networks, an additional design problem comes out from the necessity of ensuring a required head drop under variable operating conditions, i.e., head and discharge variations. Both a hydraulic regulation (HR—via a series-parallel hydraulic circuit- and an electrical regulation (ER—via inverter- are feasible solutions. A design procedure for the selection of a production device in a series-parallel hydraulic circuit has been recently proposed. The procedure, named VOS (Variable Operating Strategy, is based on the overall plant efficiency criteria and is applied to a water distribution network where a PAT (pump as a turbine is used in order to produce energy. In the present paper the VOS design procedure has been extended to the electrical regulation and a comparison between HR and ER efficiency and flexibility within a water distribution network is shown: HR was found more flexible than ER and more efficient. Finally a preliminary economic study has been carried out in order to show the viability of both systems, and a shorter payback period of the electromechanical equipment was found for HR mode.

  12. Teaching Design in Middle-School: Instructors' Concerns and Scaffolding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.; Cahill, Clara S.

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with engineering education in the middle-school level. Its focus is instructors' concerns in teaching design, as well as scaffolding strategies that can help teachers deal with these concerns. Through participatory action research, nine instructors engaged in a process of development and instruction of a curriculum about energy along with engineering design. A 50-h curriculum was piloted during a summer camp for 38 middle-school students. Data was collected through instructors' materials: observation field notes, daily reflections and post-camp discussions. In addition, students' artifacts and planning graphical models were collected in order to explore how instructors' concerns were aligned with students' learning. Findings indicate three main tensions that reflect instructors' main concerns: how to provide sufficient scaffolding yet encourage creativity, how to scaffold hands-on experiences that promote mindful planning, and how to scaffold students' modeling practices. Pedagogical strategies for teaching design that developed through this work are described, as well as the ways they address the National Research Council (A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2011) core ideas of engineering education and the International Technological Literacy standards (ITEA in Standards for technological literacy, 3rd edn. International Technology education Association, Reston, VA, 2007).

  13. Applying Instructional Design Strategies and Behavior Theory to Household Disaster Preparedness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracy N; Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Davis, Alyson L; Harp, Victoria H; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Cioffi, Joan P

    Interventions and media campaigns promoting household disaster preparedness have produced mixed results in affecting behaviors. In large part, this is due to the limited application of instructional design strategies and behavior theory, such as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This study describes the development and evaluation of Ready CDC, an intervention designed to increase household disaster preparedness among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workforce. (1) Describe the instructional design strategies employed in the development of Ready CDC and (2) evaluate the intervention's impact on behavior change and factors influencing stage progression for household disaster preparedness behavior. Ready CDC was adapted from the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Ready campaign. Offered to CDC staff September 2013-November 2015, it consisted of a preassessment of preparedness attitudes and behaviors, an in-person training, behavioral reinforcement communications, and a 3-month follow-up postassessment. Ready CDC employed well-accepted design strategies, including presenting stimulus material and enhancing transfer of desired behavior. Excluding those in the TTM "maintenance" stage at baseline, this study determined 44% of 208 participants progressed at least 1 stage for developing a written disaster plan. Moreover, assessment of progression by stage found among participants in the "precontemplation" (n = 16), "contemplation" (n = 15), and "preparation" (n = 125) stages at baseline for assembling an emergency kit, 25%, 27%, and 43% moved beyond the "preparation" stage, respectively. Factors influencing stage movement included knowledge, attitudes, and community resiliency but varied depending on baseline stage of change. Employing instructional strategies and behavioral theories in preparedness interventions optimizes the potential for individuals to adopt preparedness behaviors. Study findings suggest that stage movement toward

  14. iPhone application development strategies for efficient mobile design and delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Jim

    2011-01-01

    iPhone application development is explained here in an accessible treatment for the generalist Library and Information Science (LIS) practitioner. Future information-seeking practices by users will take place across a diverse array of ubiquitous computing devices. iPhone applications represent one of the most compelling new platforms for which to remediate and re-engineer library service. Strategies of efficient mobile design and delivery include adapting computing best practices of data independence and adhering to web standards as articulated by the W3C. These best practices apply across the

  15. Advanced nuclear power systems: Design, technology, safety and strategies for their deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the symposium were to provide high level decision makers with an overview of the discussion concerning the need for nuclear power and salient features of advanced nuclear power systems; a forum for discussing the design objectives and safety approaches for such systems and the views of regulatory bodies; a forum for identifying barriers to the deployment of these systems and for reviewing strategies to overcome these barriers; and a forum for reviewing options for international cooperation in the development and deployment of such systems. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Fuel management strategy for the compact core design of RSG GAS (MPR-30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembiring, T.M.; Liem, P.H.; Tukiran, S. [National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), PUSPIPTEK-Serpong Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2000-07-01

    The rearrangement of the core configuration of the RSG GAS reactor to obtain a compact core is in progress. A fuel management strategy is proposed for the equilibrium compact core of this reactor by reducing the number of in-core irradiation positions. The reduced irradiation positions are based on the activities during 12 years operation. The obtained compact core gives significant extension of the operation cycle length so that the reactor availability and utilization can be enhanced. The equilibrium compact silicide core obtained met the imposed design constraints and safety requirements. (author)

  17. Fuel management strategy for the compact core design of RSG GAS (MPR-30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembiring, T.M.; Liem, P.H.; Tukiran, S.

    2000-01-01

    The rearrangement of the core configuration of the RSG GAS reactor to obtain a compact core is in progress. A fuel management strategy is proposed for the equilibrium compact core of this reactor by reducing the number of in-core irradiation positions. The reduced irradiation positions are based on the activities during 12 years operation. The obtained compact core gives significant extension of the operation cycle length so that the reactor availability and utilization can be enhanced. The equilibrium compact silicide core obtained met the imposed design constraints and safety requirements. (author)

  18. An efficient strategy for designing ambipolar organic semiconductor material: Introducing dehydrogenated phosphorus atoms into pentacene core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Dan

    2017-09-01

    The charge transport properties of phosphapentacene (P-PEN) derivatives were systematically explored by theoretical calculation. The dehydrogenated P-PENs have reasonable frontier molecular orbital energy levels to facilitate both electron and hole injection. The reduced reorganization energies of dehydrogenated P-PENs could be intimately connected to the bonding nature of phosphorus atoms. From the idea of homology modeling, the crystal structure of TIPSE-4P-2p is constructed and fully optimized. Fascinatingly, TIPSE-4P-2p shows the intrinsic property of ambipolar transport in both hopping and band models. Thus, introducing dehydrogenated phosphorus atoms into pentacene core could be an efficient strategy for designing ambipolar material.

  19. The Impact of Breakthrough Therapy Designation on Development Strategies and Timelines for Nononcology Drugs and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, A F; Murphy, W R

    2016-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA, 2012) introduced the Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD), a new tool to expedite development of medicines to treat serious or life-threatening diseases. The majority of BTDs have gone to oncology drugs, and a recent publication by Shea et al. 1 reviewed the impact of BTD on oncology drug development. This article reviews the impact of BTD on development strategies and timelines for nononcology drugs. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  1. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  2. Parameter-Invariant Hierarchical Exclusive Alphabet Design for 2-WRC with HDF Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Uřičář

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical eXclusive Code (HXC for the Hierarchical Decode and Forward (HDF strategy in the Wireless 2-Way Relay Channel (2-WRC has the achievable rate region extended beyond the classical MAC region. Although direct HXC design is in general highly complex, a layered approach to HXC design is a feasible solution. While the outer layer code of the layered HXC can be any state-of-the-art capacity approaching code, the inner layer must be designed in such a way that the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (received at the relay will be provided. The simplest case of the inner HXC layer is a simple signal space channel symbol memoryless mapper called Hierarchical eXclusive Alphabet (HXA. The proper design of HXA is important, especially in the case of parametric channels, where channel parametrization (e.g. phase rotation can violate the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (as seen by the relay, resulting in significant capacity degradation. In this paper we introduce an example of a geometrical approach to Parameter-Invariant HXA design, and we show that the corresponding hierarchical MAC capacity region extends beyond the classical MAC region, irrespective of the channel pametrization.

  3. Plasma facing components: a conceptual design strategy for the first wall in FAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, C.; Di Gironimo, G.; Renno, F.

    2015-09-01

    Satellite tokamaks are conceived with the main purpose of developing new or alternative ITER- and DEMO-relevant technologies, able to contribute in resolving the pending issues about plasma operation. In particular, a high criticality needs to be associated to the design of plasma facing components, i.e. first wall (FW) and divertor, due to physical, topological and thermo-structural reasons. In such a context, the design of the FW in FAST fusion plant, whose operational range is close to ITER’s one, takes place. According to the mission of experimental satellites, the FW design strategy, which is presented in this paper relies on a series of innovative design choices and proposals with a particular attention to the typical key points of plasma facing components design. Such an approach, taking into account a series of involved physical constraints and functional requirements to be fulfilled, marks a clear borderline with the FW solution adopted in ITER, in terms of basic ideas, manufacturing aspects, remote maintenance procedure, manifolds management, cooling cycle and support system configuration.

  4. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  5. Conceptual design and cost inputs associated with co-disposal of the spent fuel and long lived radioactive wastes in the deep geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fako, R.; Sociu, F.; Nicolae, R.; Barariu, G

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to be an integrated approach for the containment and isolation of spent fuel and / or long lived radioactive wastes in a Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. Several scenarios could be defined for the management of spent fuel and long lived radioactive waste in Romania considering many specific constraints in Romania (political, geological, economic, demographic, etc.). This paper intends to be an upgrade of several Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) works performed by SITON specialists on this subject, taking into account also the conclusions of the Workshop ôCost estimation on spent nuclear fuel disposal in Romaniaö organized by IAEA in cooperation with ANDR at the beginning of this year in Romania.This paper is, also, addressed to decision makers with target on to adopt the best strategy for construction of Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. (authors)

  6. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  7. Service platforms management strategy: case study of an interior design firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Del Rey de Melo Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Platform management is a strategic tool for firms of various sizes, although it demands studies in the service sector. The aim of this paper is to investigate a use of platform management, designed to reach flexibility and operational dynamics in service projects. The studied platform is evaluated as a strategic resource in a particular case. The contributions of the service platform were explored from Resource-Based View (RBV and Service Marketing (SM perspectives, to study their effects on firms’ performance. The research strategy used was an exploratory case study in an interior design firm. The data collection techniques included a participant observation, document analysis and a focus group with firm managers. The research demonstrated that platform management is a strategic resource that assists with the planning of internal capabilities, market positioning, and provides better customer service.

  8. Functional components for a design strategy: Hot cell shielding in the high reliability safeguards methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, R.A., E-mail: rborrelli@uidaho.edu

    2016-08-15

    The high reliability safeguards (HRS) methodology has been established for the safeguardability of advanced nuclear energy systems (NESs). HRS is being developed in order to integrate safety, security, and safeguards concerns, while also optimizing these with operational goals for facilities that handle special nuclear material (SNM). Currently, a commercial pyroprocessing facility is used as an example system. One of the goals in the HRS methodology is to apply intrinsic features of the system to a design strategy. This current study investigates the thickness of the hot cell walls that could adequately shield processed materials. This is an important design consideration that carries implications regarding the formation of material balance areas, the location of key measurement points, and material flow in the facility.

  9. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  10. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies to address this challenge and has proven fruitful at allowing some degree of control over the resultant materials synthesized. Several methodologies for synthesis of MOFs have been developed which rely on use of predetermined building blocks. The work presented herein is focused on the utilization of two of these design principles, namely the use of molecular building blocks (MBBs) and supermolecular building blocks (SBBs) to target MOF materials having desired connectivities (topologies). These design strategies also permit the introduction of specific chemical moieties, allowing for modification of the MOFs properties. This research is predominantly focused on two platforms (rht-MOFs and ftw-MOFs) which topologically speaking are edge transitive binodal nets; ftw being a (4,12)-connected net and rht being a (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets (at least one node having connectivity greater than eight) have been purposefully targeted to increase the predictability of structural outcome. A general trend in topology is that there is an inverse relationship between the connectivity of the node(s) and the number of topological outcomes. Therefore the key to this research (and to effective use of the SBB and MBB approaches) is identification of conditions which allow for reliable formation of the targeted MBBs and SBBs. In the case of the research presented herein: a 12-connected Group IV or Rare Earth based hexanuclear MBB and a 24-connected transition metal based SBB were successfully targeted and synthesized. These two synthetic platforms will be presented and used as examples of how these design methods have been (and can be further) utilized to modify existing materials or develop new materials for gas storage and

  11. Design strategy for improving the energy efficiency in series hydraulic/electric synergy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Battery is a vital subsystem in an electric vehicle with regenerative braking system. The energy efficiency of an electric vehicle is improved by storing the regenerated energy in an electric battery, during braking, and reusing it during subsequent acceleration. Battery possesses a relatively poor power density and slow charging of regenerated energy, when compared to hydro-pneumatic accumulators. A series hydraulic/electric synergy system – an energy efficient mechatronics system is proposed to overcome the drawbacks in the conventional electric vehicle with regenerative braking. Even though, electric battery provides higher energy density than the accumulator system, optimal sizing of the hydro-pneumatic accumulator and other process parameters in the system to provide better energy density and efficiency. However, a trade-off prevails between the system energy delivered and energy consumed. This gives rise to a multiple objective problem. The proposed multi-objective design optimization procedure based on an evolutionary strategy algorithm maximizes the energy efficiency of the system. The system simulation results after optimization show that, the optimal system parameters increase the energy efficiency by 3% and hydraulic regeneration efficiency by 17.3%. The suggested design methodology provides a basis for the design of a series hydraulic/electric synergy system as energy efficient and zero emission system. - Highlights: • Dynamic analysis of SHESS to investigate energy efficiency. • Optimization of system parameters based on multi-objective design strategy. • Evaluation of improvements in system energy efficiency and hydraulic regeneration energy. • Identification of conditions at which hydraulic regenerative efficiency is maximized for minimum energy consumption. • Results confirm advantages of using SHESS

  12. Using visual thinking strategies with nursing students to enhance nursing assessment skills: A qualitative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanavaty, Joanne

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative design study addressed the enhancement of nursing assessment skills through the use of Visual Thinking Strategies and reflection. This study advances understanding of the use of Visual Thinking Strategies and reflection as ways to explore new methods of thinking and observing patient situations relating to health care. Sixty nursing students in a licensed practical nursing program made up the sample of participants who attended an art gallery as part of a class assignment. Participants replied to a survey of interest for participation at the art gallery. Participants reviewed artwork at the gallery and shared observations with the larger group during a post-conference session in a gathering area of the museum at the end of the visit. A reflective exercise on the art gallery experience exhibited further thoughts about the art gallery experience and demonstrated the connections made to clinical practice by the student. The findings of this study support the use of Visual Thinking Strategies and reflection as effective teaching and learning tools for enhancing nursing skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategy Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Smoothing Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing contribution of wind power plants, the reliability and security of modern power systems have become a huge challenge due to the uncertainty and intermittency of wind energy sources. In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS consisting of battery and supercapacitor is built to smooth the power fluctuations of wind power. A power allocation strategy is proposed to give full play to the respective advantages of the two energy storage components. In the proposed strategy, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of wind power fluctuations are absorbed by battery groups and supercapacitor groups, respectively. By inhibiting the low-frequency components of supercapacitor current, the times of charging-discharging of battery groups can be significantly reduced. A DC/AC converter is applied to achieve the power exchange between the HESS and the grid. Adjustment rules for regulating state-of-charge (SOC of energy storage elements are designed to avoid overcharge and deep discharge considering the safety and the high efficiency of the energy storage elements. Experimental results on the test platform verify the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation strategy in DC/AC converter and battery SOC adjustment rules for regulating SOC levels.

  14. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrigan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  15. Competitive Supply Chain Network Design Considering Marketing Strategies: A Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Hasani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive model is proposed to design a network for multi-period, multi-echelon, and multi-product inventory controlled the supply chain. Various marketing strategies and guerrilla marketing approaches are considered in the design process under the static competition condition. The goal of the proposed model is to efficiently respond to the customers’ demands in the presence of the pre-existing competitors and the price inelasticity of demands. The proposed optimization model considers multiple objectives that incorporate both market share and total profit of the considered supply chain network, simultaneously. To tackle the proposed multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, an efficient hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm is developed that incorporates a Taguchi-based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and a particle swarm optimization. A variable neighborhood decomposition search is applied to enhance a local search process of the proposed hybrid solution algorithm. Computational results illustrate that the proposed model and solution algorithm are notably efficient in dealing with the competitive pressure by adopting the proper marketing strategies.

  16. Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect.

  17. A conceptual design of assembly strategy and dedicated tools for assembly of 40o sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.; Nam, K.O.; Kim, D.J.; Ahn, H.J.; Lee, J.H.; Im, K.; Shaw, R.

    2010-01-01

    The International Thermanuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak device is composed of 9 vacuum vessel (VV)/toroidal field coils (TFCs)/vacuum vessel thermal shields (VVTS) 40 o sectors. Each VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 o sector is made up of one 40 o VV, two 20 o TFCs and associated VVTS segments. The 40 o sectors are sub-assembled at assembly hall respectively and then nine 40 o sectors sub-assembled at assembly hall are finally assembled at tokamak in-pit hall. The assembly strategy and tools for the 40 o sector sub-assembly and final assembly should be developed to satisfy the basic assembly requirements of the ITER tokamak device. Accordingly, the purpose-built assembly tools should be designed and manufactured considering assembly plan, available space, cost, safety, easy operation, efficient maintenance, and so on. The 40 o sector assembly tools are classified into 2 groups. One group is the sub-assembly tools including upending tool, lifting tool, sub-assembly tool, VV supports and bracing tools used at assembly hall and the other group is the in-pit assembly tools including lifting tool, central column, radial beams and their supports. This paper describes the current status of the assembly strategy and major tools for the VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 o sector assembly at in-pit hall and assembly hall. The conceptual design of the major assembly tools and assembly process at assembly hall and tokamak in-pit hall are presented also.

  18. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    approach, is likely to result in DRR strategies that are considered more applicable and user-friendly by end users. This work presents results of a disaster preparedness workshop held with local communities around Turrialba. The workshop engaged the community in ideation and designing of concepts to increase levels of hazard preparedness. The concepts resulting from the workshop will be used to develop, through further collaboration with the end-users, DRR strategies tailored to be more relevant and accessible to the public. The approach presented here can equally be applied to the communication of DRR strategies in relation to other (natural) hazards.

  19. Using computer-aided drug design and medicinal chemistry strategies in the fight against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semighini, Evandro P; Resende, Jonathan A; de Andrade, Peterson; Morais, Pedro A B; Carvalho, Ivone; Taft, Carlton A; Silva, Carlos H T P

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a simple, practical and efficient protocol for drug design, in particular Diabetes, which includes selection of the illness, good choice of a target as well as a bioactive ligand and then usage of various computer aided drug design and medicinal chemistry tools to design novel potential drug candidates in different diseases. We have selected the validated target dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), whose inhibition contributes to reduce glucose levels in type 2 diabetes patients. The most active inhibitor with complex X-ray structure reported was initially extracted from the BindingDB database. By using molecular modification strategies widely used in medicinal chemistry, besides current state-of-the-art tools in drug design (including flexible docking, virtual screening, molecular interaction fields, molecular dynamics, ADME and toxicity predictions), we have proposed 4 novel potential DPP-IV inhibitors with drug properties for Diabetes control, which have been supported and validated by all the computational tools used herewith.

  20. Loving Nature From the Inside Out: A Biophilia Matrix Identification Strategy for Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Beth; Marshall-Baker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Biophilic Design Matrix (BDM) was to aid designers or other specialists in identifying and quantifying biophilic features through a visual inventory of interior spaces. With mounting evidence to support the healing attributes of biophilic environments, we propose a method to identify biophilic content within interior spaces. Such a strategy offers much promise to the advancement of restorative environments. The BDM was based on Stephen Kellert's biophilic design attribute list and modified to be appropriate for interior environments, specifically children's healthcare spaces. A photo-ethnographic documentation method of 24 child life play spaces within a South Atlantic state was used to determine whether the BDM could reliably reveal biophilic features (listed as attributes by Kellert in 2008). This matrix appears useful in documenting biophilia within the pediatric healthcare context, attesting to the usability and functionality of the BDM for this special population. Specifically, the BDM revealed that biophilic attributes were constantly present in some spaces while others were completely absent. When a biophilic attribute was present, the BDM indicated that they varied considerably in type and occurrence. Thus, use of the BDM in the hospital areas designed for patient recreation and play successfully provided a visual inventory of biophilic features as well as the frequency of application. Further use of the BDM as a tool for strategizing biophilic feature inclusion can thus increase the connections available with nature in the interior, beneficial for optimizing health and wellness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Models for solid oxide fuel cell systems exploitation of models hierarchy for industrial design of control and diagnosis strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.

  2. Book of extended synopses. International symposium on advanced nuclear power systems. Design, technology, safety and strategies for their deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During the symposium the design, technology, safety and strategy for the development of advanced nuclear power systems were discussed. 20 papers were presented at the symposium. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs

  3. Design, implementation and evaluation of innovative science teaching strategies for non-formal learning in a natural history museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning.

  4. On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally adopted at present), but also for the evaluation of local amplification. With regard to the first item, among others, a better knowledge of fault extension and near-fault effects is judged essential. The aforesaid improvements are particularly important for the design of seismically isolated structures, which relies on displacement. Thus, such a design requires an accurate definition of the maximum value of displacement corresponding to the isolation period, and a reliable evaluation of the earthquake energy content at the low frequencies that are typical of the isolated structures, for the site and ground of interest. These evaluations shall include possible near-fault effects even in the vertical direction; for the construction of high-risk plants and components and retrofit of some cultural heritage, they shall be performed for earthquakes characterized by very long return periods. The design displacement shall not be underestimated, but neither be excessively overestimated, at least when using rubber bearings in the seismic isolation (SI) system. In fact, by decreasing transverse deformation of such SI systems below a certain value, their horizontal stiffness increases. Thus, should a structure (e.g. a civil defence centre, a masterpiece, etc.) protected in the aforesaid way be designed to withstand an unnecessarily too large earthquake, the behaviour of its SI system will be inadequate (i.e. it will be too stiff) during much more frequent events, which may really strike the structure during its life. Furthermore, since SI can be used only when the room available to the structure

  5. Using a Mixed Methods Approach to Explore Strategies, Metacognitive Awareness and the Effects of Task Design on Listening Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Anne; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is increasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the four skills (Vandergrift, 2007). Based on research in listening comprehension, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to shed light on the development of four…

  6. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Tommy K.K. Ngai; Richard A. Fenner

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under s...

  7. 7 CFR 3431.4 - Solicitation of stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation of stakeholder input. 3431.4 Section... Designation of Veterinarian Shortage Situations § 3431.4 Solicitation of stakeholder input. The Secretary will solicit stakeholder input on the process and procedures used to designate veterinarian shortage situations...

  8. A Strategy for Architecture Design of Crystalline Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yifei; Wu, Wen; Dong, Hua; Li, Guangru; Xi, Kai; Divitini, Giorgio; Ran, Chenxin; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Min; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2018-06-01

    All present designs of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) stem from polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) or perovskite solar cells. The optimal structure of PeLEDs can be predicted to differ from PLEDs due to the different fluorescence dynamics and crystallization between perovskite and polymer. Herein, a new design strategy and conception is introduced, "insulator-perovskite-insulator" (IPI) architecture tailored to PeLEDs. As examples of FAPbBr 3 and MAPbBr 3 , it is experimentally shown that the IPI structure effectively induces charge carriers into perovskite crystals, blocks leakage currents via pinholes in the perovskite film, and avoids exciton quenching simultaneously. Consequently, as for FAPbBr 3 , a 30-fold enhancement in the current efficiency of IPI-structured PeLEDs compared to a control device with poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) as hole-injection layer is achieved-from 0.64 to 20.3 cd A -1 -while the external quantum efficiency is increased from 0.174% to 5.53%. As the example of CsPbBr 3 , compared with the control device, both current efficiency and lifetime of IPI-structured PeLEDs are improved from 1.42 and 4 h to 9.86 cd A -1 and 96 h. This IPI architecture represents a novel strategy for the design of light-emitting didoes based on various perovskites with high efficiencies and stabilities. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Trend-Centric Motion Visualization: Designing and Applying a New Strategy for Analyzing Scientific Motion Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Knipe, Carissa Mai-Ping; Thorson, Lauren; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David; Carlis, John; Keefe, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In biomechanics studies, researchers collect, via experiments or simulations, datasets with hundreds or thousands of trials, each describing the same type of motion (e.g., a neck flexion-extension exercise) but under different conditions (e.g., different patients, different disease states, pre- and post-treatment). Analyzing similarities and differences across all of the trials in these collections is a major challenge. Visualizing a single trial at a time does not work, and the typical alternative of juxtaposing multiple trials in a single visual display leads to complex, difficult-to-interpret visualizations. We address this problem via a new strategy that organizes the analysis around motion trends rather than trials. This new strategy matches the cognitive approach that scientists would like to take when analyzing motion collections. We introduce several technical innovations making trend-centric motion visualization possible. First, an algorithm detects a motion collection's trends via time-dependent clustering. Second, a 2D graphical technique visualizes how trials leave and join trends. Third, a 3D graphical technique, using a median 3D motion plus a visual variance indicator, visualizes the biomechanics of the set of trials within each trend. These innovations are combined to create an interactive exploratory visualization tool, which we designed through an iterative process in collaboration with both domain scientists and a traditionally-trained graphic designer. We report on insights generated during this design process and demonstrate the tool's effectiveness via a validation study with synthetic data and feedback from expert musculoskeletal biomechanics researchers who used the tool to analyze the effects of disc degeneration on human spinal kinematics.

  10. Design of multi-input multi-output controller for magnetic bearing which suspends helium gas-turbine generator rotor for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Funatake, Yoshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    A design of a MIMO controller, which links magnetic forces of multiple magnetic bearings by feedback of multiple measurement values of vibration of a rotor, was proposed for the radial magnetic bearings for the generator rotor of helium gas turbine with a power output of 300 MWe. The generator rotor is a flexible rotor, which passes over the forth critical speed. A controller transfer function was derived at the forth critical speed, in which the bending vibration mode is similar to the one which is excited by unbalance mass to reduce a modeling error. A 1404-dimensional un-symmetric coefficient matrix of equation of state for the rotating rotor affected by Jayro effect was reduced by a modal decomposition using Schur decomposition to reduce a reduction error. The numerical results showed that unbalance response of rotor was 53 and 80 μm p-p , respectively, well below the allowable limits both at the rated and critical speeds. (author)

  11. Combustion Control System Design of Diesel Engine via ASPR based Output Feedback Control Strategy with a PFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Tsunematsu, Junpei; Fujii, Seiya

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a design method of an output feedback control system with a simple feedforward input for a combustion model of diesel engine will be proposed based on the almost strictly positive real-ness (ASPR-ness) of the controlled system for a combustion control of diesel engines. A parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) design scheme which renders the resulting augmented controlled system ASPR will also be proposed in order to design a stable output feedback control system for the considered combustion model. The effectiveness of our proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  12. Strategies for Assessment of the Biological Performance and Design of Hydroturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2011-05-05

    The biological response of fish to turbine passage has been of concern for several decades and emphasized recently by consideration of hydro as a 'green' power source. The current state-of-the-art of hydro-turbine biological performance assessment, while still inadequate, has advanced considerably the past 10 years. For example, the importance of assessment of exposure to pressure changes during turbine passage has been emphasized by findings of laboratory studies of rapid decompression. It is now very clear that hydroturbine biological assessment must consider the physiological state and behavior of fish at turbine entry and changes in physiological state that drive aspects of behavior during tailrace passage. Such considerations are in addition to concerns about exposure of fish to mechanical and pressure sources of injury during turbine passage. Experimental designs and assessment tools have evolved for acclimation of test fish, observation of test fish behavior at approach and upon exit from the turbine environment, and precise estimation of turbine passage mortality. Fish condition assessment continues to improve permitting better classification of observed injuries to injury mechanisms. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and other computer models permit detailed investigation of the turbine passage environment and development of hypotheses that can be tested in field studies using live fish. Risk assessment techniques permit synthesis of laboratory and in-field study findings and estimation of population level effects over a wide range of turbine operation scenarios. Risk assessment is also evolving to provide input to turbine runner design. These developments, and others, have resulted in more productive biological performance assessment studies and will continue to evolve and improve the quantity and quality of information obtained from costly live fish hydroturbine passage studies. This paper reviews the history of hydro-turbine biological

  13. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. Aim To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Materials and Methods Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic ‘gout’, they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students’ and faculty’s responses were collected on a Likert scale. Results Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. Discussion The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. Conclusion PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning

  14. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Maya; Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G

    2016-12-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic 'gout', they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students' and faculty's responses were collected on a Likert scale. Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning strategy for students in medical schools where PBL is part of the curriculum. It

  15. Strategies to design clinical studies to identify predictive biomarkers in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Bosch, Ana; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Schalper, Kurt A; Segura, Victor; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Tabernero, Josep; Sweeney, Christopher J; Choueiri, Toni K; Martín, Miguel; Fusco, Juan Pablo; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria Esperanza; Calvo, Alfonso; Prior, Celia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pio, Ruben; Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Enrique; Gonzalez Hernandez, Alvaro; Páez, David; Piulats, Jose María; Gurpide, Alfonso; Andueza, Mapi; de Velasco, Guillermo; Pazo, Roberto; Grande, Enrique; Nicolas, Pilar; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Garcia-Donas, Jesus; Castellano, Daniel; Pajares, María J; Suarez, Cristina; Colomer, Ramon; Montuenga, Luis M; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers. While some drugs will be systematically administered to many patients who will not benefit from them, leading to unnecessary toxicities and costs, others will never reach registration due to our inability to identify the specific patient population in which they are active. Despite these drawbacks, a limited number of outstanding predictive biomarkers have been successfully identified and validated, and have changed the standard practice of oncology. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary panel reviews how those key biomarkers were identified and, based on those experiences, proposes a methodological framework-the DESIGN guidelines-to standardize the clinical design of biomarker identification studies and to develop future research in this pivotal field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of peptide designing strategy against subunit reassociation in mucin 1: A steered molecular dynamics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lesitha Jeeva Kumari

    Full Text Available Subunit reassociation in mucin 1, a breast cancer tumor marker, is reported as one of the critical factors for its cytoplasmic activation. Inhibition of its heterodimeric association would therefore result in loss of its function and alter disease progression. The present study aimed at evaluating peptide inhibitor designing strategies that may serve as antagonist against this receptor-ligand alliance. Several peptides and their derivatives were designed based on native residues, subunit interface, hydrogen bonding and secondary structure. Docking studies with the peptides were carried on the receptor subunit and their binding affinities were evaluated using steered molecular dynamics simulation and umbrella sampling. Our results showed that among all the different classes of peptides evaluated, the receptor based peptide showed the highest binding affinity. This result was concurrent with the experimental observation that the receptor-ligand alliance in mucin 1 is highly specific. Our results also show that peptide ligand against this subunit association is only stabilized through native residue inter-protein interaction irrespective of the peptide structure, peptide length and number of hydrogen bonds. Consistency in binding affinity, pull force and free energy barrier was observed with only the receptor derived peptides which resulted in favorable interprotein interactions at the interface. Several observations were made and discussed which will eventually lead to designing efficient peptide inhibitors against mucin 1 heterodimeric subunit reassociation.

  17. Computationally efficient design of optimal output feedback strategies for controllable passive damping devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalzare, Mahmoud; Johnson, Erik A; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    Designing control strategies for smart structures, such as those with semiactive devices, is complicated by the nonlinear nature of the feedback control, secondary clipping control and other additional requirements such as device saturation. The usual design approach resorts to large-scale simulation parameter studies that are computationally expensive. The authors have previously developed an approach for state-feedback semiactive clipped-optimal control design, based on a nonlinear Volterra integral equation that provides for the computationally efficient simulation of such systems. This paper expands the applicability of the approach by demonstrating that it can also be adapted to accommodate more realistic cases when, instead of full state feedback, only a limited set of noisy response measurements is available to the controller. This extension requires incorporating a Kalman filter (KF) estimator, which is linear, into the nominal model of the uncontrolled system. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated by a numerical study of a 100-degree-of-freedom frame model, excited by a filtered Gaussian random excitation, with noisy acceleration sensor measurements to determine the semiactive control commands. The results show that the proposed method can improve computational efficiency by more than two orders of magnitude relative to a conventional solver, while retaining a comparable level of accuracy. Further, the proposed approach is shown to be similarly efficient for an extensive Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effects of sensor noise levels and KF tuning on the accuracy of the response. (paper)

  18. Proposed strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to critical urban issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Nguyen Hoang Long; Huan Giang, Ngoc; Binh Duong, Trong

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims at finding practical strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to varied municipal issues. Two steps are made. Step-1 identifies the critical issues of Ho Chi Minh City which are associated with high-rise apartment building projects. Step-2 finds potential and applicable strategies which are solutions for the critical issues in Step-1 with reference of seven selected assessment methods. The study finds the set of 58 strategies applicable to designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City.

  19. Towards the design of an optimal strategy for the production of ergosterol from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náhlík, Jan; Hrnčiřík, Pavel; Mareš, Jan; Rychtera, Mojmír; Kent, Christopher A

    2017-05-01

    The total yield of ergosterol produced by the fermentation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the final amount of yeast biomass and the ergosterol content in the cells. At the same time ergosterol purity-defined as percentage of ergosterol in the total sterols in the yeast-is equally important for efficient downstream processing. This study investigated the development of both the ergosterol content and ergosterol purity in different physiological (metabolic) states of the microorganism S. cerevisiae with the aim of reaching maximal ergosterol productivity. To expose the yeast culture to different physiological states during fermentation an on-line inference of the current physiological state of the culture was used. The results achieved made it possible to design a new production strategy, which consists of two preferable metabolic states, oxidative-fermentative growth on glucose followed by oxidative growth on glucose and ethanol simultaneously. Experimental application of this strategy achieved a value of the total efficiency of ergosterol production (defined as product of ergosterol yield coefficient and volumetric productivity), 103.84 × 10 -6 g L -1 h -1 , more than three times higher than with standard baker's yeast fed-batch cultivations, which attained in average 32.14 × 10 -6 g L -1 h -1 . At the same time the final content of ergosterol in dry biomass was 2.43%, with a purity 86%. These results make the product obtained by the proposed control strategy suitable for effective down-stream processing. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:838-848, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Falls Assessment Clinical Trial (FACT: design, interventions, recruitment strategies and participant characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Beverley

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend multifactorial intervention programmes to prevent falls in older adults but there are few randomised controlled trials in a real life health care setting. We describe the rationale, intervention, study design, recruitment strategies and baseline characteristics of participants in a randomised controlled trial of a multifactorial falls prevention programme in primary health care. Methods Participants are patients from 19 primary care practices in Hutt Valley, New Zealand aged 75 years and over who have fallen in the past year and live independently. Two recruitment strategies were used – waiting room screening and practice mail-out. Intervention participants receive a community based nurse assessment of falls and fracture risk factors, home hazards, referral to appropriate community interventions, and strength and balance exercise programme. Control participants receive usual care and social visits. Outcome measures include number of falls and injuries over 12 months, balance, strength, falls efficacy, activities of daily living, quality of life, and physical activity levels. Results 312 participants were recruited (69% women. Of those who had fallen, 58% of people screened in the practice waiting rooms and 40% when screened by practice letter were willing to participate. Characteristics of participants recruited using the two methods are similar (p > 0.05. Mean age of all participants was 81 years (SD 5. On average participants have 7 medical conditions, take 5.5 medications (29% on psychotropics with a median of 2 falls (interquartile range 1, 3 in the previous year. Conclusion The two recruitment strategies and the community based intervention delivery were feasible and successful, identifying a high risk group with multiple falls. Recruitment in the waiting room gave higher response rates but was less efficient than practice mail-out. Testing the effectiveness of an evidence based intervention in a

  1. Design strategy for a tunable antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite LTCC substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2014-07-01

    Typical microwave simulators cannot accurately predict the behavior of an antenna on a partially magnetized substrate as they assume the substrate to be in fully saturate state. In this work, a new simulation strategy aided by theoretical analysis, is presented to model a tunable patch antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite substrate through a combination of magnetostatic and microwave simulators. An antenna prototype is fabricated in Ferrite LTCC medium to verify the partially magnetized state simulations. The measured results are in close agreement with the simulations, contrary to the case where the substrate is assumed to be in saturation. The prototype designed for 13 GHz exhibits a tuning range of 10 % making it highly suitable for tunable and reconfigurable wireless applications.

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide design strategies: from drug carriers to soft killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Casimiro, Teresa; Correia, Vanessa G

    2015-12-28

    The integrated use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) and micro- and nanotechnologies has enabled new sustainable strategies for the manufacturing of new medications. 'Green' scCO(2)-based methodologies are well suited to improve either the synthesis or materials processing leading to the assembly of three-dimensional multifunctional constructs. By using scCO(2) either as C1 feedstock or as solvent, simple, economic, efficient and clean routes can be designed to synthesize materials with unique properties such as polyurea dendrimers and oxazoline-based polymers/oligomers. These new biocompatible, biodegradable and water-soluble polymeric materials can be engineered into multifunctional constructs with antimicrobial activity, targeting moieties, labelling units and/or efficiently loaded with therapeutics. This mini-review highlights the particular features exhibited by these materials resulting directly from the followed supercritical routes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  4. The design strategy of selective PTP1B inhibitors over TCPTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XiangQian; Wang, LiJun; Shi, DaYong

    2016-08-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has already been well studied as a highly validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. However, the lack of selectivity limited further studies and clinical applications of PTP1B inhibitors, especially over T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). In this review, we enumerate the published specific inhibitors of PTP1B, discuss the structure-activity relationships by analysis of their X-ray structures or docking results, and summarize the characteristic of selectivity related residues and groups. Furthermore, the design strategy of selective PTP1B inhibitors over TCPTP is also proposed. We hope our work could provide an effective way to gain specific PTP1B inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies to optimize the biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles - ;SPIONs safe by design;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Christina; Zaloga, Jan; Pöttler, Marina; Dürr, Stephan; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Various nanoparticle systems have been developed for medical applications in recent years. For constant improvement of efficacy and safety of nanoparticles, a close interdisciplinary interplay between synthesis, physicochemical characterizations and toxicological investigations is urgently needed. Based on combined toxicological data, we follow a ;safe-by design; strategy for our superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Using complementary interference-free toxicological assay systems, we initially identified agglomeration tendencies in physiological fluids, strong uptake by cells and improvable biocompatibility of lauric acid (LA)-coated SPIONs (SPIONLA). Thus, we decided to further stabilize those particles by an artificial protein corona consisting of serum albumin. This approach finally lead to increased colloidal stability, augmented drug loading capacity and improved biocompatibility in previous in vitro assays. Here, we show in whole blood ex vivo and on isolated red blood cells (RBC) that a protein corona protects RBCs from hemolysis by SPIONs.

  6. Design strategy for a tunable antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite LTCC substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif; Bray, Joey R.

    2014-01-01

    Typical microwave simulators cannot accurately predict the behavior of an antenna on a partially magnetized substrate as they assume the substrate to be in fully saturate state. In this work, a new simulation strategy aided by theoretical analysis, is presented to model a tunable patch antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite substrate through a combination of magnetostatic and microwave simulators. An antenna prototype is fabricated in Ferrite LTCC medium to verify the partially magnetized state simulations. The measured results are in close agreement with the simulations, contrary to the case where the substrate is assumed to be in saturation. The prototype designed for 13 GHz exhibits a tuning range of 10 % making it highly suitable for tunable and reconfigurable wireless applications.

  7. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrigan, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  8. Beam physics design strategy for a high-current rf linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The high average beam power of an rf linac system for transmutation of nuclear waste puts very stringent requirements on beam quality and beam control. Fractional beam losses along the accelerator must be kept at extremely low levels to assure {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} maintenance. Hence, halo formation and large-amplitude tails in the particle distribution due to beam mismatch and equipartitioning effects must be avoided. This implies that the beam should ideally be in near-perfect thermal equilibrium from injection to full energy - in contrast to existing rf linacs in which the transverse temperature, T {sub {perpendicular}}, is higher than the longitudinal temperature, T{sub {parallel}}. The physics and parameter scaling for such a system will be reviewed using the results of recent work on high-intensity bunched beams. A design strategy for a high-current rf linac with equilibrated beam will be proposed.

  9. Strategies for the design of bright upconversion nanoparticles for bioanalytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesholler, Lisa M.; Hirsch, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    In recent years upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) received great attention because of their outstanding optical properties. Especially in bioanalytical applications this class of materials can overcome limitations of common probes like high background fluorescence or blinking. Nevertheless, the requirements for UCNPs to be applicable in biological samples, e.g. small size, water-dispersibility, excitation at low power density are in contradiction with the demand of high brightness. Therefore, a lot of attention is payed to the enhancement of the upconversion luminescence. This review discuss the recent trends and strategies to boost the brightness of UCNPs, classified in three main directions: a) improving the efficiency of energy absorption by the sensitizer via coupling to plasmonic or photonic structures or via attachment of ligands for light harvesting; b) minimizing non-radiative deactivation by variations in the architecture of UCNPs; and c) changing the excitation wavelength to get bright particles at low excitation power density for applications in aqueous systems. These strategies are critically reviewed including current limitations as well as future perspectives for the design of efficient UCNPs especially for sensing application in biological samples or cells.

  10. Activation loop targeting strategy for design of receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsuwong, Chalada; Pinkas, Daniel M; Ray, Soumya S; Bufton, Joshua C; Dai, Bing; Bullock, Alex N; Degterev, Alexei; Cuny, Gregory D

    2018-02-15

    Development of selective kinase inhibitors remains a challenge due to considerable amino acid sequence similarity among family members particularly in the ATP binding site. Targeting the activation loop might offer improved inhibitor selectivity since this region of kinases is less conserved. However, the strategy presents difficulties due to activation loop flexibility. Herein, we report the design of receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) inhibitors based on pan-kinase inhibitor regorafenib that aim to engage basic activation loop residues Lys169 or Arg171. We report development of CSR35 that displayed >10-fold selective inhibition of RIPK2 versus VEGFR2, the target of regorafenib. A co-crystal structure of CSR35 with RIPK2 revealed a resolved activation loop with an ionic interaction between the carboxylic acid installed in the inhibitor and the side-chain of Lys169. Our data provides principle feasibility of developing activation loop targeting type II inhibitors as a complementary strategy for achieving improved selectivity. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Study of an Optimal Robust Design and Adjustable Ordering Strategies in the HSCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Chen, Yan-Kwang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a hospital supply chain management (HSCM) model in which three kinds of drugs in the same class and with the same indications were used in creating an optimal robust design and adjustable ordering strategies to deal with a drug shortage. The main assumption was that although each doctor has his/her own prescription pattern, when there is a shortage of a particular drug, the doctor may choose a similar drug with the same indications as a replacement. Four steps were used to construct and analyze the HSCM model. The computation technology used included a simulation, a neural network (NN), and a genetic algorithm (GA). The mathematical methods of the simulation and the NN were used to construct a relationship between the factor levels and performance, while the GA was used to obtain the optimal combination of factor levels from the NN. A sensitivity analysis was also used to assess the change in the optimal factor levels. Adjustable ordering strategies were also developed to prevent drug shortages.

  12. 2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context.

  13. Biogeography of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Ecuador: implications for the design of control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad-Franch Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil, the Natural History Museum London (UK, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK, the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito, and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito. A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude, and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system.

  14. Goals and strategies in the global control design of the OAJ Robotic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes-Díaz, A.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Antón, J. L.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Gruel, N.; Varela, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Chueca, S.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Guillén, L.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Maícas, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; López-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Penteado, P.; Schoenell, W.; Kanaan, A.

    2012-09-01

    There are many ways to solve the challenging problem of making a high performance robotic observatory from scratch. The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located in the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys. The OAJ control system has been designed from a global point of view including astronomical subsystems as well as infrastructures and other facilities. Three main factors have been considered in the design of a global control system for the robotic OAJ: quality, reliability and efficiency. We propose CIA (Control Integrated Architecture) design and OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) as a key performance indicator in order to improve operation processes, minimizing resources and obtaining high cost reduction whilst maintaining quality requirements. The OAJ subsystems considered for the control integrated architecture are the following: two wide-field telescopes and their instrumentation, active optics subsystems, facilities for sky quality monitoring (seeing, extinction, sky background, sky brightness, cloud distribution, meteorological station), domes and several infrastructure facilities such as water supply, glycol water, water treatment plant, air conditioning, compressed air, LN2 plant, illumination, surveillance, access control, fire suppression, electrical generators, electrical distribution, electrical consumption, communication network, Uninterruptible Power Supply and two main control rooms, one at the OAJ and the other remotely located in Teruel, 40km from the observatory, connected through a microwave radio-link. This paper presents the OAJ strategy in control design to achieve maximum quality efficiency for the observatory processes and operations, giving practical examples of our approach.

  15. Neural-Fuzzy Digital Strategy of Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems Using Adaptive Prediction and Random-Local-Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ren Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tracking problem, time-delay, uncertainty and stability analysis of a predictive control system are considered. The predictive control design is based on the input and output of neural plant model (NPM, and a recursive fuzzy predictive tracker has scaling factors which limit the value zone of measured data and cause the tuned parameters to converge to obtain a robust control performance. To improve the further control performance, the proposed random-local-optimization design (RLO for a model/controller uses offline initialization to obtain a near global optimal model/controller. Other issues are the considerations of modeling error, input-delay, sampling distortion, cost, greater flexibility, and highly reliable digital products of the model-based controller for the continuous-time (CT nonlinear system. They are solved by a recommended two-stage control design with the first-stage (offline RLO and second-stage (online adaptive steps. A theorizing method is then put forward to replace the sensitivity calculation, which reduces the calculation of Jacobin matrices of the back-propagation (BP method. Finally, the feedforward input of reference signals helps the digital fuzzy controller improve the control performance, and the technique works to control the CT systems precisely.

  16. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Innovative Science Teaching Strategies for Non-Formal Learning in a Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…

  17. Evolutionary Agent-based Models to design distributed water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing awareness in the scientific community that the traditional centralized approach to water resources management, as described in much of the water resources literature, provides an ideal optimal solution, which is certainly useful to quantify the best physically achievable performance, but is generally inapplicable. Most real world water resources management problems are indeed characterized by the presence of multiple, distributed and institutionally-independent decision-makers. Multi-Agent Systems provide a potentially more realistic alternative framework to model multiple and self-interested decision-makers in a credible context. Each decision-maker can be represented by an agent who, being self-interested, acts according to local objective functions and produces negative externalities on system level objectives. Different levels of coordination can potentially be included in the framework by designing coordination mechanisms to drive the current decision-making structure toward the global system efficiency. Yet, the identification of effective coordination strategies can be particularly complex in modern institutional contexts and current practice is dependent on largely ad-hoc coordination strategies. In this work we propose a novel Evolutionary Agent-based Modeling (EAM) framework that enables a mapping of fully uncoordinated and centrally coordinated solutions into their relative "many-objective" tradeoffs using multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Then, by analysing the conflicts between local individual agent and global system level objectives it is possible to more fully understand the causes, consequences, and potential solution strategies for coordination failures. Game-theoretic criteria have value for identifying the most interesting alternatives from a policy making point of view as well as the coordination mechanisms that can be applied to obtain these interesting solutions. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a

  18. Criteria for method selection and process design of a technical development strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available delivery strategy and a testing strategy with the associated approach and methods for each strategy. For example, the testing strategy will describe the testing approach of the system development cycle and it will include methods of testing, testing...

  19. Lessons Learned in Evaluating a Multisite, Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategy: Design and Challenges of the Evaluation of Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Taylor, Bruce G; Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Valle, Linda Anne; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the multisite, longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design of the evaluation of the Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Relationships initiative, and discusses challenges faced in conducting this evaluation. Health departments in 4 communities are partnering with middle schools in high-risk, urban communities to implement 2 models of teen dating violence (TDV) prevention over 4 years. Schools were randomized to receive either the Dating Matters comprehensive strategy or the "standard of care" strategy (an existing, evidence-based TDV prevention curriculum). Our design permits comparison of the relative effectiveness of the comprehensive and standard of care strategies. Multiple cohorts of students from 46 middle schools are surveyed in middle school and high school, and parents and educators from participating schools are also surveyed. Challenges discussed in conducting a multisite RCT include site variability, separation of implementation and evaluation responsibilities, school retention, parent engagement in research activities, and working within the context of high-risk urban schools and communities. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approaches to these challenges in the hopes of informing future research. Despite multiple challenges, the design of the Dating Matters evaluation remains strong. We hope this paper provides researchers who are conducting complex evaluations of behavioral interventions with thoughtful discussion of the challenges we have faced and potential solutions to such challenges.

  20. Current strategies in multiphasic scaffold design for osteochondral tissue engineering: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra; Hoque, Md Enamul; Prasad, Rangabhatala G S V; Uth, Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This article gives an overview of some of the current strategies in multiphasic/gradient-based scaffold architectures and compositions for tissue engineering of osteochondral defects. In addition, the application of finite element analysis (FEA) in scaffold design and simulation of in vitro and in vivo cell growth outcomes has been briefly covered. FEA-based approaches can potentially be coupled with computer-assisted fabrication systems for controlled deposition and additive manufacturing of the simulated patterns. Finally, a summary of the existing challenges associated with the repair of osteochondral defects as well as some recommendations for future directions have been brought up in the concluding section of this article. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Consumer Intervention Mapping—A Tool for Designing Future Product Strategies within Circular Product Service Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Sinclair

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-distributed manufacturing presents a number of opportunities and challenges for New Product Development in a future Circular Economy. It has been argued that small-scale, flexible and localised production systems will reduce resource consumption, lower transport emissions and extend product lifetimes. At the same time smart products within the Internet of Things will gather and report data on user behaviour and product status. Many sustainable design tools have previously been developed but few are able to imagine and develop visions of how future sustainable product service systems might be manifested. This paper introduces the concept of Consumer Intervention Mapping as a tool for creating future product strategies. The tool visualises the points within a product’s lifecycle where stakeholders are able to intervene in the product’s expected journey. This perspective enables the rapid construction of scenarios that explore and describe future circular product service systems. Validation of the tool in three workshops is described and the outcomes are presented. Consumer Intervention Mapping is successful in creating scenarios that describe existing product service systems and new product concepts adapted to a Circular Economy paradigm. Further work is required to refine the tool’s performance in more focused and reflective design exercises.

  2. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  3. Achieving consensus in robot swarms design and analysis of strategies for the best-of-n problem

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the design and analysis of collective decision-making strategies for the best-of-n problem. After providing a formalization of the structure of the best-of-n problem supported by a comprehensive survey of the swarm robotics literature, it introduces the functioning of a collective decision-making strategy and identifies a set of mechanisms that are essential for a strategy to solve the best-of-n problem. The best-of-n problem is an abstraction that captures the frequent requirement of a robot swarm to choose one option from of a finite set when optimizing benefits and costs. The book leverages the identification of these mechanisms to develop a modular and model-driven methodology to design collective decision-making strategies and to analyze their performance at different level of abstractions. Lastly, the author provides a series of case studies in which the proposed methodology is used to design different strategies, using robot experiments to show how the designed strategies can b...

  4. Development of high-immersive simulation system for designing maintenance strategy and its application to CLEAR-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zihui; He, Tao; Shang, Leiming; Long, Pengcheng; Hu, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A system was self-developed to simulate and verify the maintenance strategy. • Large-scale 3D radiation scene can be rapidly built and rendered in real-time. • A high efficiency simulation way was provided by tracking 6-DOF body motion. • It has been applied to CLEAR-I and proved maintenance strategy was feasible. - Abstract: The maintenance strategy is imperative and important to be considered in the design process of advanced nuclear reactor as early as possible. The design and validation of the maintenance strategy are key challenges which remain to be resolved due to the complex mechanical structure, the expensive physical mockup, and the potential risk of radiation hazards. In this paper, a high-immersive interactive simulation system has been developed to simulate and verify maintenance strategy by using virtual reality. Main features include: (1) rapid modeling and real-time rendering of the large-scale three-dimensional radiation scene, (2) real-time interactive roaming by tracking the 6-DOF body motion, (3) the interactive disassembly simulation of the mechanism structure were controlled by the hand gestures. The system can provide designers with an intuitive experience environment, an efficient and flexible interactive way as well as the whole process simulation of maintenance strategy. It has been applied to simulate and verify the maintenance strategy of the spallation target proton beam window for China LEAd-based research Reactor (CLEAR-I). The simulation result proved the maintenance strategy of proton beam window was reasonable and feasible. The system was useful to verify maintenance strategy, optimize maintenance operation, reduce intervention time and exposure dose of workers. It provided a high efficiency and low cost way for simulating maintenance strategy to meet the requirements of ALARA rules and can be extended to other nuclear facilities

  5. Diuretic Strategies in Acute Heart Failure and Renal Dysfunction: Conventional vs Carbohydrate Antigen 125-guided Strategy. Clinical Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blas, Sergio; Bonanad, Clara; Llàcer, Pau; Ventura, Silvia; Núñez, José María; Sánchez, Ruth; Chamorro, Carlos; Fácila, Lorenzo; de la Espriella, Rafael; Vaquer, Juana María; Cordero, Alberto; Roqué, Mercè; Ortiz, Víctor; Racugno, Paolo; Bodí, Vicent; Valero, Ernesto; Santas, Enrique; Moreno, María Del Carmen; Miñana, Gema; Carratalá, Arturo; Bondanza, Lourdes; Payá, Ana; Cardells, Ingrid; Heredia, Raquel; Pellicer, Mauricio; Valls, Guillermo; Palau, Patricia; Bosch, María José; Raso, Rafael; Sánchez, Andrés; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Montagud-Balaguer, Vicente; Albiach-Montañana, Cristina; Pendás-Meneau, Jezabel; Marcaida, Goitzane; Cervantes-García, Sonia; San Antonio, Rodolfo; de Mingo, Elisabet; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio

    2017-12-01

    The optimal treatment of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS-1) is far from being well-defined. Arterial hypoperfusion in concert with venous congestion plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CRS-I. Plasma carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has emerged as a surrogate of fluid overload in AHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CA125 for tailoring the intensity of diuretic therapy in patients with CRS-1. Multicenter, open-label, parallel clinical trial, in which patients with AHF and serum creatinine ≥ 1.4mg/dL on admission will be randomized to: a) standard diuretic strategy: titration-based on conventional clinical and biochemical evaluation, or b) diuretic strategy based on CA125: high dose if CA125 > 35 U/mL, and low doses otherwise. The main endpoint will be renal function changes at 24 and 72hours after therapy initiation. Secondary endpoints will include: a) clinical and biochemical changes at 24 and 72hours, and b) renal function changes and major clinical events at 30 days. The results of this study will add important knowledge on the usefulness of CA125 for guiding diuretic treatment in CRS-1. In addition, it will pave the way toward a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of this challenging situation. We hypothesize that higher levels of CA125 will identify a patient population with CRS-1 who could benefit from the use of a more intense diuretic strategy. Conversely, low levels of this glycoprotein could select those patients who would be harmed by high diuretic doses. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting the dopamine D3 receptor: an overview of drug design strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Antoni; Moreno, Estefanía; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Its physiological effects are mediated by five closely related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are divided into two major subclasses: the D1-like (D1, D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors. D3 receptors (D3Rs) have the highest density in the limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive and emotional functions. These receptors are therefore attractive targets for therapeutic management. This review summarizes the functional and pharmacological characteristics of D3Rs, including the design and clinical relevance of full agonists, partial agonists and antagonists, as well as the capacity of these receptors to form active homodimers, heterodimers or higher order receptor complexes as pharmacological targets in several neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. The high sequence homology between D3R and the D2-type challenges the development of D3R-selective compounds. The design of new D3R-preferential ligands with improved physicochemical properties should provide a better pharmacokinetic/bioavailability profile and lesser toxicity than is found with existing D3R ligands. It is also essential to optimize D3R affinity and, especially, D3R vs. D2-type binding and functional selectivity ratios. Developing allosteric and bitopic ligands should help to improve the D3R selectivity of these drugs. As most evidence points to the ability of GPCRs to form homomers and heteromers, the most promising therapeutic strategy in the future is likely to involve the application of heteromer-selective drugs. These selective ligands would display different affinities for a given receptor depending on the receptor partners within the heteromer. Therefore, designing novel compounds that specifically target and modulate D1R-D3R heteromers would be an interesting approach for the treatment of levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias.

  7. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  8. FLUTAN input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.

    1991-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de

  9. GARFEM input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.

  10. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  11. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  12. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  13. Evaluation of design, leak monitoring, dnd NDEA strategies to assure PBMR Helium pressure boundary reliability - HTR2008-58037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K. N.; Smit, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the reliability and integrity management (RIM) strategies that have been applied in the design of the PBMR passive metallic components for the helium pressure boundary (HPB) to meet reliability targets and to evaluate what combination of strategies are needed to meet the targets. The strategies considered include deterministic design strategies to reduce or eliminate the potential for specific damage mechanisms, use of an on-line leak monitoring system and associated design provisions that provide a high degree of leak detection reliability, and periodic nondestructive examinations combined with repair and replacement strategies to reduce the probability that degradation would lead to pipe ruptures. The PBMR RIM program for passive metallic piping components uses a leak-before-break philosophy. A Markov model developed for use in LWR risk-informed in-service inspection evaluations was applied to investigate the impact of alternative RIM strategies and plant age assumptions on the pipe rupture frequencies as a function of rupture size. Some key results of this investigation are presented in this paper. (authors)

  14. Design strategies for dynamic closed-loop optogenetic neurocontrol in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, M. F.; Willats, A. A.; Whitmire, C. J.; Rozell, C. J.; Stanley, G. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Controlling neural activity enables the possibility of manipulating sensory perception, cognitive processes, and body movement, in addition to providing a powerful framework for functionally disentangling the neural circuits that underlie these complex phenomena. Over the last decade, optogenetic stimulation has become an increasingly important and powerful tool for understanding neural circuit function, owing to the ability to target specific cell types and bidirectionally modulate neural activity. To date, most stimulation has been provided in open-loop or in an on/off closed-loop fashion, where previously-determined stimulation is triggered by an event. Here, we describe and demonstrate a design approach for precise optogenetic control of neuronal firing rate modulation using feedback to guide stimulation continuously. Approach. Using the rodent somatosensory thalamus as an experimental testbed for realizing desired time-varying patterns of firing rate modulation, we utilized a moving average exponential filter to estimate firing rate online from single-unit spiking measured extracellularly. This estimate of instantaneous rate served as feedback for a proportional integral (PI) controller, which was designed during the experiment based on a linear-nonlinear Poisson (LNP) model of the neuronal response to light. Main results. The LNP model fit during the experiment enabled robust closed-loop control, resulting in good tracking of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal targets, and rejection of unmeasured disturbances. Closed-loop control also enabled manipulation of trial-to-trial variability. Significance. Because neuroscientists are faced with the challenge of dissecting the functions of circuit components, the ability to maintain control of a region of interest in spite of changes in ongoing neural activity will be important for disambiguating function within networks. Closed-loop stimulation strategies are ideal for control that is robust to such changes

  15. Guiding Design of University STEM Courses Based on Gifted Status and Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne Allen, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Starting from general population statistics and the self-selection of STEM majors by students, it can be concluded that science classes have a population of students trending towards the gifted, regardless of academic institution and admissions selectivity. On average, upper level and graduate STEM courses have an increasingly larger fraction of gifted students. I propose that the average level of giftedness of the students within a course serves as an overriding characteristic that is more significant than other demographic variables. Using this model when designing a STEM course can lead to more successful learning outcomes. In 1991, the Columbus Group defined giftedness as "asynchronous development in which advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity combine to create inner experiences and awareness than are qualitatively different from the norm." These gifted characteristics are fundamentally innate lifelong traits that persist beyond K-12 designations and into our college classrooms. As this broader understanding of giftedness has emerged, myths and stereotypes in prior literature have also become clearer. Understanding and naming these myths can better impact our teaching effectiveness. While the diversity of gifted populations makes generalization difficult, gifted individuals can be described as having the following: asynchronous development, increased perceptivity, high sensitivity, perfectionism, and intensity. Several levels of giftedness have been identified on the basis of IQ scores or innate characteristics from birth. In addition, students who are twice-exceptional are yet another subpopulation present in our classes. If the average gifted level of STEM majors is higher than the norm population for a typical level of education, then understanding the characteristics of the subpopulations and the impact on classroom dynamics is essential. This directly impacts our STEM teaching pedagogy and style if productive learning outcomes are to be

  16. A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy...

  17. An instrument design and sample strategy for measuring soil respiration in the coastal temperate rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.

    2009-12-01

    The coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) along the northwest coast of North America is a large and complex mosaic of forests and wetlands located on an undulating terrain ranging from sea level to thousands of meters in elevation. This biome stores a dynamic portion of the total carbon stock of North America. The fate of the terrestrial carbon stock is of concern due to the potential for mobilization and export of this store to both the atmosphere as carbon respiration flux and ocean as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon flux. Soil respiration is the largest export vector in the system and must be accurately measured to gain any comprehensive understanding of how carbon moves though this system. Suitable monitoring tools capable of measuring carbon fluxes at small spatial scales are essential for our understanding of carbon dynamics at larger spatial scales within this complex assemblage of ecosystems. We have adapted instrumentation and developed a sampling strategy for optimizing replication of soil respiration measurements to quantify differences among spatially complex landscape units of the CTR. We start with the design of the instrument to ease the technological, ergonomic and financial barriers that technicians encounter in monitoring the efflux of CO2 from the soil. Our sampling strategy optimizes the physical efforts of the field work and manages for the high variation of flux measurements encountered in this difficult environment of rough terrain, dense vegetation and wet climate. Our soil respirometer incorporates an infra-red gas analyzer (LiCor Inc. LI-820) and an 8300 cm3 soil respiration chamber; the device is durable, lightweight, easy to operate and can be built for under $5000 per unit. The modest unit price allows for a multiple unit fleet to be deployed and operated in an intensive field monitoring campaign. We use a large 346 cm2 collar to accommodate as much micro spatial variation as feasible and to facilitate repeated measures for tracking

  18. An All-Freeze-Casting Strategy to Design Typographical Supercapacitors with Integrated Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingrong; Wang, Xinyu; Wan, Fang; Chen, Kena; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The emergence of flexible and wearable electronics has raised the demand for flexible supercapacitors with accurate sizes and aesthetic shapes. Here, a strategy is developed to prepare flexible all-in-one integrated supercapacitors by combining all-freeze-casting with typography technique. The continuous seamless connection of all-in-one supercapacitor devices enhances the load and/or electron transfer capacity and avoids displacing and detaching between their neighboring components at bending status. Therefore, such a unique structure of all-in-one integrated devices is beneficial for retaining stable electrochemical performance at different bending levels. More importantly, the sizes and aesthetic shapes of integrated supercapacitors could be controlled by the designed molds, like type matrices of typography. The molds could be assembled together and typeset randomly, achieving the controllable construction and series and/or parallel connection of several supercapacitor devices. The preparation of flexible integrated supercapacitors will pave the way for assembling programmable all-in-one energy storage devices into highly flexible electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Culturally sensitive strategies designed to target the silent epidemic of hepatitis B in a Filipino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Michelle; Tice, Alan D; Taylor-Garcia, David; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather; Ona, Fernando

    2007-06-01

    Hepatitis B is frequent in the Philippines. A high rate of immigration to the United States has brought many Filipinos with infections who are asymptomatic yet will go on to develop liver cancer and cirrhosis unless diagnose and evaluated. Interventions are necessary to educate this ethnic community, identify those infected, and offer therapy. In an effort to reach this high risk population in Hawai'i an intervention program was designed to address the silent epidemic of hepatitis. Ethnic barriers were crossed through involvement of trusted, key stakeholders and individuals within the Filipino health care and church communities, along with groups that had joint missions to address viral hepatitis. After extensive planning and meetings with faith-based organizations and health care providers in the Filipino community, it was decided to hold a community health fair in the Filipino community to provide culturally appropriate health information and services. More than 500 individuals attended the health fair; 167 participated in a survey and were tested for hepatitis B. Significant knowledge gaps were found in relation to risk factors, prevention strategies, and transmission. Five individuals tested positive; all were immigrants and did not know of their disease. The objective to educate people and test them for hepatitis was successful through utilizing ethnic community leaders, religious organizations, health care professionals, and a collaborative health fair.

  20. New Insights to Clathrin and Adaptor Protein 2 for the Design and Development of Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbe Toftgaard Poulsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, our understanding of the normal function of APP is still patchy. Emerging evidence indicates that a dysfunction in APP trafficking and degradation can be responsible for neuronal deficits and progressive degeneration in humans. We recently reported that the Y682 mutation in the 682YENPTY687 domain of APP affects its binding to specific adaptor proteins and leads to its anomalous trafficking, to defects in the autophagy machinery and to neuronal degeneration. In order to identify adaptors that influence APP function, we performed pull-down experiments followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS on hippocampal tissue extracts of three month-old mice incubated with either the 682YENPTY687 peptide, its mutated form, 682GENPTY687 or its phosphorylated form, 682pYENPTY687. Our experiments resulted in the identification of two proteins involved in APP internalization and trafficking: Clathrin heavy chain (hc and its Adaptor Protein 2 (AP-2. Overall our results consolidate and refine the importance of Y682 in APP normal functions from an animal model of premature aging and dementia. Additionally, they open the perspective to consider Clathrin hc and AP-2 as potential targets for the design and development of new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Transformation by design: nursing workforce innovation and reduction strategies in turbulent times of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Mary O

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies.

  2. Landscape design strategies for post-disaster reconstructions based on traditional ethical wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shouli; Hu, Di; Gao, Suping; Lei, Ting; Chen, Qibin

    2018-03-01

    In the face of the black swan events which frequently happened globally, I take the earthquake of Ya'an, happened at 4.20 in Sichuan, as an example of my subject. The results indicate that the social responsibility of landscape architects is a post-disaster reconstruction of a material and spiritual homeland for victims and mental care for individuals, which specifically reflected in the process of rebuilding victims' sense of security. The reconstruction of a sense of security must follow certain ethics and moralities which embody the ecological wisdom. We take a typical case of Ya'an Lushan Snow Mountain Village-the earthquake distress area, we found the incidence of disease was up to 68.6% through the PTSD analysis, indicating the overall absence of a sense of security. To solve the problem and reconstruct people's mental and material homeland, the article discussed the strategies and solutions to post-disaster landscape design based on traditional ethical wisdom.

  3. Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaqan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

  4. Optimizing Oral Bioavailability in Drug Discovery: An Overview of Design and Testing Strategies and Formulation Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Bruce J

    2017-04-01

    For discovery teams working toward new, orally administered therapeutic agents, one requirement is to attain adequate systemic exposure after oral dosing, which is best accomplished when oral bioavailability is optimized. This report summarizes the bioavailability challenges currently faced in drug discovery, and the design and testing methods and strategies currently utilized to address the challenges. Profiling of discovery compounds usually includes separate assessments of solubility, permeability, and susceptibility to first-pass metabolism, which are the 3 most likely contributors to incomplete oral bioavailability. An initial assessment of absorption potential may be made computationally, and high throughput in vitro assays are typically performed to prioritize compounds for in vivo studies. The initial pharmacokinetic study is a critical decision point in compound evaluation, and the importance of the effect the dosing vehicle or formulation can have on oral bioavailability, especially for poorly water soluble compounds, is emphasized. Dosing vehicles and bioavailability-enabling formulations that can be used for discovery and preclinical studies are described. Optimizing oral bioavailability within a chemical series or for a lead compound requires identification of the barrier limiting bioavailability, and methods used for this purpose are outlined. Finally, a few key guidelines are offered for consideration when facing the challenges of optimizing oral bioavailability in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  6. A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Park, Jae Kwan; Kim, Taek Kyu; Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Kim, Young Ki

    2012-01-01

    utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the

  7. A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Park, Jae Kwan; Kim, Taek Kyu; Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the

  8. Modeling and generating input processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  9. Design of Concept of Sustainable Marketing Communication Strategy for a Ideal Industrial Enterprise and Practical Applications of this Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šujaková, Monika; Golejová, Simona; Sakál, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the contribution the authors deal with the design and use of a sustainable marketing communication strategy of an ideal industrial enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The concept of an ideal enterprise is designed to increase the enterprise's sustainable competitiveness through the formation of a corporate image. In the framework of the research, the practical application of the draft concept was realized through a semi-structured interview in the form of propositional logic.

  10. Design Research and the Solo Higher Degree Research Student: Strategies to Embed Trustworthiness and Validity into the Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a set of criteria for ensuring trustworthiness in design research studies undertaken by Higher Degree Research (HDR) students. Design research is aimed at exploring educational problems and refining theory and practice by defining a pedagogical outcome and is a methodological approach often associated with the Learning…

  11. Contending stigma in product design : Using insights from social psychology as a stepping stone for design strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.R.V.; Stappers, P.J.; Standaert, A.; Desager, K.

    2012-01-01

    Assistive, protective or medical products that are visibly worn or used in proximity to the human body can have an emotional impact on their users and bystanders. In his design effort it is important for a designer to be mindful of the potential stigma a product might elicit. The identity threat

  12. WHEN BUSINESS STRATEGY MEETS CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims to present in short the theoretical foundation of the concepts of business strategy and creativity, and to highlight the relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach – Using the literature review, the study examined the conceptual framework of the notions of strategy, business strategy, and creativity. Also, it analysed the relationship between business strategy and creativity. Findings – The results confirm previous studies related to the beneficial impact of creativity on the business strategy of a company. As creativity has become an important input for a successful business strategy, companies are making significant efforts in order to bring creativity into play. Practical implications/originality/value – Business strategy and creativity are two interconnected concepts not only in theory, but also in practice. Also, creativity represents a fundamental asset of a successful company in turbulent times.

  13. Investigating Peer Review as an Intentional Learning Strategy to Foster Collaborative Knowledge-Building in Students of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Hodges, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review has been advocated for as an intentional strategy to support the knowledge and skill attainment of adult learners preparing for professional practice, including those students preparing for instructional design and technology practice. The purposes of this article are to discuss the practical application of peer review as an…

  14. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for Digital Learning Environments on the Basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciss, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…

  15. Improving the Quality of Online Discussion: The Effects of Strategies Designed Based on Cognitive Load Theory Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Jin, Li

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on heavy cognitive load as the reason for the lack of quality associated with conventional online discussion. Using the principles of cognitive load theory, four online discussion strategies were designed specifically aiming at reducing the discussants' cognitive load and thus enhancing the quality of their online discussion.…

  16. Reactor design and operation strategies for a large-scale packed-bed CLC power plant with coal syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Chiesa, P.; Martelli, E; Gallucci, F.; Romano, M.C.; Lozza, G.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and operation strategies of dynamically operated packed-bed reactors (PBRs) of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system included in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation with low CO2 emission from coal. The CLC reactors,

  17. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based

  18. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  19. H∞ Loop Shaping Control of Input Saturated Systems with Norm-Bounded Parametric Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lima Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gain-scheduling control design strategy for a class of linear systems with the presence of both input saturation constraints and norm-bounded parametric uncertainty. LMI conditions are derived in order to obtain a gain-scheduled controller that ensures the robust stability and performance of the closed loop system. The main steps to obtain such a controller are given. Differently from other gain-scheduled approaches in the literature, this one focuses on the problem of H∞ loop shaping control design with input saturation nonlinearity and norm-bounded uncertainty to reduce the effect of the disturbance input on the controlled outputs. Here, the design problem has been formulated in the four-block H∞ synthesis framework, in which it is possible to describe the parametric uncertainty and the input saturation nonlinearity as perturbations to normalized coprime factors of the shaped plant. As a result, the shaped plant is represented as a linear parameter-varying (LPV system while the norm-bounded uncertainty and input saturation are incorporated. This procedure yields a linear parameter-varying structure for the controller that ensures the stability of the polytopic LPV shaped plant from the vertex property. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated through application to a physical system: a VTOL “vertical taking-off landing” helicopter.

  20. New strategy for the optimal design and manufacture of high performance milling heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustillo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-performance mechanical-transmission heads are one of the most complex, costly and problematic parts of a milling machine, owing to the large amount of piping required for transporting fluids and to the high level of mechanical performance that is required from them. This study proposes a strategy for optimising the design and manufacture of head bodies by using aluminium alloys and by integrating tubular stainless steel inserts in the casting of the head. These tubular inserts that are integrated into the aluminium mass are an alternative to cooling conduits currently made by machine drilling. As demonstrated in the experimental validation of the first prototype, the new method has created a design that retains the same mechanical performance, increases its reliability and reduces the weight of the milling machine’s moving parts.

    Los cabezales de transmisión mecánica de altas prestaciones son una de las partes más complejas, costosas y problemáticas de una maquina fresadora. Esto es debido a la gran cantidad de canalizaciones para la transmisión de fluidos que deben de contener y a las altas prestaciones mecánicas que se les exigen. En este trabajo se presenta una estrategia para optimizar el diseño y la fabricación de los cuerpos de estos cabezales basada en la incorporación de aleaciones de aluminio y la inclusión de insertos tubulares de acero en la propia fundición que conforma el cabezal. Los insertos tubulares sustituyen a los canales de refrigeración realizados actualmente por taladros de mecanizado y quedan integrados en la masa de aluminio. La nueva metodología ha permitido realizar un diseño que mantiene las prestaciones mecánicas, aumenta la fiabilidad y reduce la masa de estos elementos móviles de fresadoras como ha demostrado la validación experimental de un primer prototipo.