WorldWideScience

Sample records for inorganic trace analysis

  1. Inorganic trace analysis by laser ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Among the different spectrometric techniques for trace analysis Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) is well established as a trace analytic method with a wide coverage. In the LIMS the sample material is evaporated and ionized by means of a focused pulsed laser beam in a laser microplasma, which is formed in the spot area of the irradiated sample. All chemical elements in the sample materials are evaporated and ionized in the laser plasma. The formed ions are separated according to mass and energy by a time-of-flight, quadrupole or double focusing mass spectrometer. In this review the characteristics and analytical features, some recent developments, and applications of laser ionization mass spectrometry in inorganic trace analysis are described. (orig.)

  2. Laser ionization mass spectrometry in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Among the different spectrometric techniques for trace analysis Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) is well established as a trace analytical method. With the LIMS technique the sample material is evaporated and ionized by means of a focused pulsed laser in a laser microplasma, which is formed in the spot area of the irradiated sample. All chemical elements in the sample materials are evaporated and ionized in the laser plasma. The ions formed are separated according to their mass and energy by a time-of-flight, quadrupole or double focusing mass spectrometer. In this review the characteristics and analytical features, some recent developments and applications of laser ionization mass spectrometry in inorganic trace analysis are described. (orig.)

  3. Final certification of two new reference materials for inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Chajduk-Maleszewska, E.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Two new biological reference materials for inorganic trace analysis: Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) were prepared and certified at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT), Warsaw, employing the general strategy of the preparation and certification of CRMs developed in INCT. For both materials ca 40 kg of ground, sieved and carefully homogenized fraction of nominal particle size ≤ 67 mm was obtained. Homogeneity of the materials studied by INAA was shown to be good for samples of masses: m ≥ 100 mg but further investigations indicate that for most of elements these materials can be considered homogeneous down to masses of ca 5 mg or perhaps even lower. The certification was based on results of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 109 laboratories from 19 countries participated. The results of the analysis of a CRM, which was sent and analyzed along with intercomparison samples and the identity of which was known only to the organizers, were utilized in the process of certification. In addition selected elements were analyzed also by definitive methods based on RNAA. The content of more than 30 elements could be certified in each of the new CRMs. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined uncertainties of the certified values. In addition information values were provided for some other elements. (author)

  4. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cloud point extraction for trace inorganic arsenic speciation analysis in water samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shan, E-mail: ls_tuzi@163.com; Wang, Mei, E-mail: wmei02@163.com; Zhong, Yizhou, E-mail: yizhz@21cn.com; Zhang, Zehua, E-mail: kazuki.0101@aliyun.com; Yang, Bingyi, E-mail: e_yby@163.com

    2015-09-01

    A new cloud point extraction technique was established and used for the determination of trace inorganic arsenic species in water samples combined with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS). As(III) and As(V) were complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and molybdate, respectively. The complexes were quantitatively extracted with the non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) by centrifugation. After addition of antifoam, the surfactant-rich phase containing As(III) was diluted with 5% HCl for HGAFS determination. For As(V) determination, 50% HCl was added to the surfactant-rich phase, and the mixture was placed in an ultrasonic bath at 70 °C for 30 min. As(V) was reduced to As(III) with thiourea–ascorbic acid solution, followed by HGAFS. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection of 0.009 and 0.012 μg/L were obtained for As(III) and As(V), respectively. Concentration factors of 9.3 and 7.9, respectively, were obtained for a 50 mL sample. The precisions were 2.1% for As(III) and 2.3% for As(V). The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of trace As(III) and As(V) in water samples, with satisfactory recoveries. - Highlights: • Cloud point extraction was firstly established to determine trace inorganic arsenic(As) species combining with HGAFS. • Separate As(III) and As(V) determinations improve the accuracy. • Ultrasonic release of complexed As(V) enables complete As(V) reduction to As(III). • Direct HGAFS analysis can be performed.

  6. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material 'Oriental Tobacco Leaves' (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new Polish certified reference material 'Oriental Tobacco Leaves' (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis was prepared. Fresh tobacco leaves of variety 'Oriental' were dried, ground and sieved. All precautions were taken to avoid contamination of material with metals. The next step was homogenization. Preliminary homogeneity checking consisted in determining of Ca, Fe and K content by X-ray fluorescence. Final homogeneity testing was performed by neutron activation analysis determining Co, Cr, Fe and Rb. To assure long-term stability, the whole lot of material was sterilized by electron beam radiation. Certification of the candidate reference material was done on the basis of world-wide interlaboratory comparisons exercise in which 61 laboratories, using various analytical methods participated. (author). 30 refs, 12 tabs, 21 figs

  7. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material `Oriental Tobacco Leaves` (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    A new Polish certified reference material `Oriental Tobacco Leaves` (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis was prepared. Fresh tobacco leaves of variety `Oriental` were dried, ground and sieved. All precautions were taken to avoid contamination of material with metals. The next step was homogenization. Preliminary homogeneity checking consisted in determining of Ca, Fe and K content by X-ray fluorescence. Final homogeneity testing was performed by neutron activation analysis determining Co, Cr, Fe and Rb. To assure long-term stability, the whole lot of material was sterilized by electron beam radiation. Certification of the candidate reference material was done on the basis of world-wide interlaboratory comparisons exercise in which 61 laboratories, using various analytical methods participated. (author). 30 refs, 12 tabs, 21 figs.

  8. Metrological role of reactor neutron activation analysis in contemporary inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Weizhi [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the inherent characteristics of relative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement, the unique functions of parametric INAA as an ideal back-up method of the relative INAA, and the valuable role of INAA in characterization of sampling behavior of individual elements in certified reference materials (CRMs) will be discussed. In the second of this series, traceability and uncertainty of measurement results by k{sub 0}-INAA will be described. The role of k{sub 0}-INAA as a back-up to relative INAA will be discussed. In the final series, minimum sample size, usually 100 mg or larger, is often the only information given in certificates of the existing certified reference materials (CRMs) to describe sampling behavior. This value is not only too large to cope with the quality control (QC) requirements of microanalysis, but also too general to reflect the strong element-specific nature of sampling behavior of solid materials. The need for CRMs with sampling behavior characterized for individual elements is explained, and the unique role INAA can play in this aspect is described. (J.P.N.)

  9. Metrological role of reactor neutron activation analysis in contemporary inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the inherent characteristics of relative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement, the unique functions of parametric INAA as an ideal back-up method of the relative INAA, and the valuable role of INAA in characterization of sampling behavior of individual elements in certified reference materials (CRMs) will be discussed. In the second of this series, traceability and uncertainty of measurement results by k 0 -INAA will be described. The role of k 0 -INAA as a back-up to relative INAA will be discussed. In the final series, minimum sample size, usually 100 mg or larger, is often the only information given in certificates of the existing certified reference materials (CRMs) to describe sampling behavior. This value is not only too large to cope with the quality control (QC) requirements of microanalysis, but also too general to reflect the strong element-specific nature of sampling behavior of solid materials. The need for CRMs with sampling behavior characterized for individual elements is explained, and the unique role INAA can play in this aspect is described. (J.P.N.)

  10. Role of neutron activation analysis in metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis. Pt.3: NAA in characterization of sampling behavior for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Chen Xilin; Huang Donghui; Zhang Guiying; Zhang Lanzhi; Liu Cunxiong; Liu Likun

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of the development of new generation of certified reference materials (CEMs) and the role that NAA will play in the certification of those CRMs are discussed. In conclusion, the major role of NAA in the metrology of contemporary inorganic trace analysis is summarized: the international recognition of NAA as a primary ratio method will imply a major contribution to the improvement of CEMs: the concurrent use of k 0 -NAA will further strengthen the position of relative NAA as a primary ratio method; and NAA will play an irreplaceable role in the creation of new generation of CRMs, that will eventually lead the establishment of quality control system for microanalysis. (authors)

  11. Preparation and preliminary of two new Polish CRMs for inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Maleszewska, E.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of two new reference materials of biological origin, namely: Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) is described. The raw materials were ground in an agate ball mill, sieved through a nylon sieve, collecting fraction of particle size: diameter ≤67 μm, and carefully homogenized. Preliminary homogeneity testing by XRF method and final checking of homogeneity by NAA after distribution of the materials into containers revealed that they are sufficiently homogeneous at least for sample size ≥100 mg. Both materials were prepared in amounts exceeding 40 kg and certified on the basis of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 109 laboratories from 19 countries participated. The method of data evaluation leading to assignment of certified values was essentially the same as that used previously in this Laboratory, but supplemented by additional data from the analysis of a CRM which was sent to the participants and analyzed by them along with the candidate reference materials. In addition the results for a few elements by very accurate developed methods in this Laboratory were obtained and used to support the certification process. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined uncertainties of the certified values. So far 18 elements in INCT-TL-1 and 21 in INCT-MPH-2 could be certified. (author)

  12. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-06-27

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO2). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g(-1), respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption-elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200-250) and detection limits (0.084 and 0.27 ng mL(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO 2 ). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g −1 , respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO 2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and detection

  14. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Zawisza, Beata [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Talik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO{sub 2}). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO{sub 2} was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and

  15. Polish reference material: corn flour (INCT-CF-3)for inorganic trace analysis - preparation and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Samczynski, Z.; Sypula, M.; Szopa, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Preparation, examination and certification of the new matrix reference material of biological origin: Corn Flour (INCT-CF-3) is described. The material was prepared from corn grown in Poland according to Polish standard PN-A-74205:1997. The material was sieved through the 250 mm nylon sieves and stored in a polyethylene (PE) bag. Approximately 50 kg of sieved corn flour was collected. Examination by optical microscopy revealed that Martin's diameter of over 98% of particles was below 25 mm. The whole lot of corn flour was then homogenized by mixing for 20 hours in a 110 dm 3 PE drum rotated in three directions. Preliminary homogeneity testing by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method and final checking of homogeneity by neutron activation analysis (NAA) after distribution of the material into containers revealed, that it is sufficiently homogeneous at least for a sample size ≥ 100 mg. In order to assure the long-term stability, all containers with INCT-CF-3 were sterilized by electron beam radiation. Long-term stability was checked by analyzing concentrations of selected elements in the material stored in the air-conditioned room at 20 o C. Short-term stability was examined by the determination of concentrations of the selected elements in the bottle stored in the CO 2 incubator at 37 o C. The material was certified on the basis of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 92 laboratories from 19 countries participated providing 962 laboratory averages (4228 individual determinations) for 57 elements. A method of data evaluation leading to assignment of certified values was the same as that used previously in the Laboratory of the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The result for Mo was obtained by definitive methods developed in the Laboratory and used to support the certification process. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined uncertainties of the certified

  16. Trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, M.

    1987-01-01

    What is the current state of quantitative trace analytical chemistry? What are today's research efforts? And what challenges does the future hold? These are some of the questions addressed at a recent four-day symposium sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) entitled Accuracy in Trace Analysis - Accomplishments, Goals, Challenges. The two plenary sessions held on the first day of the symposium reviewed the history of quantitative trace analysis, discussed the present situation from academic and industrial perspectives, and summarized future needs. The remaining three days of the symposium consisted of parallel sessions dealing with the measurement process; quantitation in materials; environmental, clinical, and nutrient analysis; and advances in analytical techniques

  17. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1997-12-31

    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and `information` values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of `certified` values was confirmed for several elements using `very accurate` methods developed in this Laboratory. (author). 47 refs, 28 figs, 12 tabs.

  18. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and 'information' values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of 'certified' values was confirmed for several elements using 'very accurate' methods developed in this Laboratory. (author)

  19. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA C. THOMAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix; 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements; and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements. Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  20. New Polish Certified Reference Materials for inorganic trace analysis: corn flour (INCT-CF-3) and soya bean flour (INCT-SBF-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.S.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Samczynski, Z.; Sypula, M.; Szopa, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Preparation and certification of two new Polish reference materials (CRMs) for inorganic trace analysis: Corn Flour (INCT-CF-3) and Soya Bean Flour (INCT-SBF-4) have been presented. The materials were prepared and certified in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (INCT). Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to homogeneity and stability studies. Homogeneity tests have shown that both materials are homogeneous for the sample mass 3 100 mg. The results of trend analysis have shown that the materials are stable. Uncertainty caused by instability and, consequently, shelf life of the materials have been estimated. Certification was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 92 laboratories from 19 countries participated. Results for CRM distributed by the organizer and analyzed together with the intercomparison samples as well as results by definitive methods for selected elements based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) were also employed in the certification process. The contents of 16 and 22 elements were certified in Corn Flour and Soya Bean Flour, respectively. Additional information values for 14 elements in INCT-CF-3 and 9 elements in INCT-SBF-4 were given. (authors)

  1. Gas dispersion concentration of trace inorganic contaminants from fuel gas and analysis using head-column field-amplified sample stacking capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Li, Hai-Fang; Li, Meilan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-08-21

    The presence of inorganic elements in fuel gas generally accelerates the corrosion and depletion of materials used in the fuel gas industry, and even leads to serious accidents. For identification of existing trace inorganic contaminants in fuel gas in a portable way, a highly efficient gas-liquid sampling collection system based on gas dispersion concentration is introduced in this work. Using the constructed dual path gas-liquid collection setup, inorganic cations and anions were simultaneously collected from real liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect UV absorbance detection. The head-column field-amplified sample stacking technique was applied to improve the detection limits to 2-25 ng mL(-1). The developed collection and analytical methods have successfully determined existing inorganic contaminants in a real LPG sample in the range of 4.59-138.69 μg m(-3). The recoveries of cations and anions with spiked LPG samples were between 83.98 and 105.63%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 7.19%.

  2. Polish reference material: soya bean flour (INCT-SBF-4) for inorganic trace analysis - preparation and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Samczynski, Z.; Sypula, M.; Szopa, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Preparation, examination and certification of the new matrix reference material of biological origin: Soya Bean Flour (INCT-SBF-4) is described. The material was prepared from soya bean grown in India, not genetically modified. After milling, the material was sieved through the 150 mm nylon sieves and stored in a polyethylene (PE) bag. Approximately 50 kg of sieved soya bean flour was collected. Examination by optical microscopy revealed that Martin's diameter of over 90% of particles was below 50 mm. The whole lot of soya bean flour was then homogenized by mixing for 20 hours in a 110 dm 3 PE drum rotated in three directions. Preliminary homogeneity testing by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method and final checking of homogeneity by neutron activation analysis (NAA) after distribution of the material into containers revealed, that it is sufficiently homogeneous at least for a sample size ≥ 100 mg. In order to assure the long-term stability, all containers with INCT-SBF-4 were sterilized by electron beam radiation. Long-term stability was checked by analyzing concentrations of selected elements in the material stored in the air-conditioned room at 20 o C. Short-term stability was examined by the determination of concentrations of the selected elements in the bottle stored in the CO 2 incubator at 37 o C. The material was certified on the basis of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 92 laboratories from 19 countries participated providing 1107 laboratory averages (4873 individual determinations) for 58 elements. A method of data evaluation leading to assignment of certified values was the same as that used previously in the Laboratory of the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The results for a few elements were obtained by definitive methods developed in the Laboratory and used to support the certification process. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined

  3. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble

  4. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  5. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  6. Determination of total antimony and inorganic antimony species by hydride generation in situ trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry: a new way to (ultra)trace speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryk Matusiewicz; Magdalena Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    The analytical performance of non-chromatographic coupled hydride generation, integrated atom trap (HG-IAT) atomizer flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS) systems were evaluated for the speciation analysis of antimony in environmental samples. Antimony, using formation of stibine (SbH{sub 3}) vapors were atomized in an air-acetylene flame-heated IAT. A new design of HG-IAT-FAAS hyphenated technique that would exceed the operational capabilities of existing arrangements was investigated. For the estimation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) concentrations in samples, the difference between the analytical sensitivities of the absorbance signals obtained for antimony hydride without and with previous treatment of samples with L-cysteine can be used. The concentration of Sb(V) was calculated by the difference between total Sb and Sb(III). A dramatic improvement in detection limit was achieved compared with that obtained using either of the atom trapping techniques, presented above, separately. This novel approach decreases the detection limit down to low pg mL{sup -1} levels. The concentration detection limit, defined as 3 times the blank standard deviation was 0.2 ng mL{sup -1}. For a 120 s in situ pre-concentration time , sensitivity enhancement compared to flame AAS, was 550 fold for Sb, using hydride generation-atom trapping technique. The accuracy of the method was verified by the use of certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, SRM 2710 Montana Soil, SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, SRM 1643e Trace Elements in Water) and by aqueous standard calibration technique. The measured Sb content, in reference materials, were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values. The hyphenated technique was applied for antimony determinations in soil, sediment, coal fly ash, sewage and river water.

  7. Neutron activation analysis for determining of inorganic trace elements in by-products of soybean, cotton, corn, wheat, sorghum and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Carla M.; Armelin, Maria Jose; Silva Filho, Jose Cleto; Silva, Aliomar G.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper the instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine some essential and toxic elements in six agroindustrial by-products utilized to feed animal. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 10% and the accuracy near to 5%. (author)

  8. Trace analysis of semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cali, J Paul; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Trace Analysis of Semiconductor Materials is a guidebook concerned with procedures of ultra-trace analysis. This book discusses six distinct techniques of trace analysis. These techniques are the most common and can be applied to various problems compared to other methods. Each of the four chapters basically includes an introduction to the principles and general statements. The theoretical basis for the technique involved is then briefly discussed. Practical applications of the techniques and the different instrumentations are explained. Then, the applications to trace analysis as pertaining

  9. Capillary ion chromatography with on-column focusing for ultra-trace analysis of methanesulfonate and inorganic anions in limited volume Antarctic ice core samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Estrella Sanz; Poynter, Sam; Curran, Mark; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2015-08-28

    Preservation of ionic species within Antarctic ice yields a unique proxy record of the Earth's climate history. Studies have been focused until now on two proxies: the ionic components of sea salt aerosol and methanesulfonic acid. Measurement of the all of the major ionic species in ice core samples is typically carried out by ion chromatography. Former methods, whilst providing suitable detection limits, have been based upon off-column preconcentration techniques, requiring larger sample volumes, with potential for sample contamination and/or carryover. Here, a new capillary ion chromatography based analytical method has been developed for quantitative analysis of limited volume Antarctic ice core samples. The developed analytical protocol applies capillary ion chromatography (with suppressed conductivity detection) and direct on-column sample injection and focusing, thus eliminating the requirement for off-column sample preconcentration. This limits the total sample volume needed to 300μL per analysis, allowing for triplicate sample analysis with Application to composite ice-core samples is demonstrated, with coupling of the capillary ion chromatograph to high resolution mass spectrometry used to confirm the presence and purity of the observed methanesulfonate peak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass spectrometry a versatile aid to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1976-01-01

    Several hundred publications have appeared in the last three years that deal with applications of Mass Spectrometry to inorganic analysis. Bulk and localized trace analysis, surface and thin film characterization and microstructure examination are currently performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Spark Source Mass Spectrometry and the newly developed Laser Probe Mass Spectrometry. Suitable experimental procedures allow insulators, biologic materials and microsamples to be analysed. In spite of the classification by techniques this review is essentially devoted to the most significant papers in analytical applications but instrumental and basic features are sometimes introduced to support the discussions

  11. Trace Chemical Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    147 65 Modified DR/2 spectrophotometer face ........... ... 150 66 Colorimetric oil analysis field test kit ......... .. 152 67 Pictorial step...Assisted Pattern Recognitio Perhaps the most promising application of pattern recogntiontechniques for this research effort is the elucidation ".f the...large compartment on the spectrophotomer face . The screwdriver is used to adjust the zero adjust and light ad- just knobs, and the stainless steel

  12. Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organic and Inorganic Speciation of Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-02-16

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing acidification of the oceans. This results in changes to the concentrations of key chemical species such as hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate ions. These changes will affect the distribution of different forms of trace metals. Using IPCC data for pCO2 and pH under four future emissions scenarios (to the year 2100) we use a chemical speciation model to predict changes in the distribution of organic and inorganic forms of trace metals. Under a scenario where emissions peak after the year 2100, predicted free ion Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb concentrations increase by factors of up to approximately 21, 2.4, 1.5, and 2.0 respectively. Concentrations of organically complexed metal typically have a lower sensitivity to ocean acidification induced changes. Concentrations of organically complexed Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cd fall by up to 10%, while those of organically complexed Fe, Co, and Ni rise by up to 14%. Although modest, these changes may have significance for the biological availability of metals given the close adaptation of marine microorganisms to their environment.

  13. TraceContract: A Scala DSL for Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe TRACECONTRACT, an API for trace analysis, implemented in the SCALA programming language. We argue that for certain forms of trace analysis the best weapon is a high level programming language augmented with constructs for temporal reasoning. A trace is a sequence of events, which may for example be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. The API supports writing properties in a notation that combines an advanced form of data parameterized state machines with temporal logic. The implementation utilizes SCALA's support for defining internal Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). Furthermore SCALA's combination of object oriented and functional programming features, including partial functions and pattern matching, makes it an ideal host language for such an API.

  14. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  15. Diagnosing MOV problems using comparative trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of comparative trace analysis and shows it to be very effective in diagnosing motor operated valve (MOV) problems. Comparative trace analysis is simply the process of interpreting simultaneously gathered traces, each presenting a different perspective on the same series of events. The opening and closing of a motor operated valve is such a series of events. The simultaneous traces are obtained using Liberty Technologies' Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES)reg-sign. The traces include stem thrust, motor current, motor power factor, motor power, switch actuations, vibration in three different frequency bands, spring pack displacement, and spring pack force. Spare and auxiliary channels enable additional key parameters to be measured, such as differential pressure and stem displacement. Though not specifically illustrated in this paper, the VOTES system also provides for FFT analysis on all traces except switches

  16. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  17. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2011-01-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  18. Trace amount analysis using spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of spark mass spectrometers (ion source, properties of the ion beam, ion optics, and performance) and their use in qualitative and quantitative analysis are described. This technique is very interesting for the semi-quantitative analysis of trace amounts, down to 10 -8 atoms. Examples of applications such as the analysis of high purity materials and non-conducting mineral samples, and determination of carbon and gas trace amounts are presented. (50 references) [fr

  19. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  20. Responses of hydrochemical inorganic ions in the rainfall-runoff processes of the experimental catchments and its significance for tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W.-Z.; Lu, J.-J.; Zhao, X.; Peters, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Aimed at the rainfall-runoff tracing using inorganic ions, the experimental study is conducted in the Chuzhou Hydrology Laboratory with special designed experimental catchments, lysimeters, etc. The various runoff components including the surface runoff, interflow from the unsaturated zone and the groundwater flow from saturated zone were monitored hydrometrically. Hydrochemical inorganic ions including Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- + CO32-, NO3-, F-, NH4-, PO42-, SiO2 and, pH, EC, 18O were measured within a one month period for all processes of rainfall, various runoff components and groundwater within the catchment from 17 boreholes distributed in the Hydrohill Catchment, few soil water samples were also included. The results show that: (a) all the runoff components are distinctly identifiable from both the relationships of Ca2+ versus Cl-/SO42-, EC versus Na+/(Na+ + Ca2+) and, from most inorganic ions individually; (b) the variation of inorganic ions in surface runoff is the biggest than that in other flow components; (c) most ions has its lowermost concentration in rainfall process but it increases as the generation depths of runoff components increased; (d) quantitatively, ion processes of rainfall and groundwater flow display as two end members of that of other runoff components; and (e) the 18O processes of rainfall and runoff components show some correlation with that of inorganic ions. The results also show that the rainfall input is not always the main source of inorganic ions of various runoff outputs due to the process of infiltration and dissolution resulted from the pre-event processes. The amount and sources of Cl- of runoff components with various generation mechanisms challenge the current method of groundwater recharge estimation using Cl-.

  1. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  2. Release of inorganic trace elements from high-temperature gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaesing, Marc

    2012-05-30

    The development of cleaner, more efficient techniques in next-generation coal power plants is becoming increasingly important, especially regarding to the discussion of the influence of CO{sub 2} emissions on global warming. A promising coal utilisation process is the integrated gasification combined cycle process. The direct use of the raw gas requires gas clean-up to prevent downstream parts of the gasifier from several problems. An increased efficiency and a decreased amount of harmful species can be achieved through hot fuel gas cleaning. This clean-up technique requires a comprehensive knowledge of the release characteristics of inorganic coal constituents. The aim of this thesis was to provide enhanced knowledge of the effect of key process parameters and of the chemical constitution of coal on the release of Na, K, S, and Cl species from high-temperature coal gasification. The experimental setup consisted of atmospheric flow tube furnaces and a pressurised furnace. In-situ analysis of the product gas was carried out using molecular beam mass spectrometry. A broad spectrum of different coals with assumed qualitative and quantitative differences in the release characteristics was investigated. Additionally, experiments with model substances were performed. The results of the experimental investigation were compared with thermodynamic calculations. Finally, recommendations, for the operation of a high-temperature gasifier are formulated. (orig.)

  3. Environmental sampling for trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Often too little attention is given to the sampling before and after actual instrumental measurement. This leads to errors, despite increasingly sensitive analytical systems. This is one of the first books to pay proper attention to representative sampling. It offers an overview of the most common techniques used today for taking environmental samples. The techniques are clearly presented, yield accurate and reproducible results and can be used to sample -air - water - soil and sediments - plants and animals. A comprehensive handbook, this volume provides an excellent starting point for researchers in the rapidly expanding field of environmental analysis. (orig.)

  4. Software for computerised analysis of cardiotocographic traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M; Bifulco, P; Ruffo, M; Improta, G; Clemente, F; Cesarelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of cardiotocography in foetal monitoring, the evaluation of foetal status suffers from a considerable inter and intra-observer variability. In order to overcome the main limitations of visual cardiotocographic assessment, computerised methods to analyse cardiotocographic recordings have been recently developed. In this study, a new software for automated analysis of foetal heart rate is presented. It allows an automatic procedure for measuring the most relevant parameters derivable from cardiotocographic traces. Simulated and real cardiotocographic traces were analysed to test software reliability. In artificial traces, we simulated a set number of events (accelerations, decelerations and contractions) to be recognised. In the case of real signals, instead, results of the computerised analysis were compared with the visual assessment performed by 18 expert clinicians and three performance indexes were computed to gain information about performances of the proposed software. The software showed preliminary performance we judged satisfactory in that the results matched completely the requirements, as proved by tests on artificial signals in which all simulated events were detected from the software. Performance indexes computed in comparison with obstetricians' evaluations are, on the contrary, not so satisfactory; in fact they led to obtain the following values of the statistical parameters: sensitivity equal to 93%, positive predictive value equal to 82% and accuracy equal to 77%. Very probably this arises from the high variability of trace annotation carried out by clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of airborne inorganic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerdoegh, M.; Kalman, L.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the radioactive and non-radioactive pollution of the air in the environment of the atomic reactor WWR-S of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Accordingly the investigations were carried out by two ways: the samples were analysed partly without previous irradiation and partly by neutron activation analysis. The use of several filter papers was studied and the most suitable filter paper (Whatman No. 41) was chosen for this investigation. The quantitative determination of more than twenty elements has been performed. First the natural activity of the aerosol samples taken periodically was measured and subsequently they have been analysed after irradiation in the atomic reactor for 1 minute, 1 hour, and 50 hours, respectively. A 45 cm 3 Ge/Li detector/ Nuclear Diodes/ was used in connection with a 1024 channel analyzer /type NTA-512B/. The analyses were made nondestructively, and the gamma-spectra were evaluated by computer. (K.A.)

  6. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  7. Network application of PIXE trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Hattori, T.

    2003-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a very sensitive analytical technique for determinations of trace elements. But the number of users is limited because there are not so much accelerators which can be used easily. On the other hand, PIXE is a typical machine analysis which can easily analyze automatically and make online data acquisition system. If there is useful online data handling system then PIXE analysis should be more useful for many persons. Therefore we develop to online PIXE facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology VdG laboratory and use it for environmental educations. (author)

  8. Ultra-Trace Analysis of Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daerr, H.; Kalinowski, M.; Kohler, M.; Sahling, P.

    2010-01-01

    To strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safeguards for detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities we propose to use the radioactive krypton isotope Krypton-85 as a tracer for clandestine plutonium production. The main idea is to detect inexplicable atmospheric Kr85 concentration using the novel technology atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) in order to detect an undeclared reprocessing facility. The Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540, 1997) establishes the possibility to take environmental samples. Krypton-85 has a combination of unique features which makes it an ideal tracer for plutonium separation activities anywhere in the world. It is always generated along with plutonium and 99.9% remains within the fuel cladding. Due to its half-life of 10.76 years, significant amounts of krypton-85 still remain in the spent fuel even after long cooling times. Krypton is not removed from the atmosphere by any processes like chemical reactions or wash-out. Furthermore, there are no other relevant sources of krypton-85 besides of reprocessing. The novel technology of atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) has been demonstrated by the physics group at Argonne National Laboratory in 1999. This is an ultra-sensitive trace analysis technique able to detect single krypton atoms. We are setting up an ATTA apparatus in our laboratory, which is designed to fulfill all requirements to detect clandestine plutonium production. Our goal is to determine Krypton-85 concentration of one liter samples of atmospheric air with an analysis time of 3 hours. This sample volume reduction is a significant step, since one liter can be taken as a grab sample by sucking it directly into pre-evacuated bottles at atmospheric pressure. The small samples size and the short analysis time of ATTA will make it possible to use krypton-85 as a tracer for clandestine plutonium production with routine operation. (author)

  9. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-01-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated. - Highlights: • The state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis is updated. • Different extraction formats of LPME are described. • The application potential and future

  10. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia; Salles, Paula Maria Borges de

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k 0 -method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k 0 - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  11. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia, E-mail: maia.sathler@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Salles, Paula Maria Borges de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k{sub 0}-method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k{sub 0} - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  12. Inorganics in Organics: Tracking down the Intrinsic Equilibriums between Organic Molecules and Trace Elements in Oceanic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    Recent developments in analytical instrumentation enable to describe biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters on a molecular level. This is the prerequisite to integrate biological and geochemical parameters and to develop chemical cycles on a global perspective. The state-of-the-art Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) applications for dissolved organic matter (DOM) focus mainly on carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen isotopes. Implementation of sulfur and especially phosphorus in the molecular formula assignment has been questionable because of ambiguous calculated elemental formulas. On the other hand, many compounds bearing these elements are well known to occur in the dissolved state as part of the permanent recycling processes (e.g. phospholipids, phosphonates) but analytics of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and sulfur (DOS) are often hampered by the large inorganic P and S pools. Even less is known about complexation characteristics of the DOM moieties. Although electrochemical methods provide some information about trace metal speciation, the high amount of organic molecules and its insufficient description as chemical functional classes prevent the assignment of trace metals to ligand classes. Nevertheless, it is undoubtful that a varying but extensive amount of transition metals is bond in form of organic complexes. Hyphenation of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) is a valuable tool to study these metal-organic interactions in a qualitative and quantitative approach. We established a desolvation method that allows direct transfer of high organic solvent loads into the plasma. Thus, in combination with internal standardization and external calibration, the investigation of a broad polarity scale was possible. This approach overcomes previous restrictions to non-organic solvent separation techniques like size

  13. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  14. Activities of the INCT, Warsaw, in the domain of quality assurance for inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paper summarizes the work done by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (INCT), in the field of QA/QC with the special emphasis on the role of NAA. This work consists of preparation and certification of CRMs, development of high-accuracy RNAA methods for selected elements in biological matrices and organization of proficiency test rounds (PT). The INCT has been involved in the preparation and certification of CRMs for inorganic trace analysis since 1986. The adopted certification philosophy is presented. Comparison of analytical data on the same material available from interlaboratory comparisons organized in different years is presented. The paper summarizes also the work on the development of high-accuracy RNAA methods. It has been demonstrated that the high-accuracy RNAA methods devised according the concept formulated in INCT can meet requirements of primary ratio method of measurement (PMM). (author)

  15. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2012-01-01

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  16. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  17. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  18. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of sixteen plasma traces has been processed using this technique

  19. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of the plasma traces has been processed with this technique

  20. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  1. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included

  2. The current situation of inorganic elements in marine turtles: A general review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Romero, Diego; Girondot, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic elements (Pb, Cd, Hg, Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) are present globally in aquatic systems and their potential transfer to marine turtles can be a serious threat to their health status. The environmental fate of these contaminants may be traced by the analysis of turtle tissues. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) are the most frequently investigated of all the sea turtle species with regards to inorganic elements, followed by Green turtles (Chelonia mydas); all the other species have considerably fewer studies. Literature shows that blood, liver, kidney and muscle are the tissues most frequently used for the quantification of inorganic elements, with Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn being the most studied elements. Chelonia mydas showed the highest concentrations of Cr in muscle (4.8 ± 0.12), Cu in liver (37 ± 7) and Mg in kidney (17 μg g -1 ww), Cr and Cu from the Gulf of Mexico and Mg from Japanese coasts; Lepidochelys olivacea presented the highest concentrations of Pb in blood (4.46 5) and Cd in kidney (150 ± 110 μg g -1 ww), both from the Mexican Pacific; Caretta caretta from the Mediterranean Egyptian coast had the highest report of Hg in blood (0.66 ± 0.13 μg g -1 ww); and Eretmochelys imbricata from Japan had the highest concentration of As in muscle (30 ± 13 13 μg g -1 ww). The meta-analysis allows us to examine some features that were not visible when data was analyzed alone. For instance, Leatherbacks show a unique pattern of concentration compared to other species. Additionally, contamination of different tissues shows some tendencies independent of the species with liver and kidney on one side and bone on the other being different from other tissues. This review provides a general perspective on the accumulation and distribution of these inorganic elements alongside existing information for the 7 sea turtle species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TRACE Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Cuadra, Arantxa; Raitses, Gilad; Aronson, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depressurization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  4. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu 2+ , Mo 6+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , In 3+ , Fe 3+ and W 6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E 1/2 /Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu 2+ ( 14.83), Mo 6+ (253.70), Cd 2+ (41.36), Ni 2+ (16.08), In 3+ (3.06), Fe 3+ (83.00)and W 6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  5. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides and elements with foamed polyurethane sorbents in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of preconcentration and the permanent need of efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. Foamed polyurethane sorbents draw attention as novel agents in separation chemistry. A survey is presented of recent applications of unloaded and reagent-loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams in the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, and of the latest uses of these foams in the preconcentration and detection of traces of some, mainly inorganic materials in environmental samples, using radioanalytical techniques. Possible future uses of polyurethane foams in trace element detection in environmental analysis are outlined. (author)

  6. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  7. Trace speciation analysis of arsenic in beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Fajgarová, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine the toxicologically important arsenic species in beverages (beer, wine and apple juice) with minimal sample preparation. Determination of arsenic species was performed by selective hydride generation of arsenic hydrides with cryogenic collection under liquid nitrogen and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry. In all the samples only inorganic arsenic was found, methyl substituted species were below the limit of detection. The method is su...

  8. Magnetic-relaxation method of analysis of inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic-relaxation method is considered of the quantitative analysis of inorganic substances based on time dependence of magnetic nuclei relaxation on the quantity of paramagnetic centres in a solution. The characteristic is given of some methods of measuring nuclear magnetic relaxation times: method of weak oscillation generator and pulse methods. The effect of temperature, general solution viscosity, diamagnetic salt concentration, medium acidity on nuclear relaxation velocity is described. The determination sensitivity is estimated and the means of its increase definable concentration intervals and method selectivity are considered. The method application when studying complexing in the solution is described. A particular attention is given to the investigation of heteroligand homocentre, heterocentre and protonated complexes as well as to the problems of particle exchange of the first coordination sphere with particles from the mass of solution. The equations for equilibrium constant calculation in different systems are given. Possibilities of determining diamagnetic ions by the magnetic-relaxation method using paramagnetic indicators are confirmed by the quantitative analysis of indium, gallium, thorium and scandium in their salt solutions

  9. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  10. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  12. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  13. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  14. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  16. Handbook of soil analysis. Mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pansu, M. [Centre IRD, 34 - Montpellier (France); Gautheyrou, J.

    2006-07-01

    This handbook is a reference guide for selecting and carrying out numerous methods of soil analysis. It is written in accordance with analytical standards and quality control approaches.It covers a large body of technical information including protocols, tables, formulae, spectrum models, chromatograms and additional analytical diagrams. The approaches are diverse, from the simplest tests to the most sophisticated determination methods in the physical chemistry of mineralogical and organic structures, available and total elements, soil exchange complex, pesticides and contaminants, trace elements and isotopes.As a basic reference, it will be particularly useful to scientists, engineers, technicians, professors and students, in the areas of soil science, agronomy, earth and environmental sciences as well as in related fields such as analytical chemistry, geology, hydrology, ecology, climatology, civil engineering and industrial activities associated with soil. (orig.)

  17. Present and Future Challenges in Trace and Ultra-Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of trace and ultra-trace elements is continuously stimulating the progress in analytical chemistry. Environmental chemistry, radiochemistry, biology, health, agri-food are prescribers of trace analyses, with continuously increasing exigencies: lowering detection limits, lowering costs and analysis time, improving the quality of analytical information. Precise data about the chemical identity and chemical environment of analytes are now requested. Such pieces of information, beyond simple numerical data and confidence intervals, are necessary to understand studied systems, and to predict their evolution. From environmental contamination cases, one can envisage the various aspects of a problem, with for each of them its own exigencies and specificities in terms of analytical methods and approaches. The detection of traces and ultra-traces of actinides and fission products has been recently revisited and stimulates new technological developments (non proliferation issues, waste management). Data on their speciation in geological and biological media are essential for evaluating the safety of nuclear waste repositories. Various techniques are now used to determine speciation in liquid samples or on surfaces, with tremendous spatial resolutions or sensitivities. A new revolution in analytical chemistry is expected with the development of micro- or nano-analytical technologies. (author)

  18. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine inorganic elements in paddy soil and rice and evaluate bioconcentration factors in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapamon Seeprasert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased anthropogenic activity, especially in thriving industries and mining activity, has led to the accumulation of inorganic elements in the soil. This study applied neutron activation analysis for the determination of inorganic element concentrations in paddy soils and quantified the nutrient value of paddy rice cultivated on various agricultural sites throughout Thailand. The determination accuracy of the elements—U, As, Sb, W, Mn, K, La, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Cd and Zn was assessed using National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials; the results were satisfactory, showing low relative error. High analytical precision was also observed. Cadmium was selected to check the linearity of the calibration curve against a Cd standard. For a calibration curve in the range 1–9 μg, a correlation coefficient of 0.997 was found. Trace amounts of U, As, Sb, W, Mn, K, La, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn and Cd were also found in the soil samples. However, the Co, Cd, and Zn concentrations were especially high in agricultural sites in Tak province. The elemental concentrations in rice followed the order K > Zn > Mn. The data obtained are of potential benefit for the development of trace element supplementation in food.

  20. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  1. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  2. In vitro determination of inorganic constituents in bone tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Marcelo Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    In the past years, there has been an increasing interest in bone analyses since they are deposits of essential and toxic elements. Besides they have supporting function of human body and protect vital organs. Besides, analyses of inorganic constituents in bones have been carried out to study bone diseases such as osteoporosis and tumors in bones. In this work, an adequate experimental procedure was established for bone tissue treatment, and instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to trace element determinations in freeze-dried cortical and trabecular tissues and whole bone ash from animal (porcine and bovine) and human ribs. Using short and long-period irradiations at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, the elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sr and Zn were determined in bone tissues. To validate the analytical methodology, biological certified reference materials were analyzed and their results showed good precision and accuracy. Besides analyses of a bovine rib bone presented precise data for most elements with relative standard deviations lower than 14 %. This result demonstrated that the procedure defined for bone tissue treatment was appropriate to obtain homogeneous samples. However, the calcination was not suitable for whole bone treatment due to loss of Br and Cl. Statistical t test was applied to compare the results obtained for different tissues of bone and also the results found for ribs of two animal species. Comparisons between the results obtained for correspondent tissues of porcine and bovine ribs present different element concentration. Moreover, cortical and trabecular tissues of humans presented different concentrations for all the elements analyzed in this work. These findings indicate that trace elements in bone samples have to be separately studied. (author)

  3. Applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenninkmeijer C. A.M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has become established as a useful method for tracing the budgets of atmospheric trace gases and even atmospheric oxygen. Several new developments are briefly discussed in a systematic way to give a practical guide to the scope of recent work. Emphasis is on applications and not on instrumental developments. Processes and reactions are less considered than applications to resolve trace gas budgets. Several new developments are promising and applications hitherto not considered to be possible may allow new uses.

  4. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  5. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  7. Column: The Science of Digital Forensics: Analysis of Digital Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In part 1 of this series (Cohen, 2011a, Analysis of digital traces is a foundational process by which the examiner, typically using computer software tools, comes to understand and answer basic questions regarding digital traces.“Input sequences to digital systems produce outputs and state changes as a function of the previous state. To the extent that the state or outputs produce stored and/or captured bit sequences, these form traces of the event sequences that caused them. Thus the definition of a trace may be stated as: "A set of bit sequences produced from the execution of a finite state machine."(see PDF for full column

  8. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  9. [Trace analysis of aristolochic acid A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalin; Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

    2010-12-01

    A HPLC method for limit detection of aristolochic acid A in the Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid or suspected-containing aristolochic acid and their preparations was established. The samples were analyzed on an Alltima C18 column eluted with methanol-water-acetic acid (68:32:1.5) as the mobile phase. Flow rate was at 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was at 390 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range from 0.016 to 0.51 g (r = 0.9993) and LOD was 4 ng. The average recovery was 101.2% with RSD of 2.01%. The procedures of sample preparation were systematically investigated. The contents of aristolochic acid A in Radix et Rhizoma Asari bought from market or drugstore were fluctuated from 3.1 to 26.6 microg x g(-1) and 3 of 11 samples accorded with the quality requirement of current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Among 15 batches samples of Chinese medicaments, only one sample was found to contain aristolochic acid A. The present investigation shows that the method is sensitive and repeatable and it could be used for the limit detection of aristolochic acid A in the Chinese herbal medicines containing trace amount of aristolochic acid A or suspected-containing aristolochic acid A and their preparations.

  10. High-performance liquid ion-pair chromatography in inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Basova, E.M.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    In literature review for the recent 15 years theoretical foundations, regularities and mechanisms of ionized compound retention in reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography are considered, possibilities and prospects of its application in inorganic analysis being demonstrated. Analytic characteristics of the methods for the determination of inorganic anions (I - , IO 3 - , MoO 4 2- , etc.), as well as metals (Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Mo, W, Ru, lanthanides, etc.) in the form of chelates, are given

  11. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  12. The spectrographic analysis of inorganic impurities in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Normand, J.; Vie, R.

    1961-01-01

    Inorganic impurities in heavy water are determined by two spectrographic methods. First is described the copper-spark method which is sensitive and directly applicable, and is particular useful because of the absence of a support. Secondly the graphite impregnation method is given; this is used when the first method is not applicable (determination of copper) and for the alkali metals. For the usual elements, the sensitivity of the copper spark method is of the order of 0,1 μg/ml whereas for the graphite impregnation method the sensitivity is only 0,3 μg/ml. (author) [fr

  13. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. X-ray fluorescence method for trace analysis and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide tace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and instruments for trace characterization with a scanning x-ray microprobe are described. (author)

  15. MANOVA statistical analysis of inorganic compounds in groundwater Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanty, Heruna, E-mail: herunatanty@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Bekti, Rokhana Dwi, E-mail: groo-jgroo@yahoo.com [Department of Statistics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Herlina, Tati, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id; Nurlelasari, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, University of Padjajaran, Jl. Raya Jatinangor-Sumedang km 21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    The present study was carried out to determine levels of inorganic compounds contained in the ground water and Reverse Osmosis (RO) water filtration result. The data in groundwater samples was collected from Bekasi, Tangerang and Jakarta in Indonesia. A total of 30 samples were collected and analyzed for the determine Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Cyanide (CN) and Lead (Pb). The results of the study revealed that in groundwater, the average of Cd 0.0058 mg / l, Mn 1.5233 mg / l, Cr 0.0127 mg/l, Pb 0.0060 mg / l, and CN 0.0040 mg / l. The level of RO result were: Cd 0.0027 mg / l, Mn 0.1767 mg / l, Cr 0.0024 mg / l, Pb 0.0021 mg / l, and CN 0.0023 mg / l . This means that Cd and Mn in ground water were higher than the values recommended by PAK-EPA and WHO or the standard of Indonesian Ministry of Health. But after filtration Reverse Osmosis (RO) Mn and Cd levels decreased to levels below the standardized value. By comparing of mean in MANOVA and nonparametric MANOVA in α=5%, there are differences in average levels of inorganic substances Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and CN between before and after RO filtration.

  16. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  17. Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for niobium exploration in the peralkaline granites of the anorogenic ring-complex province of Nigeria. PO Ogunleye, EC Ike, I Garba. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 107-117. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  18. Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trace element content of clinkers (and possibly of cements) can be used to identify the manufacturing factory. The Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content of clinkers give detailed information for the determination of the origin of clinkers produced in different factories. However, for the analysis of such complex data there ...

  19. Analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes belonging to four different countries. In the present research seven trace elements have been determined spectrophotometrically by the use of suitable analytical reagent of the respective metal ions. The metals which has been analysed quantitatively in forty one brand of cigarettes are aluminium, copper, chromium, nickel, iron titanium and zinc. The concentration per cigarette of these metals are in tolerable range. The concentration of above mentioned metal ions is highest in Pakistani cigarettes tobacco while the concentration of nickel is highest in American cigarettes. (author) 221 refs

  20. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  1. Applicability of analytical instrument in trace evidence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we explain the importance of the analytical instrument used in the field of forensic science for the analysis of the trace evidences collected from the scene of occurrence. The forensic scientist has to rely upon these instrumental analyses of trace amounts of materials like drugs, toxicological specimens, GSR, fibres, glass, paints, soil etc. Through this paper, reviews on these techniques which are extensively used in forensic sciences are reported. Our report summaries on the basis of analytical problem facing for a forensic expert and techniques employed to tackle them like XRD/XRF, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques, Raman spectroscopy and microscopy (optical, GRIM, electron microscopy, TEM). (author)

  2. Computer compensation for NMR quantitative analysis of trace components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been written that determines trace components and separates overlapping components in multicomponent NMR spectra. This program uses the Lorentzian curve as a theoretical curve of NMR spectra. The coefficients of the Lorentzian are determined by the method of least squares. Systematic errors such as baseline/phase distortion are compensated and random errors are smoothed by taking moving averages, so that there processes contribute substantially to decreasing the accumulation time of spectral data. The accuracy of quantitative analysis of trace components has been improved by two significant figures. This program was applied to determining the abundance of 13C and the saponification degree of PVA

  3. 5th colloquium on atomic spectrometric trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welz, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book deals with apparatus, use-oriented and theoretical aspects of trace analysis and spectroscopy. General articles are concerned with the analysis of environmentally relevant samples; a comparison of modern spectroscopic techniques, the coupling of hydride production, chromatography and spectrometry; chemical modifiers for graphite tube furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and possible applications of flow injection to atomic spectrometric trace analysis - one of the outstanding subjects of the colloquium. About one quarter of the 85 contributions deals with new techniques including flow injection. Other priority subjects are the theory and application of graphite tube furnace AAS, and a comparison between different dissolution methods and direct solid analysis. Medicine and toxicology, analysis of biological materials and environmentally relevant samples are in the foreground of use-oriented papers. (orig./BBR) [de

  4. Variations in atmospheric PM trace metal content in Spanish towns: Illustrating the chemical complexity of the inorganic urban aerosol cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; Artiñano, Begoña; de la Rosa, Jesús; Gibbons, Wes

    The majority of the Spanish urban population breathe air containing inhalable ambient airborne particles at average concentrations of 30-46 μg m -3 (PM 10) and 20-30 μg m -3 (PM 2.5). Even though the average weight of inhaled urban aerosol is commonly similar, however, there can be large chemical differences between the ambient dusts from different towns, including the more bioreactive elements such as some metals. In this context, we compare the source-apportioned trace metal content of airborne PM 10 and PM 2.5 collected daily over a 1-year period from six population centres in Spain: Barcelona, Alcobendas, Llodio, Huelva, Tarragona and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Total average trace metal (ΣTM) PM 10 and PM 2.5 contents vary by up to a factor of around 3, reaching a maximum of ΣTM 10 811 ng m -3 and ΣTM 2.5 503 ng m -3 at Llodio, an industrial but humid site with the lowest PM 10 mass levels but high contamination by Zn, Pb, Mn, Sn, Ni and Cr. In contrast, pollution at Huelva, although another industrially influenced site, instead emphasises Cu and As, whereas Barcelona, where traffic emissions and resuspension contribute to some of the highest average PM 10 levels in Spain, has unusually raised levels of Ti, V and Ba. Such variations in both daily and annual average PM bulk chemistry, particularly in potentially toxic trace metals concentrated in the finer aerosols (such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Ni), predict that PM health effects on resident populations from different towns are unlikely to be the same.

  5. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  6. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  7. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  8. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  9. Application of neutron activation analysis to the monitoring of trace elements in Brazilian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Munita, C.J.A.S.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Due to lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs, nuclear analytical techniques were used to determine about twenty elements in foods samples collected from local markets of the city of Sao Paulo. Drinking water was also analyzed. The methods employed were mainly instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In the case of the analysis of toxic elements, such as mercury, selenium, arsenic and antimony, the purely instrumental approach failed in yielding results for very low concentrations of these elements. For INAA, samples and multielemental synthetic standards were irradiated in the IEA R1 research reactor for periods of time ranging from minutes to several hours, under thermal neutron fluxes from 10 11 to 10 13 n·cm -2 ·s -1 ; after suitable cooling times, γ-ray spectra were measured using a Ge(Li) or Ge solid state detector. The RNAA approach involved the distillation of mercury and selenium in HBr medium; selenium was then reduced to the metal form with sodium metabisulphide and mercury was precipitated as sulphide with thioacetamide. For water analysis, a preconcentration procedure based on retention of several elements in a Chelex-100 resin was employed. The elements retained were Hg, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co while Se was measured in the effluent after absorption on active charcoal. The levels of the trace inorganic elements determined in the Brazilian foodstuffs analyzed were always below the levels established by the existing regulations in our country. (author). 16 refs, 18 tabs

  10. Performance of laboratories in speciation analysis in seafood – Case of methylmercury and inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Ines; Baxter, Malcolm; Devesa, Vicenta

    2011-01-01

    arsenic analysis. Results for inorganic arsenic were spread, but not method dependant. The measurand seems to be difficult to analyse in this matrix and possible method issues were identified. Methylmercury results were satisfactory, but not many laboratories perform this type of analysis because...

  11. HPLC inorganic arsenic speciation analysis of samples containing high sulfuric acid and iron levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Gerrits, I.P.A.M.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in oxidizing and bioleaching reactors, speciation analysis of the inorganic arsenic compounds is required. Existing arsenic speciation analysis techniques are based on the use of liquid chromatography columns coupled to detector equipment such as

  12. Analysis of photoconductive mechanisms of organic-on-inorganic photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Dere, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Soylu, M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, it is shown that choosing an organic-on-inorganic Schottky diode for photoconductive sensing by a using a power law exponent (PLE or γ) determined at a single bias point is a limited approach. The standard literature approach does not highlight any bias voltage effects on the distribution of interface state density and other operationally important parameters. In this paper we suggest a new empirical method that holistically highlights the variation of γ with voltage, irradiance and temperature to reach a more informed choice of photosensor for real applications. We obtain a simple, plausible relation of the variation of barrier height, Φ, with voltage, irradiance and temperature. The method is evaluated with data collected previously for Schottky diodes of structure Al/p-Si/organic-semiconductor (OSC)/Au, where OSC is Coumarin-doped with graphene oxide (GO), Cobalt Phthacyanine (CoPC) doped with GO or PCBM doped with GO, respectively. The method reproduces published data for the three diodes reported at specific bias and provides for the first time some qualitative evidence of barrier height variation with light intensity, for which a possible physical basis is also given. Typically, Schottky barrier height is characterized using dark current leading to an under reporting of the effect of illumination on barrier height. Finally, since recombination mechanisms are gauged on the basis of the magnitude of PLE, the method facilitates the identification of the recombination mechanism at a given bias.

  13. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuapio O, A.

    1990-10-01

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  14. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides with sorbents based on spherical polyurethane membrane systems in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper the importance of preconcentration and a permanent need for efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. The increased attention is devoted to the foamed polyurethane sorbents as a novel advance in the separation chemistry. The paper has two main aims. The first is to present a survey of recent applications of unloaded and reagent loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams to the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples. The second is to show the newest results in the use of these foams for the preconcentration and determination of traces of some mainly inorganic species in environmental samples by radioanalytical techniques. Some future possibilities of the use of polyurethane foams in trace elemental determinations in environmental analysis are also outlined. (author)

  15. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Mary M; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trace toxic metal analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  17. Interpenetrating metal-organic and inorganic 3D networks: a computer-aided systematic investigation. Part II [1]. Analysis of the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburin, I.A.; Blatov, V.A.; Carlucci, L.; Ciani, G.; Proserpio, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Interpenetration in metal-organic and inorganic networks has been investigated by a systematic analysis of the crystallographic structural databases. We have used a version of TOPOS (a package for multipurpose crystallochemical analysis) adapted for searching for interpenetration and based on the concept of Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra and on the representation of a crystal structure as a reduced finite graph. In this paper, we report comprehensive lists of interpenetrating inorganic 3D structures from the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD), inclusive of 144 Collection Codes for equivalent interpenetrating nets, analyzed on the basis of their topologies. Distinct Classes, corresponding to the different modes in which individual identical motifs can interpenetrate, have been attributed to the entangled structures. Interpenetrating nets of different nature as well as interpenetrating H-bonded nets were also examined

  18. Applications of inorganic mass spectrometry in metal analysis of high-tech industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Yongjian; Wang Shimin; Li Peiling; Chen Lizhen

    2007-01-01

    The metals in the nature are closely related to the progress of human culture and economic activities. Various kinds of metals are continuously being applied to new processes and products. During the effect by biogeochemical cycle, metals were released to environmental compartments, such as air, water, soil, and living organisms. The deficiency in knowledge, poor management, greedy, and bad intention usually leads to serious environmental pollution, eco-environment damage, and human poisoning. Effective analysis of metal concentrations and species during economic activities and eco-environment is an important research and survey subject. Internationally, the establishment of high-tech industrial park has become the major means to simultaneously improve living quality and broaden economic activity. High-tech industry uses metals. It is mandatory to control the distribution of metals in feed, process, product, waste, environment, and the life-cycle. This report is based on our experience with inorganic mass spectrometry focusing on the use of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in metal analysis of high-tech industrial parts. The report includes (1) The use of SIMS for analyzing impurity in depth and on surface demonstrates the importance of integrating trace metal, depth profile, micro-area, and surface analyses. (2) Survey ambient heavy metals (As, Be, Cd, Dr, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb) around industrial parks and compare the findings to stack heavy metals. The results demonstrate that ICP-MS is indispensable to help reveal heavy metal distribution in industrial park ambient air and clarify suspected polluting sources. (3) Research and develop analytical method to determine metal impurities (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Li and Al) in photoresist. The method uses a novel nitric acid digestion technique to convert photoresist into carbon dioxide and water, followed by ICP-MS analysis of high-purity nitric acid recovery

  19. PIXE analysis for bioaccumulation studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Satoh, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Ito, R.; Kuramachi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bioaccumulation by micro-alga in the ocean was simulated in nutritive seawater containing known amounts of trace metals, and the concentration factors for Fe, Zn and Cd were measured by PIXE. Trace transition metals in nearshore seawater were removed by Chelex-100. Then a culture solution was prepared by adding known amounts of trace metals and nutritive salts to the purified seawater. Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were purely cultured in the culture solution. An interested metal ion was added to the culture solution (0.01-5.0 mg/l). Alga in 10 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 ) by suction filtration and subjected to 2.9 MeV proton bombardment. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were simultaneously determined. PIXE multi-element analysis was possible using less than 1 mg of analytical sample. The quantity of the metal in the alga was increased in proportion to the concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factors for Zn, Fe and Cd were measured, e.g., 10200 ± 300 ml/g to Zn for Phaeodactylum. The trend of the affinity for the trace metals in the case of Nannochloropsis was Fe 3+ > Zn 2+ > Pb 2+ > Cd 2+ . (author)

  20. Separation of trace uranium from plutonium for subsequent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    Trace uranium quantities are separated from plutonium metal and plutonium oxide for subsequent analysis. Samples are dissolved in hydrobromic acid or a hydrobromic acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The U(VI)-halide complex is separated from nonsorbed Pu(III) on an anion exchange column using sequential washes of 9M HBr, a 0.1M HI-12M HCl mixture and 0.1M HCl

  1. Internal Versus External DSLs for Trace Analysis: Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This tutorial explores the design and implementation issues arising in the development of domain-specific languages for trace analysis. It introduces the audience to the general concepts underlying such special-purpose languages building upon the authors' own experiences in developing both external domain specific languages and systems, such as EAGLE, HAWK, RULER and LOGSCOPE, and the more recent internal domain-specific language and system TRACECONTRACT within the SCALA language.

  2. Preparation of hair and nail samples for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, H.A.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    The method of washing of human hair and nail samples is examined by neutron activation and γ-ray analysis. The amounts of Na, K, Br, Au, Zn, and La that are removed by successive washings determine the optimum number of washing for removing these trace elements as surface contaminants. A total solution contact time with the nails is 5 minutes, and leaching effcts are observed after 6 washings

  3. Audit and trace log management consolidation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Phillip Q

    2006-01-01

    As regulation and legislation evolve, the critical need for cost-effective and efficient IT audit and monitoring solutions will continue to grow. Audit and Trace Log Management: Consolidation and Analysis offers a comprehensive introduction and explanation of requirements and problem definition, and also delivers a multidimensional solution set with broad applicability across a wide range of organizations. Itprovidesa wealth of information in the form of processwalkthroughs. These include problem determination, requirements gathering,scope definition, risk assessment, compliance objectives,

  4. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  5. Ambient analysis of trace compounds in gaseous media by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Spaněl, Patrik

    2011-05-21

    The topic of ambient gas analysis has been rapidly developed in the last few years with the evolution of the exciting new techniques such as DESI, DART and EESI. The essential feature of all is that analysis of trace gases can be accomplished either in the gas phase or those released from surfaces, crucially avoiding sample collection or modification. In this regard, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, also performs ambient analyses both accurately and rapidly. In this focused review we describe the underlying ion chemistry underpinning SIFT-MS through a discourse on the reactions of different classes of organic and inorganic molecules with H(3)O(+), NO(+) and O(2)(+)˙ studied using the SIFT technique. Rate coefficients and ion products of these reactions facilitate absolute SIFT-MS analyses and can also be useful for the interpretation of data obtained by the other ambient analysis methods mentioned above. The essential physics and flow dynamics of SIFT-MS are described that, together with the reaction kinetics, allow SIFT-MS to perform absolute ambient analyses of trace compounds in humid atmospheric air, exhaled breath and the headspace of aqueous liquids. Several areas of research that, through pilot experiments, are seen to benefit from ambient gas analysis using SIFT-MS are briefly reviewed. Special attention is given to exhaled breath and urine headspace analysis directed towards clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, and some other areas researched using SIFT-MS are summarised. Finally, extensions to current areas of application and indications of other directions in which SIFT-MS can be exploited for ambient analysis are alluded to.

  6. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  7. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annegarn, H J; Jodaikin, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Sellschop, J P.F.; Madiba, C C.P.; Bibby, D [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit)

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia, J A; Perkons, A K

    1974-01-01

    Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis with Instrumental Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of more than 30 trace constituents in heart tissue of rats and kidney tissue of rabbits. The results were confirmed by a rapid ion-exchange group separation method in the initial stages of the experiments. The samples were exposed to thermal neutrons for periods between 3 minutes and 14 hours. Significant differences in the amounts and types of trace elements in the two different tissue types are apparent, however, are probably due to specific diets. Tables of relevant nuclear data, standard concentrations, radiochemical separation recoveries, and quantitative analytical results are presented. The ion-exchange group separation scheme and typical examples of the instrumental gamma ray spectra are shown. The techniques developed in this study are being used for a large scale constituent survey of various diseased and healthy human tissues.

  9. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  10. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  11. Contribution of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical techniques to trace element speciation in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallorini, M.; Orvini, E.; Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of the NAA in contributing to trace element speciation in environmental and biological samples is shown by a few selected applications. They are: (i) the determination of different species of vanadium, arsenic and selenium in freshwater. The pre-irradiation treatments in which the different chemical species are selectively isolated are critically evaluated. Problems arising from possible contaminations or losses and from blanks are discussed; (ii) the use of NAA in metallobiochemical speciation once biochemical methods of cellular fractionation for the isolation of metallobiocomplexes are developed. Examples concern the biochemical speciation of vanadium in human blood and the development of a method for speciation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds in biological samples. The use of radioanalytical techniques in developing the separation procedures of different trace metal chemical and biochemical species is also briefly discussed. 24 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  12. Assurance and control of quality in trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The study demonstrates in practice the assurance and control of the quality of results from trace analysis in biological materials. The performance of three analytical methods is studied: one involving the determination of Cs and two the determination of As by neutron activation techniques in biological materials at the natural background level. In the case of Cs, the validity of the analytical procedure was investigated by the means available in the laboratory of the Institute and by utilizing the specific properties of the determinant. In the establishment and control of accuracy, the analysis of precision was essential. The investigation of the two different methods applied for the determination of arsenic demonstrates the many problems connected with trace analysis. For the control of accuracy a number of different kinds of reference materials (RMs) were used, namely four former intercomparison materials of the IAEA and two certified RMs of the NBS. The various tests performed revealed two different types of systematic errors. The scheme applied for the long-term surveillance of systematic and random errors is found to be suitable for the continuous control of quality of results from routine analysis. (author)

  13. Checking Flight Rules with TraceContract: Application of a Scala DSL for Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Morris, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Typically during the design and development of a NASA space mission, rules and constraints are identified to help reduce reasons for failure during operations. These flight rules are usually captured in a set of indexed tables, containing rule descriptions, rationales for the rules, and other information. Flight rules can be part of manual operations procedures carried out by humans. However, they can also be automated, and either implemented as on-board monitors, or as ground based monitors that are part of a ground data system. In the case of automated flight rules, one considerable expense to be addressed for any mission is the extensive process by which system engineers express flight rules in prose, software developers translate these requirements into code, and then both experts verify that the resulting application is correct. This paper explores the potential benefits of using an internal Scala DSL for general trace analysis, named TRACECONTRACT, to write executable specifications of flight rules. TRACECONTRACT can generally be applied to analysis of for example log files or for monitoring executing systems online.

  14. Inorganic chemical analysis of environmental materials—A lecture series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, the authors prepared and presented a lecture series to the students of a graduate level advanced instrumental analysis class. The slides and text presented in this report are a compilation and condensation of this series of lectures. The purpose of this report is to present the slides and notes and to emphasize the thought processes that should be used by a scientist submitting samples for analyses in order to procure analytical data to answer a research question. First and foremost, the analytical data generated can be no better than the samples submitted. The questions to be answered must first be well defined and the appropriate samples collected from the population that will answer the question. The proper methods of analysis, including proper sample preparation and digestion techniques, must then be applied. Care must be taken to achieve the required limits of detection of the critical analytes to yield detectable analyte concentration (above "action" levels) for the majority of the study's samples and to address what portion of those analytes answer the research question-total or partial concentrations. To guarantee a robust analytical result that answers the research question(s), a well-defined quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) plan must be employed. This QA/QC plan must include the collection and analysis of field and laboratory blanks, sample duplicates, and matrix-matched standard reference materials (SRMs). The proper SRMs may include in-house materials and/or a selection of widely available commercial materials. A discussion of the preparation and applicability of in-house reference materials is also presented. Only when all these analytical issues are sufficiently addressed can the research questions be answered with known certainty.

  15. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  16. ATTA - A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.; Chen, C.Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T.P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis has been developed. This method, based on the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms, has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. This method is free of contamination from other isotopes and elements and can be applied to various different isotope tracers for a wide range of applications. The demonstrated detection efficiency is 1x10 -7 . System improvements could increase the efficiency by many orders of magnitude

  17. Determination of inorganic component in plastics by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Sandra Fonseca; Saiki, Mitiko

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify possible sources of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator ashes, plastic materials originated mainly from household waste were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis method. Plastic samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for 8 h under thermal neutron flux of about 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . After adequate decay time, counting were carried out using a hyperpure Ge detector and the concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Ti and Zn were determined. For some samples, not all these elements were detected. Besides, the range of concentrations determined in similar type and colored samples varied from a few ppb to percentage. In general, colored and opaque plastic samples presented higher concentrations of the elements than those obtained from transparent and milky plastics. Precision of the results was also evaluated. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  18. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in Romanian dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Iordan, Andreea; Harangus, Livia; Ciortea, C.; Moldovan, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Dental composites made of silicates and oxides particles embedded in an organic polymer, show a dynamic evolution but are rather expensive. Recently, the Romanian biomaterial 'Restacril' offered a low-cost alternative. Because the durability of the composite dental fillings depends both on the main chemical composition and on the impurities that may influence the inorganic particles' properties and thus modifying the bio material clinical behaviour, the elemental analysis of the material is necessary for improving its quality. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), a sensitive method for multielemental trace detection widely used in biomedical applications, allowed us to evidence 21 mineral elements with Z > 14 in some commercial dental composites. Here we evaluate the performances of PIXE for the control of dental composites by carrying out qualitative analysis of three Romanian biomaterials. PIXE measurements on thick composite samples with a flat surface were done with 3 MeV protons at the NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector, 30 mm thick Al absorber foil and integration of beam current. Up to 21 elements with Z > 19 were detected: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Ba, Yb, Nd, Hf, Au, As and Pb. The orders of magnitude of relative concentrations were evaluated using X-ray yields obtained for another light element thick composite target. The Romanian composites have specific and diverse compositions, containing a great number of minor and trace elements, many of whom are impurities. Use of higher purity raw materials is suggested to reduce the latter and improve the materials' quality. Refinement of X-ray yields by better matching matrixes calculations and use of concentration standards are proposed for quantitative PIXE analysis of the dental composites. (authors)

  19. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry: Potential and limitations for inorganic and organic micro-analysis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeck, I. van; Gijbels, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) employs a highly focused UV laser beam to ionise a microvolume in the order of 1 μm 3 . The ions produced are then mass-separated in a time-of-flight (TOF) or a Fourier Transform (FT) mass spectrometer. TOF LMMS allows element localisation, detailed speciation of inorganic substances and structural information of organic molecules. Quantitation is difficult. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects and inorganic analysis. Organic applications are treated in part II of this series. Selected examples illustrate that TOF LMMS is a valuable tool for the qualitative characterisation of micro-samples. Also, the applicability to the analysis with high spatial resolution is shown. The current technology and the prospects from the recent FTMS development are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1986-01-01

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  1. Characterization of inorganic compounds in nutritional supplements by the instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, Daniela T.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Maria B.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied in the analyses of samples of nutritional supplements in order to evaluate the composition of their essential inorganic components. Results obtained in these analyses presented, in general, a good agreement with the label values. Precision and accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing NIST 2704 Buffalo River Sediment and NIST 1400 Bone Ash reference materials. (author)

  2. Determination of Inorganic Elements in White Rice by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Chung, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food and provides an important information of mineral supplement as well as a large portion of calorie for Korean. As scientists have focused their researches on health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiency and hazardous elements, public concerns about mineral intake by dietary food is rising. The objectives of this study were to determine inorganic elemental contents in white rice by neutron activation analysis(NAA) and to assist the evaluation of nutritional and harmful status for Korean people

  3. XRF analysis of portland cement for major and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdunnabi, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Libyan portland cement produced in several factories around the country, in Lip tis, Zoltan, Souq-Elkamis, Dernah and El-Fatach, were analyzed for quantitative major and trace elements and mineral content, which were compered with those imported from Spain, Romania, Cyprus, and Egypt. X-ray fluorescence spectro X lab 2000 spectrometer equipped with Rh-and X-ray tube was used for the analysis of various samples. The detector Si(Li) with a resolution of 148 eV at Mn K-a=5.9 keV facilitates the determination of a wide range of elements from sodium to uranium, with a detection limit at sub levels. Cement samples in the powder form were analyzed using the pellet-technique. The pellets were prepared by mixing 4g of the cement powder with 0.9 g of binder (HWC) and pressed at high pressure. A ful analysis including, background counting, matrix correction and all relevant corrections were achieved automatically by XLAB 2000 software package. For major and trace elements X RF results were higher for most of the elements than those analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral content showed that Libyan cement is comparable to the imported ones, also the Libyan cement meets the requirements of the international specifications of the portland cement. (Author)

  4. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry: Potential and limitations for inorganic and organic micro-analysis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeck, I. van; Gijbels, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) employs a highly focused UV laser beam to ionise a microvolume in the order of 1 μm 3 . The produced ions are then mass-separated in a time-of-flight (TOF) or a Fourier Transform (FT) mass spectrometer. The technique allows element localisation, detailed speciation of inorganic substances and structural information of organic molecules. Inorganic applications are treated in the preceding part. This paper will focus on the organic aspects. Selected examples illustrate that TOF LMMS can achieve structural characterisation of molecules, untractable by conventional mass spectrometric techniques. Applicability to the analysis with high spatial resolution is shown and the need for surface availability of organic target molecules is discussed. The recently developed FT LMMS may fulfil the need for better mass resolution. However, the comparability of FT LMMS results with TOF LMMS data is not yet obvious. (orig.)

  5. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  6. Study of trace impurities in heroin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Yang, J.H.; Ouyang, H.; Li, Z.J.; Chai, Z.F.; Zhu, J.; Xi'an JiaoTong Univ., Shaanxi; Zhao, J.Z.; Yu, Z.S.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two heroin samples were analyzed for their contents of 15 trace elements (Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Large variations of elemental concentrations between samples were found to possess statistical significance. Of all the elements calcium was the most abundant element, followed by zinc and sodium. The concentrations of Au, Ce, Co, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, and Th in all the samples were below 1 μg x g -1 . Classification of these heroin samples was achieved by the application of hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that NAA can provide useful information on the origin of the illicit drugs. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de

  8. Procurement of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: After acquiring the Infrared Imaging Microscope with large area mapping capabilities for structure -function research and...Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials Report Title After acquiring the Infrared

  9. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  10. Charting the trends in nuclear techniques for analysis of inorganic environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    Publications in Analytical Abstracts in the period 1975-1984 and papers presented at the Modern Trends in Activation Analysis international conferences series in the period 1961-1986 have been used as an empirical basis for assessing general trends in research and publication activity. Some ebbs and flows in the speciality of instrumental techniques for analysis of environmental trace pollutants are revealed by a statistical analysis of the publications. (author)

  11. Atom Trap Trace Analysis for radiokrypton and radioargon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Yun; Bailey, Kevin; Davis, Andrew; Hu, Shuiming; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Purtschert, Roland; Sturchio, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a MOT-based atom counting method, is used to analyze three noble gas radioisotopes (81Kr, 85Kr, 39Ar) covering a wide range of geological ages and applications in the earth sciences. Their isotopic abundances are extremely low, in the range of 10-16 - 10-11. Yet, ATTA can trap and unmistakably detect these rare isotopes one atom at a time. The system is currently limited by the excitation efficiency of the RF discharge that produces the metastable atoms (Kr* & Ar*) needed for laser trapping. To further improve the MOT loading rate, we plan to replace the RF discharge with a photon excitation scheme that employs a VUV light source at 124 nm. The VUV source can be a lamp or a free electron laser. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics and by NSF, Division of Earth Sciences.

  12. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  13. Computation and analysis of backward ray-tracing in aero-optics flow fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Xue, Deting; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-08

    A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field. As a demonstration, the analysis is carried out for a typical blunt nosed vehicle. The backward tracing method and stopping criterion greatly simplify the ray-tracing computations in the aero-optics flow field, and they can be extended to our active laser illumination aero-optics study because of the reciprocity principle.

  14. Determination of arsenic and other trace elements in cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cepeda, A.M.; Cienfuegos Silva, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A general survey of trace-elements in different types of cosmetics, in particular arsenic, was carried out in order to detect elements that might be detrimental to human health. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detectors. Different amounts of Br and Sb, detected in almost all the samples, produced interferencies in the determination of As when the 559 KeV photopeak was used. Since the triplet formed could not be resolved by the Ge(Li) detector, a mathematical procedure was developed using the 776 KeV gamma-ray emission of 82-Br and various factors found experimentally. This procedure was checked using laboratory-made samples of known concentrations and the results obtained had good precision and accuracy. In addition to arsenic the elements Co, Cr, Br, Sc, Fe and Zn were also quantitatively determined. Those cosmetics made from inorganic raw materials have an As concentration higher than those elaborated from organic materials. (EC)

  15. Establishment of ultra trace nuclear material analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyuseok; Jee, Kwangyong; Lee, Changheon

    2012-05-01

    Highly accurate and precise analysis of ultra trace nuclear materials contained in swipe samples and environmental samples is required to improve the national nuclear transparency and the international nuclear security. The objectives of the first stage of this project are to develop the techniques for bulk analysis of environmental samples and the elemental techniques for particle analysis using FT-TIMS. To accomplish the objectives, state-of-the-art analytical instruments were set up followed by the development of the techniques for screening of nuclear materials, chemical treatement, particle handling, isotopic measurements using TIMS and ICP-MS, and fabrication of uranium microparticles. The verifications of the developed techniques were carried out by measurement of reference materials, and by participation to interlaboratory comparison programs. In additon, the establishement of a quality management system and the performance of the analysis of QC samples for IAEA-NWAL qualification were carried out to obtain the international accreditation for the related analytical system. In this report, the results of research and developments, and the achievements to obtain the international accreditation were summarized

  16. Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of

  17. Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further

  18. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  19. Development of conjugate methods with gas chromatography for inorganic compounds analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccan, N.

    1975-01-01

    The application of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry or with nuclear methods for the analysis of inorganic compounds is studied. The advantages of the use of a gas chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer or with a high resolution radiation detector, are discussed. We also studied the formation and solvent extraction of metal chelates; an aliquot of the organic phase was directly injected into the gas chromatograph and the eluted compounds were detected by mass spectrometry or, when radioactive, by nuclear methods. (author)

  20. Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured

  1. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  2. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Bayat, I.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs with the aid of neutron activation analysis the separation of volatile radionuclides after digestion of the sample is of special interest for radiochemical processing. A distillation procedure was developed to give reproducable results, however optimal conditions were not found for all volatile radionuclides studied. The required selective separation of Br-82 from the distillate was best achieved by the application of an ion-exchange column-chromatography technique. The computer programs for the evaluation of complex gamma spectra have been developed further. The automatic peak search and peak area determination is based on a computer program using the correlation technique and carried out with a mini-computer coupled with a multi-channel gamma spectrometer. The results, which are presented in 3 earlier reports relating to this research program, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the individual steps of the radiochemical separation scheme. Before neutron activation analysis can be introduced on a routine basis, some aspects of the radiochemical process remain to be tested; these studies will be published in a fourth and final report. (orig.) [de

  3. Express-analysis of Radiocaesium Traces in Natural Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remez, V.P.; Belyakova, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    To determine traces of radiocaesium in water solution, the sorbent on the base of ferric potassium hexacyanoferrate on cellulose carrier ANFEZH was worked out. The sorbent is capable to extract effectively the isotopes of caesium from various natural solutions (fresh and sea water, milk, juices and so on). The usage of sorbent allows practically completely concentrate the isotopes of caesium from water samples with the volume of tens and hundreds litres. The sorbent in quantity of 50-500 grams allows to extract 98±1% of caesium from natural water samples with the volume up to 1000 litres during 1-5 hours. The usage of this sorbent allowed to conduct the express analysis of multiple bore holes within the area of 30 km of Chernobyl Skaya NPP , drinking water and milk in the regions of Belorussia, Ukraine and Russia, hit by Chernobyl disaster and around NPP in Russia and America. The use of this express analysis reduced the time and required labour as compared with to precipitation methods

  4. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1973-01-01

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)

  5. Trends and applications of integrated automated ultra-trace sample handling and analysis (T9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.S.; Ye Han; Stewart, L.; Link, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Automated analysis, sub-ppt detection limits, and the trend toward speciated analysis (rather than just elemental analysis) force the innovation of sophisticated and integrated sample preparation and analysis techniques. Traditionally, the ability to handle samples at ppt and sub-ppt levels has been limited to clean laboratories and special sample handling techniques and equipment. The world of sample handling has passed a threshold where older or 'old fashioned' traditional techniques no longer provide the ability to see the sample due to the influence of the analytical blank and the fragile nature of the analyte. When samples require decomposition, extraction, separation and manipulation, application of newer more sophisticated sample handling systems are emerging that enable ultra-trace analysis and species manipulation. In addition, new instrumentation has emerged which integrate sample preparation and analysis to enable on-line near real-time analysis. Examples of those newer sample-handling methods will be discussed and current examples provided as alternatives to traditional sample handling. Two new techniques applying ultra-trace microwave energy enhanced sample handling have been developed that permit sample separation and refinement while performing species manipulation during decomposition. A demonstration, that applies to semiconductor materials, will be presented. Next, a new approach to the old problem of sample evaporation without losses will be demonstrated that is capable of retaining all elements and species tested. Both of those methods require microwave energy manipulation in specialized systems and are not accessible through convection, conduction, or other traditional energy applications. A new automated integrated method for handling samples for ultra-trace analysis has been developed. An on-line near real-time measurement system will be described that enables many new automated sample handling and measurement capabilities. This

  6. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  7. Decomposition of diverse solid inorganic matrices with molten ammonium bifluoride salt for constituent elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.

  8. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Nurul Shahreda Jaies

    2014-01-01

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  9. Ultrastructural and Energy dispersive analysis of inorganic inclusions in a muscle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.F.; Castillo-Mozun, P.; Hieger, L.R.; Williams, M.G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A muscle biopsy that, by light microscopy, exhibited mild atrophy consistent with chronic denervating disease was submitted for ultrastructural analysis. Inorganic structures within the tissue were defined by energy dispersive analysis as aluminosilicates, magnesium silicates, and iron deposits. These structures were localized in the interstitial (intercollagenous) area and in high concentrations within degenerated muscle bundles. An alteration of the blood/muscle barrier has obviously occurred; however, the extent to which the end result commonly occurs in humans is unknown. Clarification of the question raised by this observation will have to be derived from animal studies, and clinicians must have an awareness of the need for electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in muscle biopsies from patients with similar therapeutic backgrounds

  10. Analysis of a sewage sludge for inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis by 29 laboratories of a sample of dried sewage sludge for various inorganic contaminants and nutrients by means of methods provided by the originating laboratory, the aim being to test these methods for their suitability for use in a proposed manual of methods for sewage sludge analysis. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed. From the results obtained, the suggested methods for the determination of pH, Kjeldahl, nitrogen, total phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, mercury, and arsenic were considered to be sufficiently reliable for inclusion in the manual. It was recommended that further investigation be carried out on finding suitable methods for the determination of selenium, molybdenum, boron, and fluoride

  11. Trace element analysis of silicate rocks by XRF. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orihashi, Yuji; Yuhara, Masaki; Kagami, Hiroo; Honma, Hiroji

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of six trace elements (Ce, Ba, Ga, Co, Cr, V) in silicate rocks has been investigated, using pressed powder pellets. Ga analysis was performed using a Cr tube, whereas a Au tube was used for the remaining five elements. Corrections were made for the interference of BaKα on CeKα, FeKβ on CoKα, CrKα on VKβ and VKα on TiKβ. Mass absorption functions were estimated from background intensities at 2θ=35.5deg and that of FeKα at wavelengths longer than the iron absorption edge for a Au tube, and from the value of net intensity/background one for a Cr tube. Calibration lines were constructed using twenty-four U.S. Geological Survey and Geological Survey of Japan igneous rock reference samples. For each line, the correction coefficient is greater than 0.993 except for Ga and Ce (>0.985), indicating that the correction and calibration procedures are appropriate for accurate analysis over a wide compositional range. Analytical results for igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic reference samples (U. S. Geological Survey, Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, South-African Bureau of Standards) accord well with recommended or proposed values, respectively. The results of this study and those of Orihashi et al. (1993) show Ce, Ba, Nb, Zr, Y, Sr, Rb, Th, Ga, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr and V in silicate rocks can be quantitatively determined by XRF at ISEI. (author)

  12. Hyperspectral imaging for non-contact analysis of forensic traces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, G. J.; Gaston, E.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Cullen, P. J.; Aalders, M. C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy, to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a specimen. This technique enables investigators to analyze the chemical composition of traces and simultaneously visualize their spatial distribution. HSI offers

  13. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  14. Modified interstitial water squeezer for trace metal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Hydraulic squeezer of Manheim, used in the extraction of pore water of sediments, has been modified by providing teflon inner lining and increasing the volume of squeezer. The modified version facilitates collection of pore water sample, for trace...

  15. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U.; Agwale, A. O

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using Total Factor Productivity Analysis, OLS Regression Analysis and Gross Margin Analysis. Results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic...

  16. Disposal of flow-level radioactive waste in Belgium: A safety analysis for inorganic chemotoxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.; Volckaert, G.; Marivoet, J.; Neerdael, B.

    2000-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste often contains large quantities of inorganic chemical substances. Due attention should therefore be given to the safety implications of both the radiological and chemical substances in the waste. Our study develops the safety assessment methodology for surface disposal with emphasis on the potential effects of inorganic nonradiological elements on human health. Contamination of groundwater was considered as the major exposure pathway. The applied methodology first screens all elements on the basis of five criteria. Conservative screening calculations were used to screen out the elements that do not pose danger to humans, and to select those that could have a negative impact and thus require further analysis. The latter was done by first calculating the elemental mass fluxes out of the repository and into the aquifer followed by the calculation of groundwater concentrations. The results showed that on the basis of the screening calculations, 75% of all elements could be classified as non-hazardous. The detailed calculations showed that the majority of the remaining elements had groundwater concentrations below the drinking water or groundwater standards. The results further showed that for a few elements the maximum groundwater concentration was above the standard, but below the background concentrations. (author)

  17. Neutron activation analysis of the distribution of inorganic elements among five varieties of Brazilian corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.; Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.; Favaro, D.I.; Nascimento, V.F.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, V, Zn in five varieties of Brazilian corn, resulting from the studies carried out in order to increase their protein contents. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 15%, except for Cu, I and S. Sensitivity and detection limit were also determined. Besides, tryptophan contents were determined. It was observed that the tryptophan content in improved corn samples was twice as large as in the normal samples. However, the same ratio was not observed in the inorganic element contents. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Development of Hplc Techniques for the Analysis of Trace Metal Species in the Primary Coolant of a Pressurised Water Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Keiron Robert Philip

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The need to monitor corrosion products in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor (PWR), at a concentration of 10pg ml^{-1} is discussed. A review of trace and ultra-trace metal analysis, relevant to the specific requirements imposed by primary coolant chemistry, indicated that high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with preconcentration of sample was an ideal technique. A HPLC system was developed to determine trace metal species in simulated PWR primary coolant. In order to achieve the desired detection limit an on-line preconcentration system had to be developed. Separations were performed on Aminex A9 and Benson BC-X10 analytical columns. Detection was by post column reaction with Eriochrome Black T and Calmagite Linear calibrations of 2.5-100ng of cobalt (the main species of interest), were achieved using up to 200ml samples. The detection limit for a 200ml sample was 10pg ml^{-1}. In order to achieve the desired aim of on-line collection of species at 300^circ C, the use of inorganic ion-exchangers is essential. A novel application, utilising the attractive features of the inorganic ion-exchangers titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, zirconium arsenophosphate and pore controlled glass beads, was developed for the preconcentration of trace metal species at temperature and pressure. The performance of these exchangers, at ambient and 300^ circC was assessed by their inclusion in the developed analytical system and by the use of radioisotopes. The particular emphasis during the development has been upon accuracy, reproducibility of recovery, stability of reagents and system contamination, studied by the use of radioisotopes and response to post column reagents. This study in conjunction with work carried out at Winfrith, resulted in a monitoring system that could follow changes in coolant chemistry, on deposition and release of metal species in simulated PWR water loops. On

  19. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of neutron activation analysis for trace elements characterization, analysis and certification in atmospheric particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzio, Enrico; Gallorini, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) owns these requirements and is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultratrace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrate by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, the application of this nuclear technique, in solving a series of different analytical problems related to trace elements in air pollution processes is reported. Examples and results are given on the following topics: characterization of urban and rural airborne particulate samples; particles size distribution in the different inhalable and respirable fractions (PM10 and PM 2.5); certification of related Standard Reference Materials for data quality assurance. (author)

  1. Trace analysis for 300 MM wafers and processes with TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutsch, A.; Erdmann, V.; Zielonka, G.; Pfitzner, L.; Ryssel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient fabrication of semiconductor devices is combined with an increasing size of silicon wafers. The contamination level of processes, media, and equipment has to decrease continuously. A new test laboratory for 300 mm was installed in view of the above mentioned aspects. Aside of numerous processing tools this platform consist electrical test methods, particle detection, vapor phase decomposition (VPD) preparation, and TXRF. The equipment is installed in a cleanroom. It is common to perform process or equipment control, development, evaluation and qualification with monitor wafers. The evaluation and the qualification of 300 mm equipment require direct TXRF on 300 mm wafers. A new TXRF setup was installed due to the wafer size of 300 mm. The 300 mm TXRF is equipped with tungsten and molybdenum anode. This combination allows a sensitive detection of elements with fluorescence energy below 10 keV for tungsten excitation. The molybdenum excitation enables the detection of a wide variety of elements. The detection sensitivity for the tungsten anode excited samples is ten times higher than for molybdenum anode measured samples. The system is calibrated with 1 ng Ni. This calibration shows a stability within 5 % when monitored to control system stability. Decreasing the amount of Ni linear results in a linear decrease of the measured Ni signal. This result is verified for a range of elements by multielement samples. New designs demand new processes and materials, e.g. ferroelectric layers and copper. The trace analysis of many of these materials is supported by the higher excitation energy of the molybdenum anode. Reclaim and recycling of 300 mm wafers demand for an accurate contamination control of the processes to avoid cross contamination. Polishing or etching result in modified surfaces. TXRF as a non-destructive test method allows the simultaneously detection of a variety of elements on differing surfaces in view of contamination control and process

  2. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  3. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, A.; Dawson, K.; Sassiat, N.; Quinn, A. J.; O'Riordan, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H2SO4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  4. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A; Dawson, K; Sassiat, N; Quinn, A J; O'Riordan, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu 2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu 2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  5. Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Zhijun; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong

    2002-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells

  6. Determination of essential trace elements in wine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniele, Anna Paula

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs, including wine, due to its important nutritional role in human body functions. It was shown that daily consumption of wine in moderation contributes significantly to the needs of essential elements in human body such as Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, V, among others, and has health benefits in the prevention of numerous diseases and longer life expectancy, related in particular to the intake of antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds. Trace elements are good indicators of origin of wines and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. However, although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies for organic and inorganic compounds of wine content are still small when compared to other major producers. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate some procedures of wine sample preparation to determine essential elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and compare the results with those determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES). Three sample preparation procedures were studied: freeze-drying, evaporation and dry ashing. The parameters studied were precision, accuracy and detection limit. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were applied to verify the statistical differences between the mean values obtained by the three wine preparation procedures for INAA with those means obtained by ICP OES. It was noticed that about 60% of results obtained by freeze-drying agreed with those obtained by ICP OES. (author)

  7. Analysis of inorganic fertilizers used in Ghana for heavy metal s and microelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addo, M.A.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Dampare, S.B.; Gbadago, J.K.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Opata, N.S.; Aaotey, D.K.; Adomako, D.; Osae, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nine brands of inorganic fertilizers used in Ghana were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis to determine the concentration of heavy metals and other toxic elements. The heavy metals identified were As, Au, Co, Cr and Fe, while the microelements were Br, Ce, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Ti, U and Y. Only Co and Sc occurred in all the brands, with concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 5.02 ± 0.02 mg kg -l for Co and 0.10 to 2.60 ± 0.01 mg kg -I for Sc. The relationships between the elemental concentrations and toxicity levels of the fertilizer were characterized in relation to hazards on application and impacts on the environment. (au)

  8. Identification of homemade inorganic explosives by ion chromatographic analysis of post-blast residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Cameron; Shellie, Robert A; Potter, Oscar G; O'Reilly, John W; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2008-02-29

    Anions and cations of interest for the post-blast identification of homemade inorganic explosives were separated and detected by ion chromatographic (IC) methods. The ionic analytes used for identification of explosives in this study comprised 18 anions (acetate, benzoate, bromate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, chromate, cyanate, fluoride, formate, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate and thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, barium(II), calcium(II), chromium(III), ethylammonium, magnesium(II), manganese(II), methylammonium, potassium(I), sodium(I), strontium(II), and zinc(II)). Two IC separations are presented, using suppressed IC on a Dionex AS20 column with potassium hydroxide as eluent for anions, and non-suppressed IC for cations using a Dionex SCS 1 column with oxalic acid/acetonitrile as eluent. Conductivity detection was used in both cases. Detection limits for anions were in the range 2-27.4ppb, and for cations were in the range 13-115ppb. These methods allowed the explosive residue ions to be identified and separated from background ions likely to be present in the environment. Linearity (over a calibration range of 0.05-50ppm) was evaluated for both methods, with r(2) values ranging from 0.9889 to 1.000. Reproducibility over 10 consecutive injections of a 5ppm standard ranged from 0.01 to 0.22% relative standard deviation (RSD) for retention time and 0.29 to 2.16%RSD for peak area. The anion and cation separations were performed simultaneously by using two Dionex ICS-2000 chromatographs served by a single autoinjector. The efficacy of the developed methods was demonstrated by analysis of residue samples taken from witness plates and soils collected following the controlled detonation of a series of different inorganic homemade explosives. The results obtained were also confirmed by parallel analysis of the same samples by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with excellent agreement being obtained.

  9. MIR and FIR Analysis of Inorganic Species in a Single Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shilov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    The extension of the mid IR towards the far IR spectral range below 400 \\wn is of great interest for molecular vibrational analysis for inorganic and organometallic chemistry, for geological, pharmaceutical, and physical applications, polymorph screening and crystallinity analysis as well as for matrix isolation spectroscopy. In these cases, the additional far infrared region offers insight to low energy vibrations which are observable only there. This includes inorganic species, lattice vibrations or intermolecular vibrations in the ordered solid state. The spectral range of a FTIR spectrometer is defined by the major optical components such as the source, beamsplitter, and detector. The globar source covers a broad spectral range from 8000 to 20 \\wn. However a bottle neck exists with respect to the beamsplitter and detector. To extend the spectral range further into the far IR and THz spectral ranges, one or more additional far IR beam splitters and detectors have been previously required. Two new optic components have been incorporated in a spectrometer to achieve coverage of both the mid and far infrared in a single scan: a wide range MIR-FIR beam splitter and the wide range DLaTGS detector that utilizes a diamond window. The use of a standard SiC IR source with these components yields a spectral range of 6000 down to 50 \\wn in one step for all types of transmittance, reflectance and ATR measurements. Utilizing the external water cooled mercury arc high power lamp the spectral range can be ultimately extended down to 10 \\wn. Examples of application will include emission in MIR-THz range, identification of pigments, additives in polymers, and polymorphism studies.

  10. Trace elemental analysis of bituminous coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J R; Kneis, H; Martin, B; Nobiling, R; Traxel, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Chao, E C.T.; Minkin, J A [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    1981-03-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical milieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite - are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China.

  11. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  12. Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    The chemical composition of water infiltrating ... Major and trace metals determined in soil and water from a ... The soil samples were air-dried at 29°C in a dust-free place for ... compact 3K5 X-ray generator (Ital IS Structures, Italy) was used for.

  13. Application of ray-traced tropospheric slant delays to geodetic VLBI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Armin; Böhm, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    The correction of tropospheric influences via so-called path delays is critical for the analysis of observations from space geodetic techniques like the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). In standard VLBI analysis, the a priori slant path delays are determined using the concept of zenith delays, mapping functions and gradients. The a priori use of ray-traced delays, i.e., tropospheric slant path delays determined with the technique of ray-tracing through the meteorological data of numerical weather models (NWM), serves as an alternative way of correcting the influences of the troposphere on the VLBI observations within the analysis. In the presented research, the application of ray-traced delays to the VLBI analysis of sessions in a time span of 16.5 years is investigated. Ray-traced delays have been determined with program RADIATE (see Hofmeister in Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien. http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-3444, 2016) utilizing meteorological data provided by NWM of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In comparison with a standard VLBI analysis, which includes the tropospheric gradient estimation, the application of the ray-traced delays to an analysis, which uses the same parameterization except for the a priori slant path delay handling and the used wet mapping factors for the zenith wet delay (ZWD) estimation, improves the baseline length repeatability (BLR) at 55.9% of the baselines at sub-mm level. If no tropospheric gradients are estimated within the compared analyses, 90.6% of all baselines benefit from the application of the ray-traced delays, which leads to an average improvement of the BLR of 1 mm. The effects of the ray-traced delays on the terrestrial reference frame are also investigated. A separate assessment of the RADIATE ray-traced delays is carried out by comparison to the ray-traced delays from the

  14. Ray-tracing toroidal axisymmetric devices. 1. theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.; Brambilla, M.

    1981-06-01

    Ray tracing technique for lower hybrid waves is used to obtain informations about accessibility, power deposition profiles and eventually electric field distribution. In the first part a critical discussion to establish the meaning and validity of this technique is presented, while in the second part of this work applications to small and to large, fat tokamaks are presented, which support and explain the theoretical arguments

  15. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.; Madaro, M.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  16. [Determination and correlation analysis of trace elements in Boletus tomentipes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-li; Liu, Hong-gao

    2011-07-01

    The contents of eleven trace elements in Boletus tomentipes were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the fruiting bodies of B. tomentipes were very rich in Mg and Fe (>100 mg x kg(-1)) and rich in Mn, Zn and Cu (>10 mg x kg(-1)). Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, and As were relatively minor contents (0.1-10.0 mg x kg(-1)) of this species, while Hg occurred at the smallest content (< 0.1 mg x kg(-1)). Among the determined 11 trace elements, Zn-Cu had significantly positive correlation (r = 0.659, P < 0.05), whereas, Hg-As, Ni-Fe, and Zn-Mg had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.672, -0.610, -0.617, P < 0.05). This paper presented the trace elements properties of B. tomentipes, and is expected to be useful for exploitation and quality evaluation of this species.

  17. Polymers on the crime scene forensic analysis of polymeric trace evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Causin, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book approaches the analysis of forensic contact traces from a polymer science perspective. The development of characterization methods of new or unusual traces and the improvement of existing protocols is described. The book starts with a general introduction to polymers and the issues related to transfer, persistence and recovery of polymeric traces. The chapters present a distinctive feature of polymers, discussing how it can be measured, what the practical difficulties which can be encountered in the analysis, and how useful that information is for comparison or identification purposes. Practical tips for the realization of the forensic analyses are included.

  18. Analysis of trace gases at ppb levels by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindinger, W.; Hansel, A.

    1996-01-01

    A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) system has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of trace gas components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H 3 O + ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of medical information obtained by means of breath analysis, of environmental trace analysis, and examples in the field of food chemistry demonstrate the wide applicability of the method. (Authors)

  19. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivits, H.

    1980-01-01

    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  20. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  1. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  2. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  3. The distribution of selected inorganic elements in tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.W.; Grubbs, H.J.; Newman, R.H.; Bass, R.T.; Brenizer, J.S.; Jones, D.C.; Williamson, T.G.; Danehower, D.A.; Long, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in determining selected elements in biological materials has been reported by numerous authors. Some of these have detailed the use of INAA to determine an elemental analysis in tobaccos of various geographical origins. This paper describes the first use of INAA to measure the distribution of selected inorganic elements within the tobacco leaf at a single plant stalk position for one tobacco curing routine. Three replicate plots of a common bright tobacco cultivar were grown under normal cultural conditions characteristic for the bright variety. The tobacco leaves were sampled at selected positions in the leaf. The bright tobacco was cured in a conventional flue-curing barn using standard practices. Immediately after collection, each individual sample was freeze-dried, crushed and sampled. The leaf midrib samples were prepared using a similar procedure. A subsample of about 100 mg was taken from each sample, sealed in a polyethyelene bag, irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10 17 n-m -2 -s -1 in a pneumatic rabbit system, and subsequently counted to obtain the reported data. A standard reference material was used as a comparator to yield relative elemental concentrations for Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Cl, and Br. The data show that chlorine, potassium, sodium and calcium have definite concentration trends within the tobacco leaf. The data also show that some elements, e,g, Mn, were more uniformly distributed throughout the leaf. (author)

  4. Dynamic- and Thermo- mechanical Analysis of Inorganic Nanotubes/elastomer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin FUITH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We present dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and thermomechanical analysis (TMA measurements of a new type of polyurea elastomer nanocomposites based on inorganic MoS2 nanotubes and Mo6S2I8 nanowires. The addition of a small amount of nanoparticles (<1 wt-% leads to an increase of the glass transition temperature Tg as compared to the pure elastomeric matrix. A second peak observed in tand in the pure and mixed elastomer is attributed to a second glass transition occurring in regions near the hard nanodomains of the microphase separated polyurea system. It is also found that the small amount of nanoparticles leads to an increase in the Young´s modulus of up to 15 % in the whole measured temperature range (from -130 °C to 20 °C. The thermal expansion of doped samples is considerably larger above Tg. Below Tg, this difference vanishes completely. A very similar behaviour was also found in measurements of polyisoprene/multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT composites.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Analysis on Inorganic Phase Change Material Usage in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, S.; Saravanasankar, S.; Sudhakarapandian, R.; Muthukannan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work demonstrates the significance of Phase Change Material (PCM) in the construction of working sheds and product storage magazines in fireworks industries to maintain less temperature variation by passive cooling. The inorganic PCM, namely Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate (CCH) is selected in this study. First, the performance of two models with inbuilt CCH was analysed, using computational fluid dynamics. A significant change in the variation of inner wall temperature was observed, particularly during the working hours. This is mainly due to passive cooling, where the heat transfer from the surroundings to the room is partially used for the phase change from solid to liquid. The experiment was carried out by constructing two models, one with PCM packed in hollow brick walls and roof, and the other one as a conventional construction. The experimental results show that the temperature of the room got significantly reduced up to 7 °C. The experimental analysis results had good agreement with the numerical analysis results, and this reveals the advantage of the PCM in the fireworks industry construction.

  6. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, 3 H, 14 C, 60 Co, 79 Se, 90 Sr, 99 Tc as pertechnetate, 106 Ru/Rh, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 243+244 Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for 237 Np, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 99 Tc, 126 Sn, 129 I, 231 Pa, 233 U, 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, 238 U, 241 AMU, 242 AMU, 243 AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO 2 , NO 3 , PO 4 , SO 4 , acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all contract limits (molar ratio of analyte to sodium or ratio of becquerels of analyte to moles of sodium) defined in Specification 7 for Envelope A. Except for a few cases, the

  7. Reference material for trace analysis by radioanalytical methods: Bowen's Kale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainerdi, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A fairly large volume of published data on 'Bowen's Kale' has been examined critically in order to develop recommendations for the use of this preparation as a 'reference material' in the standardisation and evaluation of the reliability of analytical procedures. Values are now recommended for the contents of twelve elements present in major to trace concentrations in 'Bowen's Kale'. 'Indicated values' for another 16 elements are provided. Values for 15 more elements are listed with no recommendation. The criteria adopted in categorising elements into these groups are discussed. (author)

  8. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.F.; Baturin, A.A.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Borisova, S.S.; Reshetnyak, M.V.; Shlyakhova, N.V.; Budrejko, E.A.; Galata, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm 3

  9. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Nakahara, H.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Matsue, H.; Sakane, H.

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  10. Analysis of an XADS Target with the System Code TRACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor H.; Feng, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) present an option to reduce the radioactive waste of the nuclear industry. The experimental Accelerator-Driven System (XADS) has been designed to investigate the feasibility of using ADS on an industrial scale to burn minor actinides. The target section lies in the middle of the subcritical core and is bombarded by a proton beam to produce spallation neutrons. The thermal energy produced from this reaction requires a heat removal system for the target section. The target is cooled by liquid lead-bismuth-eutectics (LBE) in the primary system which in turn transfers the heat via a heat exchanger (HX) to the secondary coolant, Diphyl THT (DTHT), a synthetic diathermic fluid. Since this design is still in development, a detailed investigation of the system is necessary to evaluate the behavior during normal and transient operations. Due to the lack of experimental facilities and data for ADS, the analyses are mostly done using thermal hydraulic codes. In addition to evaluating the thermal hydraulics of the XADS, this paper also benchmarks a new code developed by the NRC, TRACE, against other established codes. The events used in this study are beam power switch-on/off transients and a loss of heat sink accident. The obtained results from TRACE were in good agreement with the results of various other codes. (authors)

  11. Trace elements in precious and common opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 44 precious and 52 common opals sampled from a number of recognised fields within Australia. The purpose of this study was to determine if precious and common opals of the same colour and location have the same or a different trace element profile. Similar numbers of black, white and grey samples were studied in each case. In most cases, common opals had a significantly higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with precious opals. (author)

  12. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  13. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  14. NETWORKS OF NANOPARTICLES IN ORGANIC – INORGANIC COMPOSITES: ALGORITHMIC EXTRACTION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiedmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising global demand in energy and the limited resources in fossil fuels require new technologies in renewable energies like solar cells. Silicon solar cells offer a good efficiency but suffer from high production costs. A promising alternative are polymer solar cells, due to potentially low production costs and high flexibility of the panels. In this paper, the nanostructure of organic–inorganic composites is investigated, which can be used as photoactive layers in hybrid–polymer solar cells. These materials consist of a polymeric (OC1C10-PPV phase with CdSe nanoparticles embedded therein. On the basis of 3D image data with high spatial resolution, gained by electron tomography, an algorithm is developed to automatically extract the CdSe nanoparticles from grayscale images, where we assume them as spheres. The algorithm is based on a modified version of the Hough transform, where a watershed algorithm is used to separate the image data into basins such that each basin contains exactly one nanoparticle. After their extraction, neighboring nanoparticles are connected to form a 3D network that is related to the transport of electrons in polymer solar cells. A detailed statistical analysis of the CdSe network morphology is accomplished, which allows deeper insight into the hopping percolation pathways of electrons.

  15. Derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry and its application in trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H. W.; Li, L. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry is an accepted and widely used method for the determination of trace elements in a great variety of samples. But its sensitivity doesn't meet the demands of trace and ultra-trace analysis for some samples. The derivative signal processing technique, with a very high capability for enhancing sensitivity, was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The signal models of conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry are described. The equations of derivative signals are established for flame atomic absorption spectrometry, flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS) and atom trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AT-FAAS). The principle and performance of the derivative atomic absorption spectrometry are evaluated. The derivative technique based on determination of variation rate of signal intensity with time (dl/dt) is different from the derivative spectrophotometry based on determination of variation rate of signal intensity with wavelength (dl/dhλ). Derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry has higher sensitivity, lower detection limits and better accuracy. It has been applied to the direct determination of trace elements without preconcentration. If the derivative technique was combined with several preconcentration techniques, the sensitivity would be enhanced further for ultra-trace analysis with good linearity. The applications of derivative flame atomic absorption spectroscopy are reviewed for trace element analysis in biological, pharmaceutical, environmental and food samples

  16. Neutron Activation Analysis and its role in the quality assurance of the results in the inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.

    2006-01-01

    Because the results are obtained on the basis of the nuclear properties, NAA does not depend on the matrix, co-existing species and their chemical form, like other analytical methods (e.g. spectral or electrochemical) do. Lecture describes theoretical background of the method based on the sample irradiation in the nuclear reactor, radiochemical separation and γ-spectrometry. Historical evolution, selected examples, advantages and limitations of the method are presented. Role of the NAA in certification of the reference materials is described. Radiochemical version od the NAA (i.e. RNAA) applied in the Analytical Department of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw is described in details

  17. Inorganic Contaminants Associated with the Extraction of Unconventional Gas.Initial Analysis and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.; Hurtado, A.; Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are driving a commercial scale extraction of unconventional fossil fuels in various regions of the world. Europe's position in relation to the exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels is this has to be made under a paradigm of coherence between the technical and economic-financial aspects and environments and public trust, which are essential and which will eventually would enable the viability of exploiting these resources.This requires, by those decision makers, both industry and regulators, a comprehensive management of the risks associated with these exploitations, which implies the need to develop tools of analysis and assessment to environmental impact and risk. The exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons in formations of shale requires the creation of a network of artificial fractures to connect with production well Horizontal wells are drilled for this purpose and go on for several km into the shale formation. During drilling, a mixture of oil, gas and formation water is pumped to the surface. The water is separated from oil and gas in tanks or pools. The flowback and produced water contains different kinds of chemicals in varying concentrations: salt, oil and other organic compounds, suspended solids, bacteria, naturally occurring radioactive elements (NORM), and any element injected with the fracturing fluid. The concentration of these elements in the water may be increased due to the treatments suffered by flowback and produced water for disposal. Due to the large variability of contaminants in the flowback and produced water and the potentially large volumes involved, the determination of the its composition is essential for proper management of them and to prevent health, safety and environmental risks. This report covers the risk analysis of an unconventional gas extraction project, the initial assessment of the risks associated with the use and management of

  18. Determination of trace gold in rocks and minerals by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunlong; Zhou Suqing; Liang Yutang

    1988-05-01

    The determination of trace gold in rocks and minerals by neutron activation analysis is described. Two methods are used for pre-separating and concentrating the trace gold in geological samples. one of the methods is that the samples are dissolved in aqua regia solution; activated carbon paper pulp filter is used for pre-separating and concentrating trace gold by dynamic adsorption method; then the activated carbon containing gold was ashed at 650 ∼ 700 deg c. The other method is that the samples are dissolved in aqua regia solution; the polyurethane foam plastic filled with activated carbon is used for pre-separating and concentrating trace gold by dynamic adsorption method; then the foam plastic containing gold was ashed at 650 deg c. The gold in ashes is determinated by neutron activation analysis. The detection limit is 0.004ng/g. The accuracy of the method is examined by gold in reference standard material. The results of this method are in good agreement with the recommended value. For analysis of the trace gold by the methods of instrumental neutron activation analysis and epithermal neutron activation analysis, the interference of 411.8 keV γ-ray from 153 Sm, 152 Eu and fission products of uranium and the correction methods are discussed

  19. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  20. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  1. Inorganic Profiling of Amoxicillin Drugs in Ghana Using Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (Pixe) Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Zurika

    2017-07-01

    The increase of drug counterfeits and its unconscious use has become a major cause for concern to health care practitioners and relevant stakeholders. The occurrence of counterfeit or fake drugs is perceived to be a problem encountered in both developing and underdeveloped nations where Ghana is not an exemption. The lethal implications of counterfeit/fake medications are well understood to be a major challenge to the soundness of public health systems around the world, as well as a direct threat to our individual health and well-being. Sub-standard and counterfeit/fake drugs are a widespread problem in Ghana and the need to address it is eminent. The volume of drugs that require control, from the statutory organisations like Food and Drugs Authority of Ghana (FDA) and Ghana Standard Authority (GSA) is enormous, and hence the need to explore other faster analytical techniques to help control cannot be over emphasised. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Antibiotics are the most counterfeited drugs and Amoxicillin (C 16 H 19 N 3 O 5 S) happened to be ranked first on the list. The most used and prescribed method for drug quality control analysis is the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique which accesses the quality of drugs from its Active Principal Ingredient (API) perspective. The main focus of this study is to harness additional analytical procedure to enhance the routine monitoring of the quality of some Amoxicillin drugs in Ghana from the inorganic constituent point of view. HPLC and the physical parameter tests were carried out on the samples analysed to help validate the interpretation of the inorganic element results from the PIXE technique. Two different local brands of amoxicillin and two imported amoxicillin brands were chosen for this study. A total of 30 samples were analysed for this study including one (1) standard reference material (amoxicillin) acquired from a licenced pharmaceutical company in Ghana. Particle

  2. Analysis of traces at ORNL's new high-flux neutron activation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Handley, T.H.; Dyer, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The investigations are outlined, which are carried out in order to develop (preferably instrumental) methods for multielement analysis of various trace elements. For this reason a new High-Flux NAA Laboratory was constructed at ORNL's. A general review is given on the Laboratory, further some methods and applications are shown. In the field of comparator activation analysis comparative data are given on mercury determinations in various matrices, and on arsenic determination in grasshoppers. This later method was used to trace the transport of arsenic containing pesticides. Some data are given on absolute activation analysis of Na, Ci, Mn, Br, and Au, too. (K.A.)

  3. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  4. Analysis of trace uranium and plutonium in environmental water sample by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of trace Uranium and Plutonium in environmental water is very important in the environment inspect. The preparation method of water samples are introduced and several common used method are compared. The analysis process and the calibration method with ICP-MS are discussed in detail considering present conditions. (author)

  5. Activation analysis of trace metals in several kinds of tissues of even-toed ungulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Sato, S.; Terui, S.; Mitsugashira, T.

    1999-01-01

    The normal concentration levels of trace metals in several kinds of tissues of even-toed ungulates have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, photon activation analysis, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the present work the concentrations of 13 elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, and Zn) were analyzed. (author)

  6. TRACE ANALYSIS BY LASER-EXCITED ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE WITH ATOMIZATION IN A PULSED PLASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lunyov , O.; Oshemkov , S.; Petrov , A.

    1991-01-01

    The possibilities of plasma atomization for laser fluorescence trace analysis are discussed. Pulsed hot hollow cathode discharge was used for analysis of solutions and powdered samples. The high voltage spark and laser-induced breakdown (laser spark) were used as atomizers of metal-containing atmospheric aerosols. Detection limits were improved by means of temporal background selection.

  7. Clean laboratories and clean rooms for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    requirements are summarized of clean laboratory environments, for construction materials as well as for materials used during routine analysis, maintenance, and pitfalls in the analysis of radionuclides and elements at trace- and ultra trace levels. Current methodologies and practices are described for planning the installation of a clean environment as well as protocols for maximizing the benefit-to-cost ratio and for achieving QA/QC. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of radionuclides, and measurement of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA and XRF. Also included are papers contributed by experts from India, the Netherlands, the United States of America and the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf

  8. Evaluations of the CCFL and critical flow models in TRACE for PWR LBLOCA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Hua; Lin, Hao Tzu [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Engineering and System Science; Wang, Jong-Rong [Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2012-12-15

    This study aims to develop the Maanshan Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) analysis model by using the TRACE (TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine) code. By analyzing the Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) sequence, the results are compared with the Maanshan Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) data. The critical flow and Counter Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) play an important role in the overall performance of TRACE LBLOCA prediction. Therefore, the sensitivity study on the discharge coefficients of critical flow model and CCFL modeling among different regions are also discussed. The current conclusions show that modeling CCFL in downcomer has more significant impact on the peak cladding temperature than modeling CCFL in hot-legs does. No CCFL phenomena occurred in the pressurizer surge line. The best value for the multipliers of critical flow model would be 0.5 and the TRACE could consistently predict the break flow rate in the LBLOCA analysis as shown in FSAR. (orig.)

  9. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan

    2017-12-28

    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  11. A Trace-Driven Analysis of Wireless Group Communication Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendar Chandra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless access is increasingly ubiquitous while mobile devices that use them are resource rich. These trends allow wireless users to collaborate with each other. We investigate various group communication paradigms that underly collaboration applications. We synthesize durations when members collaborate using wireless device availability traces. Wireless users operate from a variety of locations. Hence, we analyzed the behavior of wireless users in universities, corporations, conference venues, and city-wide hotspots. We show that the availability durations are longer in corporations followed by university and then in hotspots. The number of simultaneously available wireless users is small in all the scenarios. The session lengths are becoming smaller while the durations between sessions are becoming larger. We observed user churn in all the scenarios. We show that synchronous mechanisms require less effort to maintain update synchronicity among the group members. However, distributed mechanisms require a large number of replicas in order to propagate updates among the users. For asynchronous mechanisms, we show that pull-based mechanisms naturally randomize the times when updates are propagated and thus achieve better performance than push based mechanisms.We develop an adaptive approach that customizes the update frequency using the last session duration and show that this mechanism exhibits good performance when the required update frequency intervals are large. We also show that for a given number of gossips, it is preferable to propagate updates to all available nodes rather than increasing the frequency while correspondingly reducing the number of nodes to propagate updates.We develop a middleware to illustrate the practicality of our approach.

  12. Predicting Individual Characteristics from Digital Traces on Social Media: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Michele; Azucar, Danny; Marengo, Davide

    2018-04-01

    The increasing utilization of social media provides a vast and new source of user-generated ecological data (digital traces), which can be automatically collected for research purposes. The availability of these data sets, combined with the convergence between social and computer sciences, has led researchers to develop automated methods to extract digital traces from social media and use them to predict individual psychological characteristics and behaviors. In this article, we reviewed the literature on this topic and conducted a series of meta-analyses to determine the strength of associations between digital traces and specific individual characteristics; personality, psychological well-being, and intelligence. Potential moderator effects were analyzed with respect to type of social media platform, type of digital traces examined, and study quality. Our findings indicate that digital traces from social media can be studied to assess and predict theoretically distant psychosocial characteristics with remarkable accuracy. Analysis of moderators indicated that the collection of specific types of information (i.e., user demographics), and the inclusion of different types of digital traces, could help improve the accuracy of predictions.

  13. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  14. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.

    2010-01-01

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  15. Static secondary ion mass spectrometry for organic and inorganic molecular analysis in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Rita van; Vaeck, Luc van; Adriaens, Annemie; Adams, Freddy

    2003-01-01

    The use of mass spectra in secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) to characterise the molecular composition of inorganic and organic analytes at the surface of solid samples is investigated. Methodological aspects such as mass resolution, mass accuracy, precision and accuracy of isotope abundance measurements, influence of electron flooding and sample morphology are addressed to assess the possibilities and limitations that the methodology can offer to support the structural assignment of the detected ions. The in-sample and between-sample reproducibility of relative peak intensities under optimised conditions is within 10%, but experimental conditions and local hydration, oxidation or contamination can drastically affect the mass spectra. As a result, the use of fingerprinting for identification becomes compromised. Therefore, the preferred way of interpretation becomes the deductive structural approach, based on the use of the empirical desorption-ionisation model. This approach is shown to allow the molecular composition of inorganic and organic components at the surface of solids to be characterised. Examples of inorganic speciation and identification of organic additives with unknown composition in inorganic salt mixtures are given. The methodology is discussed in terms of foreseen developments with respect to the use of polyatomic primary ions

  16. Ar39 Detection at the 10-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-03-01

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar39 (half-life=269yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8×10-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  17. Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.; Subhani, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

  18. Coulometric precise analysis of total inorganic carbon in seawater and measurements of radiocarbon for the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and for the total inorganic carbon in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masao; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Matsueda Hidekazu

    2000-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest issues on the earth, and the research on the climate system has been paid much attention today. The behavior of carbon dioxide (Co 2 ), one of the major green house gases, and its related substances within and among the atmosphere, the ocean and the land biosphere is playing a key role in regulating the climate. The ocean contains ca. 4x10 19 g of carbon, which is about 50 times of that in the atmosphere. The change in carbon cycle in the ocean is considered to have a crucial impact on the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere. However, little has been quantitatively known about the variability of CO 2 in the ocean and its controlling physical, chemical and biological processes. The observations of the concentration and carbon isotopic ratio of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO 2 ) in seawater occupy important part of the research on the behavior of carbon in the ocean. In the first part of this report, we describe the fundamental knowledge of CO 2 system in seawater and the method to precisely measure TCO 2 including sampling method, the structure and the operation of the instrument we developed, and the way to assure the quality of the data. We also present some results we obtained in the western North Pacific and the equatorial Pacific. In the second part, we report the methods to collect and treat samples for the analysis of the isotopic ratio of radio carbon ( 14 C) in the atmospheric CO 2 and TCO 2 in sea water. (author)

  19. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  20. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-04-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  1. The ultimate response guideline simulation and analysis by using (TRACE) for Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Shao-Wen; Wang, Jong-Rong; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, HsinChu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this research, the TRACE/SNAP model of Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) has been established for the simulation and analysis of ultimate response guideline (URG). The main actions of URG are depressurization and low pressure water injection of reactor and containment venting. This research focuses to assess the URG utility of Lungmen NPP under Fukushima-like conditions. This study consists of three steps. The first step is the establishment of Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In order to evaluate the system response of TRACE/SNAP model, FSAR data (MSIV closure and loss of feedwater flow transient) were used to compare with the results of TRACE. The second step is the URG simulation and analysis under Fukushima-like conditions by using Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In this step, the no URG case was also performed in order to evaluate the URG effectiveness of Lungmen NPP. In order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, the final step is FRAPTRAN analysis. According to TRACE analysis results, the URG can keep the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below the criteria 1088.7 K under Fukushima-like conditions which indicates that Lungmen NPP can be controlled in a safe situation. Nevertheless, if Lungmen NPP does not perform the URG under Fukushima-like conditions, the water level may drop lower than TAF after 1100 s which means a safety issue about the fuel rods may be generated. The analysis results of FRAPTRAN also indicate the integrity of fuel rods cannot be kept under the above conditions.

  2. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  4. Correlation analysis of trace elemental data obtained from blood sera of ovarian cancer patients using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.G.; Sarita, P.; Naga Raju, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is used for analysis of trace elements present in the blood sera of ovarian cancer patients and healthy controls. This work is also intended to establish the role played by trace elements in carcinogenic process. It is observed that the concentrations of elements Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Rb and Sr are lower and the concentration of Cu is higher in the cancer patients when compared to controls. However, no change in concentration is found in the elements Co, Zn, As, Se and Br. Correlation analysis of the data using SPSS 16.0 has revealed a strong positive correlation between Ti-V, Ni-Co, Cu-Fe, As-Ti, Br-Ti, Br-V and Sr-Fe while strong negative correlations are observed for Cu-Ti, As-Cu and Br-Cu. Changes in trace elemental content are probably associated with ovarian carcinogenesis. (author)

  5. Determination of trace elements in cigarette and tobacco by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the concentration of 22 trace elements in cigarette and tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis in which multielements can be analyzed simultaneously with high sensitivity and reliability as well as easy and rapid. It is well known that, trace toxic elements with high concentration may be harmful for health of smokers. Since they might damage the respiratory system and might cause other diseases. The finding for this report can be used as the basis of further study on toxic of trace elements to the smoker. The results of this analysis show that the bromine content in all samples is significantly high, but the concentration of the other elements are varying from one to another. Bromine concentration might come from soil and/or smoked tobacco leaves with methyl bromide as fungicide

  6. Mass spectrometric methods for trace analysis of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Schulten, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief outline is given of the principles of mass spectrometry (MS) and the fundamentals of qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometric analysis emphasizing recent developments and results. Classical methods of the analysis of solids, i.e. spark-source MS and thermal ionization MS, as well as recent methods of metal analysis are described. Focal points in this survey of recently developed techniques include secondary ion MS, laser probe MS, plasma ion source MS, gas discharge MS and field desorption MS. Here, a more detailed description is given and the merits of these emerging methods are discussed more explicitly. In particular, the results of the field desorption techniques in elemental analyses are reviewed and critically evaluated

  7. Formal analysis of empirical traces in incident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogendoorn, Mark; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Maanen, Peter-Paul van; Sharpanskykh, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Within the field of incident management split second decisions have to be made, usually on the basis of incomplete and partially incorrect information. As a result of these conditions, errors occur in such decision processes. In order to avoid repetition of such errors, historic cases, disaster plans, and training logs need to be thoroughly analysed. This paper presents a formal approach for such an analysis that pays special attention to spatial and temporal aspects, to information exchange, and to organisational structure. The formal nature of the approach enables automation of analysis, which is illustrated by case studies of two disasters

  8. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S. E.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  9. Particle-induced X-ray emission: thick-target analysis of inorganic materials in the determination of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Arantegui, J.; Castillo, J.R.; Querre, G.

    1994-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been applied to the analysis of inorganic materials to determine some elements with Z < 27: Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe, in thick-target analysis. A PIXE method has been developed for the analysis of geological materials, ceramics and pottery. Work has been carried out with an ion beam analytical system, using a low particle beam energy. Relative sensitivity, detection limits, reproducibility and accuracy of the method were calculated based on the analysis of geological standard materials (river sediments, argillaceous limestone, basalt, diorite and granite). Analysis using PIXE offers a number of advantages, such as short analysis time, multi-elemental and nondestructive determinations, and the results are similar to those obtained with other instrumental techniques of analysis. (Author)

  10. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  11. Resonant laser mass spectrometry for environmental and industrial chemical trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesl, Ulrich; Rink, Joerg; Distelrath, Volker; Pueffel, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A promising new method for pollutant trace analysis is resonant laser mass spectrometry. It combines selectivity, sensitivity, and speed of measurement. In this paper, two examples of application are presented: exhaust analysis of combustion engines and analysis of polycylcic aromatic compounds in soil samples. The sensitivity of small, mobile instruments is discussed as well as alternative laser-based techniques in the case formation of cations by nanosecond lasers is improbable

  12. Trace element analysis at the Livermore pool-type reactor using neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Ralston, R.; Garvis, D.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of trace element analysis at the Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) are discussed. A description is given of the technology and the methods employed, including sample preparation, irradiation, and analysis. Applications of the INAA technique in past and current projects are described. A computer program, GAMANAL, has been used for nuclide identification and quantification. (U.S.)

  13. Speciation Analysis of Trace Mercury in Sea Cucumber Species of Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Conjunction With Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Luo, Jiaoyang; Ding, Tong; Gu, Shanyong; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2018-03-25

    In this paper, a simple and cost-effective method using high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for analysis speciation of trace mercury in sea cucumber species of Apostichopus japonicus. The effective separation of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury was achieved within 10 min using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C 18 analytical and guard columns with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 8% methanol and 92% H 2 O containing 0.12% L-cysteine (m/v) and 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate. Mercury species were extracted from A. japonicus samples using a solution containing 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, and hydrochloric acid and sonicating for 0.5 h. The limits of detection of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury were 0.12, 0.08, and 0.20 μg/L, and the minimum detectable concentrations (measured at 0.500 g sample volume in 10.00 mL) were 2.4, 1.6, and 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Analysis of a scallop certified reference material (GBW 10024) revealed accordance between the experimental and certified values. This study provides a reference for the evaluation of mercury speciation in sea cucumber and other seafood.

  14. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akoto Bamford, Samuel; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Aboh, I.J.; Odamtten, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is currently going on to determine the suitability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The study areas being investigated are the gold-mining areas situated in the Moist Evergreen and Semi-Deciduous forests in Ghana. The nuclear analytical techniques being used in this work are instrumental neutron activation analysis and tube-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The present report covers results of quality control exercise carried out to validate the quantitative methods being used. This includes our participation in an intercomparison exercise carried out among participants of the IAEA coordinated research project. The samples analyzed were two lichen samples from two completely different areas using neutron activation analysis. Only short- and medium-lived irradiations were carried out. Satisfactory results were obtained for most of the elements identified and quantified. (author)

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.

    1975-06-01

    The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)

  16. Factor analysis of combined organic and inorganic aerosol mass spectra from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the merged high resolution mass spectra of organic and inorganic aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements to investigate the sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosols in New York City in summer 2009. This new approach is able to study the distribution of organic and inorganic species in different types of aerosols, the acidity of organic aerosol (OA factors, and the fragment ion patterns related to photochemical processing. In this study, PMF analysis of the unified AMS spectral matrix resolved 8 factors. The hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and cooking OA (COA factors contain negligible amounts of inorganic species. The two factors that are primarily ammonium sulfate (SO4-OA and ammonium nitrate (NO3-OA, respectively, are overall neutralized. Among all OA factors the organic fraction of SO4-OA shows the highest degree of oxidation (O/C = 0.69. Two semi-volatile oxygenated OA (OOA factors, i.e., a less oxidized (LO-OOA and a more oxidized (MO-OOA, were also identified. MO-OOA represents local photochemical products with a diurnal profile exhibiting a pronounced noon peak, consistent with those of formaldehyde (HCHO and Ox(= O3 + NO2. The NO+/NO2+ ion ratio in MO-OOA is much higher than that in NO3-OA and in pure ammonium nitrate, indicating the formation of organic nitrates. The nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA factor contains ~25% of acidic inorganic salts, suggesting the formation of secondary OA via acid-base reactions of amines. The size distributions of OA factors derived from the size-resolved mass spectra show distinct diurnal evolving behaviors but overall a progressing evolution from smaller to larger particle mode as the oxidation degree of OA increases. Our results demonstrate that PMF analysis of the unified aerosol mass spectral matrix which contains both

  17. Screen-printed electro grafted electrode for trace uranium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betelu, St.; Vautrin-Ui, Ch.; Chausse, A. [Univ Evry Val Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS CEA, UMR 8587, F-91025 Evry, (France); Ly, J. [CEA, L3MR, Ctr Etud Saclay, DEN DANS DPC SECR, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the interest of the novel 4-carboxyphenyl-grafted screen-printed electrodes (4-CP-SPEs) for sub-nano-molar analysis of uranium in water samples. Electrodes were easily prepared via electrochemically reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. The stability of the grafted layer has been clearly demonstrated. Uranium detection was then achieved by immersing the grafted electrode into the sample solution, followed by the electrochemical measurement of adsorbed U(VI) by square wave voltammetry. Adsorption time was investigated so as to find the best compromise between analysis time, repeatability and reproducibility. Limit of detection and quantitation reached 7 * 10{sup -10} and 2 * 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} respectively. Moreover, interference study was conducted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II); no major interference was established. 4-CP-SPEs were finally applied for uranium determination in estuarine water demonstrating the convenience of these electrodes for environmental analysis. (authors)

  18. Trace analysis in the food and beverage industry by capillary gas chromatography: system performance and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M A

    1988-04-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) is the most widely used analytical technique in the food and beverage industry. This paper addresses the problems of sample preparation and system maintenance to ensure the most sensitive, durable, and efficient results for trace analysis by GC in this industry.

  19. Archaeological significance of trace element analysis of South West African potsherds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boule, G.J.; Peisach, M.; Jacobson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The archaeological study of early population movements in South West Africa/Namibia has been aided by trace element analysis of potsherds. The results suggest that the central areas of the country were populated by mobile groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, while the northern areas were settled by sedentary peoples [af

  20. Potential interferences inherent in neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornells, R.; Hoste, J.; Versieck, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of how neutron-activation analysis for trace elements in biological matrices can be jeopardized by radiation damage, by the impurities present in the packing material or by nuclear interferences of major elements. Systematic errors during the counting process and the quantitative interpretation of the γ-ray spectra should not be disregarded. (author)

  1. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  2. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  3. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O'Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Florida Univ., Gainesville; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex. (orig.)

  4. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelovali, M.C.; Guenduez, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 20 trace elements in nine brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco and in a brand of pipe tobacco ash has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The percent transference of elements into smoke has been estimated from the amounts remaining in the ash. (author)

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis to trace elements determinations in lung samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply the instrumental neutron activation analysis method to determine trace elements in lung samples from smokers and non smokers. Samples of lung tissues and lymph nodes from pulmonary hilum analyzed were collected from autopsies by researchers from Faculdade de Medicina da USP. (author)

  6. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  7. Trace element concentrations in human bone using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amri, F.A.; El-Kabroun, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to analyze 23 bone samples obtained from Libyan patient aged (3-80) years for the study of the concentration levels of trace elements Ba, Br, Ca, Fe, Sr and Zn and their concentration patterns regarding to the age and sex of the patients. (author)

  8. Trace elements monitored with neutron activation analysis durig neurodegeneration in brains of mutant mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kranda, Karel; Kučera, Jan; Bäurle, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 3 (2006), s. 555-559 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : trace elements * neutron activation analysis * brain neurodegeneration * mutant mice Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2006

  9. Characterization of elements in trace amounts in imperial topaz through neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ester Figueiredo de; Sabioni, Antonio C. S.; Ferreira, Cesar M.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the mineral characterization of the elements in trace amounts of imperial topaz, original form Mina Capao da Lama, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, through the neutron activation analysis. Recent results have permitted to quantify Cr, Cs, Mn, Na, Ga, Sb and Au. The main goal of this study is the contribution to the mineral and gemological research of the imperial topaz

  10. Determination of trace elements in biological material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen trace elements in biological materials [grass (Imperata cylindrica), mimosa plant (Mimosa pudica), rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis the content of the same element was different in each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. Radiotracer investigation of the cold-vapour atomic absorption method of analysis for trace mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Because of certain problems found in application of the atomic absorption method for trace analysis of mercury, a careful check of the procedures used was undertaken, with radiotracer mercury to facilitate the investigation. The results obtained, in conjunction with those of sample ashing procedures, indicate that the method is less straightforward than its simplicity suggests. (Auth.)

  12. Trace element analysis in liquids by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.

    Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) from liquid has been developed for quantitative and simultaneous analysis of trace elements. Liquid drops and trickles are bombarded at atmospheric pressure, x-rays are detected in a non dispersive Si(Li) solid state detector. Absolute determinations are made by comparison with standard solutions. Detection limits in a 5 minutes run are in the ppm range for a single drop (0.05 ml). The application of this technique to the determination of trace elements in biological liquids is investigated (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, in plant extracts, haemocyanine, albumins...). (author)

  13. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  14. Fuzzy cluster analysis on trace elements of Hangzhou Jiaotan Guan Porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Liu Youe; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    Forty samples of South Song 'Jiaotan Guankiln' are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The 36 trace element contents in every sample are determined. This trace elements are analyzed by fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that the source of glaze raw material of South Song Guan porcelain is clearly different from that of the body raw material. For Guan kiln of South Song dynasty there was a very stable and lasting source of raw material of glaze and body. The archaeological problems are clarified. The glaze material and body material of modern Guan porcelain are different from those of the ancient Guan Porcelain

  15. Analysis of Hair Trace Elements in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The primary objective of the present study is analysis of hair trace elements content in children with communication disorder (CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 99 children from control, CD, and ASD groups (n = 33) were examined. All children were additionally divided into two subgroups according to age. Hair levels of trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The difference was considered significant at p elements including the toxic ones, it can be proposed that children suffering from ASD are characterized by more profound alteration of metal handling and excretion in comparison to CD.

  16. Detecting errors in micro and trace analysis by using statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1993-01-01

    By assigning a standard deviation to each step in an analytical method it is possible to predict the standard deviation of each analytical result obtained by this method. If the actual variability of replicate analytical results agrees with the expected, the analytical method is said...... to be in statistical control. Significant deviations between analytical results from different laboratories reveal the presence of systematic errors, and agreement between different laboratories indicate the absence of systematic errors. This statistical approach, referred to as the analysis of precision, was applied...

  17. Determination of trace impurities in iron-based alloy using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Waheed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed and applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in iron-based alloy. A comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated a significant improvement in the detection limits. The extensive use of these alloys in the heavy mechanical industry, manufacturing of aircraft engines, nuclear applications, medical devices and chemical equipment requires their precise characterization. The concentration of iron in the iron-based alloy was found to be 86.7%, whereas Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, V and W were the other constituents of the alloy, which constituted to around 12.89%. The rest of the elements were present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements were also present in trace amounts. (orig.)

  18. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  19. Trace drug analysis by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Lee, Vincent Y.

    2000-12-01

    Drug overdose involves more than 10 percent of emergency room (ER) cases, and a method to rapidly identify and quantify the abused drug is critical to the ability of the ER physician to administer the appropriate care. To this end, we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman (SER) active material capable of detecting target drugs at physiological concentrations in urine. The SER-active material consists of a metal-doped sol-gel that provides not only a million fold increase in sensitivity but also reproducible measurements. The porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing SER active metal particles and the high surface area increase the interaction between the analyte and metal particles. The sol-gel has been coated on the inside walls of glass samples vials, such that urine specimens may simply be introduced for analysis. Here we present the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of a series of barbiturates, actual urine specimens, and a drug 'spiked' urine specimen. The utility of pH adjustment to suppress dominant biochemicals associated with urine is also presented.

  20. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  1. Application of the neutron activation analysis method for determing trace elements in Brazilian food sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase of consciousness about the importance of trace elements in human health and disease as well as rising concern about food contamination. The development of sensitive, accurate and price methods is one of the most important of the knowledge of trace elements contents in foods and in biological samples. Neutron activation analysis is one of the most suitable tecniques because a great number of elements can be determined in concentrations in the range of μg/g to ng/g. The present work is a part of an AIEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the applications of nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Neutron activation analysis is applied to analysis of bread, milk powder and rice that are considered essential foods in the Brazilian diet. Some aspects of the activation analysis of biological matrices are discussed. (author) [pt

  2. High precision analysis of trace lithium isotope by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lei; Liu Xuemei; Long Kaiming; Liu Zhao; Yang Tianli

    2010-01-01

    High precision analysis method of ng lithium by thermal ionization mass spectrometry is developed. By double-filament measurement,phosphine acid ion enhancer and sample pre-baking technique,the precision of trace lithium analysis is improved. For 100 ng lithium isotope standard sample, relative standard deviation is better than 0.086%; for 10 ng lithium isotope standard sample, relative standard deviation is better than 0.90%. (authors)

  3. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto

    2002-01-01

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  4. Fast and sensitive trace analysis of malachite green using a surface-enhanced Raman microfluidic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Junghyun; Chen, Lingxin; Park, Byungchoon; Kyong, Jin Burm; Seong, Gi Hun; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yeonjung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eun Kyu; Joo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Hee

    2007-05-08

    A rapid and highly sensitive trace analysis technique for determining malachite green (MG) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic sensor was investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A zigzag-shaped PDMS microfluidic channel was fabricated for efficient mixing between MG analytes and aggregated silver colloids. Under the optimal condition of flow velocity, MG molecules were effectively adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles while flowing along the upper and lower zigzag-shaped PDMS channel. A quantitative analysis of MG was performed based on the measured peak height at 1615 cm(-1) in its SERS spectrum. The limit of detection, using the SERS microfluidic sensor, was found to be below the 1-2 ppb level and this low detection limit is comparable to the result of the LC-Mass detection method. In the present study, we introduce a new conceptual detection technology, using a SERS microfluidic sensor, for the highly sensitive trace analysis of MG in water.

  5. Trace elements in high purity materials for advanced technology: contribution of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallorini, M.; Pietra, R.; Sabbioni, E.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical techniques have been employed to investigate problems related to trace elements and high purity technology materials. Applications of these techniques are overviewed: semiconductor technology as in the case of As and In ion implantation in high purity silicon; problems related to trace elements impurities in thermometric measurements; coating materials to prevent trace elements contamination in biological sampling and metals release from human prostheses. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 8 tabs

  6. Sample handling and chemical procedures for efficacious trace analysis of urine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.; Roman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Important for the determination of trace elements, ions, or compounds in urine by chemical neutron activation analysis is the optimization of sample handling, preirradiation chemistry, and radioassay procedures necessary for viable analysis. Each element, because of its natural abundance in the earth's crust and, hence, its potential for reagent and environmental contamination, requires specific procedures for storage, handling, and preirradiation chemistry. Radioassay techniques for radionuclides vary depending on their half-lives and decay characteristics. Described in this paper are optimized procedures for aluminum and selenium. While 28 Al (T 1/2 = 2.24 min) and 77m Se(T 1/2 = 17.4s) have short half-lives, their gamma-ray spectra are quite different. Aluminum-28 decays by a 1779-keV gamma and 77m Se by a 162-keV gamma. Unlike selenium, aluminum is a ubiquitous element in the environment requiring special handling to minimize contamination in all phases of its analytical determination

  7. Preparation and analysis of zero gases for the measurement of trace VOCs in air monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Jennifer; Claude, Anja; Demichelis, Alessia; Persijn, Stefan; Baldan, Annarita; Li, Jianrong; Plass-Duelmer, Christian; Michl, Katja; Tensing, Erasmus; Wortman, Rina; Ghorafi, Yousra; Lecuna, Maricarmen; Sassi, Guido; Sassi, Maria Paola; Kubistin, Dagmar

    2018-06-01

    Air quality observations are performed globally to monitor the status of the atmosphere and its level of pollution and to assess mitigation strategies. Regulations of air quality monitoring programmes in various countries demand high-precision measurements for harmful substances often at low trace concentrations. These requirements can only be achieved by using high-quality calibration gases including high-purity zero gas. For volatile organic compound (VOC) observations, zero gas is defined as being hydrocarbon-free and can be, for example, purified air, nitrogen or helium. It is essential for the characterisation of the measurement devices and procedures, for instrument operation as well as for calibrations. Two commercial and one self-built gas purifiers were tested for their VOC removal efficiency following a standardised procedure. The tested gas purifiers included one adsorption cartridge with an inorganic media and two types of metal catalysts. A large range of VOCs were investigated, including the most abundant species typically measured at air monitoring stations. Both catalysts were able to remove a large range of VOCs whilst the tested adsorption cartridge was not suitable to remove light compounds up to C4. Memory effects occurred for the adsorption cartridge when exposed to higher concentration. This study emphasises the importance of explicitly examining a gas purifier for its intended application before applying it in the field.

  8. Pentafluorobenzyl bromide-A versatile derivatization agent in chromatography and mass spectrometry: I. Analysis of inorganic anions and organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-02-01

    Pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) is a versatile derivatization agent. It is widely used in chromatography and mass spectrometry since several decades. The bromide atom is largely the single leaving group of PFB-Br. It is substituted by wide a spectrum of nucleophiles in aqueous and non-aqueous systems to form electrically neutral, in most organic solvents soluble, generally thermally stable, volatile, strongly electron-capturing and ultraviolet light-absorbing derivatives. Because of these greatly favoured physicochemical properties, PFB-Br emerged an ideal derivatization agent for highly sensitive analysis of endogenous and exogenous substances including various inorganic and organic anions by electron capture detection or after electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization in GC-MS. The present article attempts an appraisal of the utility of PFB-Br in analytical chemistry. It reviews and discusses papers dealing with the use of PFB-Br as the derivatization reagent in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of endogenous and exogenous inorganic anions in various biological samples, notably plasma, urine and saliva. These analytes include nitrite, nitrate, cyanide and dialkyl organophosphates. Special emphasis is given to mass spectrometry-based approaches and stable-isotope dilution techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for differentiating inorganic and organic C in a variety of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Mayes, Melanie A.; Heal, Katherine R.; Brice, Deanne J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) along with multivariate analysis was used to differentiate between the total carbon (C), inorganic C, and organic C in a set of 58 different soils from 5 soil orders. A 532 nm laser with 45 mJ of laser power was used to excite the 58 samples of soil and the emission of all the elements present in the soil samples was recorded in a single spectrum with a wide wavelength range of 200–800 nm. The results were compared to the laboratory standard technique, e.g., combustion on a LECO-CN analyzer, to determine the true values for total C, inorganic C, and organic C concentrations. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the characteristic spectra of soils containing different amounts of organic and inorganic C, and 2) to examine the viability of this technique for differentiating between soils that contain predominantly organic and/or inorganic C content for a range of diverse soils. Previous work has shown that LIBS is an accurate and reliable approach to measuring total carbon content of soils, but it remains uncertain whether inorganic and organic forms of carbon can be separated using this approach. Total C and inorganic C exhibited correlation with rock-forming elements such as Al, Si, Fe, Ti, Ca, and Sr, while organic C exhibited minor correlation with these elements and a major correlation with Mg. We calculated a figure of merit (Mg/Ca) based on our results to enable differentiation between inorganic versus organic C. We obtained the LIBS validation prediction for total, inorganic, and organic C to have a coefficient of regression, r 2 = 0.91, 0.87, and 0.91 respectively. These examples demonstrate an advance in LIBS-based techniques to distinguish between organic and inorganic C using the full wavelength spectra. - Highlights: • This research has successfully identified the organic and inorganic carbon in soil. • Multivariate analysis was used to show success in building a statistical model. • Can be used to

  10. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  11. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  12. Critical review of forensic trace evidence analysis and the need for a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The historical development, contributions and limitations of the two traditional approaches to trace evidence analysis are reviewed. The first approach was as generalist practitioner, looking broadly at an assemblage of many different particle types. The second was that of specialist practitioner, with attention focused on one specific particle type. Four factors have significantly impacted the effectiveness of these approaches: (1) increasing technological capabilities, (2) increasing complexity in the character of manufactured materials, (3) changes in forensic laboratory management, and (4) changing scientific and legal expectations. The effectiveness of each approach is assessed within the context of these changes. More recently, new technologies have been applied to some trace evidence problems, intended to address one or more limitations. This has led to a third approach founded on discrete, highly technical methods addressing specific analytical problems. After evaluating the contributions and limitations of this third approach, we consider the different ways that technologies could be developed to address unmet needs in forensic trace evidence analysis. The route toward effective use of new technologies is contrasted with how forensic science laboratories are currently choosing and employing them. The conclusion is that although new technologies are contributing, we are not on a path that will result in their most effective and appropriate use. A new approach is required. Based on an analysis of the contributions of each of the three exisiting approaches, seven characteristics of an effective trace evidence analysis capability were determined: (1) particle traces should be a major problem-solving tool, (2) there should be readily available, straightforward methods to enable their use, (3) all available and potentially useful particle types should be considered, (4) decisions to use them should be made in the context of each case, guided by what they can

  13. Application of the neutron activation analysis technique in trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective in this study is the implementation k 0 -standardization method (single comparator method) using gold comparator as a routine method in neutron activation analysis laboratory in Engineering Nuclear Department. Cadmium ratio Rcd; Cd-ratio = [A s p/(A s p) C d] and the nuclear reactor constants (f=φ t h/φ e pi subcadimum thermal- to- epithermal neutron flux ratio and α with describing the φ e (E)∼ 1/E 1+α neutron flux distribution) were determined in the inner and outer irradiation sites at MNS Reactor. K 0 -IAEA software, which provided by the Agency, has been installed and applied in our laboratory. Trace elements in many kinds of samples (biological, environmental, alloy ...etc) were determined using K 0 -IAEA software. The results of standard reference materials (SRM's) obtained in this work show a good agreement with the certified values, and we got these results with a good accuracy closer to results which we got from relative NAA method. (author)

  14. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  15. Speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic by magnetic solid phase extraction on-line with inductively coupled mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Leal, P; Vereda Alonso, E; López Guerrero, M M; Cordero, M T Siles; Cano Pavón, J M; García de Torres, A

    2018-07-01

    Arsenic, one of the main environmental pollutants and potent natural poison, is a chemical element that is spread throughout the Earth's crust. It is well known that the toxicity of arsenic is highly dependent on its chemical forms. Generally, the inorganic species are more toxic than its organics forms, and As(III) is 60 times more toxic than As(V). In environmental waters, arsenic exists predominantly in two chemical forms: As(III) and As(V). In view of these facts, fast, sensitive, accurate and simple analytical methods for the speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental waters are required. In this work, a new magnetic solid phase extraction with a hydride generation system was coupled on line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MSPE-HG-ICP-MS). The new system was based on the retention of As(III) and As(V) in two knotted reactors filled with (Fe 3 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with [1,5-bis (2-pyridyl) 3-sulfophenylmethylene] thiocarbonohydrazide (PSTH-MNPs). As(III) and total inorganic As were sequentially eluted in different reduction conditions. The concentration of As(V) was obtained by subtracting As(III) from total As. The system runs in a fully automated way and the method has proved to have a wide linear range and to be precise, sensitive and fast. The detection limits found were 2.7 and 3.2 ng/L for As(III) and total As, respectively; with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.5% and 2.7% and a sample throughput of 14.4 h -1 . In order to validate the developed method, several certified reference samples of environmental waters including sea water, were analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in well-water and sea water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace elemental composition of Nigerian coal measured by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiokwere, Ch.L.; Guinn, V.P.; Burtner, D.

    1983-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique has been used to determine 17 major, minor and trace elements in samples of the three major sources of Nigerian coal. The NBS Standard Reference Material, Coal SRM 1632, was also analyzed, for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of the method. The concentrations of the major elements determined for the Nigerian coal were found to be much lower than the mean values of those reported for coal samples from other parts of the world. (author)

  17. Determination of trace elements in a cigarette paper by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.; Khalkhali, Zh.; Razeghi, M.; Parsa, B.

    The concentration of 19 trace elements in a cigarette paper (Zig-Zag Paper Company, France) which is used in making different brands of Iranian cigarettes, has been measured by neutron activation analysis, employing a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. They include Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Sr, Sb, Ba, Ce, Eu, Gd, Au, Hg, and Th. (author)

  18. Determination of trace element impurities in aspirin tablets by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.; Klein, D.E.; Bauer, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five trace and minor elements in five different Egyptian aspirin brands (Aspo, Askin, Aspocid, Aspeol and Rivo) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was concluded that the concentration of As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Fe (except in Aspocid), Mg, Mn, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn in the Egyptian brands is below or within the concentration range reported for these elements in 16 American aspirin and aspirin-like brands. (author)

  19. An Angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through Evolutionary Trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    to be completely resolved. Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis is a computational method, which identifies clusters of functionally important residues by integrating information on evolutionary important residue variations with receptor structure. Combined with known mutational data, ET predicted a patch of residues......) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...

  20. X-ray fluorescence analysis for trace element determination in foodstuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildanger, W.

    The physical fundamentals of X-ray fluorescence analysis are given and the routine spectrometers described. The basic principles are given of analytical methods used in qualitative and quantitative fluorescence analyses. Examples are given of the use of the method in a number of fields and the possibility and usefulness is discussed for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs. The preparation of samples, preliminary concentration of components and calibration methods are discussed. (M.K.)

  1. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Correction for interelement effect in X-Ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Behay, A.Z.; Attawiya, M.Y.; Khattab, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    In a trial to obtain accurate results from X-ray fluorescence technique for the analysis of trace elements in geological materials, two corrections were used for the obtained data, namely, correction for the observed x-ray intensities for absorption and/or enhancement effects due to the presence of other elements in the system and correction for spectral deconvolution to account for the overlapping lines. Significant improvement in the precision and accuracy was obtained and evaluated

  3. Analysis of trace elements by means of accelerator secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of material composition and trace element concentration is of increasing interest primarily in semiconductor technology but also in metallurgy, geology, biology and medicine. At present, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is in many respects the best technique to provide 3-dimensional information on the distribution of trace elements with concentrations below 1 ppm. However, due to the presence of molecular ions the detectability of many trace elements it restricted because of molecular mass interferences. In addition, detectors used in SIMS have a background counting rate of 0.1-1 Hz, which further limits trace element analysis. In Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) long-lived radionuclides are detected free of molecular interferences and detector background at isotopic ratios as low as 10 -15 . Moreover, isobaric interferences can be reduced as well. In order to benefit from these advantages a combination of SIMS and AMS (Accelerator SIMS) has been proposed almost 20 years ago, but no facility has ever been fully developed. It has been the aim of this work to add a new sputtering chamber for AMS measurements of ultrapure semiconductor material to the existing PSI/ETH AMS facility. To fulfill the requirements of material analysis, an UHV chamber with special precautions against contamination has been built and adapted to the existing AMS setup. For sputtering, a commercial Cs gun with an ExB filter and a 1 o beam bend for neutral particle suppression is used to obtain a pure Cs ion beam. The gun is equipped with different apertures for varying the diameter of the beam spot. With the integrated scanning unit the 10 keV Cs beam can be rastered over approximately 1 mm 2 . This allows different applications such as bulk analysis, depth profiling and imaging. The secondary ion extraction is matched to the ion optical and geometrical requirements of the existing accelerator mass spectrometer. (author) figs., tabs., 67 refs

  4. Determination of trace elements in seawater using Mg-scavenger as preconcentration agent, and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine trace elements in seawater, a preconsentration method based on coprecipitation on Mg(OH) 2 is presented. Different parameters influencing the carrying effects have been investigated using model solutions and radioactive tracers. The deposit and solution are separated by filtration. Filter with deposit is stored in quarts ampules for later determination of trace elements by means of neutron activation analysis

  5. State of the art in sample preparation for trace element analysis (M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The accelerated capabilities of modern trace element analysis techniques, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), have challenged the sample preparation competence of most laboratories. Exceptional analytical sensitivity, remarkable analysis speed, automated sample presentation, and intelligent sample sequencing of modern spectroscopic instrumentation have lead to demanding requirements for appropriate sample preparation steps needed for ultra trace concentration and speciation measurements. Contamination control, reliable digestion and extraction techniques, presentation of chemical forms, sample matrix management, and intelligent sample processing available today are often inadequate for the most demanding measurements. Some commercial instrumentation provides convenient implementation of well-established contamination control measures, and reagent and container purity are steadily being improved. Direct sample introduction approaches offer alternatives to conventional solution samples, but achieving calibration reliability is difficult. Developing new sample preparation chemistry is especially arduous and rare, yet progress exists in characterizing microwave-assisted reactions. This presentation will describe contemporary targets for modern sample preparation approaches for ultra trace elemental analysis and the likelihood that they can be reasonably achieved. (author)

  6. Distribution of trace elements in whole blood of Syrian lymphomas patients using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, M. A.; Serhil, A.; Mohammad, A.; Habil, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there had been much interest in the concentrations of trace metals occurring in human and animal tissues and in the manner in which these concentrations may alter in malignant and other diseases. Neutron activation analysis is consider one of several methods that have been described for the determination of trace elements in biological materials. This method possesses the sensitivity and specificity necessary for the estimation at the concentrations existing naturally in most tissues, particularly when only small samples are available for analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare blood concentrations of trace elements Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn of lymphomas Syrian patients with those of healthy volunteers. Also, determine the relationships between trace elements concentration and the histological type of lymphomas. The blood samples were collected from 39 healthy volunteers and 49 patients with histologically confirmed lymphomas (29 Hodgkin's HL and 20 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas NHL), and analyzed to obtain the concentration of the trace elements in blood. Then, comparison between the healthy volunteers and lymphomas patients (both HL and NHL) was made to elucidate differences of the concentration distributions of the elements in blood. However, statistical analysis using Student's t test revealed significantly high concentrations of Co, Cr, Sc, and Th in lymphoma patients. Whereas Fe and Rb were found significantly decreased in lymphomas patient comparing to control group. Increasing or decreasing concentrations of Se and Zn in lymphoma patients was found not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas patients reveled that Co, Cr, Sc, and Th were significantly elevated whereas, Rb only one trace element was decreased and all change in concentrations (elevating or decreasing) of Se and Zn were not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and Hodgkin

  7. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Zarzycki, Jan; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon (Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2) concentrations. Several uptake systems facilitate inorganic carbon accumulation in the cell, which can in turn be fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine (alpha) cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters. These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels. In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.

  8. Trace-Element Analysis by Use of PIXE Technique on Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Makisaka, K.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Matsumiya, R.; Fujita, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2009-10-01

    In order to examine whether a trace-element analysis by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) gives a clue to identify production area of agricultural products, we carried out a study on soy beans as an example. In the present study, a proton beam at the energy of 2.3MeV was provided by Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. We used a Ge detector with Be window to measure X-ray spectra. We prepared sample soy beans from China, Thailand, Taiwan, and 7 different areas in Japan. As a result of PIXE analysis, 5 elements, potassium, iron, zinc, arsenic and rubidium, have been identified. There are clear differences in relative amount of trace-elements between samples from different international regions. Chinese beans contain much more Rb than the others, while there are significant differences in Fe and Zn between beans of Thailand and Taiwan. There are relatively smaller differences among Japanese beans. This result shows that trace-elements bring us some practical information of the region where the product grown.

  9. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulates by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Jung, Yung Joo; Jung, Eui Sik; Cho, Seung Yun

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in airborne particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) under the optimum analytical condition. Neutron irradiation for sample was done at the irradiation hole(neutron flux, 1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s) of TRIGA MARK-III research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. For the verification of the analytical method, NIST SRM-1648 and NIES CRM No.8 were chosen and analyzed. The accuracy and precision of the analysis of 40 and 24 trace elements in the samples were compared with the certified and reported values, respectively. The analytical method was found to be reliable enough when the analytical data of NIES sample were compared with those of different countries. In the analytical result of two or both of standard reference materials, relative standard deviation was within the 15% except a few elements and the relative error was within the 10%. We used this method to analyze 30 trace elements in airborne particulates collected with the high volume air sampler(PM-10) at two different locations and also confirmed the possibility to use this method as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources. 3 figs., 8 tabs., 19 refs. (Author)

  10. New method for mass spectrometric trace analysis of metals in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.; Bahr, U.; Palavinskas, R.

    1984-01-01

    A first survey on the basic aspects and applications of a novel method for trace analyses of metals is given. The advantages of this methodology for analyses of trace metals which was developed by our group are: small sample amount, high sensitivity and selectivity, simple sample preparation for the measurement (no ashing) and reliability and precision of the results. The time consumption for one complete quantitative analysis lies below 30 min. The concentration of monoisotopic metals, as for example aluminium, cesium, manganese etc. is determined using a calibration curve. Using stable isotope dilution analysis quantification of metals with at least two stable isotopes further improved the precision of the results. If this technique is utilized, on one hand contamination of the environment by radioactive substances is avoided, on the other even the smallest changes in concentrations of trace metals are detected unambigeously. The accuracy of the resulting quantitative data has been confirmed test measurements with other analytical methods such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Although there is no doubt that the greatest analytical capacity of field desorption mass spectrometry is in the field of high-molecular weight natural products, it has been possible in the last years to modify the method for qualitative and quantitative investigations of more than 60 metals. (orig./EF) [de

  11. Investigation of trace elements in Elbe water by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Investigations of trace elements in Elbe water were carried out as a contribution to environmental research, hydrology, and geochemistry. The method applied - instrumental neutron activation analysis - is described, and problems connected with the course of analysis - sample taking, handling and preparation as well as optimization of in-pile irradiation and measurement by means of γ spectrometry - are discussed and presented one by one. The computer programme set up for automatic evaluation is described in more detail. This programme AKAN has a very general concept which makes it applicable for general use. The reliability of the evaluation procedure - monostandard method - and the reproducibility of the results are discussed. For the studies, samples were taken at different times, every time from 8 positions along a long section of the Elbe. The content of solids was analyzed; in a number of samples, this was done by separating suspended and dissolved materials. Up to 38 elements were analyzed, whose local and time-dependent concentration curves are given. The contents of some elements are compared with the few available data from literature. Correlation calculations indicate a similar behaviour of single element groups and yield information on the natural origin of the trace elements and on anthropogenic influence to be noticed in the trace element contents. (orig.) [de

  12. Method to determine trace elements in water samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, G.; Erdtmann, G.

    1981-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in water by neutron activation analysis irradiation porcedures and chemical separation procedures have been developed. Irradiation in melted quarz glass ampoules in the presence of a platinum wire (for recombination of the oxyhydrogen gas produced by radiolysis) proved successfull with different variants of the irradiation methods, as long irradiation periods without pressure build-up could be achieved. Possible falsifications of the analysis results were investigated in detail (losses by absorption on vessel walls etc.). The irradiated samples can be measured directly with a gamma ray spectrometer and from the radionuclides found the trace element contents may be calculated. More sensitive determinations are possible if the radionuclides are chemically separated. Procedures for removing the matrix activities, for the separation of the radionuclides in groups of elements and for the isolation of single elements have been developed. For especially sensitive determination of some elements selective separation procedures for antimony, cadmium, selenium, mercury and uranium have been developed. The analytical procedures described have been applied to trace element determinations in river water, glacier ice and water solutions from technical processes. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Trace analysis of irradiated steel samples from hiroshima by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A double focusing (JEOL, PLASMAX2) and quadrupole (ELAN6000, Perkin Elmer) mass spectrometers were used for the quantitative analysis of trace elements in steel samples from Hiroshima. The quantification of the analytical results was carried out using steel 468 as a standard reference material. The relative sensitivity coefficients (RSC's) for most of the elements varied between 0.12 and 2.93. The effect of iron as a matrix and the non-spectroscopic interferences are studied. Comparison of the results obtained on two steel samples from Hiroshima with that obtained on steel 468 standard reference materials demonstrated that there is no significant difference between them. Therefore, it is possible to say that the irradiated steel samples from Hiroshima have nearly the same specifications of trace element content as those of the normal steel samples

  14. Vertical distribution of particulate trace elements in a street canyon determined by PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raunemaa, T.; Hautojaervi, A.; Kaisla, K.; Gerlander, M.

    1981-01-01

    Suspended particles in a street canyon were investigated by collecting air particulate matter on thin filters at heigths 2.3 to 20.5 m. The weather parameters and traffic characteristics were registered during the collection. Quantitative analysis of 15 trace elements from AI to Pb was carried out by the PIXE method using 1.8-2.0 MeV protons. The concentration of lead was found to decrease exponentially when going from street level to roof level. Almost all the trace elements analyzed were found to fall into two groups with different vertical distributions. The collected matter above 10 m height was found to be due mainly to combustion originated motor vehicle exhaust, the matter below 10 m to soil originated dust. (orig.)

  15. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulovali, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of trace elements in nine different brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco, pipe tobacco and tobacco ash. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed, and a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 1024 and 4096-channel analyzers were used. Samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of about 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 . Concentrations of Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Hf, Hg and Th were determined in tobacco and ash; percent transference of these elements into ash were calculated. It was found out that trace elements in cigarette tobacco are left in the ash but only a small percentage is transferred into the smoke

  16. Analytical analysis of soil-moisture and trace-contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Reeves, M.

    1976-03-01

    A transport model is presented which predicts the coupled movement of both water and trace contaminants through a layered and unsaturated soil-moisture zone. In order to achieve computation speeds suitable for watershed implementations, moisture properties are approximated as exponential functions of pressure head, and lateral flows are treated as sinks in a basically vertical one-dimensional analysis. In addition, only advection by the Darcy-flow velocities and linear adsorption by the soil matrix are considered in depicting movement of the trace contaminant. Formal solution of the resulting transport equations is obtained through use of both eigenfunction-expansion and coordinate-transformation methods. Numerical solution is effected by means of a program written in FORTRAN IV and implemented on an IBM 360/91 computer. Two example calculations illustrate both strengths and weaknesses of our model

  17. Problems of accuracy and sources of error in trace analysis of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porat, Ze'ev.

    1995-07-01

    The technological developments in the field of analytical chemistry in recent years facilitates trace analysis of materials in sub-ppb levels. This provides important information regarding the presence of various trace elements in the human body, in drinking water and in the environment. However, it also exposes the measurements to more severe problems of contamination and inaccuracy due to the high sensitivity of the analytical methods. The sources of error are numerous and can be included in three main groups: (a) impurities of various sources; (b) loss of material during sample processing; (c) problems of calibration and interference. These difficulties are discussed here in detail, together with some practical solutions and examples.(authors) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.,

  18. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  19. Problems of accuracy and sources of error in trace analysis of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porat, Ze` ev

    1995-07-01

    The technological developments in the field of analytical chemistry in recent years facilitates trace analysis of materials in sub-ppb levels. This provides important information regarding the presence of various trace elements in the human body, in drinking water and in the environment. However, it also exposes the measurements to more severe problems of contamination and inaccuracy due to the high sensitivity of the analytical methods. The sources of error are numerous and can be included in three main groups: (a) impurities of various sources; (b) loss of material during sample processing; (c) problems of calibration and interference. These difficulties are discussed here in detail, together with some practical solutions and examples.(authors) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.,.

  20. Determination of trace elements by neutron activation analysis using dinonylnaphtalene sulfonic acid as a preconcentrating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.H.; Chen, P.Y.; Tseng, C.L.; Yeh, S.J.; Weng, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    Dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) has been used as a preconcentrating agent to enrich trace metal ions and to separate the interfering elements such as Na, K, Cl and Br, which normally exist in the natural aqueous systems. Experiments were performed by extracting the ions in the aqueous medium with HD in n-hexane and subsequently backextracted into a minimal volume of acid solution. Factors influencing the extraction efficiency of the ions of interest were investigated. The preconcentration technique has been successfully applied to the determination by neutron activation analysis of trace elements in natural water and biological materials. Both short-lived nuclides (Mg, Al, Ca, Mn) and long-lived nuclides (Sm, Eu, Zn, La, Cr, Sc, Fe, Co) in the ppb-level concentrations were determined. (T.G.)

  1. Significant improvement of accuracy and precision in the determination of trace rare earths by fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, L.; Hersh, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Most of the rare earths in yttrium, gadolinium and lanthanum oxides emit characteristic fluorescent line spectra under irradiation with photons, electrons and x rays. The sensitivity and selectivity of the rare earth fluorescences are high enough to determine the trace amounts (0.01 to 100 ppM) of rare earths. The absolute fluorescent intensities of solids, however, are markedly affected by the synthesis procedure, level of contamination and crystal perfection, resulting in poor accuracy and low precision for the method (larger than 50 percent error). Special care in preparation of the samples is required to obtain good accuracy and precision. It is found that the accuracy and precision for the determination of trace (less than 10 ppM) rare earths by fluorescence analysis improved significantly, while still maintaining the sensitivity, when the determination is made by comparing the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of the trace rare earths to that of a deliberately added rare earth as reference. The variation in the absolute fluorescent intensity remains, but is compensated for by measuring the fluorescent line intensity ratio. Consequently, the determination of trace rare earths (with less than 3 percent error) is easily made by a photoluminescence technique in which the rare earths are excited directly by photons. Accuracy is still maintained when the absolute fluorescent intensity is reduced by 50 percent through contamination by Ni, Fe, Mn or Pb (about 100 ppM). Determination accuracy is also improved for fluorescence analysis by electron excitation and x-ray excitation. For some rare earths, however, accuracy by these techniques is reduced because indirect excitation mechanisms are involved. The excitation mechanisms and the interferences between rare earths are also reported

  2. Trace element determination in soft tissues of marine bivalves by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements in soft tissues of marine bivalves were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Elemental levels of Ag, As, Br, Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Ni, Rb, Se, and Zn in the organs of giant ezoscallos, rock oysters, and giant crams were obtained. The metal-bound proteins were extracted from the mantles and hepatopancreases of rock oysters. By irradiating the fraction obtained by HPLC gel chromatography, the possibility for the existence of an Ag bound protein in the mantles was found. (author)

  3. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, M.P., E-mail: mpcroce@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry.

  4. Sampling and sample preparation methods for the analysis of trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Iyengar, V.

    1978-05-01

    The authors attempt to give a most systamtic possible treatment of the sample taking and sample preparation of biological material (particularly in human medicine) for trace analysis (e.g. neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry). Contamination and loss problems are discussed as well as the manifold problems of the different consistency of solid and liquid biological materials, as well as the stabilization of the sample material. The process of dry and wet ashing is particularly dealt with, where new methods are also described. (RB) [de

  5. Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Ordogh, M.

    1978-06-01

    Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32 P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 10 2 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

  6. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, M.P.; Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry

  7. Analysis and characterization of trace elements in shale oil and shale oil products by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1978-12-01

    Trace elements and their mobilization constitute an important consideration in the development of new fossil fuel technologies. Shale oil produced by in situ retorting of oil shale is an alternative fossil energy source. This study deals with the analysis of trace elements in various shale oil products using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). INAA offers several advantages for those elements for which it is applicable. The greatest advantage is the lack of sample preparation prior to analysis, which greatly simplifies the process and prevents sample contamination. The elements for which analyses are reported in this study are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bromine, cerium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iodine, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfur, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc

  8. A robust and fast method of sampling and analysis of delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in ground waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph

    2005-09-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta13C(DIC)) is traditionally determined using either direct precipitation or gas evolution methods in conjunction with offline gas preparation and measurement in a dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. A gas evolution method based on continuous-flow technology is described here, which is easy to use and robust. Water samples (100-1500 microl depending on the carbonate alkalinity) are injected into He-filled autosampler vials in the field and analysed on an automated continuous-flow gas preparation system interfaced to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Sample analysis time including online preparation is 10 min and overall precision is 0.1 per thousand. This method is thus fast and can easily be automated for handling large sample batches.

  9. Uncertainties in measuring trace amounts of cobalt and europium with low-flux neutron activation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnham Steven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis is widely used for identification of elements and their quantities even in trace amounts in the samples of almost any type. The challenges in detecting trace amounts of particular elements are often associated with the neutron flux produced at the research reactors. Low-flux neutron activation analysis usually presents the biggest challenge when analyzing trace quantities of elements with lower magnitude of radiative capture cross-sections. In this paper, we present the methodology and the quantified uncertainties associated with the detection of trace amounts of cobalt and europium, using as an example concrete aggregates. Recent growing interest is in improving structural concrete (increasing its strength but reducing its activation in nuclear power plant environments. Aside from buildings, structural concrete is also used as a biological shield in nuclear power plant that become radioactive after exposure to neutron flux. Due to radiative capture interactions, artificial radionuclides are generated to high enough concentrations that classify concrete as low-level radioactive waste at the time of the plant's decommissioning. Disposal of this concrete adds to the expense of nuclear power plant financing and its construction. Three radionuclides, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu, account for 99 % of total residual radioactivity of nuclear power plant decommissioned concrete. IAEA document RS-G-1.7, Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption, and Clearance, specifies clearance levels of radionuclides specific activities: a specific activity lower than 0.1 Bqg-1 for 60Co and 152Eu, and 154Eu allows for a concrete to be recycled after decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, low-flux neutron activation analysis is used to test the detection limits of trace elements in samples of cement, coarse, and fine concrete aggregates. These samples are irradiated at the University of Utah's 100 kW TRIGA Reactor at

  10. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Nagame, Y.; Yoshizawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Gotoh, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  11. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-05-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce

  12. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1965-05-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce.

  13. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  14. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhin, Yu S [ed.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods.

  15. Trace analysis of loss of feedwater flow event in Lungmen ABWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jongrong; Lin Haotzu; Wang Weichen; Yang Shuming; Shih Chunkuan

    2009-01-01

    TRACE (TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine) model of Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant was used to analyze the Loss of Feedwater Flow transient as defined in Lungmen FSAR Chapter 15. The results were compared with those from FSAR and RETRAN02. Lungmen TRACE model will have two models: In model A, vessel is divided into 11 axial levels, 4 radial rings and 1 azimuthal sectors; In model B, vessel is divided into 11 axial levels, 4 radial rings, and 6 azimuthal sectors. The above models include feedwater control system, narrow range water level control system, and wide range water level control system. The loss of feedwater flow (LOFW) transient began with the trip of two operating feedwater pumps either from the pump mechanical/electric failure, or the operator human error, or high water level signal. Feedwater flow was assumed to descend to 0 in 5 seconds and led to the decrease of reactor water level. At L3 low water level setpoint, the system actuated reactor scram signal and RIP trip signal for RIPs not connected to the M/G set. At L2 low-low water level setpoint, the system would trip the other six RIPs. This paper compares those important thermal parameters at steady state, such as the dome pressure and temperature of reactor vessel, steam flow, feedwater flow, core flow, and RIP flow, etc.. It also compares system parameters under transient conditions, such as core thermal power, core flow, steam flow, feedwater flow, Narrow Range Water Level (NRWL), Wide Range Water Level (WRWL) and RIP flow, etc.. It was concluded that the steady state and transient results of TRACE calculations are in good agreement with those from RETRAN02. In summary, our studies concluded that Lungmen TRACE model is correct and accurate enough for future safety analysis applications. (author)

  16. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in phytopharmaceutical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Harangus, Livia; Iordan, Andreea; Gugiu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite of ongoing progress in the biochemistry of phytopharmaceutical drugs, their mineral micro- and trace elements have not been studied in detail. These elements may have therapeutic or toxic activity which should be assessed by sensitive investigations. The latter can be done by multielemental analysis with nuclear and atomic methods. We previously found 28 elements in some Romanian plant drugs by nuclear activation analysis. The availability of this method is, however, limited by the access to a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an alternative method with high performances in biomedicine and requiring no sample preparation for drugs' studies. We applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of three plant drugs - Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte - used as invigorators, protectors and prophylactics in oxidative stress diseases. Measurements with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector and no additional absorber foil, evidenced unusually complex elemental compositions of drugs. Up to 31 elements with Z > 15 were found: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Hg, and As and/or Pb, from major to trace levels. The three drugs' qualitative composition were found to be rather similar. Relative concentrations were well evaluated with X-ray yields calculated for another kind of light element thick target. Drug's toxic elements - As and/or Pb, Hg, and possibly Ga - were all at trace levels, but their accumulation might be harmful. Some essential elements like K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr can be biologically useful. X-ray yields improvement and other ways for PIXE quantitative analysis of the phytotherapeutic drugs are outlined. (authors)

  17. Electrochemical determination of inorganic mercury and arsenic--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib, Maria; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof; Saeed, Asma; Farooq, Umar

    2015-12-15

    Inorganic mercury and arsenic encompasses a term which includes As(III), As(V) and Hg(II) species. These metal ions have been extensively studied due to their toxicity related issues. Different analytical methods are used to monitor inorganic mercury and arsenic in a variety of samples at trace level. The present study reviews various analytical techniques available for detection of inorganic mercury and arsenic with particular emphasis on electrochemical methods especially stripping voltammetry. A detailed critical evaluation of methods, advantages of electrochemical methods over other analytical methods, and various electrode materials available for mercury and arsenic analysis is presented in this review study. Modified carbon paste electrode provides better determination due to better deposition with linear and improved response under studied set of conditions. Biological materials may be the potent and economical alternative as compared to macro-electrodes and chemically modified carbon paste electrodes in stripping analysis of inorganic mercury and arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton induced X-Ray fluorescence study as a tool trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    Usefulness and limitations of trace elemental analysis by high energy charged particles and photon induced X-ray have been discussed. Comparison with the well established neutron activation analysis technique is also given. Back-ground radiation due to bremsstrahlung from secondary electrons and due to charged particle bremsstrahlung have been reviewed for different projectiles. The sensitivity of elemental analysis by proton induced X-ray fluorescence have been examined by measuring the characteristic X-ray emission cross section for K and L transitions of many elements and for different proton energies and compared with theroretical values. The discussion given in this report show that with suitable proton generator and a high resolution X-ray detector, proton X-ray fluorescence technique is capable of analyzing many elements simultaneously at the part per million level and offers a rapid and reliable method for trace element analysis. Data on water, blood and tissue samples given in this report are few examples of many possible applications

  19. TRACE analysis of Phenix core response to an increase of the core inlet sodium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenu, A., E-mail: aurelia.chenu@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale (Switzerland); Mikityuk, K., E-mail: konstantin.mikityuk@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Adams, R., E-mail: robert.adams@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Chawla, R., E-mail: rakesh.chawla@epfl.ch [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the analysis, using the TRACE code, of the Phenix core response to an inlet sodium temperature increase. The considered experiment was performed in the frame of the Phenix End-Of-Life (EOL) test program of the CEA, prior to the final shutdown of the reactor. It corresponds to a transient following a 40°C increase of the core inlet temperature, which leads to a power decrease of 60%. This work focuses on the first phase of the transient, prior to the reactor scram and pump trip. First, the thermal-hydraulic TRACE model of the core developed for the present analysis is described. The kinetic parameters and feedback coefficients for the point kinetic model were first derived from a 3D static neutronic ERANOS model developed in a former study. The calculated kinetic parameters were then optimized, before use, on the basis of the experimental reactivity in order to minimize the error on the power calculation. The different reactivity feedbacks taken into account include various expansion mechanisms that have been specifically implemented in TRACE for analysis of fast-neutron spectrum systems. The point kinetic model has been used to study the sensitivity of the core response to the different feedback effects. The comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data reveals the need to accurately calculate the reactivity feedback coefficients. This is because the reactor response is very sensitive to small reactivity changes. This study has enabled us to study the sensitivity of the power change to the different reactivity feedbacks and define the most important parameters. As such, it furthers the validation of the FAST code system, which is being used to gain a more in-depth understanding of SFR core behavior during accidental transients. (author)

  20. Evaluation of trace elements in different species of lichens by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccaro, D.M.B.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the determination of trace elements in five epiphytic lichens: Canoparmelia texana, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmotrema sancti-angeli and Usnea sp. that were collected at the same sampling area of the Botanic Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The elemental concentration results showed that these five lichens can be chosen in the species intercalibration for biomonitoring studies. Also, some aspects related to the occurrence, tolerance to pollution, treatment and ease of sampling of the species are presented. (author)

  1. Ar-39 Detection at the 10^-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W. D.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S. -M.; Lu, Z. -T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-01-01

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar-39 (half-life = 269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10^-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, counting rate and efficiency of ATTA have been improved by two orders of magnitude over prior results. Significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the develop...

  2. Determination of trace elements in poly(methyl methacrylate) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of the neutron activation analysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymerized with a redox system of chromium (II) acetate and p-chlorobenzyl peroxide in dimethylformamide at 30 0 C. Since the polymer was originally synthesized in experiments for kinetic studies, the results indicate an arbitrary background of purity of polymers obtained in a laboratory. Samples were irradiated for 28m and gamma spectra detected trace amounts of chlorine, aluminum, vanadium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, copper, zinc, sodium, bromine, lanthanum, gold, and chromium. 2 figures, 1 table

  3. Photon activation analysis of trace metals in the livers and spleens of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nondestructive photon activation analysis with 30 MeV bremsstrahlung was applied to determine trace element concentrations in the livers and spleens of five pigs. Samples were freeze-dried, pulverized and fractionated into four groups corresponding mesh size ; smaller than 60 mesh, 60-100 mesh, 100-200 mesh and larger than 200 mesh. Up to 9 elements in each fraction were analyzed. The concentrations of Br, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb and Zn in each liver fractions were almost constant, as were concentrations of Mg and Rb in spleens. (author). 10 refs., 7 tabs

  4. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  5. Determination of trace elements in human brain tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, R.E.P.; Jacob-Filho, W.; Grinberg, L.T.; Ferretti, R.E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace element concentrations in brain tissues from normal (n = 21) and demented individuals (n = 21) of both genders aged more than 50 years. Concentrations of the elements Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for the hippocampus and frontal cortex tissues, as well as, those obtained in brains of normal and demented individuals. Certified reference materials, NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver were analyzed for quality of the analytical results. (author)

  6. Activation analysis in a multitechnique study of trace element imbalances in age-related neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Ding, X.X.; Khare, S.S.; Lovell, M.A.; Ni, B.F.; Tandon, L.; Vance, D.E.; Wenstrup, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that several age-related neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be related to environmental toxins. Bulk sample multielemental analyses by INAA alone are not adequate to define the role of trace elements in these diseases. A multitechnique approach has been developed that incorporates 14 MeV, instrumental reactor, radiochemical, and pre-irradiation chemical neutron activation analysis, together with laser microprobe mass spectrometry. The analytical scheme is able to provide bulk or protein normalized elemental concentrations, as well as microstructural, cellular, and subcellular localization information. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Trace elements in cigarette tobacco by a method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin Ibrahim

    1986-01-01

    A total of ten cigarette brands were investigated for determining the trace elemental concentrations in tobacco so as to assess their role in the induction of related diseases through smoking. A method instrumental Neutron Activation analysis was employed due to high sensitivity, speed and ability to analyse sample for a wide spectrum of elements simultaneously. A total of 18 elements were detected of which the majority are toxic elements. A full result and conclusion will be reported in the forthcoming paper. (A.J.)

  8. Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the livers of Japanese sika deer (cervus Nippon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Michiko; Tamate, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Yoshiro; Mitsugasira, Satoaki; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x10 14 n·cm -2 ·sec -1 . In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author)

  9. Trace aluminium determination and sampling problems of archeological bone employing destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.; Recker, R.R.; Leffler, J.A.; Teitelbaum, S.

    1978-01-01

    A destructive neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for determining trace aluminium content in bone. The method is based on a carefully planned sample preparation, irradiation at a neutron flux for 3.1x10 11 nxcm -2 xs -1 for 5 minutes, and chemical separation based on ion exchange. It was found that bone samples soaked in aluminium containing soil gave highly elevated aluminium values as a result of the aluminium adsorption into the bone matrix. The maximum aluminium content values for prehistoric bones are larger than those of modern bones and comparable to aluminium levels present in bone from renal patients. (T.G.)

  10. The determination of trace elements in new food grain SRM's using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.; Gallorini, M.; Rook, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Potentially toxic metals in the food chain that can lead to deleterious effects on human health have been well documented. Because of the toxicity of some metals, levels of 1 ppm or less must be routinely monitored in foods to ensure human safety. To ensure the accuracy of measurement, NBS in a cooperative interagency agreement with the Food and Drug Administration is involved in developing and certifying selected elements in food grain as a part of the Standard Reference Material program. Both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were used to analyze two food grain standard reference materials (Rice and Wheat Flours) for trace element certification. (author)

  11. Determination of trace metals and analysis of arsenic species in tropical marine fishes from Spratly islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxi; Sun, Chengjun; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Fenghua; Wang, Shuai; Zhuang, Zhixia; Wang, Xiaoru

    2017-09-15

    Trace metal contents in 38 species of tropical marine fishes harvested from the Spratly islands of China were determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The average levels of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U in the fish samples were 1.683, 0.350, 0.367, 2.954, 36.615, 0.087, 0.319, 1.566, 21.946, 20.845, 2.526, 3.583, 0.225, 0.140, and 0.061mg·kg -1 , respectively; Fe, Zn, and As were found at high concentrations. The trace metals exhibited significant positive correlation between each other, with r value of 0.610-0.852. Further analysis indicated that AsB (8.560-31.020mg·kg -1 ) was the dominant arsenic species in the fish samples and accounted for 31.48% to 47.24% of the total arsenic. As(III) and As(V) were detected at low concentrations, indicating minimal arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. High fidelity analysis of BWR fuel assembly with COBRA-TF/PARCS and trace codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.; Soler, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing importance of detailed reactor core and fuel assembly description for light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the sub-channel safety analysis requires high fidelity models and coupled neutronic/thermalhydraulic codes. Hand in hand with advances in the computer technology, the nuclear safety analysis is beginning to use a more detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics. Previously, a PWR core and a 16 by 16 fuel assembly models were developed to test and validate our COBRA-TF/PARCS v2.7 (CTF/PARCS) coupled code. In this work, a comparison of the modeling and simulation advantages and disadvantages of modern 10 by 10 BWR fuel assembly with CTF/PARCS and TRACE codes has been done. The objective of the comparison is making known the main advantages of using the sub-channel codes to perform high resolution nuclear safety analysis. The sub-channel codes, like CTF, permits obtain accurate predictions, in two flow regime, of the thermalhydraulic parameters important to safety with high local resolution. The modeled BWR fuel assembly has 91 fuel rods (81 full length and 10 partial length fuel rods) and a big square central water rod. This assembly has been modeled with high level of detail with CTF code and using the BWR modeling parameters provided by TRACE. The same neutronic PARCS's model has been used for the simulation with both codes. To compare the codes a coupled steady state has be performed. (author)

  13. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  14. LASER SPECTROSCOPY AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various, Authors

    1981-05-01

    In order to control pollutants resulting from energy production and utilization, adequate methods are required for monitoring the level of various substances often present at low concentrations. The Energy and Environment Division Applied Research in Laser Spectroscopy & Analytical Techniques Program is directed toward meeting these needs, Emphasis is on the development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques. The advantages, now widely recognized, include ultra-high sensitivity coupled with minimal sample preparation. In some instances physical methods provide multi-parameter measurements which often provide the only means of achiev·ing the sensitivity necessary for the detection of trace contaminants. Work is reported in these areas: APPLIED PHYSICS AND LASER SPECTROSCOPY RESEARCH; MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETER FOR TRACE METALS ANALYSIS IN WATER; THE SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; THE POSSIBLE CHRONDRITIC NATURE OF THE DANISH CRETACEOUS~TERTIARY BOUNDARY; IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY AND PRECISION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENTS IN PLANKTON AND PLANKTONIC FISH; and SOURCES OF SOME SECONDARILY WORKED OBSIDIAN ARTIFACTS FROM TIKAL, GUATEMALA.

  15. Trace element analysis by EPMA in geosciences: detection limit, precision and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, V. G.; Sobolev, A. V.; Magnin, V.

    2018-01-01

    Use of the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) for trace element analysis has increased over the last decade, mainly because of improved stability of spectrometers and the electron column when operated at high probe current; development of new large-area crystal monochromators and ultra-high count rate spectrometers; full integration of energy-dispersive / wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS/WDS) signals; and the development of powerful software packages. For phases that are stable under a dense electron beam, the detection limit and precision can be decreased to the ppm level by using high acceleration voltage and beam current combined with long counting time. Data on 10 elements (Na, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) in olivine obtained on a JEOL JXA-8230 microprobe with tungsten filament show that the detection limit decreases proportionally to the square root of counting time and probe current. For all elements equal or heavier than phosphorus (Z = 15), the detection limit decreases with increasing accelerating voltage. The analytical precision for minor and trace elements analysed in olivine at 25 kV accelerating voltage and 900 nA beam current is 4 - 18 ppm (2 standard deviations of repeated measurements of the olivine reference sample) and is similar to the detection limit of corresponding elements. To analyse trace elements accurately requires careful estimation of background, and consideration of sample damage under the beam and secondary fluorescence from phase boundaries. The development and use of matrix reference samples with well-characterised trace elements of interest is important for monitoring and improving of the accuracy. An evaluation of the accuracy of trace element analyses in olivine has been made by comparing EPMA data for new reference samples with data obtained by different in-situ and bulk analytical methods in six different laboratories worldwide. For all elements, the measured concentrations in the olivine reference sample

  16. Analysis of Uncertainty and Sensitivity with TRACE-SUSA and TRACE-DAKOTA. Application to NUPEC BFTB; Analisis de Incertidumbre y Sensibilidad con TRACE-SUSA y TRACE-DAKOTA. Aplicacion a NUPEC BFTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero-Mayorga, J.; Wadim, J.; Sanchez, V. H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is to test the capabilities of the new tool of uncertainty incorporated into SNAP by simulating experiments with TRACE code and compare these with the results obtained by the same simulations with uncertainty calculation performed with the tool SUSA.

  17. Limnological aspects and trace element analysis of some selected Kenyan natural inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, E.O.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports the study of trace elements, Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn, and some limnological factors in surface water and sediments in some selected natural inland waters in Kenya. The observed levels are compared with those that are reported in literature to cause interference in biological processes in aquatic environments and human beings. There are little previous data and none that are coherent. These allow for a preliminary assessment of the significance of each element and limnological parameters in the long term stability of the environments in which they occur. XRFA and AAs have been used in the trace elements analysis and the former proved superior in the sediment (solid) samples analysis due to better accuracy and precision of less than 10%. Trace metals concentration (ppb) in the surface inland waters (rivers and lakes ) ranged as follows: Ag (1-75), Cd (2-8), Co (6-23.2), Cr (25-50), Cu (5-57.6), Mn (50-3276±450), Ni (13-34.1), Pb (7-93.6), Sn (300-500) and Zn (25-124.8). Lake sediments had the following concentration (ppm) ranges: Ag (o.098-20.58), Cd (0.188-1.345), Co (0.166-1.632), Cr (1.462-57.310), Cu (1.949-44.350), Mn (667.670-4713), Ni (11.694-56.710), Pb (10.920-192), Sn 17.210-234) and Zn (76.210-229.60). Results show that, a part from the Rift Valley saline lakes, Kenya inland water meet the WHO (1971) drinking water standards related to aquatic living environments. Concentration of some trace metals: Ag, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn change upon raw water treatments. Preconcentration techniques have been attempted in which preconcentration by evaporation followed by lyophilization of the liquid (water) samples was found more suitable. Bioavailable (total exchangeable) metal concentrations compared very well with the concentrations in the fish muscles. Comparison with the analysis made by earlier investigators indicated a remarkable constancy over time in the chemistry of Lake Victoria and its affluent rivers. Kenyan natural

  18. Trace analysis of actinides in the environment using resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In this work the resonant ionization of neutral atoms using laser radiation was applied and optimized for ultra-trace analysis of the actinides thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium. The sensitive detection of these actinides is a challange for the monitoring and quantification of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities. Using resonance ionization spectroscopy combined with a newly developed quadrupole-mass-spectrometer, numerous energy levels in the atomic structure of these actinides could be identified. With this knowledge efficient excitation schemes for the mentioned actinides could be identified and characterised. The applied in-source-ionization ensures for a high detection efficiency due to the good overlap of laser radiation with the atomic beam and allows therefore for a low sample consumption which is required for the analysis of radio nuclides. The selective excitation processes in the resonant ionization method supresses unwanted contaminations and was optimized for analytical detection of ultra-trace amounts in environmental samples as well as for determination of isotopic compositions. The efficient in-source-ionization combined with high power pulsed laser radiation allows for detections efficiency up to 1%. For plutonium detection limits in the range of 10 4 -10 5 atoms could be demonstrated for synthetic samples as well as for first environmental samples. The usage of narrow bandwidth continuous wave lasers in combination with a transversal overlap of the laser radiation and the free propagating atomic beam enable for resolving individual isotopic shifts of the resonant transitions. This results in a high selectivity against dominant neighboring isotopes but with a significant loss in detection efficiency. For the ultra-trace isotope 236 U a detection limit down to 10 -9 for the isotope ratio N ( 236 U)/N ( 238 U) could be determined.

  19. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions

  20. Determination of Trace Elements In Soil and Plants In Coastal Basin of Syria By Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods have been used for the determination of some major, minor and trace elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn and V) in some kinds of plant leaves with their soil. Accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of plant and soil reference materials, precision have been estimated by triplicate the sample as well as the reference. The obtained accurate and reliable data in microgram quantities of some trace elements in plants and soil will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace elements content of soil and plant leaves. (Author)

  1. Development of a simple, sensitive and inexpensive ion-pairing cloud point extraction approach for the determination of trace inorganic arsenic species in spring water, beverage and rice samples by UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk; Altunay, Nail

    2015-08-01

    The determination of inorganic arsenic species in water, beverages and foods become crucial in recent years, because arsenic species are considered carcinogenic and found at high concentrations in the samples. This communication describes a new cloud-point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of low quantity of arsenic species in the samples, purchased from the local market by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). The method is based on selective ternary complex of As(V) with acridine orange (AOH(+)) being a versatile fluorescence cationic dye in presence of tartaric acid and polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) at pH 5.0. Under the optimized conditions, a preconcentration factor of 65 and detection limit (3S blank/m) of 1.14 μg L(-1) was obtained from the calibration curve constructed in the range of 4-450 μg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9932 for As(V). The method is validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juve, Vincent; Portelli, Richard; Boueri, Myriam; Baudelet, Matthieu; Yu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to analyze trace elements contained in fresh vegetables. A quadrupled Nd:YAG laser is used in the experiments for ablation. Analyzed samples come from local markets and represent frequently consumed vegetables. For a typical root vegetable, such as potato, spectral analysis of the plasma emission reveals more than 400 lines emitted by 27 elements and 2 molecules, C 2 and CN. Among these species, one can find trace as well as ultra-trace elements. A space-resolved analysis of several trace elements with strong emissions is then applied to typical root, stem and fruit vegetables. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of an interesting tool for botanical and agricultural studies as well for food quality/safety and environment pollution assessment and control

  3. Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are suitable, with appropriate modifications for other inorganic pollutants. For example, the collection of samples for mercury may require modifications of handling procedures. River water samples are collected at the most down-river point where no estuarine influences effect results. Samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and separated into aqueous and particulate phases for pollutant analysis. As is the case of all trace pollutant analyses, meticulous care is required to prevent pollution of the sample and in addition to the precautions described in this method, great personal attention is required to minimize sample handling, pollution by smoke, hands, hair, dust, talc from gloves, etc., and to avoid all contact of the samples and reagents with skin and metallic objects. 1 ref., 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Dual-Section DFB-QCLs for Multi-Species Trace Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Süess

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the dynamic behavior of dual-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB quantum cascade lasers (QCLs in continuous wave and intermittent continuous wave operation. We investigate inherent etaloning effects based on spectrally resolved light-current-voltage (LIV characterization and perform time-resolved spectral analysis of thermal chirping during long (>5 µs current pulses. The theoretical aspects of the observed behavior are discussed using a combination of finite element method simulations and transfer matrix method calculations of dual-section DFB structures. Based on these results, we demonstrate how the internal etaloning can be minimized using anti-reflective (AR coatings. Finally, the potential and benefits of these devices for high precision trace gas analysis are demonstrated using a laser absorption spectroscopic setup. Thereby, the atmospherically highly relevant compounds CO2 (including its major isotopologues, CO and N2O are simultaneously determined with a precision of 0.16 ppm, 0.22 ppb and 0.26 ppb, respectively, using a 1-s integration time and an optical path-length of 36 m. This creates exciting new opportunities in the development of compact, multi-species trace gas analyzers.

  5. Status of GeoTASO Trace Gas Data Analysis for the KORUS-AQ Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, S. J.; Nowlan, C. R.; Lamsal, L. N.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Judd, L. M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument measures spectrally resolved backscattered solar radiation at high spatial resolution. The instrument completed 30 sorties on board the NASA LaRC UC-12 aircraft during the KORUS-AQ deployment in May-June of 2016. GeoTASO collects spatially resolved spectra with sufficient sensitivity to retrieve column amounts of the trace gas molecules NO2, SO2, H2CO, O3, and C2H2O2 as well as aerosol products. Typical product retrievals are done in 250 m2 bins with multiple overpasses of key ground sites, allowing for detailed spatio-temporal analysis. Flight patterns consisted of both contiguous overlapping grid patterns to simulate satellite observational strategies in support of future geostationary satellite algorithm development, and "race-track" sampling to perform calibration and validation with the in-situ DC-8 platform as well as ground based assets. We will summarize the status of the radiance data set as well as ongoing analysis from our co-Investigators.

  6. Quantitative trace element analysis of individual fly ash particles by means of X-ray microfluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincze, L.; Somogyi, A.; Osan, J.; Vekemans, B.; Torok, S.; Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Universitaire of Instelling Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    A new quantification procedure was developed for the evaluation of X-ray microfluorescence (XRF) data sets obtained from individual particles, based on iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Combined with the high sensitivity of synchrotron radiation-induced XRF spectroscopy, the method was used to obtain quantitative information down to trace-level concentrations from micrometer-sized particulate matter. The detailed XRF simulation model was validated by comparison of calculated and experimental XRF spectra obtained for glass microsphere standards, resulting in uncertainties in the range of 3-10% for the calculated elemental sensitivities. The simulation model was applied for the quantitative analysis of X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation-induced scanning micro-XRF spectra of individual coal and wood fly ash particles originating from different Hungarian power plants. By measuring the same particles by both methods the major, minor, and trace element compositions of the particles were determined. The uncertainty of the MC based quantitative analysis scheme is estimated to be in the range of 5-30%.

  7. Trace element analysis of single synthetic fibres by proton induced X-ray analysis in a helium atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Cookson, J.A.

    1976-10-01

    A technique for measuring the trace element content of synthetic fibres by detecting X-rays produced by 3 MeV proton bombardment has been developed. Largely to reduce the problems of removing heat from the fibres, an arrangement was used in which the beam was brought out of the vacuum into air or helium. Kapton, aluminium, nickel and molybdenum were tested for suitability as exit windows. Of these, aluminium produced significantly the most background in X-ray spectra while helium was found to be significantly better than air as the medium around the targets. With a kapton window, helium in the target chamber, and suitable collimation, trace element concentration down to a few parts per million could be measured when quantities of fibre of only a few times 10 -5 g were available for analysis. (author)

  8. Next Generation Offline Approaches to Trace Gas-Phase Organic Compound Speciation: Sample Collection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R.; Marcotte, A.; Khare, P.; Ditto, J.; Charan, S.; Gentner, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) are major precursors to secondary organic aerosol, and contribute to tropospheric ozone formation. Their wide volatility range, chemical complexity, behavior in analytical systems, and trace concentrations present numerous hurdles to characterization. We present an integrated sampling-to-analysis system for the collection and offline analysis of trace gas-phase organic compounds with the goal of preserving and recovering analytes throughout sample collection, transport, storage, and thermal desorption for accurate analysis. Custom multi-bed adsorbent tubes are used to collect samples for offline analysis by advanced analytical detectors. The analytical instrumentation comprises an automated thermal desorption system that introduces analytes from the adsorbent tubes into a gas chromatograph, which is coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer (GC-EIMS) and other detectors. In order to optimize the collection and recovery for a wide range of analyte volatility and functionalization, we evaluated a variety of commercially-available materials, including Res-Sil beads, quartz wool, glass beads, Tenax TA, and silica gel. Key properties for optimization include inertness, versatile chemical capture, minimal affinity for water, and minimal artifacts or degradation byproducts; these properties were assessed with a diverse mix of traditionally-measured and functionalized analytes. Along with a focus on material selection, we provide recommendations spanning the entire sampling-and-analysis process to improve the accuracy of future comprehensive I/SVOC measurements, including oxygenated and other functionalized I/SVOCs. We demonstrate the performance of our system by providing results on speciated VOCs-SVOCs from indoor, outdoor, and chamber studies that establish the utility of our protocols and pave the way for precise laboratory characterization via a mix of detection methods.

  9. Analysis of sulphur, phosphorus and silica in metals, alloys, inorganic compounds and solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, J.C.; Naik, S.S.; Khedikar, W.K.; Sudersanan, M.; Mathur, P.K

    1999-10-01

    Procedures for the analysis of sulphur, phosphorus and silica in various metals and alloys like mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel as well as nickel base alloys are described. Procedures were also developed for the analysis of sulphur in thoria pellets and in other materials like crack check fluids, coal etc. Typical results obtained are summarised. (author)

  10. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  11. Determination of trace elements in wool fibre by instrumental neutron activation analysis and relation between trace element contents and quality of wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eozyol, H.

    1990-01-01

    Wool samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and 17 elements, Al, Ag, Au, As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and Zn were measured quantitatively. The presence of seven others, Ce, Eu, I, Mo, Te and W was noted. Since several elements, such as Cd, Hg and Pb could not be conveniently determined by NAA, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used instead. Cu and Zn were also analyzed by NAA and AAS to compare these two methods. Mechanical properties of samples were measured and the relations between the trace element contents and properties were investigated. (author) 16 refs.; 7 tabs

  12. Multivariate statistical analysis to characterize/discriminate between anthropogenic and geogenic trace elements occurrence in the Campania Plain, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Cuoco, Emilio; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Tedesco, Dario; Voudouris, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Shallow aquifers are the most accessible reservoirs of potable groundwater; nevertheless, they are also prone to various sources of pollution and it is usually difficult to distinguish between human and natural sources at the watershed scale. The area chosen for this study (the Campania Plain) is characterized by high spatial heterogeneities both in geochemical features and in hydraulic properties. Groundwater mineralization is driven by many processes such as, geothermal activity, weathering of volcanic products and intense human activities. In such a landscape, multivariate statistical analysis has been used to differentiate among the main hydrochemical processes occurring in the area, using three different approaches of factor analysis: (i) major elements, (ii) trace elements, (iii) both major and trace elements. The elaboration of the factor analysis approaches has revealed seven distinct hydrogeochemical processes: i) Salinization (Cl - , Na + ); ii) Carbonate rocks dissolution; iii) Anthropogenic inputs (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , U, V); iv) Reducing conditions (Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ ); v) Heavy metals contamination (Cr and Ni); vi) Geothermal fluids influence (Li + ); and vii) Volcanic products contribution (As, Rb). Results from this study highlight the need to separately apply factor analysis when a large data set of trace elements is available. In fact, the impact of geothermal fluids in the shallow aquifer was identified from the application of the factor analysis using only trace elements. This study also reveals that the factor analysis of major and trace elements can differentiate between anthropogenic and geogenic sources of pollution in intensively exploited aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Nonvolatile Inorganic Oxidizer-Based Explosives from Wipe Collections by Infrared Thermal Desorption-Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward; Staymates, Matthew

    2018-05-07

    Infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) was coupled with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the detection of both inorganic and organic explosives from wipe collected samples. This platform generated discrete and rapid heating rates that allowed volatile and semivolatile organic explosives to thermally desorb at relatively lower temperatures, while still achieving elevated temperatures required to desorb nonvolatile inorganic oxidizer-based explosives. IRTD-DART-MS demonstrated the thermal desorption and detection of refractory potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate oxidizers, compounds difficult to desorb with traditional moderate-temperature resistance-based thermal desorbers. Nanogram to sub-nanogram sensitivities were established for analysis of a range of organic and inorganic oxidizer-based explosive compounds, with further enhancement limited by the thermal properties of the most common commercial wipe materials. Detailed investigations and high-speed visualization revealed conduction from the heated glass-mica base plate as the dominant process for heating of the wipe and analyte materials, resulting in thermal desorption through boiling, aerosolization, and vaporization of samples. The thermal desorption and ionization characteristics of the IRTD-DART technique resulted in optimal sensitivity for the formation of nitrate adducts with both organic and inorganic species. The IRTD-DART-MS coupling and IRTD in general offer promising explosive detection capabilities to the defense, security, and law enforcement arenas.

  14. Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, M.; Kamiyama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Wang Zhiming; Zhao Yingjie; Li Zhengtang

    1993-01-01

    As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3 H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3 H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)

  15. Application of resonance ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis and in fundamental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passler, G.

    1997-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been used for ultra-trace analysis on long-lived radioisotopes like Pu, Tc and 89,90 Sr in various environmental samples. The experimental approaches cover pulsed laser spectroscopy on a thermal atomic beam and subsequent time-of-flight mass analysis, a pulsed laser ion source combined with conventional mass spectrometry, and collinear resonance ionization on a mass-separated fast atomic beam. The high sensitivity of RIMS also enables atomic spectroscopy on rare isotopes. For the first time experimental values for the ionization potential of actinides up to Cf have been determined. The paper reviews the dependency of the different experimental approaches on the analytical problem. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Sample preparation techniques in trace element analysis by X-ray emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    1983-11-01

    The report, written under a research contract with the IAEA, contains a detailed presentation of the most difficult problem encountered in the trace element analysis by methods of the X-ray emission spectroscopy, namely the sample preparation techniques. The following items are covered. Sampling - with specific consideration of aerosols, water, soil, biological materials, petroleum and its products, storage of samples and their handling. Pretreatment of samples - preconcentration, ashing, solvent extraction, ion exchange and electrodeposition. Sample preparations for PIXE - analysis - backings, target uniformity and homogeneity, effects of irradiation, internal standards and specific examples of preparation (aqueous, biological, blood serum and solid samples). Sample preparations for radioactive sources or tube excitation - with specific examples (water, liquid and solid samples, soil, geological, plants and tissue samples). Finally, the problem of standards and reference materials, as well as that of interlaboratory comparisons, is discussed

  17. Interfering line in trace analysis by X-ray spectrometry: Radiative auger satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kuniko; Kawai, Jun.

    1994-01-01

    Strong characteristic X-ray lines (e.g. Kα and Kβ) are accompanied by broad low-energy satellites caused by the radiative Auger effect (RAE). In order to prove how the RAE satellites interfere the analysis of minor elements, low-energy side spectra of Ca and Ti Kβ, and Ca-Fe Kα were measured. The obtained RAE intensities are summarized together with published experimental and theoretical data. The integrated intensities of satellites due to K → MM, K → LM and K → LL RAE relative to that of Kα are determined to be of the order of 0.01-0.1%. This warns that the neglecting of the RAE satellites will introduce a serious error in trace analysis. (author)

  18. Proton induced x-ray emission analysis of trace elements in thick bread samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Baker Al-bedri; Ikram Jameel Abdul Ghani; Ibrahim Abdul Rahman Al-aghil

    2009-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been used for identification and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration in thick bread samples. Bread samples were air-oven dried at 60degC and milled in a clean agate mortar to homogenize the sample and pressed into a pellet. PIXE technique relies on the analysis of the energy spectra of the characteristic X-ray emitted from the thick bread sample and the orchard leaf standard (NIST-SRM-1571) bombarded with 2.0 MeV protons. The concentration of the elements (Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the bread samples was determined by comparison with NIST orchard leaf standard. The accuracy of the measurements ranged between ±2% and ±10% for the most elements detected in this method. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentration of trace elements in the Iraqi bread using PIXE technique. (author)

  19. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, M.K.; Awadallah, R.M.; Amrallah, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperanceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seed (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made for the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppm to ppb). (author)

  20. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  1. MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF DIAZINON IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad ، S. J. Shahtaheri ، M. R. Ganjali ، A. Rahimi Forushani ، F. Golbabaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amongst organophosphate pesticides, the one most widely used and common environmental contaminant is diazinon; thus methods for its trace analysis in environmental samples must be developed. Use of diazinon imprinted polymers such as sorbents in solid phase extraction, is a prominent and novel application area of molecular imprinted polymers. For diazinon extraction, high performance liquid chromatography analysis was demonstrated in this study. During optimization of the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure for efficient solid phase extraction of diazinon, Plackett-Burman design was conducted. Eight experimental factors with critical influence on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction performance were selected, and 12 different experimental runs based on Plackett-Burman design were carried out. The applicability of diazinon imprinted polymers as the sorbent in solid phase extraction, presented obtained good recoveries of diazinon from LC-grade water. An increase in pH caused an increase in the recovery on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction. From these results, the optimal molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure was as follows: solid phase extraction packing with 100 mg diazinon imprinted polymers; conditioning with 5 mL of methanol and 6 mL of LC-grade water; sample loading containing diazinon (pH=10; washing with 1 mL of LC-grade water, 1 mL LC- grade water containing 30% acetonitrile and 0.5 mL of acetonitrile, respectively; eluting with 1 mL of methanol containing 2% acetic acid. The percentage recoveries obtained by the optimized molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were more than 90% with drinking water spiked at different trace levels of diazinon. Generally speaking, the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure and subsequent high performance liquid chromatography analysis can be a relatively fast and proper approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diazinon in

  2. Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis andImaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Researchand Education in Low Density Organic Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-02

    Report: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density...Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0475 Organization: University of Texas at El Paso Title: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System ...for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density Organic-Inorganic Materials Report Term: 0-Other Email: dmisra2

  3. TRACE/PARCS analysis of the OECD/NEA Oskarshamn-2 BWR stability benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Downar, T.; Xu, Y.; Wysocki, A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ivanov, K.; Magedanz, J.; Hardgrove, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA (United States); March-Leuba, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hudson, N.; Woodyatt, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-01

    On February 25, 1999, the Oskarshamn-2 NPP experienced a stability event which culminated in diverging power oscillations with a decay ratio of about 1.4. The event was successfully modeled by the TRACE/PARCS coupled code system, and further analysis of the event is described in this paper. The results show very good agreement with the plant data, capturing the entire behavior of the transient including the onset of instability, growth of the oscillations (decay ratio) and oscillation frequency. This provides confidence in the prediction of other parameters which are not available from the plant records. The event provides coupled code validation for a challenging BWR stability event, which involves the accurate simulation of neutron kinetics (NK), thermal-hydraulics (TH), and TH/NK. coupling. The success of this work has demonstrated the ability of the 3-D coupled systems code TRACE/PARCS to capture the complex behavior of BWR stability events. The problem was released as an international OECD/NEA benchmark, and it is the first benchmark based on measured plant data for a stability event with a DR greater than one. Interested participants are invited to contact authors for more information. (authors)

  4. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-08-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent γ-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences (μg/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn

  5. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1965-08-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent {gamma}-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences ({mu}g/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn.

  6. Development of Ray Tracing Algorithms for Scanning Plane and Transverse Plane Analysis for Satellite Multibeam Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflector antennas have been widely used in many areas. In the implementation of parabolic reflector antenna for broadcasting satellite applications, it is essential for the spacecraft antenna to provide precise contoured beam to effectively serve the required region. For this purpose, combinations of more than one beam are required. Therefore, a tool utilizing ray tracing method is developed to calculate precise off-axis beams for multibeam antenna system. In the multibeam system, each beam will be fed from different feed positions to allow the main beam to be radiated at the exact direction on the coverage area. Thus, detailed study on caustics of a parabolic reflector antenna is performed and presented in this paper, which is to investigate the behaviour of the rays and its relation to various antenna parameters. In order to produce accurate data for the analysis, the caustic behaviours are investigated in two distinctive modes: scanning plane and transverse plane. This paper presents the detailed discussions on the derivation of the ray tracing algorithms, the establishment of the equations of caustic loci, and the verification of the method through calculation of radiation pattern.

  7. Determination of trace elements: Neutron-activation analysis in geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemistry, like cosmochemistry, open-quotes studies chemical elements hor-ellipsis of the crust and hor-ellipsis the Earth hor-ellipsis their history, their distribution hor-ellipsis their genetic hor-ellipsis connectionsclose quotes and is based on data on the abundance and distribution of elements obtained by various analytical methods. Neutron-activation analysis (NAA) plays a particular role in this respect. This is due to its high sensitivity (detection limit as small as 10 -14 g), which makes possible the use of samples of arbitrary mass, and also due to the possibility of obtaining information about composition without destruction of the object, conserving, if required, the unique material under investigation. Of the most interest are the data on the contents for a number of trace elements (at a level of 10 -7 - 10 -4 %), among which are rare-earth elements (REE), U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, W, Ga, Ni, Rb, Cs, platinum-group metals, Ag, Au, etc. These elements are considered as indicators of geochemical processes associated with the genesis and evolution of solar system bodies in early and more recent stages of evolution; they are also used to study processes and phenomena at zone boundaries: river-sea, ocean-atmosphere, and so on. The aim of this work is to show the capabilities of NAA in the determination of trace elements

  8. Microbial population analysis improves the evidential value of faecal traces in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.

  9. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue

  10. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis to the development of a monitoring system for trace metals in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbe, L.; Schnier, C.

    1976-03-01

    In view of the development of monitoring systems for trace metals in coastal waters, a research program has been started for a better understanding of interrelationships between input of trace metals, water chemistry, suspended matter, sediment and organisms. For multielement determinations neutron activation analysis has been chosen. Since environmental studies require the analysis of a large number of samples, the efficiency of the method is improved by automation of the acquisition and analysis of the γ-spectra from the Ge(Li) detectors. An automatic sample changer with counting device is described. First applications of the method in environmental research are presented. (orig.) [de

  12. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  13. Determination of minor-and trace elements in magnesite samples, by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method employing activation analysis with thermal neutron was developed for the determination of minor and trace elements in magnesite samples from the states of Ceara and Bahia (Brazil). Ten samples were analyzed. A qualitative analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Mn, Fe, Sc, Ca, Cu, Co and some of the lanthanides. The experimental part includes a non-destructive analysis of manganese and analysis with chemical separation of the other elements, individually or in groups, after sample dissolution, The dissolutions were made with concentrated HCl and the further separations were carried out in 8 N HCl medium. Iron was separated by means of an extraction of HFeCl 4 with isopropyl ether. Scandium and calcium were determined by retention of scandium with di-(2-ehylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The activities of 46 Sc and 47 Sc (a 47 Ca descendant) were employed for the analysis of scandium and calcium in the sample. In the effluent of the kieselguhr column copper and cobalt were determined, after retention in an anionic resin of the CuCl - 3 and CoCl - 3 complexes. Finally, in the effluent of the resin, the lanthanide group was separated by oxalate precipitation. In the gamma-ray spectrum of this precipitate the elements europium, cerium, samarium and lanthanum were determined. A detailed study of the possible interferences in the neutron activation analysis of the elements analysed was also made. The precision and accuracy of the results obtained and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  15. Trace analysis of auxiliary feedwater capacity for Maanshan PWR loss-of-normal-feedwater transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Che-Hao; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science; Wang, Jong-Rong; Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research

    2013-07-01

    Maanshan nuclear power plant is a Westinghouse PWR of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, TPC). A few years ago, TPC has made many assessments in order to uprate the power of Maanshan NPP. The assessments include NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) parameters calculation, uncertainty acceptance, integrity of pressure vessel, reliability of auxiliary systems, and transient analyses, etc. Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident happened, it is necessary to consider transients with multiple-failure. Base on the analysis, we further study the auxiliary feedwater capability for Loss-of-Normal-Feedwater (LONF) transient. LONF is the limiting transient of non-turbine trip initiated event for ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) which results in a reduction in capability of the secondary system to remove the heat generated in the reactor core. If the turbine fails to trip immediately, the secondary water inventory will decrease significantly before the actuation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. The heat removal from the primary side decreases, and this leads to increases of primary coolant temperature and pressure. The water level of pressurizer also increases subsequently. The heat removal through the relief valves and the auxiliary feedwater is not sufficient to fully cope with the heat generation from primary side. The pressurizer will be filled with water finally, and the RCS pressure might rise above the set point of relief valves for water discharge. RCS pressure depends on steam generator inventory, primary coolant temperature, negative reactivity feedback, and core power, etc. The RCS pressure may reach its peak after core power reduction. According to ASME Code Level C service limit criteria, the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure must be under 22.06 MPa. The USNRC is developing an advanced thermal hydraulic code named TRACE for nuclear power plant safety analysis. The development of TRACE is based on TRAC and integrating with RELAP5 and other programs. SNAP

  16. Trace analysis of auxiliary feedwater capacity for Maanshan PWR loss-of-normal-feedwater transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Che-Hao; Shih, Chunkuan; Wang, Jong-Rong; Lin, Hao-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Maanshan nuclear power plant is a Westinghouse PWR of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, TPC). A few years ago, TPC has made many assessments in order to uprate the power of Maanshan NPP. The assessments include NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) parameters calculation, uncertainty acceptance, integrity of pressure vessel, reliability of auxiliary systems, and transient analyses, etc. Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident happened, it is necessary to consider transients with multiple-failure. Base on the analysis, we further study the auxiliary feedwater capability for Loss-of-Normal-Feedwater (LONF) transient. LONF is the limiting transient of non-turbine trip initiated event for ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) which results in a reduction in capability of the secondary system to remove the heat generated in the reactor core. If the turbine fails to trip immediately, the secondary water inventory will decrease significantly before the actuation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. The heat removal from the primary side decreases, and this leads to increases of primary coolant temperature and pressure. The water level of pressurizer also increases subsequently. The heat removal through the relief valves and the auxiliary feedwater is not sufficient to fully cope with the heat generation from primary side. The pressurizer will be filled with water finally, and the RCS pressure might rise above the set point of relief valves for water discharge. RCS pressure depends on steam generator inventory, primary coolant temperature, negative reactivity feedback, and core power, etc. The RCS pressure may reach its peak after core power reduction. According to ASME Code Level C service limit criteria, the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure must be under 22.06 MPa. The USNRC is developing an advanced thermal hydraulic code named TRACE for nuclear power plant safety analysis. The development of TRACE is based on TRAC and integrating with RELAP5 and other programs. SNAP

  17. Literature review and preliminary analysis of inorganic ammonia pertinent to south Texas uranium in-situ leach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braswell, J.; Breland, M.; Chang, M.; Farley, J.; Hill, D.; Johnson, D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review existing literature to aid in the determination of the potential impact of ammonia-containing lixiviants on uranium solution mining aquifers, perform studies based on the available literature, to identify potential ways to protect the groundwaters from ammonia contamination, and to propose further work where data are lacking or needed. The review of the literature includes an analysis and interpretation of the literature as it relates to the solution mining activities. Results focus on the range of geologic and hydrologic conditions representative of South Texas solution minig areas. Other pertinent data sources such as soils and agricultural literature are also reviewed and conclusions extrapolated to the solution mining situation. Specific tasks were: evaluate the potential of natural occurrence and influx of ammonia and/or nitrate species in confined aquifers typical of uranium solution mining sites; find available data on the sorption characteristics of ammonia and nitrates on pure and mixed minerals representative of South Texas geology in solution mining areas; determine applicable selectivity coefficients and kinetic data on sorption and desorption of ammonia on clay minerals; evaluate the potential for natural inorganic ammonia conversion by chemical or other mechanisms in typical solution mining aquifers; review available monitoring data from solution mining operations as it pertains to ammonia adsorption or migration; analyze and provide calculational bases for determining the predicted fate of ammonia under solution mining conditions; recommend continuation programs that focus on areas of uncertainty; provide comprehensive bibliography and abstracts of all pertinent articles

  18. Portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy/diffuse reflectance hybrid spectrometer for analysis of inorganic pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozos, Panagiotis; Philippidis, Aggelos; Anglos, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    A novel, portable spectrometer, combining two analytical techniques, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, was developed with the aim to provide an enhanced instrumental and methodological approach with regard to the analysis of pigments in objects of cultural heritage. Technical details about the hybrid spectrometer and its operation are presented and examples are given relevant to the analysis of paint materials. Both LIBS and diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible and part of the near infrared, corresponding to several neat mineral pigment samples, were recorded and the complementary information was used to effectively distinguish different types of pigments even if they had similar colour or elemental composition. The spectrometer was also employed in the analysis of different paints on the surface of an ancient pottery sherd demonstrating the capabilities of the proposed hybrid diagnostic approach. Despite its instrumental simplicity and compact size, the spectrometer is capable of supporting analytical campaigns relevant to archaeological, historical or art historical investigations, particularly when quick data acquisition is required in the context of surveys of large numbers of objects and samples.

  19. A Novel Method for Analysis of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentration and δ13C by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.; Gonneea, M. E.; Boze, L. G.; Casso, M.; Pohlman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the largest pool of carbon in the oceans and is where about half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are being sequestered. Determining the concentration and stable carbon isotopic content (δ13C) of DIC allows us to delineate carbon sources that contribute to marine DIC. A simple and reliable method for measuring DIC concentration and δ13C can be used to apportion contributions from external sources and identify effects from biogeochemical reactions that contribute or remove DIC. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a discrete sample analysis module (DSAM) that interfaces to a Picarro G-2201i cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS, Picarro Inc.) to analyze CO2 and methane concentrations and δ13C from discrete gas samples. In this study, we adapted the USGS DSAM-CRDS analysis system to include an AutoMate prep device (Automate FX, Inc.) for analysis of DIC concentration and δ13C from aqueous samples. The Automate prep device was modified to deliver CO2 extracted from DIC to the DSAM, which conditions and transfers the gas to the CRDS. LabVIEW software (National Instruments) triggers the Automate Prep device, controls the DSAM and collects data from the CRDS. CO2 mass concentration data are obtained by numerical integration of the CO2 volumetric concentrations output by the CRDS and subsequent comparison to standard materials. CO2 carbon isotope values from the CRDS (iCO2) are converted to δ13C values using a slope and offset correction calibration procedure. The system design and operation was optimized using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) standards and a certified reference material. Surface water and pore water samples collected from Sage Lot Pond, a salt marsh in Cape Cod MA, have been analyzed for concentration by coulometry and δ13C by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and will be used to validate the DIC-DSAM-CRDS method for field applications.

  20. Intercomparison and determination of trace elements in urban dust by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in air samples artificially loaded on filters with urban dust and the bulk material of urban dust as an environmental sample were determined non-destructively using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Standard reference material (Urban Dust, SRM 1648) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology was used for the analytical quality control. The relative error for 37 elements was less than 15% and the standard deviation was less than 10%. 29 elements in the urban dust and 21 elements in the loaded filter sample were determined respectively. To evaluate the proficiency and reliability of the measurement, data intercomparison was performed and 39 analytical laboratories participated in the analysis using different analytical methods; neutron activation analysis, particle induced X-ray emission analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Z-scores were calculated using the standard deviation of the laboratory's mean as target standard deviation, and a good result was obtained that the values fall between-1 and +1 except some elements. (author)

  1. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  2. Trace Analysis of Irradiated Granite Samples from Hiroshima by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amr, M.A.; Helal, N.F.; Zahran, N.F.; Becker, J.S.; Pickhardt, C.; Dietze, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is widely accepted as a rapid and sensitive technique for trace elemental analysis of solid materials and for local analysis of inhomogeneous materials (such as geological samples). Due to its direct solid sample analysis capability, LA-ICP-MS (using a quadrupole based ICP-MS and at the Research Center Juelich developed laser ablation system: Nd-YAG-laser, 226 nm, 10 Hz and 5 ns) is applied for the analysis of geological (granite) samples from Hiroshima. In order to prepare homogeneous targets, these samples were melted together with a lithium-borate mixture in a muffle furnace at 1050 degree c. Furthermore, for investigating of matrix effects the powder of these samples is mixed with graphite and pressed as targets for laser ablation. The quantification of the analysis results was carried out using granite (GM) as standard reference material. The relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) for most elements, which were determined for correction of the measured values, varied between 0.3 and 3

  3. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE.

  4. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  5. Adaptation and implementation of the TRACE code for transient analysis in designs lead cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.; Ammirabile, L.; Martorell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) has been identified as one of promising future reactor concepts in the technology road map of the Generation IVC International Forum (GIF)as well as in the Deployment Strategy of the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII), both aiming at improved sustainability, enhanced safety, economic competitiveness, and proliferation resistance. This new nuclear reactor concept requires the development of computational tools to be applied in design and safety assessments to confirm improved inherent and passive safety features of this design. One approach to this issue is to modify the current computational codes developed for the simulation of Light Water Reactors towards their applicability for the new designs. This paper reports on the performed modifications of the TRACE system code to make it applicable to LFR safety assessments. The capabilities of the modified code are demonstrated on series of benchmark exercises performed versus other safety analysis codes. (Author)

  6. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of major and trace elements in Red Sea scleractinian corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, S.Y.; Sherif, M.M.; Frontasyeva, M.V.

    2017-01-01

    Five corals belonging to common scleractinian reef-building species, and collected from Gulf of Suez, Egypt were subjected to neutron activation analysis. The content of 26 elements: Na, Mg, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Gd, Hf, Th, and U was experimentally determined. Ca and Sr have the highest content i.e. 38.4-39.5% and 0.73-0.78% respectively while, the content of all other elements was within the ranges reported for the worldwide corals. For a better understanding of the coral exoskeleton elemental content, the partition coefficient calculated for all determined elements showed a wide range of values varying from 2 × 10 -4 in the case of Cl to 2 × 10 3 for Ce and other insoluble elements. Although all corals were collected in the vicinity of the Port Suez no traces of anthropogenic contamination were evidenced. (author)

  7. Procedure of trace element analysis in oyster tissues by using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Tuong Hanh; Dinh Thi Bich Lieu; Dinh Thien Lam and Nguyen Manh Hung

    2004-01-01

    The procedure of trace element analysis such as Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb in molluscs (oyster tissues) was established by using X-ray fluorescence techniques. The procedure was investigated from the sample collection, drying, ashing ratio to the analytical techniques by using Cd-109, detector Si (Li) and the peak processing MCAPLUS program was applied for this study. The procedure is based on direct comparison with certified concentrations of international standard reference SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue of National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of commerce, United States of America for Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and the Standard Addition Methods for Pb. The accuracy of the Standard Addition Methods was estimated by CRM281 Rye Grass of Community Bureau of Reference-BCR, European Commission. The results of 10 samples which were collected from several markets in Hanoi are shown. (author)

  8. Study of the trace element content in human cataractous lenses by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouris, T.; Theodossiadis, G.; Papadopoulou, C.; Kanias, G.D.; Baikraktari-Kouri, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cataract is a very common disease of the eye lens known since the ancient times. Different mechanisms are responsible for the biogenesis of cataract but the greater number of scientists agree with the theory that cataract formation can be attributed to metabolism disorders in the lens. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in this work for the determination of the following trace elements: antimony, cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium and zinc in human lenses with mature cataract. The obtained results are statistically treated and correlated with age and sex of patients. Based on these findings the concentration of each studied element does not have any correlation with the age and/or sex of the patients i.e. when the lens becomes totally opaque. (author)

  9. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K.E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    1999-01-01

    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example)

  10. Neutron activation analysis in forensic investigations. Trace elements characterization of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordani, L.; Rizzio, E.; Brandone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Police investigations of the Italian Ministry of Treasury Police involving the illicit sale of tobacco lead to the confiscation of large quantities of smuggled cigarettes. Thousands of tons of cigarettes of different manufacturers are sequestrated yearly in many regions of Italy and different criminal organizations have been identified as unlawful importers. In order to verify whether the recovered smuggled lots of cigarettes come from the official manufacturers, or they have produced illicitly, usually chemical analysis are carried out. By the determination of trace elements content, specific information can be obtained by comparing different brands of cigarettes and different batches of tobacco. Samples of tobacco of cigarettes manufactured by the Italian State Monopoly, taken as 'reference samples', have been compared with those of illicit origin. Elements such as Co, Br, Cr and Sc have been found to be useful for the selective characterization. The results, submitted to statistical elaboration, provided important information on the origin of smuggled cigarettes. (author)

  11. Integrating Paper Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection for the Trace Analysis of TNT in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ryan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of an electrochemical probe for the trace analysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT in soil samples. The probe is a combination of graphite electrodes, filter paper, with ethylene glycol and choline chloride as the solvent/electrolyte. Square wave chromatovoltammograms show the probes have a sensitivity for TNT of 0.75 nA/ng and a limit of detection of 100 ng. In addition, by taking advantage of the inherent paper chromatography step, TNT can be separated in both time and cathodic peak potential from 4-amino-dinitrotolene co-spotted on the probe or in soil samples with the presence of methyl parathion as a possible interferent.

  12. Investigation of different types of filters for atmospheric trace elements analysis by three analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.E.; Bacso, J.

    1996-01-01

    Different atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on three types of filters. Disks of both loaded and clean areas of each kind of filter were investigated by XRF, PIXE and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) methods. The blank concentration values of the elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb in the three types of filters are discussed. It is found that for trace elemental analysis, the Nuclepore membrane filters are the most suitable for sampling. These have much lower blank element concentration values than the glass fibres and ash free filters. It was found also that the PIXE method is a more reliable analytical technique for atmospheric aerosol particles than the other methods. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements evaluation of human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, K.P.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective pursued in this study is to establish the base-line data on the status of elemental composition in human milk from Pakistani subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) methodology was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in human milk. This methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in human milk of low- and medium-income group subjects of the region. The results obtained show good compatibility with the data reported by the WHO on elemental composition of human milk from different geological regions. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of mentally retarded children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, C.K.; Zheng, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    Hair samples of mildly mentally retarded (LR), moderately mentally retarded (MR), severely mentally retarded (SR) and normal children were collected and measured, using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence to determine the concentrations of Al, Sb, As, Ca, Cu, I, Fe Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, K, Sr, S, V and Zn. The groups of children were of ages between 5 and 13. Difference in the mean concentration of each element between groups was tested by Student's t-test. No trend, either decreasing or increasing, has been established as the degree of severity increased from normal to SR children, except for the case of Cu. The present work may shed some light in the interpretation of findings on the effects of trace elements on neurobehavioral functions. (author)

  15. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope 236 U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of ( 236 U)/( 238 U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10 -9 was demonstrated.

  16. Statistically sound evaluation of trace element depth profiles by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, K.; Toussaint, U. von

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the underlying physics and statistical models that are used in the newly developed program NRADC for fully automated deconvolution of trace level impurity depth profiles from ion beam data. The program applies Bayesian statistics to find the most probable depth profile given ion beam data measured at different energies and angles for a single sample. Limiting the analysis to % level amounts of material allows one to linearize the forward calculation of ion beam data which greatly improves the computation speed. This allows for the first time to apply the maximum likelihood approach to both the fitting of the experimental data and the determination of confidence intervals of the depth profiles for real world applications. The different steps during the automated deconvolution will be exemplified by applying the program to artificial and real experimental data.

  17. Applications of mass spectrometry in the trace element analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological material is illustrated by reviewing the different mass spectrometric methods applied and describing some typical applications published recently. Though atomic absorption spectrometry is used in the majority of analyses of biological material, most mass spectrometric methods have been used to some extent for trace element determination in biomedical research. The relative importance of the different methods is estimated by reviewing recent research papers. It is striking that especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being applied, partly because the method can be used on-line after chromatographic separation, in speciation studies. Mass spectrometric methods prove to offer unique possibilities in stable isotope tracer studies and for this purpose also experimentally demanding methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry are frequently used. (orig.)

  18. Trace and surface analysis of ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Breuer, U; Westheide, J; Saprykin, A I; Holzbrecher, H; Nickel, H; Dietze, H J

    1996-06-01

    For the trace analysis of impurities in thick ceramic layers of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sensitive solid-state mass spectrometric methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and radiofrequency glow discharge mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) have been developed and used. In order to quantify the analytical results of LA-ICP-MS, the relative sensitivity coefficients of elements in a La(0.6)Sr(0.35)MnO(3) matrix have been determined using synthetic standards. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) - as a surface analytical method - has been used to characterize the element distribution and diffusion profiles of matrix elements on the interface of a perovskite/Y-stabilized ZrO(2) layer. The application of different mass spectrometric methods for process control in the preparation of ceramic layers for the SOFC is described.

  19. Determination of rare earths and traces of other elements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Mantovani, M.S.M.; Marques, L.S.

    A complete methodology for a multielemental analysis in geological material using the neutron activation technique was developed. 21 trace elements (9 of which are rare earths) were determined using thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. Instrumetnal and radiochemical processing, applied to BCR-1 and G-2 geological standards, are described. Statistical tests carried out on G-2 data show an error smaller than 15% referring to all elements except Cr, Sb and Yb. The observed differences between are discussed. The good precision attained in this method is confirmed by its application to BCR-1 standard, which presents errors smaller than 4% for all elements except Nd, due to its intrinsic properties. The results from the present work are compared with those from other laboratories. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. Analysis of toxic trace elements in sea food samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.A.; Wood, A.K.; Hamzah, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of toxic and essential trace element were analysed such as As, Hg, Se and Zn by neutron activation analysis in coastal fishes consumed by the general population of Malaysia. The mean values of the elements analysed expressed in mg/kg fresh weight ranged 1.42-5.61, 0.06-0.42, 4.2-20.6, 0.41-1.28 for As, Hg, Zn and Se, respectively. The maximum permissible limit for As in food was set at 1.0 mg/kg under the Malaysian Food Regulations. The results showed that consumption of coastal fishes is not permitted under the regulations, while the levels of Hg, Se and Zn were within the permissible limits. The daily dietary intake of As and Hg at 400 μg and 30 μg respectively are still within the tolerance levels. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Correlation analysis of inorganic elements in biological tissue if DMDmdx/J mice using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Bueno Junior, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S concentrations in bone and other organs samples from DMD mdx /J dystrophic mice as well as C57BL/6J control group mice. The DMD mdx /J mouse strain is relevant as an experimental model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is the most severe and prevalent type of muscular dystrophy. Muscle weakness, premature death and instability of the membrane that involves the muscle fibers - causing functional/structural abnormalities and cell death - are main characteristics of this genetic disease. To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in bones (tibiae) and organs (quadriceps and heart), correlations matrixes were generated for both strains permitting a comparison between these groups. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. The results emphasize physiologic differences for Na, Ca and Mg and suggest that Br and S results are altered, emphasizing a constant monitoring needs. Other than that, these results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  2. Analysis of Process Gases and Trace Contaminants in Membrane-Aerated Gaseous Effluent Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin Michael; Meyer, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    In membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs), hollow fibers are used to supply oxygen to the biofilms and bulk fluid. A pressure and concentration gradient between the inner volume of the fibers and the reactor reservoir drives oxygen mass transport across the fibers toward the bulk solution, providing the fiber-adhered biofilm with oxygen. Conversely, bacterial metabolic gases from the bulk liquid, as well as from the biofilm, move opposite to the flow of oxygen, entering the hollow fiber and out of the reactor. Metabolic gases are excellent indicators of biofilm vitality, and can aid in microbial identification. Certain gases can be indicative of system perturbations and control anomalies, or potentially unwanted biological processes occurring within the reactor. In confined environments, such as those found during spaceflight, it is important to understand what compounds are being stripped from the reactor and potentially released into the crew cabin to determine the appropriateness or the requirement for additional mitigation factors. Reactor effluent gas analysis focused on samples provided from Kennedy Space Center's sub-scale MABRs, as well as Johnson Space Center's full-scale MABRs, using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques. Process gases, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrous oxide, were quantified to monitor reactor operations. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) GC-MS analysis was used to identify trace volatile compounds. Compounds of interest were subsequently quantified. Reactor supply air was examined to establish target compound baseline concentrations. Concentration levels were compared to average ISS concentration values and/or Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels where appropriate. Based on a review of to-date results, current trace contaminant control systems (TCCS) currently on board the ISS should be able to handle the added load from bioreactor systems without the need

  3. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of agrochemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Jackson, Ayanna U; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-01-15

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in situ, direct qualitative and quantitative (ultra)trace analysis of agrochemicals in foodstuffs. To evaluate the potential of DESI mass spectrometry (MS) in toxic residue testing in food, 16 representative multiclass agricultural chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) were selected (namely, ametryn, amitraz, azoxystrobin, bitertanol, buprofezin, imazalil, imazalil metabolite, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, nitenpyram, prochloraz, spinosad, terbuthylazine, thiabendazole, and thiacloprid). The DESI-MS experiments were performed using 3 microL of solution spotted onto conventional smooth poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces, with examination by MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Optimization of the spray solvent led to the use of acetonitrile/water (80:20) (v/v), with 1% formic acid. Most of the compounds tested showed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, approaching that attainable with conventional direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach in real samples, different experiments were performed including the direct DESI-MS/MS analysis of fruit peels and also of fruit/vegetable extracts. The results proved that DESI allows the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased samples. In addition, MS/MS confirmation of selected pesticides in spiked vegetable extracts was obtained at absolute levels as low as 1 pg for ametryn. Quantitation of imazalil residues was also undertaken using an isotopically labeled standard. The data obtained were in agreement with those from the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) reference method, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values consistently below 15%. The results obtained demonstrate the sensitivity of DESI as they meet the stringent European Union pesticide regulation

  4. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Gerwinski, W.; Radke, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme ''Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment'' (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on ''Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants''. Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unfiltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented. (author)

  5. Trace-level mercury ion (Hg2+) analysis in aqueous sample based on solid-phase extraction followed by microfluidic immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Terakado, Shingo; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Matsue, Tomokazu; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-01-02

    Mercury is considered the most important heavy-metal pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Monitoring widespread ionic mercury (Hg(2+)) contamination requires high-throughput and cost-effective methods to screen large numbers of environmental samples. In this study, we developed a simple and sensitive analysis for Hg(2+) in environmental aqueous samples by combining a microfluidic immunoassay and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Using a microfluidic platform, an ultrasensitive Hg(2+) immunoassay, which yields results within only 10 min and with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.13 μg/L, was developed. To allow application of the developed immunoassay to actual environmental aqueous samples, we developed an ion-exchange resin (IER)-based SPE for selective Hg(2+) extraction from an ion mixture. When using optimized SPE conditions, followed by the microfluidic immunoassay, the LOD of the assay was 0.83 μg/L, which satisfied the guideline values for drinking water suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2 μg/L; total mercury), and the World Health Organisation (WHO) (6 μg/L; inorganic mercury). Actual water samples, including tap water, mineral water, and river water, which had been spiked with trace levels of Hg(2+), were well-analyzed by SPE, followed by microfluidic Hg(2+) immunoassay, and the results agreed with those obtained from reduction vaporizing-atomic adsorption spectroscopy.

  6. Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained from the plants Cordia verbenacea DC, Folidago microglossa DC, and Petiveria alliacea. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 -10 13 n/cm 2 s in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. The NBS Tea Leaves (1572) and NIES Pepperbush reference materials were analyzed simultaneously with the plant extracts. The results obtained in these analyses have shown a good accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The relative errors and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed

  7. Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M; Vasconcellos, M B; Sertié, J A

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained from the plants. Cordia Verbenacea DC, Folidago Microglossa DC, and Petiveria Alliacea. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations under a thermal neutron flux of 10(11)-10(13) n/cm2s in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. The NBS Tea Leaves (1572) and NIES Pepperbush (1) reference materials were analyzed simultaneously with the plant extracts. The results obtained in these analyses have shown a good accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The relative errors and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed.

  8. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Practical using of TXRF spectrometers with slitless collimators for the trace analysis of targets surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.K.; Zuev, A.P.; Kondratiev, O.S.; Egorov, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    TXRF spectrometer with the slitless collimator used for a formation of the x-ray excitating beam (TXRF-SC spectrometer) is a new variety of an instrument been destined for the trace analysis of surfaces by x-ray fluorescence method at the total reflection of the x-ray incident beam. Some theoretical concepts are introduced for a characterization of the x-ray optics been unique to the TXRF-SC spectrometer. The principle design of the TXRF-SC spectrometer used for the trace quantitative analysis of a surface are discussed. Spectra of a secondary x-ray radiation yield for typical targets been collected by using of the TXRF-SC spectrometer and calculation of surface trace elements concentrations are presented. The analytical and operating parameters of the TXRF-SC spectrometer and one characterized by standard optical scheme are compared. The slitless collimator of the x-ray radiation is formed by two quartz polished plates mated together. Lengths of the plates are not equal. The target is placed on the surface of the long quartz plate and produces the continuation of the initial slitless collimator. Target orientation problem vanishes but problem of the surface contact effect appears. The secondary x-ray radiation excitated in a surface of the target is led out across the hole in the long quartz plate. The radiation is registered by a standard Si (Li) semiconductor detector and is collected by a multi-channel analyzer. The fundamental difference of the x-ray optical scheme been unique to TXRF-SC spectrometer from the standard one is the excitation of a studied surface by a flared x-ray beam with angle ΔΘ = 2Θ c , where Θ c is the critical angle of the total reflection. The vital peculiarity of a x-ray slitless collimation is the absence of a radiation monochromatism in output of the collimator. The sensible divergence of the x-ray excitating beam and the availability in it of monochromatic and white radiation alike allow to get in the surface layer of target the

  10. Establishment of a clean laboratory for ultra trace analysis of nuclear materials in safeguards environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has established a cleanroom facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 5: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). It was designed to be used for the analysis of nuclear materials in environmental samples mainly for the safeguards, in addition to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification and research on environmental sciences. The CLEAR facility was designed to meet conflicting requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials according to Japanese regulations, i.e., to avoid contamination from outside and to contain nuclear materials inside the facility. This facility has been intended to be used for wet chemical treatment, instrumental analysis and particle handling. A fume-hood to provide a clean work surface for handling of nuclear materials was specially designed. Much attention was paid to the selection of construction materials for use to corrosive acids. The performance of the cleanroom and analytical background in the laboratory are discussed. This facility has satisfactory specification required for joining the International Atomic Energy Agency Network of Analytical Laboratories. It can be concluded that the CLEAR facility enables analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials at sub-pictogram level in environmental samples. (author)

  11. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  12. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhang Yurong; Zhang Longxing; Zhang Agen

    1989-01-01

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  13. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  14. A crystal chemical approach to superconductivity. I. A bond-valence sum analysis of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebau, Friedrich; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Wang, Xiqu

    2011-01-01

    A crystal-chemical approach to superconductivity is described that is intended to complement the corresponding physical approach. The former approach takes into account the distinction between the stoichiometric valence ( stoich V) and the structural valence ( struct V) which is represented by the bond-valence sums (BVS). Through calculations of BVS values from crystal-structure data determined at ambient temperature and pressure it has been found that in chalcogenides und pnictides of the transition metals Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Hf, and Zr the atoms of the potential superconducting units yield values of vertical stroke BVS vertical stroke = vertical stroke struct V vertical stroke ≥ 1.11 x vertical stroke stoich V vertical stroke, whereas the atoms of the charge reservoirs have in general values of vertical stroke struct V vertical stroke stoich V vertical stroke. In corresponding compounds which contain the same elements but are not becoming superconducting, nearly all atoms are found to have vertical stroke struct V vertical stroke stoich V vertical stroke. For atoms of oxocuprates that are not becoming superconducting and for atoms of the charge reservoirs of oxocuprates that become superconducting, the relation vertical stroke struct V vertical stroke stoich V vertical stroke seems also to be fulfilled, with the exception of Ba. However, in several oxocuprates the relation vertical stroke struct V vertical stroke = 1.11 x vertical stroke stoich V vertical stroke for the atoms that become superconducting units is violated. These violations seem to indicate that in oxocuprates it is the local bond-valence distribution rather than the bond-valence sums that is essential for superconductivity. The present analysis can possibly be used to predict, by a simple consideration of ambient-T, P structures, whether a compound can become an unconventional superconductor at low T, under high P and/or by doping, or not. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of inorganic components in nutritional supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Rogerio Alves de Sousa

    2006-01-01

    The control of element composition in nutritional supplements is of great interest due to increasingly high consumption and a large diversity and brands of these products offered in market. Therefore, there is the necessity to evaluate the element contents in the supplements and to compare with those values declared on the labels. In this study neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to evaluate the element composition of 11 commercial nutritional supplement brands bought in natural product drugstores and pharmacies. These samples acquired in capsule or tablet forms were ground to a homogeneous powder. The samples were irradiated together with the elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Irradiations of 8 h under a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 were carried out for Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Se and Zn determinations. For Cu, K and Na determinations thermal neutron flux of 1 x 10 12 n cm -s-1 was used and, the exposure time was 1h. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The obtained results compared with the values of the labels of nutritional supplements presented good agreement for most of the elements. Toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg and Sb were not detected in the samples. For quality control of the analytical data, certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology were also analysed. Accuracy and precision of these results were evaluated. The obtained Z score values were lower than 2 indicating that the data are within the ranges of certified values at 95% confidence level (author)

  16. Determination of trace elements in soil and plants in the Orontes basin of Syria by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used for the determination of some major, minor and trace elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc, Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn and V) in various plant leaves together with their soil. The accuracy of the measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of plant and soil reference materials, precision have been estimated by triplicate analysis of the sample as well as that of the reference material. The obtained accurate and reliable data of some trace elements on microgram level for plants and soil will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace element content of soil and plant leaves. (author)

  17. Statistical analysis of trace metals in the plasma of cancer patients versus controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, Qaisara; Malik, Salman A.; Shah, Munir H.

    2008-01-01

    The plasma of cancer patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 118) were analysed for selected trace metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn) by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the plasma of cancer patients, mean concentrations of macronutrients/essential metals, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were 3971, 178, 44.1, 7.59, 4.38 and 3.90 ppm, respectively, while the mean metal levels in the plasma of controls were 3844, 151, 74.2, 18.0, 6.60 and 2.50 ppm, respectively. Average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn were noted to be significantly higher in the plasma of cancer patients compared with controls. Very strong mutual correlations (r > 0.70) in the plasma of cancer patients were observed between Fe-Mn, Ca-Mn, Ca-Ni, Ca-Co, Cd-Pb, Co-Ni, Mn-Ni, Mn-Zn, Cr-Li, Ca-Zn and Fe-Ni, whereas, Ca-Mn, Ca-Mg, Fe-Zn, Ca-Zn, Mg-Mn, Mg-Zn, Cd-Sb, Cd-Co, Cd-Zn, Co-Sb and Sb-Zn exhibited strong relationships (r > 0.50) in the plasma of controls, all were significant at p < 0.01. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data extracted five PCs, both for cancer patients and controls, but with considerably different loadings. The average metals levels in male and female donors of the two groups were also evaluated and in addition, the general role of trace metals in the carcinogenesis was discussed. The study indicated appreciably different pattern of metal distribution and mutual relationships in the plasma of cancer patients in comparison with controls

  18. Statistical analysis of trace metals in the plasma of cancer patients versus controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasha, Qaisara; Malik, Salman A. [Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H. [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com

    2008-05-30

    The plasma of cancer patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 118) were analysed for selected trace metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn) by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the plasma of cancer patients, mean concentrations of macronutrients/essential metals, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were 3971, 178, 44.1, 7.59, 4.38 and 3.90 ppm, respectively, while the mean metal levels in the plasma of controls were 3844, 151, 74.2, 18.0, 6.60 and 2.50 ppm, respectively. Average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn were noted to be significantly higher in the plasma of cancer patients compared with controls. Very strong mutual correlations (r > 0.70) in the plasma of cancer patients were observed between Fe-Mn, Ca-Mn, Ca-Ni, Ca-Co, Cd-Pb, Co-Ni, Mn-Ni, Mn-Zn, Cr-Li, Ca-Zn and Fe-Ni, whereas, Ca-Mn, Ca-Mg, Fe-Zn, Ca-Zn, Mg-Mn, Mg-Zn, Cd-Sb, Cd-Co, Cd-Zn, Co-Sb and Sb-Zn exhibited strong relationships (r > 0.50) in the plasma of controls, all were significant at p < 0.01. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data extracted five PCs, both for cancer patients and controls, but with considerably different loadings. The average metals levels in male and female donors of the two groups were also evaluated and in addition, the general role of trace metals in the carcinogenesis was discussed. The study indicated appreciably different pattern of metal distribution and mutual relationships in the plasma of cancer patients in comparison with controls.

  19. Practical In-Depth Analysis of IDS Alerts for Tracing and Identifying Potential Attackers on Darknet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuk Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming packets on the darknet (‘the darknet traffic’ do not contain a payload. This means that we are unable to get real malware from the darknet traffic. This situation makes it difficult for security experts (e.g., academic researchers, engineers, operators, etc. to identify whether the source hosts of the darknet traffic are infected by real malware or not. In this paper, we present the overall procedure of the in-depth analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts using real data collected at the Science and Technology Cyber Security Center (S&T CSC in Korea and provide the detailed in-depth analysis results. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide practical experience, insight and know-how to security experts so that they are able to identify and trace the root cause of the darknet traffic. The experimental results show that correlation analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts is very useful to discover potential attack hosts, especially internal hosts, and to find out what kinds of malware infected them.

  20. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  1. Combining trace elements micro-analysis in deposited dredged sediments: EPMA and μ-XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, A; Lerouge, C; Wille, G; Bataillard, P; Quinn, P; Hennet, L

    2012-01-01

    Since deposited dredged sediments are rich in metallic contaminants, they present a risk for environment. This work aims to study dredged sediments chemical composition, identify metal-carrier minerals and understand their mobility. Combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques at multi-scale for an integrative approach of trace elements (zinc, lead, iron) behaviour is therefore necessary. The global mineralogy and the chemistry of the sediment were determined by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence (XRF), respectively. Zn and Pb enriched fractions were separated using a sequential chemical extraction procedure and measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectroscopy. Microanalyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe microanalysis (EPMA), combined with synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) were carried out to characterize mineralogical phases and identify Zn and Pb carrier minerals. Iron oxyhydroxides and iron sulphides were consistently identify as Zn and Pb carriers. The assumption that carbonate fraction was the major Zn carried phase, as demonstrated by chemical extraction results, was not verified by EPMA or μ-XRF.

  2. Process Simulation and Cost Analysis for Removing Inorganics from Wood Chips using Combined Mechanical and Chemical Preprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongqiang; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert; Aston, John E.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Naturally occurring and introduced inorganic species (ash) in biomass feedstocks negatively impact thermochemical energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, gasification and combustion to biopower. As such, it is desirable to better understand the cost:benefit ratios of various ash reduction processes. Here, a novel process simulation model was developed using AspenPlus to reduce the ash content of Loblolly logging residues using both air classification and a dilute-acid leaching process. For costing purposes, a throughput of 25 tons/hour was selected. At this scale, the process cost for a standalone air classification process was $3 per ton for a biomass feedstock. Ash reduction via dilute –acid leaching was simulated based on experimentally determined kinetics of ion diffusion at an acid concentration of 0.5% H2SO4 and temperature of 75°F. The total estimated processing cost for leaching at these conditions was approximately $14/ton of dry biomass. Sensitivity analysis of three parameters on mineral reduction in the leaching process revealed that increasing leaching temperature was not economically feasible, while it was viable to apply a longer retention time in leaching for higher ash removal or achieve a lower water content in final products with reasonable extra costs. In addition, scenarios combining air classification with leaching were examined. A whole process cost of approximately $16/ton of biomass at a biomass feedstock rate of 25 ton/hour considering a 9% of biomass classified as light fraction to be leached. The leaching operating costs constituted 75% of this amount, of which the heating costs of dryer was 44%. This suggests that the process costs would be substantially reduced if more efficient drying methods are applied in future.

  3. Baring the teeth. [Dental caries and the analysis of trace elements in dental tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaton-Jones, P [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit; Retief, H [Alabama Univ., Birmingham (USA); Turkstra, J [Fort Hare Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-07-01

    To determine whether trace elements other than fluorine play a role in the varying prevalences of dental caries in different South African population groups, neutron activation techniques have been devised to establish the concentrations of trace elements in tooth enamel and dentine.

  4. Trace analysis measurements in high-purity aluminium by means of radiochemical neutron and proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study consisted in the development of efficient radiochemical composite processes and activation methods for the multi-element determination of traces within the lower ng range in high-purity aluminium. More than 50 elements were determined with the help of activation with reactor neutrons; the selective separation of matrix activity (adsorption with hydrated antimony pentoxide) led to a noticeable improvement of detectability, as compared with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Further improvements were achieved with the help of radiochemical group separations in ion exchangers or with the help of the selective separation of the pure beta-emitting elements. Over 20 elements up to high atomic numbers were determined by means of activating 13 MeV protons and 23 Me protons. In this connection, improvements of the detection limit by as a factor of 10 were achieved with radiochemical separation techniques, as compared with pure instrumental proton activation analysis. (RB) [de

  5. Tracing carbon flow in an arctic marine food web using fatty acid-stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, S M; Wooller, M J; Springer, A M; Iverson, S J; McRoy, C P; Divoky, G J

    2008-08-01

    Global warming and the loss of sea ice threaten to alter patterns of productivity in arctic marine ecosystems because of a likely decline in primary productivity by sea ice algae. Estimates of the contribution of ice algae to total primary production range widely, from just 3 to >50%, and the importance of ice algae to higher trophic levels remains unknown. To help answer this question, we investigated a novel approach to food web studies by combining the two established methods of stable isotope analysis and fatty acid (FA) analysis--we determined the C isotopic composition of individual diatom FA and traced these biomarkers in consumers. Samples were collected near Barrow, Alaska and included ice algae, pelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Ice algae and pelagic phytoplankton had distinctive overall FA signatures and clear differences in delta(13)C for two specific diatom FA biomarkers: 16:4n-1 (-24.0+/-2.4 and -30.7+/-0.8 per thousand, respectively) and 20:5n-3 (-18.3+/-2.0 and -26.9+/-0.7 per thousand, respectively). Nearly all delta(13)C values of these two FA in consumers fell between the two stable isotopic end members. A mass balance equation indicated that FA material derived from ice algae, compared to pelagic diatoms, averaged 71% (44-107%) in consumers based on delta(13)C values of 16:4n-1, but only 24% (0-61%) based on 20:5n-3. Our estimates derived from 16:4n-1, which is produced only by diatoms, probably best represented the contribution of ice algae relative to pelagic diatoms. However, many types of algae produce 20:5n-3, so the lower value derived from it likely represented a more realistic estimate of the proportion of ice algae material relative to all other types of phytoplankton. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential value of compound-specific isotope analysis of marine lipids to trace C flow through marine food webs and provide a foundation for future work.

  6. Trace elemental analysis of human breast cancerous blood by advanced PC-WDXRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Kainth, Harpreet Singh; Prasher, Puneet; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the trace elements of healthy and non-healthy blood samples by using advanced polychromatic source based wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PC-WDXRF) technique. The imbalances in trace elements present in the human blood directly or indirectly lead to the carcinogenic process. The trace elements 11Na, 12Mg, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 19K, 20Ca, 26Fe, 29Cu and 30Zn are identified and their concentrations are estimated. The experimental results clearly discuss the variation and role of various trace elements present in the non-healthy blood samples relative to the healthy blood samples. These results establish future guidelines to probe the possible roles of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic processes. The instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for measuring the elements in the atomic range 11 ≤ Z ≤ 30 have also been discussed in the present work.

  7. Analysis of inorganic and organic constituents of myrrh resin by GC–MS and ICP-MS: An emphasis on medicinal assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Rizwan Ahamad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to explore the constituents of the Arabian myrrh resin obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The organic and inorganic composition of the myrrh gum resin has been investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Analysis executed by ICP-MS reveals the presence of various inorganic elements in significant amount in the myrrh resin. The elements that were found to be present in large amounts include calcium, magnesium, aluminum, phosphorus, chlorine, chromium, bromine and scandium. The important organic constituents identified in the myrrh ethanolic extract include limonene, curzerene, germacrene B, isocericenine, myrcenol, beta selinene, and spathulenol,. The present work complements other myrrh associated investigations done in the past and provides additional data for the future researches.

  8. Analysis of inorganic and organic constituents of myrrh resin by GC-MS and ICP-MS: An emphasis on medicinal assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Qamar, Wajhul; Aljarboa, Suliman

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to explore the constituents of the Arabian myrrh resin obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The organic and inorganic composition of the myrrh gum resin has been investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis executed by ICP-MS reveals the presence of various inorganic elements in significant amount in the myrrh resin. The elements that were found to be present in large amounts include calcium, magnesium, aluminum, phosphorus, chlorine, chromium, bromine and scandium. The important organic constituents identified in the myrrh ethanolic extract include limonene, curzerene, germacrene B, isocericenine, myrcenol, beta selinene, and spathulenol,. The present work complements other myrrh associated investigations done in the past and provides additional data for the future researches.

  9. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  10. Internal standard method for determination of gallium and some trace elements in bauxite by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.G.; Tsai, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gallium and other trace elements such as Ce, Cr, Hf, Lu and Th in bauxite by the technique of neutron activation analysis using gold as internal standard. Isopropyl ether was used as organic extractant radioactive gallium from the sample. This method yields very good accuracy with a relative error of +-3%. (author)

  11. Determination of natural radioactive elements in building materials by gamma spectroscopy, trace dosimetry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Desdin, L.F.; Hernandez, A.T.; Gonzalez, D.; Labrada, A.; Tenreiro, J.J.; Capote, G.; Perelyguin, V.P.; Herrera, H.; Tellez, E.

    1993-01-01

    Five types of Cuban concretes and their main components (minerals aggregates and cement) were investigated in order to analyze the content of uranium, thorium, radium, potassium and radon 220,222, using gamma spectroscopy, trace dosimetry and neutron activation analysis. The comparative evaluation of different concretes, aggregates and two types of cements according to natural radioactivity is shown

  12. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human skin and contact traces – results of a sixth collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, C; Hanson, E; Banemann, R

    2015-01-01

    The European DNA profiling group (EDNAP) organized a sixth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid/tissue identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify skin samples/contact traces using specific RNA biomarkers and test three housekeeping genes for their suitabili...

  13. Trace Analysis and Spatial Reasoning: An Example of Intensive Cognitive Diagnosis and Its Implications for Testing. September 1987. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan

    Recent theoretical developments in cognitive psychology imply both a need and a possibility for methodological development. In particular, the theory of problem solving proposed by Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon (1972) provides the rationale for a new empirical method for the processing of think-aloud protocols--trace analysis. A detailed…

  14. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  15. Determination of trace elements in tea leaves by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasrai, M.; Shoushtarian, M.J.; Bozorgzadeh, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been employed to determine 14 trace elements in two brands of Iranian and foreign tea. A popular local brand (Ghoncheh) and a foreign brand (Lipton tea bags) were randomly purchased. The samples were dried in an oven (100 deg C) and used without further treatment. In order to measure the concentration of elements in tea solution, weighed amounts of tea were mixed with double-distilled boiling water. After cooling the leaves were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of clear solution were dried for analysis. Three sets of standards containing the following elements using the spec-pure materials were prepared: (a) Cl, Mn, Na, K; (b) Br, La, Au; (c) Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Cs, Zn, Co. In each irradiation, one set of standards, along with the sample, was neutron irradiated at a thermal flux of approximately 2x10 13 ncm -2 sec -1 in the Research Reactor of the Nuclear Research Centre. The period of irradiation ranged from 10 min to 4 hrs, depending on the radionuclides to be measured. The transference ratio of the elements into solution, when tea is leached by percolation, is also reported. It was found that some elements are totally transferred into solution and some are partially retained by the leaves. (T.G.)

  16. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ducamorim@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  17. All-optical atom trap trace analysis for rare krypton isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelk, Pablo; Kohler, Markus; Sieveke, Carsten; Hebel, Simon; Sahling, Peter [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker Centre for Science and Peace Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The isotope Krypton-85 is an excellent indicator for the detection of nuclear reprocessing activities. However, for the analysis of atmospheric air samples, sensitive measuring methods down to the single atom level are required because of the small concentrations. Furthermore, for a practical and effective detection of clandestine reprocessing, small sample sizes and a high sample throughput rate are desirable. Established methods using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) allow high sensitivity but have a limited throughput of about 200 samples per year, since the vacuum chambers have to be flushed for several hours after each measurement to avoid cross contamination due to the RF-driven excitation of metastable states. Here we present an enhanced ATTA apparatus, which in contrast to the established methods, produces metastable Kr all-optically. This avoids cross contamination, therefore allowing a much higher throughput rate. The apparatus is based on a self-made VUV-lamp and a 2D-3D magneto-optical trap setup. In the 2D trap metastable krypton is produced and a beam of atoms is formed by Doppler-cooling simultaneously.

  18. A compact high resolution ion mobility spectrometer for fast trace gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ansgar T; Allers, Maria; Cochems, Philipp; Langejuergen, Jens; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2013-09-21

    Drift tube ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are widely used for fast trace gas detection in air, but portable compact systems are typically very limited in their resolving power. Decreasing the initial ion packet width improves the resolution, but is generally associated with a reduced signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to the lower number of ions injected into the drift region. In this paper, we present a refined theory of IMS operation which employs a combined approach for the analysis of the ion drift and the subsequent amplification to predict both the resolution and the SNR of the measured ion current peak. This theoretical analysis shows that the SNR is not a function of the initial ion packet width, meaning that compact drift tube IMS with both very high resolution and extremely low limits of detection can be designed. Based on these implications, an optimized combination of a compact drift tube with a length of just 10 cm and a transimpedance amplifier has been constructed with a resolution of 183 measured for the positive reactant ion peak (RIP(+)), which is sufficient to e.g. separate the RIP(+) from the protonated acetone monomer, even though their drift times only differ by a factor of 1.007. Furthermore, the limits of detection (LODs) for acetone are 180 pptv within 1 s of averaging time and 580 pptv within only 100 ms.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis and victim contact tracing of rabies virus from humans and dogs in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardika, G N K; Dibia, N; Budayanti, N S; Susilawathi, N M; Subrata, K; Darwinata, A E; Wignall, F S; Richt, J A; Valdivia-Granda, W A; Sudewi, A A R

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of human and animal rabies in Bali since November 2008 has attracted local, national and international interest. The potential origin and time of introduction of rabies virus to Bali is described. The nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus from dog brain and human clinical specimens was sequenced using an automated DNA sequencer. Phylogenetic inference with Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis using the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis by Sampling Trees (BEAST) v. 1.7.5 software confirmed that the outbreak of rabies in Bali was caused by an Indonesian lineage virus following a single introduction. The ancestor of Bali viruses was the descendant of a virus from Kalimantan. Contact tracing showed that the event most likely occurred in early 2008. The introduction of rabies into a large unvaccinated dog population in Bali clearly demonstrates the risk of disease transmission for government agencies and should lead to an increased preparedness and efforts for sustained risk reduction to prevent such events from occurring in future.

  20. Determination of trace elements in fisheries samples by instrumental neutron and photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Ellis, K.M.; Nimalasiri Desilva, K.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace concentrations of up to 23 elements in fisheries samples. The INAA method consists of irradiations of wet and lyophilized cod muscle and liver samples for three different periods at a flux density of 5x10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 and subsequent measurements after four different decay periods using high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of several essential and toxic elements have been determined. Loss of certain elements during lyophilization has been studied. Elemental distribution in muscles and livers as a function of the age of fish has been investigated. Precision and accuracy of the INAA method have been evaluated by analysing replicate samples, National Bureau of Standards' bovine liver standard reference material, and an intercalibration fish flour sample provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. A few fish samples have also been analysed by an alternative method, namely instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA). Elemental concentrations determined by both INAA and IPAA methods are reported here. (author)

  1. Determination of trace elements in drinking water by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munita, C.S.; Abe, R.M.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de.

    1988-10-01

    The concentracao of Hg, Cr, Zn, Fe and Co has been determined in fresh drinking water by a combination of preconcentration and neutron activation analysis. In order to preconcentrate the trace metals, a Chelex-100 resin in the NH + - form has been employed and it was not necessary to use special NH 4 + - form has been employed and it was not necessary to use special agents for the adsorption of the elements which are practically quantitatively retained by the resin. The retention of each element during the preconcentration was investigated using radioactive tracers. Selenium is known as a strongly interferent element for the analysis since the (n,Π) produced 75 Se has a Π-line at 0.279 MeV which coincides with the only Π-line of 203 Hg. The separation was made by a selective retention of mercury. After the sample had passed through the resin, the column was transfered to a polythylene envelope and irradiated at a neutron flux of about 5.10 12 ncm -2 s -1 for 8 h. For Hg the resin was irradiated in quartz ampoules. The samples were counted 15 days after the irradiation. The present method is superior to most other Chelex-100 separation procesures where elements of interest are eluted from the resin prior determinations thereby introducing the possibility of additional reagent blanks and incomplete as well as non-reproducible recoveries. (author) [pt

  2. Determination of trace and heavy metals in paprika and soil by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian-Teherani, D; Altmann, H; Wallisch, G [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie; Kiss, I [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Kapeller, K [Zoeldsegtermesztesi Kutatointezet, Kalocsa (Hungary). Paprikakutato Allomas

    1983-01-01

    Various samples of Hungarian spice paprika plant (treated with Wuxal) and corresponding soils were analyzed for their Fe, Cr, Zn, Co, Br, As, K, Mn and La (only in soil samples) and Hg contents. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the trace element contents between most cultivars and soils. There is a higher amount of trace elements in samples treated with Wuxal than in controls with the exception of As. Mostly the same situation is observed in samples of soil as in paprika. The only exception is the non-significant difference in the case of Fe and Co. Differences in mercury content of treated and untreated paprika samples were not significant.

  3. Adaptation and implementation of the TRACE code for transient analysis on designs of cooled lead fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.; Ammirabile, L.; Martorell, S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the changes implemented in the TRACE code to include thermodynamic tables of liquid lead drawn from experimental results. He then explains the process for developing a thermohydraulic model for the prototype ALFRED and analysis of a selection of representative transient conducted within the framework of international research projects. The study demonstrates the applicability of TRACE code to simulate designs of cooled lead fast reactors and exposes the high safety margins are there in this technology to accommodate the most severe transients identified in their security study. (Author)

  4. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW) [de

  5. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  6. The complementary use of radioanalytical methods and trace analysis methods for the characterisation of environmental IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Burns, K.; Campbell, M.; Makarewicz, M.; Markowicz, A.; Mattiuzzi, M.; Tajani, A.; Toervenyi, A.; Zeiller, E.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA laboratories have access to both nuclear analytical methods and conventional instrumental methods for trace analysis for the characterisation of its environmental and biological reference materials. A technical concept integrating the homogeneity data, the recommended test portion mass and the uncertainty on the trace element concentrations is explored using a combination of INAA, XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, and AAS. The above approach is illustrated by selected examples of reference materials currently under evaluation for their trace element content. They include some or all of the following elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Th, U, Zn in environmental biomonitor organisms (lichen, algae) and air dust filters. (author)

  7. Some trace elements in the waters, marine organisms and sediments of the Adriatic by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.; Ravnik, V.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Stirn, J.

    1978-01-01

    A number of investigations of trace elements in the waters, organisms and sediments of the Adriatic, using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations are reported. These include studies of Hg in mussels from the Northern Adriatic, of Hg and Se in edible animals from the Rijeka region, and of seven elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn) in marine invertebrates from the Slovene coast. Additionally, plankton, sediment cores and water samples were taken from a grid of stations covering the whole Adriatic and analyzed for 6 to 11 of the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn (Hg only in water). Generally, levels found were not indicative of pollution as compared with oceanic samples, but some evidence of locally increased levels was found, especially for Hg. The levels of eleven trace elements in three marine Intercomparison samples prepared by the IAEA Monaco Laboratory are also presented. (T.G.)

  8. The establishment and analysis of TRACE model for ultimate response guideline of Chinshan nuclear power plant - 15448

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.J.; Wang, J.R.; Shih, C.; Chen, S.W.; Liao, L.Y.; Lin, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use TRACE code to perform a simulation that executes the procedures of URG (Ultimate Response Guidelines) to deal with Fukushima-like accidents. TRACE is an advanced thermal hydraulic code that has been developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for NPP safety analysis. In this work TRACE has been used to analyze the thermal hydraulic model for the URG of the Chinshan nuclear power plant that is composed of 2 BWR-type reactors. URG includes 2-stage depressurization, alternative water injection and removing decay heat through the ejection from containment. The 2-stage depressurization strategy includes controlled depressurization and emergency depressurization to replace traditional one-stage depressurization. Results show that by comparing with one-stage depressurization strategy, 2-stage depressurization strategy is able to reduce peak cladding temperature (PCT) effectively and needs much less minimum flow rate of alternative water injection in the accident

  9. Recent Improvements at CEA on Trace Analysis of Actinides in Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, F.; Hubert, A.; Faure, A.L.; Pottin, A.C.; Mourier, W.; Marie, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present some results of R and D works conducted at CEA to improve on the one side the performance of the techniques already in use for detection of undeclared activities, and on the other side to develop new capabilities, either as alternative to the existing techniques or new methods that bring new information, complementary to the isotopic composition. For the trace analysis of plutonium in swipe samples by ICP-MS, we demonstrate that a thorough knowledge of the background in the actinide mass range is highly desirable. In order to avoid false plutonium detection in the femtogram range, correction from polyatomic interferences including mercury, lead or iridium atoms are in some case necessary. Efforts must be put on improving the purification procedure. Micro-Raman spectrometry allows determining the chemical composition of uranium compound at the scale of the microscopic object using a pre-location of the particles thanks to SEM and a relocation of these particles thanks to mathematical calculations. However, particles below 5 μm are hardly relocated and a coupling device between the SEM and the micro-Raman spectrometer for direct Raman analysis after location of a particle of interest is currently under testing. Lastly, laser ablation - ICP-MS is an interesting technique for direct isotopic or elemental analysis of various solid samples and proves to be a suitable alternative technique for particle analysis, although precision over isotopic ratio measurement is strongly limited by the short duration and irregularity of the signals. However, sensitivity and sample throughput are high and more developments are in progress to validate and improve this method. (author)

  10. Analysis of nutrition-relevant trace elements in human blood and serum by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosnach, Hagen; Mages, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    In clinical service laboratories, one of the most common analytical tasks with regard to inorganic traces is the determination of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se. Because of the high numbers of samples and the commercial character of these analyses, a time-consuming sample preparation must be avoided. In this presentation, the results of total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements with a low-power system and different sample preparation procedures are compared with those derived from analysis with common methods like Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results of these investigations indicate that the optimal total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se can be performed by preparing whole blood and serum samples after dilution with ultrapure water and transferring 10 μl of internally standardized sample to an unsiliconized quartz glass sample carrier with subsequent drying in a laboratory oven. Suitable measurement time was found to be 600 s. The enhanced sample preparation by means of microwave or open digestion, in parts combined with cold plasma ashing, led to an improvement of detection limits by a factor of 2 for serum samples while for whole blood samples an improvement was only observed for samples prepared by means of microwave digestion. As the matrix elements P, S, Cl, and for whole blood Fe have a major influence on the detection limits, most probably a further enhancement of analytical quality requires the removal of the organic matrix. However, for the routine analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements, the dilution preparation was found to be sufficient.

  11. Mapping of Trace Elements in Coal and Ash Research Based on a Bibliometric Analysis Method Spanning 1971–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most important fossil energy used in China. The environmental impact of trace elements released in coal combustion has become one of the hottest issues in recent years. Based on a software named CiteSpace, and social network analysis (SNA, a bibliometric analysis of research into trace elements in coal and ash field during 1971–2017 is presented with the information of authors, countries, institutions, journals, hot issues and research trends in the present study. The study results indicate that: (1 Shifeng Dai, Robert B Finkelman, Guijian Liu and James C Hower have a large number of publications with great influence. (2 China (29.8% and USA (22.2% have high productivity in total publications. China and the USA correlate closely in the cooperative web system. (3 China University of Mining and Technology and Chinese Academy of Sciences take the leading position in the quantity of publications among all research institutions. (4 Energy and fuels, engineering and environmental science are three disciplines with the most studies in this field. (5 International Journal of Coal Geology, Fuel, Energy and Fuels and Fuel Processing Technology are the top four journals with the most publications in this field. (6 The enrichment origin and modes of occurrence of trace elements are the mainstream research related to trace elements in coal and ash. The environmental problems caused by coal combustion have promoted the development of trace elements in coal research, and human health is getting more and more popular in recent years. The study findings provide a better understanding of features of trace elements in coal and ash research, which could be taken as a reference for future studies in this field.

  12. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  13. Trace analysis of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in various materials using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Viqar-un-Nisa; Tanwir, R.

    1988-09-01

    Sampling and sample preparation methods have been described. Digestion methods for different types of materials and acid purification systems have been developed. For trace analysis purposes cleaning methods for glassware etc. have been described. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric (DPASV) method has been worked out for the trace analysis of zn, cd, pb and Cu in different types of materials. Linearity of the method has been checked by drawing concentration versus currents (peak height) curves. Precision of the method has been checked by analysing a number of actual samples. of the method has been verified by analysing standards of U.S.A. Comparative studies have been done between Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method and Atomic Absorption spectroscopic method. Problems of contamination and systematic errors during trace and ultra-trace analysis have been discussed. A variety of samples including soil, spinach, wheat flour, rice flour, dry milk, coriander, kidney stones, bladder stones etc. have been analysed and preliminary results have been reported. (author)

  14. Principle of neutron activation analysis and its use for determination of trace elements in sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    information. Their chemical characterization is needed to understand the natural and anthropogenic influence on the bodies of water. Nuclear analytical techniques such as NAA and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) have been used for determination of various elements in sediment. Recently we have participated in the inter-laboratory comparison organized by International Atomic Energy Agency for the determination of trace elements in sediment sample. The results of analysis will be discussed. (author)

  15. Neutron activation and PIXE analysis of oyster tissues cultivated at different ocean depths for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Nakano, Y.; Chatt, A.

    2005-01-01

    Difference in trace element concentrations in oyster tissues cultivated in Japan on hanging ropes at different sea depths were investigated using INAA and PIXE. Three groups of oyster were collected from a single rope at 1 m, 6 m, and 11 m depths. From each group, five oysters were chosen and removed from the shell after washing in tap water. Two groups of organ, namely hepatopancreas and muscle, and gill and mantle were separated from soft tissues, freeze-dried, and pulverized. One portion of the powdered samples was irradiated for a short time at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in Canada for Ag and Se analysis. Another portion was irradiated for one hour in Kyoto University Reactor in Osaka, Japan for Fe, Rb, Sc, and Zn analysis. The third portion was digested in a microwave oven after the addition of an indium solution (as an internal standard) and concentrated nitric acid for analysis by PIXE. More than twenty elements were determined by PIXE. The organs in oysters have different roles. For example, hepatopancreas and muscle are thought to accumulate elements after ingestion of plankton from sea water while gill and mantle are always in contact with sea water. As a result, there were differences in levels of some elements between the two groups of organ. In addition, levels of most elements were found to be depth dependent. The variations in Fe and Zn concentrations of the two organ groups at 3 different depths are shown in Table 1. Details of the method and results will be presented.

  16. Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaku, Katrina; O'Brien, Timothy; Schmeling, Martina; Fosco, Tinamarie

    2013-09-01

    Both canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and meteorological data collected in Chicago during the summer months of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Concentrations of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate particulate matter, as well as, meteorological parameters temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity were subjected to CCA and PCA. Ozone and nitrogen oxide mixing ratios were also included in the data set. The purpose of statistical analysis was to determine the extent of existing linear relationship(s), or lack thereof, between meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations in addition to reducing dimensionality of the original data to determine sources of pollutants. In CCA, the first three canonical variate pairs derived were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Canonical correlation between the first canonical variate pair was 0.821, while correlations of the second and third canonical variate pairs were 0.562 and 0.461, respectively. The first canonical variate pair indicated that increasing temperatures resulted in high ozone mixing ratios, while the second canonical variate pair showed wind speed and humidity's influence on local ammonium concentrations. No new information was uncovered in the third variate pair. Canonical loadings were also interpreted for information regarding relationships between data sets. Four principal components (PCs), expressing 77.0 % of original data variance, were derived in PCA. Interpretation of PCs suggested significant production and/or transport of secondary aerosols in the region (PC1). Furthermore, photochemical production of ozone and wind speed's influence on pollutants were expressed (PC2) along with overall measure of local meteorology (PC3). In summary, CCA and PCA results combined were successful in uncovering linear relationships between meteorology and air pollutants in Chicago and

  17. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  18. Analysis of trace metals in sodium by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.; Geetha, R.; Thiruvengadasamy, A.; Mathews, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of trace metallic impurities in sodium is normally carried out by distilling off the sodium in vacuuum and analysing the residue by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). This paper describes the direct determination of the following impurities (viz.) Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ca, and Cu in sodium without going through the distillation step. Here sodium is simply dissolved and the solution is subjected to analysis by AAS using flameless atomisation in a graphite furnace. The method of standard additions is employed. Preliminary experiments were carried out to study the matrix effect of sodium on the atomic absorption of cobalt. It has been found that if pyrolysis is done at 1250 0 C for 20 seconds prior to atomisation, the bulk of the sodium nitrate matrix could be successfully removed. The use of the optimum pyrolysis temperatures for the various elements listed above and the matrix interference on the absorbances of these analytes are discussed in this paper. The precision and accuracy of our analytical procedure is also presented. (orig.)

  19. Risk assessment in a foundry unit by energy trace and barrier analysis method (ETBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ayati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsAs a Development of Industrial process, human, environment,equipment, material and validity of system has been exposed to hazardous conditions. Regards of32.3 percent of occupations in industries, this study focused on risk assessment of foundry unit byenergy trace and barrier analysis (ETBA method and presented approaches to control of accident.Methodsthe recent study is as a case study one to risk assessment in a foundry unit in Qazvinindustrial city in1387. In this study risks were founded by ETBA method and evaluated by MILSTD-882B. Data were collected by direct observations, interview with workers and supervisorand engineers, walking-talking through method, documents investigation of operationalprocessors, preventive maintenances, equipment technical properties, accidental and medicaldocuments. Finally ETBA worksheets completed.Findingstotally 154 risks has been found. 40 from total are been unacceptable risk, 68unfavorable and also 46 acceptable but with remediation action. Casting workshop had risks morethan other workshops (with 74 identified risks.Potential and heat energies were founded as mosthazardous energies, with respectively 51 and 38 risk cases.ConclusionThis study recommended to be done actions for identification and control risk,such as: safety training, occupation training, preventive maintenance, contract safety, safetycommunication and safety audit group.

  20. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Carmo Freitas, M. do; Ene, A.; Steinnes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  1. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania); Carmo Freitas, M. do [Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); Ene, A. [Dunarea de Jos Univ. of Galati (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry, Physics and Environment; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  2. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Some Food Spices Consumed In Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali asghar fathivand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is a growing interest in determining the concentration of various elements in food spices. In the present study, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA was employed to measure the trace elements in 11 commonly food spices consumed in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods The levels of K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, Al, and As were determined and their effects on human health were discussed. The results were compared with the values reported in the literature. The accuracy and precision of the analytical procedure was estimated by analyzing the Lichen (IAEA-336 reference material. Results The concentrations of the measured elements in the spices were 3850-29157, 10-335, 153-2849, 186-3063, 0.2-2.8, 2.1-58.7, and 72-2102 ppm for K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, and Al, respectively. As was only detected in thyme (0.8 ppm and plantain (0.42 ppm. Conclusion As the findings of the present study indicated, the concentrations of K and Na in the black pepper, garlic, and ginger were significantly higher than the values reported in other countries. The Mn levels in the black pepper and garlic consumed in Tehran were comparable with those in Poland. Furthermore, the concentration of As in these spices were lower than the maximum permissible limit.

  3. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Trace and ultratrace analysis methods for the determination of phosphorus by flow-injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomizu, Shoji; Li, Zhen-Hai

    2005-04-15

    Trace (phosphorus determination by flow-injection analysis are reviewed. Most of the methods cited in this review are fundamentally based on the reaction of orthophosphate with molybdate to form heteropoly acids, such as molybdenum yellow and molybdenum blue, and some of the methods are based on the formation of such secondary reactions as ion associates and their aggregates with bulky cations, such as cationic dyes and quaternary ammonium ions. The heteropoly acids themselves can be measured by spectrophotometry, and the ion associate formed with a cationic dye, Malachite Green (MG), can be measured based on the coloration of MG. Light scattering detection methods can be used for measuring the aggregates of ion associates formed with bulky cations. Highly sensitive detection of phosphorus can be accomplished by fluorophotometry; Rhodamine B (RB) and its analogues react with molybdophosphate to form ion associates, which shows fluorescence quenching of RB: LOD is about 5 nM. The detection method based on the chemiluminescence of luminal oxidized with molybdophosphoric acids is probably the most sensitive of all the detection methods reported so far: LOD of the method is as low as 1nM. The LOD of the molybdenum blue method can be improved by using a liquid core waveguide: LOD is 0.5 nM.

  5. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  6. Studies of trace element determinations in nails by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo; Saiki, Mitiko

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop the neutron activation analysis for trace element determinations in nails in order to apply this method to the study of the cystic fibrosis disease. It was verified that the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn can be determined by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux from 10 11 to 10 13 n.cm -2 . -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The washing solutions of triton-X100, NH 4 OH and acetone were tested in order to eliminate external contaminants from the nail samples. The nail analyses of the individual fingers from both of hands showed that the samples must be collected from all the fingers from both of hands to have a representative sample. The precision and the accuracy of the results were also examined by analyzing NIES 10C Rice Flour, IUPAC Bowen's Kale and NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves reference materials. (author)

  7. Solid phase extraction for sample preparation in trace analysis of ionogenic compounds by capillary isotachophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutta, M.; Kaniansky, D.; Simunicova, E.; Zelenska, V.; Madajova, V.; Siskova, A.

    1992-01-01

    Various sorbents recommended for solid phase extraction (SPE) in sample preparation procedures were studied for use in combination with capillary isotachophoresis (ITP). They were very efficient in achieving trace concentration levels (low ppb, i.e., low parts per 10 9 ) for different types of ITP analytes present in environmental and biological matrices. A macroporous carbon sorbent was convenient for sample preparation in ITP analysis of short chain fatty acids (C 4 -C 9 ) in drinking water. Chelating sorbents based on hydroxyalkyl methacrylate matrix with salicylate, thioglycolate and 8-hydroxyquinolinate functionalities were found to be very suitable for preconcentration of heavy metals with an inherent sample clean-up. An octadecyl-bonded silica sorbent enabled in ITP a photometric detection of γ-aminobutyrate (labeled with a 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl group) at concentrations considerably lower than required for the determination of this amino acid in cerebrospinal fluid (∼5*10 -8 mol/l). (author) 34 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Dendro-analysis: the study of trace elements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilboy, W.B.; Tout, R.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1976-01-01

    In attempts to study environmental contamination over long time scales into the past, the levels of trace and minor elements in individual tree rings have been measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Most measurements so far have been done on elm tree samples which are widely available due to a current epidemic of Dutch Elm disease in southern England. Samples taken from every growth ring were individually activated for ten minutes in a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 sec -1 in the 100 kW London University research reactor. The activated samples were counted for ten minutes on a 42 cm 3 Ge(Li) gamma ray detector. These procedures enabled the following radioisotopes to be monitored for a large number of samples: 19 0, 24 Na, 27 Mg, 28 Al, 38 Cl, 42 K, 49 Ca, 56 Mn, 66 Cu, 80 Br, 87 /sup m/Sr, 41 Ar, 128 I, 139 Ba. Some of the above isotopes show striking systematic variations both from ring to ring in a radial direction, and also around individual rings. Results are described in detail for samples taken from trees grown in various locations and assesses the potential of this technique for studying past environmental conditions

  9. Neutron activation analysis of copper traces: a study for sodium correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Basu, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, N.

    2007-01-01

    Peak ratio correction factors for accurate quantitative determination of copper by NAA via 64 Cu radioisotope in presence of high 24 Na radioactivities has been established. Copper is the principal element as a marker of bullet residues on targets in connection to forensic ballistics cases. Reliable and precise estimation of copper by NAA either via non-destructive way or by resorting to radiochemical separation is of importance in forensic analysis for arriving at definitive inferences. However, majority of samples originating from wearing apparels, paper, leather, skin, glass or any other metal exhibit matrices contain high levels of sodium. The NAA scheme for determination of copper rests on measurements of net counts at 511 KeV which is the positron annihilation peak of 64 Cu. 24 Na also contributes significantly exactly at 511 KeV of gamma energy albeit by different mechanism i.e., by pair production. Therefore, total signal at 511 KeV is contributed by both. The easiest approach for correct estimation of copper traces has been established by the peak ratio correction factor. This has significance as both 64 Cu and 24 Na have comparable half lives, hence, as such time gap measurements cannot improve the situation. The consistency of peak ratio correction factor could be established for a particular geometry. (author)

  10. Trace elements in some new Romanian phytotherapeutic drugs determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, C.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been performed on four new Romanian phytotherapeutic drugs registered us Fitolip, Fitodiab, Retinomion and Neuromion. The drugs were very well tolerated in clinical trials and are used in diabetes and other chronic diseases. They were prepared in the form of tablets made from dried powders of fruits, flowers, leaves and shells of plants used in non-conventional medicine. All four products are reach in various bioactive substances such as flavones, flavonoids, anthocyans, terpenes, rutosides, vitamins and essential fatty acids. Samples and multielemental reference materials were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 1.1 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 and measured with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. 28 mineral elements were found, including Mg, K, Ca, Na and Fe at percent and sub-percent levels; Cl, Al and Mn between tens and thousands of ppm; Zn, Br, Rb and Ba up to tens of ppm; Cr, Cu, Co and V in the ppm range; and Sc, As, Sb, Cs, Lu, La, Ce, Sm, Hf, Au, Hg and Th up to hundreds of ppb. The intake of mineral elements provided by a cure of 3 pills/day shows the following: 1. None of the toxic elements As and Hg in the four drugs exceeds a noxious level; 2. Mg is the most abundant macro-element and a cure covers 15 - 60 % of the daily requirements; 3. Among essential microelements, Co may provide even more than 100% of the daily requirements; other elements may give small but significant fractions of the necessary daily amounts, e.g. 3-30% for Cr, 5-20% for Mn, and 2-10% for Fe; 4. The supply of Al, the most abundant unessential metal represents 6 - 40 % of the known daily intake. Thus a 3 pills/day cure could contribute positively to the therapy of various diseases by providing Mg, Mn, Cr (a trace element deficient in diabetes), Fe and Co, but higher daily doses could result in a Co oversupply. Further in INAA studies on biological examples from patients taking these new medicines are needed to understand the

  11. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Simeonsson, Josef B.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 μg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05 ± 2.60, 20.70 ± 2.27 and 20.60 ± 2.46 μg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible

  12. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A; Jones, Bradley T; Simeonsson, Josef B

    2006-06-30

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 microg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05+/-2.60, 20.70+/-2.27 and 20.60+/-2.46 microg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible.

  13. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of trace elements in human nails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo

    2001-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in the determination of trace elements in human nails in order to use this tissue as a monitor of nutritional and healthy status of individuals, of occupational exposure diseases and of the environmental contamination. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine trace elements in finger nail clippings to make comparisons between the elemental concentrations obtained in nails from healthy individuals of a control group and those from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Firstly, a protocol for sample collection and preparation for analysis was established. Finger and toe nail samples from CF patients were collected at the Instituto da Crianca of Medicine School, University of Sao Paulo, SP. The nail samples from control group were collected from healthy adults and from children living in Sao Paulo city, SP. These samples were cleaned by stirring them witha a diluted Triton X100 solution and then by washing with distilled water and acetone. The analytical procedure consisted of irradiation nail samples and elemental standards in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under thermal neutro flux of about 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , for short and long period irradiations. The activities of the radionuclides were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer comprising an hyperpure Ge detector and associated electronic system. The biological reference materials Bovine Liver 1577b and Oyster Tissue 1566a, both from National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA were analysed in order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test at the significance level of 5% were used to make a comparison between the sets of results obtained in this work. In the comparison of the results obtained for finger and toe nails from CF patients, the Br concentrations were higher in finger nails that those obtained for toe nails. For the control group of children, the finger nails presented different

  14. Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple γ-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt γ-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the γ-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described. (author)

  15. Characteristics and Source Analysis of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM10 in a Typical Mining City, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 61 PM10 samples in Huangshi (HS, Central China, were collected every sixth day from April 2012 to March 2013 and were analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs by ion chromatography. The sum of three major ions (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for 75.8% of the total WSIIs on average. The results of a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis show that, except for Na+ (p > 0.05, the other ions present a distinctly seasonal variation with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05. The minimum concentrations of all ions were found in summer, while the maximum values presented in autumn (for Ca2+ and winter (for Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, K+, NH4+, Mg2+. Based on the highest ratio of Cl−/Na+ (3.02 and the highest concentration of K (4.37 μg·m−3, Ba (0.37 μg·m−3, and Sr (0.07 μg·m−3 in February 2013, it can be concluded that firework powders have aggravated the haze weather during the Spring Festival of 2013. The micro-equivalent concentrations of cations and anions were calculated and the comparisons between the calculated and measured NH4+ concentrations were conducted. The results illustrate that aerosol particles in HS are acidic and there may exist some other cationic ions not detected in this study. An obvious positive correlation and good linear regression among WSIIs suggest that the chemical forms in HS aerosols show a great variety of combinations, such as NH4NO3, NH4HSO4, (NH42SO4, NH4Cl, KCl, KNO3, NaCl, NaNO3, Ca(NO32, CaSO4, MgCl2, Mg(NO32, and MgSO4. The WSIIs have large positive correlation and linear regression with the elements, suggesting that WSIIs in mining cities are strongly influenced by element constituents. Principal component analysis implies that WSIIs in PM10 are probably from three sources. NH4+, Mg2+, NO3−, K and K+, Cl− and Cl, SO42−, and S accounted for 46.9% of the total variances, suggesting likely anthropogenic sources, especially coal combustion, vehicular exhaust, and

  16. Methodology to carry out a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for cross sections using a coupled model Trace-Parcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M. C.; Del Valle G, E.; Gomez T, A. M.; Sanchez E, V.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology was implemented to carry out a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for cross sections used in a coupled model for Trace/Parcs in a transient of control rod fall of a BWR-5. A model of the reactor core for the neutronic code Parcs was used, in which the assemblies located in the core are described. Thermo-hydraulic model in Trace was a simple model, where only a component type Chan was designed to represent all the core assemblies, which it was within a single vessel and boundary conditions were established. The thermo-hydraulic part was coupled with the neutron part, first for the steady state and then a transient of control rod fall was carried out for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. To carry out the analysis of cross sections used in the coupled model Trace/Parcs during the transient, the Probability Density Functions for 22 parameters selected from the total of neutronic parameters that use Parcs were generated, obtaining 100 different cases for the coupled model Trace/Parcs, each one with a database of different cross sections. All these cases were executed with the coupled model, obtaining in consequence 100 different output files for the transient of control rod fall doing emphasis in the nominal power, for which an uncertainty analysis was realized at the same time generate the band of uncertainty. With this analysis is possible to observe the ranges of results of the elected responses varying the selected uncertainty parameters. The sensitivity analysis complements the uncertainty analysis, identifying the parameter or parameters with more influence on the results and thus focuses on these parameters in order to better understand their effects. Beyond the obtained results, because is not a model with real operation data, the importance of this work is to know the application of the methodology to carry out the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (Author)

  17. Minerals and trace elements determination in diets by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, Maria Izabel O.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Ribeiro, Marisilda; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study 12 diets, each one consisting of a pool of seven day diets, composed by four meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack, adequate in energy and macro nutrients according to the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) recommendations, were elaborated and offered to a group of 12 men (19-42 years). The diets were collected by duplicate portion technique and dried by two different processes: freeze drying and 60 deg C ventilated oven drying. In the total, 24 diets were analyzed. The content of some minerals and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn) were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The validation of methodology was made by analysis of the reference materials Typical Diet (NIST SRM 1548 a ), Orchard Leaves (NIST SRM 1541) and Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547). The results observed by two different drying processes used were statistically compared by test T of Student. It was possible to conclude that the concentration means can be considered as statistically equal, within a significance level of 0.05. The daily intake values calculated from the concentration results were: 712 (± 59) mg Ca/day; 10.7 (± 0.8) mg Fe/ day; 3387 (± 16) mg K/ day; 275 (± 6) mg Mg/ day; 3.0 (± 0.5) mg Mn/ day; 3656 (± 699) mg Na/ day; 42 (± 6) μg Se/ day e 11.6 (± 2.4) mg Zn/ day. The calculated intake was compared to the new daily recommended values set by RDA (National Research Council-USA) for the range age of individuals studied. It was possible to conclude that the diets were adequate in Fe and Zn and inadequate for the other elements. Concerning the minerals Na and K we verified high daily intake levels and this was already observed in other Brazilian regional diets. (author)

  18. Analysis of Trace Elements in Rat Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Abuelizz, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to determine the elemental profile of the lung lining fluid of rats which are used as model animals in various experiments. Lung lining fluid elemental constitution obtained after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the biological trace elements along with calcium and magnesium. BALF was collected from healthy rats using a tracheal cannula. However, cells in BALF were counted to monitor any underlying inflammatory lung condition. Cell free BALF samples were processed and analyzed for the elements including magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). In view of this, calcium concentration was the highest (6318.08 ± 3094.3 μg/L) and copper concentration was the lowest (0.89 ± 0.21 μg/L). The detected elements, from high to low concentration, include Ca > Mg > Fe > Br > I > Cr > Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between cell count and concentration of any of the element detected in BALF. Correlation analysis also revealed significant positive correlation among Fe, I, Cr, Ni, and Mn. Ca was found to be correlated negatively with Cu and positively with Se. Br and Mg found to be positively correlated with each other. Zn remained the only element that was not found to be correlated with any of the elements in the rat BALF.

  19. Preparation of water and ice samples for 39Ar dating by atom trap trace analysis (ATTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwefel, R.; Reichel, T.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Wagenbach, D.

    2012-04-01

    Atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) is a new and promising method to measure very rare noble gas radioisotopes in the environment. The applicability of this method for the dating of very old groundwater with 81Kr has already been demonstrated [1]. Recent developments now show its feasibility also for the analysis of 39Ar [2,3], which is an ideal dating tracer for the age range between 50 and 1000 years. This range is of interest in the fields of hydro(geo)logy, oceanography, and glaciology. We present preparation (gas extraction and Ar separation) methods for groundwater and ice samples for later analysis by the ATTA technique. For groundwater, the sample size is less of a limitation than for applications in oceanography or glaciology. Large samples are furthermore needed to enable a comparison with the classical method of 39Ar detection by low-level counting. Therefore, a system was built that enables gas extraction from several thousand liters of water using membrane contactors. This system provides degassing efficiencies greater than 80 % and has successfully been tested in the field. Gas samples are further processed to separate a pure Ar fraction by a gas-chromatographic method based on Li-LSX zeolite as selective adsorber material at very low temperatures. The gas separation achieved by this system is controlled by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. It has successfully been tested and used on real samples. The separation efficiency was found to be strongly temperature dependent in the range of -118 to -130 °C. Since ATTA should enable the analysis of 39Ar on samples of less than 1 ccSTP of Ar (corresponding to about 100 ml of air, 2.5 l of water or 1 kg of ice), a method to separate Ar from small amounts of gas was developed. Titanium sponge was found to absorb 60 ccSTP of reactive gases per g of the getter material with reasonably high absorption rates at high operating temperatures (~ 800 ° C). Good separation (higher than 92 % Ar content in residual gas) was

  20. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Santos, C.

    1989-10-01

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . (autor) [pt