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Sample records for inorganic polyphosphate modulates

  1. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

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    Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Siegel, Sara D; Pagliai, Fernando A; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  2. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

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    Algevis P Wrench

    Full Text Available The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM. These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC, where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  3. Inorganic polyphosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation disturbing the function of vacuolar ATPase.

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    Tomaschevsky, A A; Ryasanova, L P; Kulakovskaya, T V; Kulaev, I S

    2010-08-01

    A mutation in the vma2 gene disturbing V-ATPase function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a five- and threefold decrease in inorganic polyphosphate content in the stationary and active phases of growth on glucose, respectively. The average polyphosphate chain length in the mutant cells is decreased. The mutation does not prevent polyphosphate utilization during cultivation in a phosphate-deficient medium and recovery of its level on reinoculation in complete medium after phosphate deficiency. The content of short chain acid-soluble polyphosphates is recovered first. It is supposed that these polyphosphates are less dependent on the electrochemical gradient on the vacuolar membrane.

  4. The Role of Inorganic Polyphosphates in the Formation of Bioengineered Cartilage Incorporating a Zone of Calcified Cartilage In Vitro

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    St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe

    The development of bioengineered cartilage for replacement of damaged articular cartilage has gained momentum in recent years. One such approach has been developed in the Kandel lab, whereby cartilage is formed by seeding primary articular chondrocytes on the top surface of a porous biodegradable calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute, permitting anchorage of the tissue within the pores of the substrate; however, the interfacial shear properties of the tissue-substrate interface of these biphasic constructs are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than the native cartilage-subchondral bone interface. To overcome this limitation, a strategy was devised to generate a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC), thereby mimicking the native architecture of the osteochondral junction; however, the ZCC was located slightly above the cartilage-CPP interface. Thus, it was hypothesized that polyphosphate released from the CPP substrate and accumulating in the tissue inhibits the formation of the ZCC at the tissue-substrate interface. Based on this information, a strategy was devised to generate biphasic constructs incorporating a properly located ZCC. This approach involved the application of a thin calcium phosphate film to the surfaces of porous CPP via a sol-gel procedure, thereby limiting the accumulation of polyphosphate in the cartilaginous tissue. This modification to the substrate surface did not negatively impact the quality of the in vitro-formed cartilage tissue or the ZCC. Interfacial shear testing of biphasic constructs demonstrated significantly improved interfacial shear properties in the presence of a properly located ZCC. These studies also led to the observation that chondrocytes produce endogenous polyphosphate and that its levels in deep zone cartilage appear inversely related to mineral deposition within the tissue. Using an in vitro model of cartilage calcification, it was demonstrated that polyphosphate levels are modulated in part by the inhibitory effects

  5. Inorganic Polyphosphate Is Essential for Salmonella Typhimurium Virulence and Survival in Dictyostelium discoideum

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    Macarena A. Varas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP deficiency in enteric bacterial pathogens reduces their ability to invade and establish systemic infections in different hosts. For instance, inactivation of the polyP kinase gene (ppk encoding the enzyme responsible for polyP biosynthesis reduces invasiveness and intracellular survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro. In addition, the virulence in vivo of a S. Typhimurium Δppk mutant is significantly reduced in a murine infection model. In spite of these observations, the role played by polyP during the Salmonella-host interaction is not well understood. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In fact, many intracellular pathogens can survive within D. discoideum cells using molecular mechanisms also required to survive within macrophages. Recently, we established that S. Typhimurium is able to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum and identified relevant genes linked to virulence that are crucial for this process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a polyP deficiency in S. Typhimurium during its interaction with D. discoideum. To do this, we evaluated the intracellular survival of wild-type and Δppk strains of S. Typhimurium in D. discoideum and the ability of these strains to delay the social development of the amoeba. In contrast to the wild-type strain, the Δppk mutant was unable to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum and enabled the social development of the amoeba. Both phenotypes were complemented using a plasmid carrying a copy of the ppk gene. Next, we simultaneously evaluated the proteomic response of both S. Typhimurium and D. discoideum during host-pathogen interaction via global proteomic profiling. The analysis of our results allowed the identification of novel molecular signatures that give insight into

  6. Inorganic polyphosphate occurs in the cell wall of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and accumulates during cytokinesis

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    Freimoser Florian M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P, linear chains of phosphate residues linked by energy rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is found in every cell and organelle and is abundant in algae. Depending on its localization and concentration, poly P is involved in various biological functions. It serves, for example, as a phosphate store and buffer against alkali, is involved in energy metabolism and regulates the activity of enzymes. Bacteria defective in poly P synthesis are impaired in biofilm development, motility and pathogenicity. PolyP has also been found in fungal cell walls and bacterial envelopes, but has so far not been measured directly or stained specifically in the cell wall of any plant or alga. Results Here, we demonstrate the presence of poly P in the cell wall of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by staining with specific poly P binding proteins. The specificity of the poly P signal was verified by various competition experiments, by staining with different poly P binding proteins and by correlation with biochemical quantification. Microscopical investigation at different time-points during growth revealed fluctuations of the poly P signal synchronous with the cell cycle: The poly P staining peaked during late cytokinesis and was independent of the high intracellular poly P content, which fluctuated only slightly during the cell cycle. Conclusion The presented staining method provides a specific and sensitive tool for the study of poly P in the extracellular matrices of algae and could be used to describe the dynamic behaviour of cell wall poly P during the cell cycle. We assume that cell wall poly P and intracellular poly P are regulated by distinct mechanisms and it is suggested that cell wall bound poly P might have important protective functions against toxic compounds or pathogens during cytokinesis, when cells are more vulnerable.

  7. Copper tolerance mediated by polyphosphate degradation and low-affinity inorganic phosphate transport system in Escherichia coli.

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    Grillo-Puertas, Mariana; Schurig-Briccio, Lici Ariane; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa; Rintoul, María Regina; Rapisarda, Viviana Andrea

    2014-03-19

    Metal tolerance in bacteria has been related to polyP in a model in which heavy metals stimulate the polymer hydrolysis, forming metal-phosphate complexes that are exported. As previously described in our laboratory, Escherichia coli cells grown in media containing a phosphate concentration >37 mM maintained an unusually high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of polyP levels as the involvement of low-affinity inorganic phosphate transport (Pit) system in E. coli copper tolerance. PolyP levels were modulated by the media phosphate concentration and/or using mutants in polyP metabolism. Stationary phase wild-type cells grown in high phosphate medium were significantly more tolerant to copper than those grown in sufficient phosphate medium. Copper addition to tolerant cells induced polyP degradation by PPX (an exopolyphosphatase), phosphate efflux and membrane polarization. ppk-ppx- (unable to synthesize/degrade polyP), ppx- (unable to degrade polyP) and Pit system mutants were highly sensitive to metal even in high phosphate media. In exponential phase, CopA and polyP-Pit system would act simultaneously to detoxify the metal or one could be sufficient to safeguard the absence of the other. Our results support a mechanism for copper detoxification in exponential and stationary phases of E. coli, involving Pit system and degradation of polyP. Data reflect the importance of the environmental phosphate concentration in the regulation of the microbial physiological state.

  8. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

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    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  9. Polyphosphate nanoparticles on the platelet surface trigger contact system activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Johan J F; Barendrecht, Arjan D; Nickel, Katrin F; Dijkxhoorn, Kim; Kenne, Ellinor; Labberton, Linda; McCarty, Owen J T; Schiffelers, Raymond; Heijnen, Harry F G; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Schellekens, Huub; Fens, Marcel H; de Maat, Steven; Renné, Thomas; Maas, Coen

    2017-01-01

    Polyphosphate is an inorganic polymer that can potentiate several interactions in the blood coagulation system. Blood platelets contain polyphosphate, and the secretion of platelet-derived polyphosphate has been associated with increased thrombus formation and activation of coagulation factor XII.

  10. Tuning the Phosphoryl Donor Specificity of Dihydroxyacetone Kinase from ATP to Inorganic Polyphosphate. An Insight from Computational Studies

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    Israel Sánchez-Moreno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroxyacetone (DHA kinase from Citrobacter freundii provides an easy entry for the preparation of DHA phosphate; a very important C3 building block in nature. To modify the phosphoryl donor specificity of this enzyme from ATP to inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P; a directed evolution program has been initiated. In the first cycle of evolution, the native enzyme was subjected to one round of error-prone PCR (EP-PCR followed directly (without selection by a round of DNA shuffling. Although the wild-type DHAK did not show activity with poly-P, after screening, sixteen mutant clones showed an activity with poly-phosphate as phosphoryl donor statistically significant. The most active mutant presented a single mutation (Glu526Lys located in a flexible loop near of the active center. Interestingly, our theoretical studies, based on molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM optimizations, suggest that this mutation has an effect on the binding of the poly-P favoring a more adequate position in the active center for the reaction to take place.

  11. Inorganic Polyphosphates Regulate Hexokinase Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mitochondria of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryo

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    Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Menezes, Jackson; da Silva Vaz Jr, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Campos, Eldo

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (poly P) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. microplus. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Both poly Ps inhibited hexokinase activity by up to 90% and, interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase activity was stimulated by the hexokinase reaction product, glucose-6-phosphate. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively. All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. microplus embryos. PMID:23983617

  12. Inorganic salts and intracellular polyphosphate inclusions play a role in the thermotolerance of the immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1505.

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    Correa Deza, María A; Grillo-Puertas, Mariana; Salva, Susana; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Gerez, Carla L; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the thermotolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, an immunobiotic strain, was studied as a way to improve the tolerance of the strain to industrial processes involving heat stress. The strain displayed a high intrinsic thermotolerance (55°C, 20 min); however, after 5 min at 60°C in phosphate buffer a two log units decrease in cell viability was observed. Different heat shock media were tested to improve the cell survival. Best results were obtained in the mediumcontaining inorganic salts (KH2PO4, Na2HPO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4) likely as using 10% skim milk. Flow cytometry analysis evinced 25.0% live cells and a large number of injured cells (59.7%) in the inorganic salts medium after heat stress. The morphological changes caused by temperature were visualized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). In addition, TEM observations revealed the presence of polyphosphate (polyP) granules in the cells under no-stress conditions. A DAPI-based fluorescence technique, adjusted to Gram-positive bacteria for the first time, was used to determine intracellular polyP levels. Results obtained suggest that the high initial polyP content in L. rhamnosus CRL 1505 together with the presence of inorganic salts in the heat shock medium improve the tolerance of the cells to heat shock. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving evidence of the relationship between polyP and inorganic salts in thermotolerance of lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Role of β-hydroxybutyrate, its polymer poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and inorganic polyphosphate in mammalian health and disease

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    Elena N. Dedkova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a comprehensive review of the role of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, its linear polymer poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP in mammalian health and disease. β-OHB is a metabolic intermediate that constitutes 70% of ketone bodies produced during ketosis. Although ketosis has been generally considered as an unfavorable pathological state (e.g. diabetic ketoacidosis in type-1 diabetes mellitus, it has been suggested that induction of mild hyperketonemia may have certain therapeutic benefits. β-OHB is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and can be used as alternative energy source. Elevated levels of PHB are associated with pathological states. In humans, short-chain, complexed PHB (cPHB is found in a wide variety of tissues and in atherosclerotic plaques. Plasma cPHB concentrations correlate strongly with atherogenic lipid profiles, and PHB tissue levels are elevated in type-1 diabetic animals. However, little is known about mechanisms of PHB action especially in the heart. In contrast to β-OHB, PHB is a water-insoluble, amphiphilic polymer that has high intrinsic viscosity and salt-solvating properties. cPHB can form non-specific ion channels in planar lipid bilayers and liposomes. PHB can form complexes with polyP and Ca2+ which increases membrane permeability. The biological roles played by polyP, a ubiquitous phosphate polymer with ATP-like bonds, have been most extensively studied in prokaryotes, however polyP has recently been linked to a variety of functions in mammalian cells, including blood coagulation, regulation of enzyme activity in cancer cells, cell proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial ion transport and energy metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that polyP is a potent activator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cardiomyocytes and may represent a hitherto unrecognized key structural and functional component of the mitochondrial

  14. Copper tolerance mediated by polyphosphate degradation and low-affinity inorganic phosphate transport system in Escherichia coli

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    Grillo-Puertas, Mariana; Schurig-Briccio, Lici Ariane; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa; Rintoul, María Regina; Rapisarda, Viviana Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Metal tolerance in bacteria has been related to polyP in a model in which heavy metals stimulate the polymer hydrolysis, forming metal-phosphate complexes that are exported. As previously described in our laboratory, Escherichia coli cells grown in media containing a phosphate concentration >37 mM maintained an unusually high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of polyP levels as the involvement of low-affinity ...

  15. The Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.

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    Jennifer Pöhlmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MTs are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. Execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of MT dynamics. Here, we identify a new regulator of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MT cytoskeleton: Asp1, a member of the highly conserved Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. Inositol pyrophosphates generated by Asp1 modulate MT dynamic parameters independent of the central +TIP EB1 and in a dose-dependent and cellular-context-dependent manner. Importantly, our analysis of the in vitro kinase activities of various S. pombe Asp1 variants demonstrated that the C-terminal phosphatase-like domain of the dual domain Vip1 protein negatively affects the inositol pyrophosphate output of the N-terminal kinase domain. These data suggest that the former domain has phosphatase activity. Remarkably, Vip1 regulation of the MT cytoskeleton is a conserved feature, as Vip1-like proteins of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans and the distantly related pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis also affect the MT cytoskeleton in these organisms. Consistent with the role of interphase MTs in growth zone selection/maintenance, all 3 fungal systems show aspects of aberrant cell morphogenesis. Thus, for the first time we have identified a conserved biological process for inositol pyrophosphates.

  16. New Insights into the in situ Microscopic Visualization and Quantification of Inorganic Polyphosphate Stores by 4’,6-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI)-Staining

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    Gomes, F.M.; Ramos, I.B.; Wendt, C.; Girard-Dias, W.; De Souza, W.; Machado, E.A.; K. Miranda, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) is a biological polymer that plays important roles in the cell physiology of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Among the available methods for PolyP localization and quantification, a 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole(DAPI)-based assay has been used for visualization of PolyP-rich organelles. Due to differences in DAPI permeability to different compartments and/or PolyP retention after fixation, a general protocol for DAPI-PolyP staining has not yet been established. Here, we tested different protocols for DAPI-PolyP detection in a range of samples with different levels of DAPI permeability, including subcellular fractions, free-living cells and cryosections of fixed tissues. Subcellular fractions of PolyP-rich organelles yielded DAPI-PolyP fluorescence, although those with a complex external layer usually required longer incubation times, previous aldehyde fixation and/or detergent permeabilization. DAPI-PolyP was also detected in cryosections of OCT-embedded tissues analyzed by multiphoton microscopy. In addition, a semi-quantitative fluorimetric analysis of DAPI-stained fractions showed PolyP mobilization in a similar fashion to what has been demonstrated with the use of enzyme-based quantitative protocols. Taken together, our results support the use of DAPI for both PolyP visualization and quantification, although specific steps are suggested as a general guideline for DAPI-PolyP staining in biological samples with different degrees of DAPI and PolyP permeability. PMID:24441187

  17. Enzymes of yeast polyphosphate metabolism: structure, enzymology and biological roles.

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    Gerasimaitė, Rūta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is found in all living organisms. The known polyP functions in eukaryotes range from osmoregulation and virulence in parasitic protozoa to modulating blood coagulation, inflammation, bone mineralization and cellular signalling in mammals. However mechanisms of regulation and even the identity of involved proteins in many cases remain obscure. Most of the insights obtained so far stem from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide a short overview of the properties and functions of known yeast polyP metabolism enzymes and discuss future directions for polyP research. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

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    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS, enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP, a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC, mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation. Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that

  19. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis.

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    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-02-21

    The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS), enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP), a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC), mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts) or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation). Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca²⁺ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that alginate

  20. The enzymatic activity of the VEGFR2 receptor for the biosynthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates.

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    Jankowski, Vera; Schulz, Anna; Kretschmer, Axel; Mischak, Harald; Boehringer, Falko; van der Giet, Markus; Janke, Doreen; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Herwig, Ralf; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2013-09-01

    dinucleoside polyphosphates. These mediators may modulate the effects of VEGFR2 due to their proliferative effects.

  1. Studies on inorganic polyphosphate metabolism in Mycobacterium phlei. Pt. 1. The incorporation of 32P into various phosphorus fractions of M. phlei grown on normal and modified Loewenstein media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymona, O.

    1974-01-01

    Mycobacterium phlei was grown on various media with radioactive orthophosphate added. At timed intervals the bacteria were fractionated and in particular fractions both total and 32 P was determined. The content of acid-insoluble polyphosphate was measured enzymatically by the use of specific glucokinase. The organism grown on normal Loewenstein medium proved to accumulate high amounts of polyphosphate which was formed in more than 50% at the expense of organic egg yolk phosphorus. In contrast, the nuclei acid phosphorus was derived to a greater extent from labeled orthophosphate. Concentration of polyphosphate was lower in the presence of either purified phosvitin or lecithin substituted for egg yolk, although lecithin ensured good growth of the bacteria. (author)

  2. Studies on inorganic polyphosphate metabolism in Mycobacterium phlei. I. The incorporation of /sup 32/P into various phosphorus fractions of M. phlei grown on normal and modified Loewenstein media

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    Szymona, O [Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    Mycobacterium phlei was grown on various media with radioactive orthophosphate added. At timed intervals the bacteria were fractionated and in particular fractions both total and /sup 32/P was determined. The content of acid-insoluble polyphosphate was measured enzymatically by the use of specific glucokinase. The organism grown on normal Loewenstein medium proved to accumulate high amounts of polyphosphate which was formed in more than 50% at the expense of organic egg yolk phosphorus. In contrast, the nuclei acid phosphorus was derived to a greater extent from labeled orthophosphate. Concentration of polyphosphate was lower in the presence of either purified phosvitin or lecithin substituted for egg yolk, although lecithin ensured good growth of the bacteria.

  3. Mechanism of polyphosphate kinase from Propionibacterium shermanii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphate kinase, which catalyzes the reaction shown below, is one of two enzymes which have been reported to catalyze the synthesis of polyphosphate. Purification performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (0-40% fraction) was followed by chromatography. The enzyme represents 70% of the protein in the hydroxylapatite pool and is stable at this level of purity. The subunit molecular weight was determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis, (83,000 +/- 3000), nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, (80,000 and 86,000 daltons), gel filtration (Biogel A 0.5m column was 85,000 +/- 4000.) Polyphosphate kinase appears to be a monomeric enzyme of ∼83,000 daltons. Four assays were developed for polyphosphate kinase. Basic proteins such as polylysine stimulate the synthesis of polyphosphate, these proteins cause precipitation of polyphosphate kinase from relatively impure enzyme extracts: Synthesized polyphosphate interacts noncovalently with the basic protein-enzyme precipitate. Efficient synthesis of polyphosphate requires the addition of either phosphate or short chain polyphosphate. Synthesis did occur at 1/10 the rate when neither of these two compounds were included. Initiation, elongation, and termination events of polyphosphate synthesis were examined. Short chain polyphosphate acts as a primer, with [ 32 P] short-chain polyphosphate incorporation into long chain polyphosphate by the kinase

  4. Acidocalcisomes as calcium- and polyphosphate-storage compartments during embryogenesis of the insect Rhodnius prolixus Stahl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The yolk of insect eggs is a cellular domain specialized in the storage of reserve components for embryo development. The reserve macromolecules are stored in different organelles and their interactions with the embryo cells are mostly unknown. Acidocalcisomes are lysosome-related organelles characterized by their acidic nature, high electron density and large content of polyphosphate bound to several cations. In this work, we report the presence of acidocalcisome-like organelles in eggs of the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Characterization of the elemental composition of electron-dense vesicles by electron probe X-ray microanalysis revealed a composition similar to that previously described for acidocalcisomes. Following subcellular fractionation experiments, fractions enriched in acidocalcisomes were obtained and characterized. Immunofluorescence showed that polyphosphate polymers and the vacuolar proton translocating pyrophosphatase (V-H(+-PPase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes are found in the same vesicles and that these organelles are mainly localized in the egg cortex. Polyphosphate quantification showed that acidocalcisomes contain a significant amount of polyphosphate detected at day-0 eggs. Elemental analyses of the egg fractions showed that 24.5±0.65% of the egg calcium are also stored in such organelles. During embryogenesis, incubation of acidocalcisomes with acridine orange showed that these organelles are acidified at day-3 (coinciding with the period of yolk mobilization and polyphosphate quantification showed that the levels of polyphosphate tend to decrease during early embryogenesis, being approximately 30% lower at day-3 compared to day-0 eggs. CONCLUSIONS: We found that acidocalcisomes are present in the eggs and are the main storage compartments of polyphosphate and calcium in the egg yolk. As such components have been shown to be involved in a series of dynamic

  5. Can Polyphosphate Biochemistry Affect Biological Apatite Saturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Matsuura, N.; Gorelikov, I.; Wynnyckyj, C.; Grynpas, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    (estimated to be 1 g apatite/mL). Carbonates (as NaHCO3 or CaCO3) were used to buffer the protons produced upon polyP hydrolytic degradation to Pi, releasing Ca+2, increasing apatite saturation for precipitation. Initial Ca:P ratios (by EDS) was 1, suggesting the formation of Ca-PO4 minerals. XRD results identified Na-Ca- carbonate phases, & hydroxyapatite & carbonated apatite, & residual carbonate reagent. Further optimization of this biological apatite precipitation system will be presented. 1 Kornberg, A., Ann Rev Biochem 1999 (68) 89 2 Kulaev IS, Vagabov VM, Kulakovskaya TV (2004) The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates. Chichester, England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 3 Blake, R. E., O’Neil, J.R., and Surov, A. Am J Sci 2005 (305) 596 4 Heersche, J. N. M. et al. (1990) Bone Regulatory Factors; Plenum Press: New York 5 Omelon et al., PLoS ONE 2009 4(5), e5634

  6. Constitutive and regulated expression vectors to construct polyphosphate deficient bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez Carlos A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2 and degraded by an exopolyphosphatase (PPX. Bacterial cells with polyP deficiencies are impaired in many structural and important cellular functions such as motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence. Knockout mutants of the ppk1 gene have been the most frequent strategy employed to generate polyP deficient cells. Results As an alternative method to construct polyP-deficient bacteria we developed constitutive and regulated broad-host-range vectors for depleting the cellular polyP content. This was achieved by the overexpression of yeast exopolyphosphatase (PPX1. Using this approach in a polyphosphate accumulating bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. B4, we were able to eliminate most of the cellular polyP (>95%. Furthermore, the effect of overexpression of PPX1 resembled the functional defects found in motility and biofilm formation in a ppk1 mutant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The plasmids constructed were also successfully replicated in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Burkholderia and Salmonella. Conclusion To deplete polyP contents in bacteria broad-host-range expression vectors can be used as an alternative and more efficient method compared with the deletion of ppk genes. It is of great importance to understand why polyP deficiency affects vital cellular processes in bacteria. The construction reported in this work will be of great relevance to study the role of polyP in microorganisms with non-sequenced genomes or those in which orthologs to ppk genes have not been identified.

  7. Polifosfatos em detergentes em pó comerciais Polyphosphates in commercial powder detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A didactic experiment is proposed in order to identify inorganic phosphates in home laundry detergents by ascending paper chromatography. Chemical principles related with hard water are also investigated. The role of polyphosphates in detergent formulations is discussed and the softening of hard water by sodium tripolyphosphate is illustrated. Several chemical concepts, related to the daily experience of the students, can be explored in post-lab discussions.

  8. Polyphosphate-dependent synthesis of ATP and ADP by the family-2 polyphosphate kinases in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocek, Boguslaw; Kochinyan, Samvel; Proudfoot, Michael; Brown, Greg; Evdokimova, Elena; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Edwards, Aled M; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2008-11-18

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by high-energy bonds. It is found in all organisms and has been proposed to serve as an energy source in a pre-ATP world. This ubiquitous and abundant biopolymer plays numerous and vital roles in metabolism and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for most activities of polyP remain unknown. In prokaryotes, the synthesis and utilization of polyP are catalyzed by 2 families of polyP kinases, PPK1 and PPK2, and polyphosphatases. Here, we present structural and functional characterization of the PPK2 family. Proteins with a single PPK2 domain catalyze polyP-dependent phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, whereas proteins containing 2 fused PPK2 domains phosphorylate AMP to ADP. Crystal structures of 2 representative proteins, SMc02148 from Sinorhizobium meliloti and PA3455 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed a 3-layer alpha/beta/alpha sandwich fold with an alpha-helical lid similar to the structures of microbial thymidylate kinases, suggesting that these proteins share a common evolutionary origin and catalytic mechanism. Alanine replacement mutagenesis identified 9 conserved residues, which are required for activity and include the residues from both Walker A and B motifs and the lid. Thus, the PPK2s represent a molecular mechanism, which potentially allow bacteria to use polyP as an intracellular energy reserve for the generation of ATP and survival.

  9. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  10. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  11. Mechanisms of polyphosphate glucokinase and polyphosphate kinase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, C.A.; Robinson, N.A.; Wood, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphate glucokinase [poly(P)GK] catalyzes the following reaction: poly(P)/sub n/ + glucose → poly(P)/sub n-1/ + G-6-P. With long chain poly(P) [n=750 to 400] the mechanism appeared to be processive, in which there is phosphorylation of glucose without release of intermediate sizes of the poly(P) until the chain is about 100, thereafter there were intermediate sizes formed apparently by a non-processive process. Poly(P) kinase catalyzes the following reaction: ATP + poly(P)/sub n/ ↔ ADP + poly(P)/sub n + 1/. Using short chain 32 [P] poly(P) as a primer and non-radioactive ATP, long chain poly(P) is formed processively. The resulting chain has a short length labeled with 32 [P] contributed by the primer on one end and the remainder is made up of unlabeled (P) from the ATP. The authors have used this 32 [P] poly(P) as a substrate with poly(P)GK. If the mechanism of the poly(P)GK were initially processive, there would be a 50% chance the phosphate would be utilized from the unlabeled end and 50% of the 32 [P] would remain in the shortened chain. However, all the 32 [P] was lost when 20% of the poly(P) was converted to G-6-P. In contrast, with poly(P) kinase, the % of poly(P) utilized was equivalent to the % of 32 [P] converted to ATP, which is consistent with a strictly processive mechanism. Even though the mechanism of poly(P)GK appeared to be processive with long chains, the on and off rate of poly(P) from the enzyme is such that there is random removal of (P) from both ends of the poly(P) chain

  12. Purification and properties of recombinant exopolyphosphatase PPN1 and effects of its overexpression on polyphosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nadeshda; Trilisenko, Ludmila; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana; Dumina, Maria; Eldarov, Michail

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate performs many regulatory functions in living cells. The yeast exopolyphosphatase PPN1 is an enzyme with multiple cellular localization and probably variable functions. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with overexpressed PPN1 was constructed for large-scale production of the enzyme and for studying the effect of overproduction on polyphosphate metabolism. The ΔPPN1 strain was transformed by the vector containing this gene under a strong constitutive promoter of glycerol aldehyde-triphosphate dehydrogenase of S. cerevisiae. Exopolyphosphatase activity in the transformant increased 28- and 11-fold compared to the ΔPPN1 and parent strains, respectively. The content of acid-soluble polyphosphate decreased ∼6-fold and the content of acid-insoluble polyphosphate decreased ∼2.5-fold in the cells of the transformant compared to the ΔPPN1 strain. The recombinant enzyme was purified. The substrate specificity, cation requirement, and inhibition by heparin were found to be similar to native PPN1. The molecular mass of a subunit (∼33 kD) and the amino acid sequence of the recombinant enzyme were the same as in mature PPN1. The recombinant enzyme was localized mainly in the cytoplasm (40%) and vacuoles (20%). The overproducer strain had no growths defects under phosphate deficiency or phosphate excess. In contrast to the parent strains accumulating polyphosphate, the transformant accumulated orthophosphate under phosphate surplus. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic Control of Aqueous Hydrolysis: Modulating Structure/Property Relationships in Inorganic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James R.

    2011-12-01

    A grand challenge in materials science and chemistry revolves around the preparation of materials with desired properties by controlling structure on multiple length scales. Biology approaches this challenge by evolving tactics to transform soluble precursors into materials and composites with macro-scale and atomic precision. Studies of biomineralization in siliceous sponges led to the discovery of slow, catalytic hydrolysis of molecular precursors in the biogenesis of silica skeletal elements with well defined micro- and nano-scale architectures. However, the role of aqueous hydrolysis in the limit of kinetic control is not well understood; this allows us to form a central hypothesis: that the kinetics of hydrolysis modulate the structures of materials and their properties. As a model system, the diffusion of a simple hydrolytic catalyst (such as ammonia) across an air-water interface into a metal salt solution reproduces some aspects of the chemistry found in biomineralization, namely kinetic and vectorial control. Variation of the catalyst concentration modulates the hydrolysis rate, and thus alters the resulting structure of the inorganic crystals. Using aqueous solutions of cobalt(II) chloride, each product (cobalt hydroxide chloride) forms with a unique composition, despite being prepared from identical mother liquors. Synchrotron X-ray total scattering methods are needed to locate the atomic positions in the material, which are not aptly described by a traditional crystallographic unit cell due to structural disorder. Detailed definition of the structure confirms that the hydrolysis conditions systematically modulate the arrangement of atoms in the lattice. This tightly coupled control of crystal formation and knowledge of local and average structures of these materials provides insight into the unusual magnetic properties of these cobalt hydroxides. The compounds studied show significant and open magnetization loops with little variation with composition

  14. Modules for Introducing Organometallic Reactions: A Bridge between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic reactions have become increasingly important in the synthesis of organic molecules. A new approach has been developed to introduce organometallic chemistry, along with organic and inorganic chemistry, at the foundational level. This change highlights applications of organometallic chemistry that have dramatically…

  15. Polyphosphate formation in Chlorella in relation to photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermans, J.F.G.M.

    1955-01-01

    Suspensions of Chlorella converted orthophosphate into cellular phosphate in the light, especially in the absence of C0 2 , when orthophosphate was largely transformed into polyphosphate. Polyphosphate formation continued for several hours, slowly decreasing, and was saturated at

  16. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  17. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabergenov, M.K.; Balakaeva, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P 2 O 5 ) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  18. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.

    1980-09-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  19. Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

    2003-01-01

    Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested.

  20. Polyphosphates substitution for zeolite to in detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo V, Gloria M.; Ocampo G, Aquiles; Saldarriaga M, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    The detergents, as well as the cleaning products, contain active ingredients that are good to increase their efficiency and some of them, as the sodium Tripoli-phosphate (TPF), they have turned out to be noxious for the environment. The zeolites use in the formulation of detergents has grown substantially since they fulfill the same function of the TPF and they have been recommended ecologically as substitutes from these when not being polluting. The objective of this work is to obtain a zeolite with appropriate characteristics for its use in the formulation of detergents, reproducing those of the zeolites used industrially. The zeolite synthesis is studied 4A starting from hydro-gels of different composition, varying the operation conditions and using two raw materials: (sodium meta-silicate, commercial degree and metallic aluminum) and clay type kaolin like silica source and aluminum It is looked for to get a product of beveled cubic morphology, or spherical, with glass size between 1 and 3 microns and that it possesses good capacity of conical exchange. Since the capacity and speed of ionic exchange is influenced by the particle size, time of contact and temperature, experimentation conditions settle down to measure the exchange of ions calcium and magnesium in watery solutions that they simulate the real situation of a laundry process in the country. This way the ability of the zeolite 4A obtained to diminish the concentration of these ions in the laundry waters is evaluated and its possibilities like component in the formulation of detergents non-phosphatates. Of the synthesized zeolites, the best in agreement is chosen with chemical properties as ionic and physical exchange capacity as crystalline, particle size and color, to prepare a detergent in which the polyphosphates is substituted partial and totally for the synthesized zeolite

  1. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix, Nicolas; Lildhar, Levannia; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason

    2014-05-01

    All vertebrate skeletons are stiffened with apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Control of apatite mineralization is essential to the growth and repair of the biology of these skeletons, ensuring that apatite is deposited in the correct tissue location at the desired time. The mechanism of this biochemical control remains debated, but must involve increasing the localized apatite saturation state. It was theorized in 1923 that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity provides this control mechanism by increasing the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration via dephosphorylation of phosphorylated molecules. The ALP substrate for biological apatite is not known. We propose that polyphosphates (polyPs) produced by mitochondria may be the substrate for biological apatite formation by ALP activity. PolyPs (PO3-)n, also known as condensed phosphates, represent a concentrated, bioavailable Pi-storage strategy. Mitochondria import Pi and synthesize phosphate polymers through an unknown biochemical mechanism. When chelated with calcium and/or other cations, the effective P-concentration of these neutrally charged, amorphous, polyP species can be very high (~ 0.5 M), without inducing phosphate mineral crystallization. This P-concentration in the low Pi-concentration biological environment offers a method of concentrating P well above an apatite supersaturation required for nucleation. Bone is the most studied mineralized skeletal tissue. However, locating and analyzing active mineralizing areas is challenging. We studied calcified cartilage skeletons of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, stingrays and relatives) to analyse the phosphate chemistry in this continually mineralizing skeleton. Although the majority of the elasmobranch skeleton is unmineralized cartilage, it is wrapped in an outer layer of mineralized tissue comprised of small tiles called tesserae. These calcified tesserae continually grow through the formation of new mineral on their borders. Co-localization of ALP and

  2. New structural and functional defects in polyphosphate deficient bacteria: A cellular and proteomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez Francisco P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2 and degraded by exopolyphosphatase (PPX. Bacterial cells with polyP deficiencies due to knocking out the ppk1 gene are affected in many structural and important cellular functions such as motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence among others. The cause of this pleiotropy is not entirely understood. Results The overexpression of exopolyphosphatase in bacteria mimicked some pleitropic defects found in ppk1 mutants. By using this approach we found new structural and functional defects in the polyP-accumulating bacteria Pseudomonas sp. B4, which are most likely due to differences in the polyP-removal strategy. Colony morphology phenotype, lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure changes and cellular division malfunction were observed. Finally, we used comparative proteomics in order to elucidate the cellular adjustments that occurred during polyP deficiency in this bacterium and found some clues that helped to understand the structural and functional defects observed. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that during polyP deficiency energy metabolism and particularly nucleoside triphosphate (NTP formation were affected and that bacterial cells overcame this problem by increasing the flux of energy-generating metabolic pathways such as tricarboxilic acid (TCA cycle, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and by reducing energy-consuming ones such as active transporters and amino acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, our results suggest that a general stress response also took place in the cell during polyP deficiency.

  3. Polyphosphate induces matrix metalloproteinase-3-mediated proliferation of odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kawai, Rie [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] may represent a physiological source of phosphate and has the ability to induce bone differentiation in osteoblasts. We previously reported that cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 accelerates the proliferation of purified odontoblast-like cells. In this study, MMP-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate whether MMP-3 activity is induced by Poly(P) and/or is associated with cell proliferation and differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. Treatment with Poly(P) led to an increase in both cell proliferation and additional odontoblastic differentiation. Poly(P)-treated cells showed a small but significant increase in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) mRNA expression, which are markers of mature odontoblasts. The cells also acquired additional odontoblast-specific properties including adoption of an odontoblastic phenotype typified by high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and a calcification capacity. In addition, Poly(P) induced expression of MMP-3 mRNA and protein, and increased MMP-3 activity. MMP-3 siRNA-mediated disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of odontoblastic biomarkers ALP, DSPP, and DMP-1, and blocked calcification. Interestingly, upon siRNA-mediated silencing of MMP-3, we noted a potent and significant decrease in cell proliferation. Using specific siRNAs, we revealed that a unique signaling cascade, Poly(P)→MMP-3→DSPP and/or DMP-1, was intimately involved in the proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Polyphosphate increases proliferation of iPS cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • Polyphosphate-induced MMP-3 results in an increase of cell proliferation. • Induced cell proliferation involves MMP-3, DSPP, and/or DMP-1 sequentially. • Induced MMP-3 also results in an increase of odontoblastic

  4. Sol gel-derived hydroxyapatite films over porous calcium polyphosphate substrates for improved tissue engineering of osteochondral-like constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whitaik David; Gawri, Rahul; Pilliar, Robert M; Stanford, William L; Kandel, Rita A

    2017-10-15

    Integration of in vitro-formed cartilage on a suitable substrate to form tissue-engineered implants for osteochondral defect repair is a considerable challenge. In healthy cartilage, a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) acts as an intermediary for mechanical force transfer from soft to hard tissue, as well as an effective interlocking structure to better resist interfacial shear forces. We have developed biphasic constructs that consist of scaffold-free cartilage tissue grown in vitro on, and interdigitated with, porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) substrates. However, as CPP degrades, it releases inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) that can inhibit local mineralization, thereby preventing the formation of a ZCC at the interface. Thus, we hypothesize that coating CPP substrate with a layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) might prevent or limit this polyP release. To investigate this we tested both inorganic or organic sol-gel processing methods, asa barrier coating on CPP substrate to inhibit polyP release. Both types of coating supported the formation of ZCC in direct contact with the substrate, however the ZCC appeared more continuous in the tissue formed on the organic HA sol gel coated CPP. Tissues formed on coated substrates accumulated comparable quantities of extracellular matrix and mineral, but tissues formed on organic sol-gel (OSG)-coated substrates accumulated less polyP than tissues formed on inorganic sol-gel (ISG)-coated substrates. Constructs formed with OSG-coated CPP substrates had greater interfacial shear strength than those formed with ISG-coated and non-coated substrates. These results suggest that the OSG coating method can modify the location and distribution of ZCC and can be used to improve the mechanical integrity of tissue-engineered constructs formed on porous CPP substrates. Articular cartilage interfaces with bone through a zone of calcified cartilage. This study describes a method to generate an "osteochondral-like" implant that mimics this

  5. Polyphosphates in Intraradical and Extraradical Hyphae of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Gigaspora margarita

    OpenAIRE

    Solaiman, M. Zakaria; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    The amount of polyphosphate in the intraradical and extraradical hyphae of Gigaspora margarita was estimated from successive extractions with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), EDTA, and phenol-chloroform (PC). In the intraradical hyphae, most of the polyphosphate was present in TCA- and EDTA-soluble (short-chain and long-chain) fractions, whereas most of the polyphosphate in the extraradical hyphae was present in EDTA- and PC-soluble (long-chain and granular) fractions.

  6. Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    OpenAIRE

    Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O

    1989-01-01

    Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing ...

  7. Membrane interaction and functional plasticity of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Werner; Schein, Catherine H

    2014-05-06

    In this issue of Structure, Trésaugues and colleagues determined the interaction of membrane-bound phosphoinositides with three clinically significant human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (I5Ps). A comparison to the structures determined with soluble substrates revealed differences in the binding mode and suggested how the I5Ps and apurinic endonuclease (APE1) activities evolved from the same metal-binding active center. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyphosphate Amendments for In-Situ Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Pierce, Eric M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Burton, Sarah D.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Butler, Bart C.; R.F. Olfenbuttel; P.J. White

    2005-01-01

    A multi-faceted approach has been taken to address basic science questions with regards to the efficacy of utilizing phosphate amendments for subsurface immobilization of uranium plumes. Hydraulically saturated and unsaturated column tests demonstrate the ability of polyphosphate compounds to control the precipitation kinetics of insoluble phosphate minerals and optimize conditions for controlled application of phosphate amendments for subsurface remediation. X-Ray micro-focus tomography results illustrate long-term effects of phosphate mineralization on hydraulic conductivity. 31P NMR has been utilized to quantify the effect of sedimentary and aqueous components on the in-situ hydrolysis kinetics of condensed polyphosphates. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests have been conducted to evaluate the longevity and quantify the effects of aqueous organic material on the dissolution kinetics of autunite minerals, X1-2[(UO2)(PO4)]2nH2O. Preliminary results indicate: (1) autunite minerals will precipitate within 1-2 months given a 0.05 M phosphate concentration and 10-6 M aqueous uranium concentration, under hydraulically saturated conditions; (2) polyphosphate chain lengths can be optimized for specific site conditions, given thorough knowledge of the subsurface environment; (3) the release of uranium from autunite minerals appears to be 6-7 order of magnitude slower than uranium (UO2) minerals formed by iron barrier reduction; and (4) understanding secondary uranyl-phase formation is necessary for predicting the long-term fate of uranium in the environment

  9. Low-field NMR determination of water distribution in meat batters with NaCl and polyphosphate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (pwater retention was found when a combination of NaCl and polyphosphates was used. A high textural parameter was observed in the two treatments with NaCl, but not in the group with only polyphosphate. For the polyphosphate group, T22 was lower (pwater, particularly with polyphosphate, but polyphosphate could not be an equal substitute for NaCl given its resulting lowest textural properties and poor microstructure. By presenting different hydration states in the protein swelling stage, the meat batter qualities were differentiated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of high pressure treatments on C. jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival was attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to ...

  11. A Lactobacillus mutant capable of accumulating long-chain polyphosphates that enhance intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Asako; Ishida, Yasuaki; Segawa, Shuichi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) was previously identified as a probiotic-derived substance that enhances intestinal barrier function. PolyP-accumulating bacteria are expected to have beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we selected Lactobacillus paracasei JCM 1163 as a strain with the potential to accumulate polyP, because among the probiotic bacteria stored in our laboratory, it had the largest amount of polyP. The chain length of polyP accumulated in L. paracasei JCM 1163 was approximately 700 phosphate (Pi) residues. L. paracasei JCM 1163 accumulated polyP when Pi was added to Pi-starved cells. We further improved the ability of L. paracasei JCM 1163 to accumulate polyP by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutant accumulated polyP at a level of 1500 nmol/mg protein-approximately 190 times that of the wild-type strain. PolyP extracted from the L. paracasei JCM 1163 significantly suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in mouse small intestine. In conclusion, we have succeeded in breeding the polyP-accumulating Lactobacillus mutant that is expected to enhance intestinal barrier function.

  12. Polyphosphate is a key factor for cell survival after DNA damage in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Samuel; Samper-Martín, Bàrbara; Quandt, Eva; Hernández-Ortega, Sara; Martínez-Laínez, Joan M; Garí, Eloi; Rafel, Marta; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep

    2017-09-01

    Cells require extra amounts of dNTPs to repair DNA after damage. Polyphosphate (polyP) is an evolutionary conserved linear polymer of up to several hundred inorganic phosphate (Pi) residues that is involved in many functions, including Pi storage. In the present article, we report on findings demonstrating that polyP functions as a source of Pi when required to sustain the dNTP increment essential for DNA repair after damage. We show that mutant yeast cells without polyP produce less dNTPs upon DNA damage and that their survival is compromised. In contrast, when polyP levels are ectopically increased, yeast cells become more resistant to DNA damage. More importantly, we show that when polyP is reduced in HEK293 mammalian cell line cells and in human dermal primary fibroblasts (HDFa), these cells become more sensitive to DNA damage, suggesting that the protective role of polyP against DNA damage is evolutionary conserved. In conclusion, we present polyP as a molecule involved in resistance to DNA damage and suggest that polyP may be a putative target for new approaches in cancer treatment or prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution Patterns of Polyphosphate Metabolism Pathway and Its Relationships With Bacterial Durability and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP is a linear polymer of orthophosphate residues. It is reported to be present in all life forms. Experimental studies showed that polyP plays important roles in bacterial durability and virulence. Here we investigated the relationships of polyP with bacterial durability and virulence theoretically. Bacterial lifestyle, environmental persistence, virulence factors (VFs, and species evolution are all included in the analysis. The presence of seven genes involved in polyP metabolism (ppk1, ppk2, pap, surE, gppA, ppnK, and ppgK and 2595 core VFs were verified in 944 bacterial reference proteomes for distribution patterns via HMMER. Proteome size and VFs were compared in terms of gain and loss of polyP pathway. Literature mining and phylogenetic analysis were recruited to support the study. Our analyzes revealed that the presence of polyP metabolism is positively correlated with bacterial proteome size and the number of virulence genes. A potential relationship of polyP in bacterial lifestyle and environmental durability is suggested. Evolutionary analysis shows that polyP genes are randomly lost along the phylogenetic tree. In sum, based on our theoretical analysis, we confirmed that bacteria with polyP metabolism are associated with high environmental durability and more VFs.

  14. Diadenosine polyphosphates in the tears of aniridia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Assumpta; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Pintor, Jesús

    2015-08-01

    To quantify diadenosine polyphosphate levels in tears of congenital aniridia patients to estimate the ocular surface changes associated with congenital aniridia compared to normal individuals. Fifteen patients diagnosed with congenital aniridia and a control group of forty volunteers were studied. Tears were collected to quantify the levels of diadenosine polyphosphates Ap4 A and Ap5 A by high-performance liquid chromatography (H.P.L.C). Break-up time (BUT), corneal staining, McMonnies questionnaire and the Schirmer I test were applied to both groups. Dinucleotides in congenital aniridia patients were higher than in control subjects. For the congenital aniridia group, under 15 years old, the values were 0.77 ± 0.01 μm and 0.17 ± 0.02 μm for Ap4 A and Ap5 A, respectively. The group aged from 15 to 40 years old provided concentrations of 4.37 ± 0.97 μm and 0.46 ± 0.05 μm for Ap4 A and Ap5 A, the group over 40 gave concentrations of 11.17 ± 5.53 μm and 0.68 ± 0.17 μm for Ap4 A and Ap5 A. Dinucleotide concentrations increased with age, being statistically significant different among the three age groups (p tear secretion and no dry eye McMonnies scores, except for the group over 40 years old. BUT values decreased and corneal staining increased with age and correlated with the levels of diadenosine polyphosphates (p tears increase in aniridia patients compared with healthy subjects, and they seem to be related with the progression of corneal disorders in aniridia patients, both of which increase with ageing. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Preparation and characterization of a novel hyperbranched polyphosphate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sufang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123 (China); Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430073 (China); Zhang, Daohong, E-mail: zhangdh@163.com [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Cheng, Xinjian; Li, Tingcheng; Zhang, Aiqing [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Li, Jinlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123 (China); Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Polyphosphate esters have received a great deal of attention due to their important application in biomaterials field. Hyperbranched structure of polymers may support unique properties, including low viscosity and perfect intrinsic property. We report here three generations of hyperbranched polyphosphate esters (HPPE-1, HPPE-2 and HPPE-3) synthesized from a dehydrochlorination reaction between 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)cyanuric acid (THEIC) and phosphorus oxychloride (POCl{sub 3}), and characterize their chemical structures by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 31}P NMR and 2D NMR ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY and {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H-HSQC) techniques. Degrees of branching of HPPE-1, HPPE-2 and HPPE-3 are 0.90, 0.91 and 0.87 respectively from the calculation of their {sup 13}C NMR spectra. Molecular weights of HPPE-1, HPPE-2 and HPPE-3 are m/z 1530, 1768 and 2750 from their MALDI-TOF-MS spectra. Study on thermal degradation mechanism of the HPPE-2 by a 3D FT-IR/TG technology shows that there are two cracking processes of its molecular chains, including the thermal degradation of hydroxylethyl-ended groups, nitrogen heterocycle and -CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}- groups of HPPE-2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared three novel hyperbranched polyphosphate esters (HPPE-1, HPPE-2 and HPPE-3). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their chemical structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1D NMR and 2D NMR techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their degrees of branching were over 0.87. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TG-FTIR was used to study thermal degradation mechanism of the HPPE-2.

  16. Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O

    1989-09-01

    Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing it separated into several spots in the pH range of 5.6 to 6.7.

  17. Sorption of molybdenum by cellulose polyphosphate from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneva, N.K.; Oputina, A.G.; Ermolenko, I.N.

    1985-01-01

    The sorption of molybdenum on cellulose polyphosphate from acid solutions of ammonium molybdate depending on the phosphorus content in samples, concentration and pH of the solution, sorption time is studied. It is shown that a maximum molybdenum content on the cellulose samples with different phosphorus content is pointed out at an ammonium molybdate concentration 0.02 M. Saturation of the sorption curve is attained at molar ratio of adsrbed molybdenum to phosphorus 1:4. In case of small fillings the compound with molybdenum to phosphorus ratio 1:10 is formed

  18. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  19. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although

  20. Ability of Polyphosphate and Nucleic Acids to Trigger Blood Clotting: Some Observations and Caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A.; Gajsiewicz, Joshua M.; Morrissey, James H.

    2018-01-01

    Polyphosphate plays several roles in coagulation and inflammation, while extracellular DNA and RNA are implicated in thrombosis and as disease biomarkers. We sought to compare the procoagulant activities of polyphosphate versus DNA or RNA isolated from mammalian cells. In a recent study, we found that much of the procoagulant activity of DNA isolated from mammalian cells using Qiagen kits resisted digestion with nuclease or polyphosphatase, and even resisted boiling in acid. These kits employ spin columns packed with silica, which is highly procoagulant. Indeed, much of the apparent procoagulant activity of cellular DNA isolated with such kits was attributable to silica particles shed by the spin columns. Therefore, silica-based methods for isolating nucleic acids or polyphosphate from mammalian cells are not suitable for studying their procoagulant activities. We now report that polyphosphate readily co-purified with DNA and RNA using several popular isolation methods, including phenol/chloroform extraction. Thus, cell-derived nucleic acids are also subject to contamination with traces of cellular polyphosphate, which can be eliminated by alkaline phosphatase digestion. We further report that long-chain polyphosphate was orders of magnitude more potent than cell-derived DNA (purified via phenol/chloroform extraction) or RNA at triggering clotting. Additional experiments using RNA homopolymers found that polyG and polyI have procoagulant activity similar to polyphosphate, while polyA and polyC are not procoagulant. Thus, the procoagulant activity of RNA is rather highly dependent on base composition. PMID:29719836

  1. The importance of chain length for the polyphosphate enhancement of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brendan J; Adcock, Jacqui L; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Peristyy, Anton; Stevenson, Paul G; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A; Francis, Paul S

    2014-09-09

    Sodium polyphosphate is commonly used to enhance chemiluminescence reactions with acidic potassium permanganate through a dual enhancement mechanism, but commercially available polyphosphates vary greatly in composition. We have examined the influence of polyphosphate composition and concentration on both the dual enhancement mechanism of chemiluminescence intensity and the stability of the reagent under analytically useful conditions. The average chain length (n) provides a convenient characterisation, but materials with similar values can exhibit markedly different distributions of phosphate oligomers. There is a minimum polyphosphate chain length (∼6) required for a large enhancement of the emission intensity, but no further advantage was obtained using polyphosphate materials with much longer average chain lengths. Providing there is a sufficient average chain length, the optimum concentration of polyphosphate is dependent on the analyte and in some cases, may be lower than the quantities previously used in routine detection. However, the concentration of polyphosphate should not be lowered in permanganate reagents that have been partially reduced to form high concentrations of the key manganese(III) co-reactant, as this intermediate needs to be stabilised to prevent formation of insoluble manganese(IV). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inorganic zinc supplementation modulates heat shock and immune response in heat stressed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; B, Indu; Aarif, Ovais

    2017-06-01

    Thermal stress in India is one of the major constraints affecting dairy cattle productivity. Every attempt should be made to ameliorate the heat and calving related stress in high producing dairy cows for higher economic returns. In the current study, inorganic zinc was tried to alleviate the adverse effects of thermal stress in periparturient cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were chosen for the experiment. The blood samples were collected periparturiently on three occasions viz. -21, 0 and +21 days relative to calving. The in vitro study was conducted after isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood. The cultured PBMC were subjected to three different levels of exposures viz. 37°C as control, 42°C to induce thermal stress and 42°C + zinc to ameliorate the adverse effects of high temperature. Heat shock lead to a significant (Pheat shock proteins (HSP). HSP was more on the day of calving as well. KF showed more HSP concentration than Sahiwal breed indicating the heat bearing capacity of later. Zinc treatment to thermally stressed PBMC caused a fall in the HSP concentration in both the breeds during periparturient period. Moreover, heat stress increased significantly (PHeat and calving related stress caused a fall in the IL-12 levels which increased significantly (Pcows. The study could help to alleviate the heat stress and potentiate immunity by providing mineral supplements in periparturient dairy cattle habituating tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  4. Dye incorporation in polyphosphate gels: synthesis and theoretical calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Del Nero

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described theoretical calculations on the electronic structure and optical properties of the dyes crystal violet and malachite green based in semiempirical methods (Parametric Method 3 and Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap / Spectroscopic - Configuration Interaction and the synthesis of a new hybrid material based upon the incorporation of these dyes in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The samples are nearly transparent, free-standing thick films. The optical properties of the entrapped dyes are sensitive to chemical changes within the matrix caused either by gel aging or external stimulli such as exposition to acidic and basic vapors that can percolate within the matrix. Our theoretical modeling is in good agreement with the experimental results for the dyes.

  5. Levels of acid-soluble polyphosphate in growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Solimene, R; Guerrini, A M; Donini, P

    1980-01-01

    Short-chain acid-soluble polyphosphates were extracted from growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the changes in the levels of these compounds were determined. The production of acid-soluble polyphosphates correlated with the mitochondrial activities since it occurred in two bursts in respiration-competent yeast cells and in only one burst in respiration-deficient yeast cells. The possible role of these compounds is discussed.

  6. Artificial cartilage bio-matrix formed of hyaluronic acid and Mg2+-polyphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP. The viscous paste-like material formed, composed of globular microparticles with diameter of 400 nm, strongly promoted the adhesion of chondrocytes and caused a significant upregulation of the expression of the genes encoding collagen type 3A1, as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation, and SOX9, a transcription factor that regulates chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation. The expression level of the collagen type 3A1 gene was also enhanced by exposure of chondrocytes to synovial fluid that was found to contain polyP with a size of about 80 phosphate residues. This stimulatory effect was abolished after pre-incubation of the synovial fluid with the polyP degrading alkaline phosphatase. We propose a strategy for treatment of joint dysfunctions caused by osteoarthritis based on the application of amorphous Mg2+-polyP microparticles thatprevent calcium crystal formation in the synovial fluid using scavenging Ca2+ ions (Mg2+/Ca2+ exchange and enhance chondrocyte function after binding of the Ca2+-polyP to hyaluronic acid at the cartilage surface.

  7. Surprising luminescent properties of the polyphosphates Ln(PO3)3:Eu (Ln = Y, Gd, Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppe, Henning A; Kazmierczak, Karolina; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Schellenberg, Inga; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2011-10-21

    The optical emission properties of the lanthanoid catena-polyphosphates Ln(PO(3))(3) (Ln = Y, Gd, Lu) doped with europium were investigated. Incommensurately modulated β-Y(PO(3))(3):Eu (super space group Cc (0|0.364|0)0) and Gd(PO(3))(3):Eu (space group I2/a) show the usual emission characteristics of Eu(3+), while in Lu(PO(3))(3):Eu (space group Cc) the europium is unprecedentedly partially reduced to the divalent state, as proven by both a broad emission band at 406 nm excited at 279 nm and an EPR spectroscopic investigation. (151)Eu-Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that only a very small part of the europium is reduced in Lu(PO(3))(3):Eu. An explanation for this unusual behaviour is given. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Crystal structure of polyphosphates NaCd(PO3)3 and NaMn(PO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murashova, E.V.; Chudinova, N.N.

    1997-01-01

    Crystal structure of NaCd(PO 3 ) 3 (1) and NaMn(PO 3 ) 3 (2) isostructural polyphosphates was determined for twin samples. Rhombic lattice parameters of (1): a = 14.678, b = 14.669, c = 14.705 A, sp. gr. P2 1 2 1 2 1 , Z = 16. The structure of compounds is of frame type. Polyphosphate chain with repetition period of 24 PO 4 tetrahedrons contacts with NaO 6 and M 2 O 6 octahedrons by means of common oxygen vertices. Similarities and differences in structure of mentioned polyphosphates and earlier analyzed NaMg(PO 3 ) 3 polyphosphate are noted [ru

  9. Effects of phosphorus on polyphosphate accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans Efeitos do fósforo sobre a acumulação de polifosfato em Cunninghamella elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Barbosa de Lima

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of inorganic polyphosphate and the polymeric degree of these compounds were evaluated during the growth of Cunninghamella elegans in medium containing varying orthophosphate (Pi concentrations. For this purpose, a combination of chemical methods for polyphosphate extraction and ultrastructural cytochemistry were used. The orthophosphate and glucose consumption was also determined during the fungal cultivation. At Pi concentrations of 0.5, 2.5 and 0.0 g/L, the maximum amounts of biomass were 3.18, 3.29 and 0.24 g/L, respectively. During growth the cells accumulated Pi from the medium. At three days of growth the biomass consumed up to 100 and 95% of Pi from the media at initial concentrations of 0.5 and 2.5 g/L, respectively. Polyphosphate was observed at different Pi concentrations in medium and at different stages of growth. Polyphosphate was assayed by the content of labile phosphorus in water, acid-insoluble and alkali-soluble fractions. The content of fractions changed according to phosphorus concentration in the media and growth phase. During growth on all three media used, the cytochecmical behavior of polyphosphate changed considerably. The results obtained in this study reveal a potential of Cunninghamella elegans in the polyphosphate accumulation, and suggest a future application in the biotechnological processes.O crescimento, consumo de fosfato e glicose, bem como o conteúdo de fósforo, a distribuição, estrutura e localização de polifosfato foram avaliados no micélio de Cunninghamella elegans cultivado em meios contendo diferentes concentrações de fosfato. Os resultados permitiram verificar a influência dessas concentrações de fosfato sobre o crescimento do fungo estudado. A maior concentração de fosfato proporcionou maior rendimento da biomassa ao longo do crescimento. Uma relação entre consumo de fosfato e glicose do meio foi observada em relação ao crescimento e a quantidade de polifosfato total nos

  10. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  11. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Williams, M. D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 (micro)g/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area

  12. The new method for check of polyphosphate content in H333PO4 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Y.S.; Anichenkov, S.V.; Makarov, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the future, the quality of the final products of chemical technology and analysis will be checked with the express non-destructive methods with computer data processing. An automated facility is developed to check polyphosphate content in production of orthophosphoric acid labelled with phosphorus 33. The construction and operation methods are described

  13. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klébea Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.

  14. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  15. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Tarayre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs, accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells.

  16. Electrospun bioactive mats enriched with Ca-polyphosphate/retinol nanospheres as potential wound dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Werner E.G.; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background While electrospun materials have been frequently used in tissue engineering no wound dressings exist that significantly improved wound healing effectively. Methods We succeeded to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) electrospun poly(D,l-lactide) (PLA) fiber mats into which nanospheres, formed from amorphous calcium polyphosphate (polyP) nanoparticles (NP) and encapsulated retinol (“retinol/aCa-polyP-NS” nanospheres [NS]), had been incorporated. Results Experiments with MC3T3-E1 cells ...

  17. Reaction of lithium, sodium and potassium polyphosphates with potassium permanganate at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paderova, L.V.; Onuchina, T.V.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made on destruction of molten polyphosphates of alkaline metals by potassium permanganate during change of KMnO 4 content, test time and temperature. Ortho-, di, tri- and tetraphosphate-anions, as well as manganese compounds with different oxidation degree were revealed in products of component interaction. Empirical equations of the dependence of the value of average molecular mass on change of melt temperature were derived. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília M. L. Rolim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109 growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%–81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium during its growth. The C. elegans mycelia showed a removal efficiency of 280 mg/g at a cadmium concentration of 22.10 mg/L, and the removal velocity of cadmium was 0.107 mg/h. Additionally, it was observed that cadmium induced vacuolization, the presence of electron dense deposits in vacuoles, cytoplasm and cell membranes, as well as the distinct behavior of polyphosphate fractions. The results obtained with C. elegans suggest that precipitation, vacuolization and polyphosphate fractions were associated to cadmium tolerance, and this species demonstrated a higher potential for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  19. Accelerating Coagulation in Traumatic Injuries Using Inorganic Polyphosphate-Coated Silica Nanoparticles in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    slightly more blood loss (22.8 mL/kg), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.12). There were no significant differences between groups in...significant differences between the groups in any baseline characteristics, preoperative blood loss, or liver injury surface area. Pigs receiving...

  20. Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as an activator and structural component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solesio, Maria E; Elustondo, Pia A; Zakharian, Eleonora; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a large channel located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. The opening of mPTP during pathological calcium overload leads to the membrane depolarization and disruption of ATP production. mPTP activation has been implicated as a central event during the process of stress-induced cell death. mPTP is a supramolecular complex composed of many proteins. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial ATPase plays the central role in the formation of mPTP. However, the structure of the central conducting pore part of mPTP (mPTPore) remains elusive. Here we review current models proposed for the mPTPore and involvement of polyP in its formation and regulation. We discuss the underestimated role of polyP as an effector and a putative structural component of the mPTPore. We propose the hypothesis that inclusion of polyP can explain such properties of mPTP activity as calcium activation, selectivity and voltage-dependence. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  1. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Low Phytic Acid Soybean by siRNA Triggered Seed Specific Silencing of Inositol Polyphosphate 6-/3-/5-Kinase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Punjabi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the leading oilseed crop in the world and is showing a remarkable surge in its utilization in formulating animal feeds and supplements. Its dietary consumption, however, is incongruent with its existing industrial demand due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors in sufficiently large amounts. Phytic acid in particular raises concern as it causes a concomitant loss of indigestible complexed minerals and charged proteins in the waste and results in reduced mineral bioavailability in both livestock and humans. Reducing the seed phytate level thus seems indispensable to overcome the nutritional menace associated with soy grain consumption. In order to conceive our objective we designed and expressed a inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-/5-kinase gene-specific RNAi construct in the seeds of Pusa-16 soybean cultivar. We subsequently conducted a genotypic, phenotypic and biochemical analysis of the developed putative transgenic populations and found very low phytic acid levels, moderate accumulation of inorganic phosphate and elevated mineral content in some lines. These low phytic acid lines did not show any reduction in seedling emergence and displayed an overall good agronomic performance.

  3. Cell wall canals formed upon growth of Candida maltosa in the presence of hexadecane are associated with polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonarev, Anton N; Crowley, David E; Ryazanova, Lubov P; Lichko, Lydia P; Rusakova, Tatiana G; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana V; Dmitriev, Vladimir V

    2017-05-01

    Canals are supramolecular complexes observed in the cell wall of Candida maltosa grown in the presence of hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Such structures were not observed in glucose-grown cells. Microscopic observations of cells stained with diaminobenzidine revealed the presence of oxidative enzymes in the canals. 4΄,6΄-diamino-2-phenylindole staining revealed that a substantial part of cellular polyphosphate was present in the cell wall of cells grown on hexadecane in condition of phosphate limitation. The content and chain length of polyphosphates were higher in hexadecane-grown cells than in glucose grown ones. The treatment of cells with yeast polyphosphatase PPX1 resulted in the decrease of the canal size. These data clearly indicated that polyphosphates are constituents of canals; they might play an important role in the canal structure and functioning. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Biological Apatite Formed from Polyphosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase May Exchange Oxygen Isotopes from Water through Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Stanley, S. Y.; Gorelikov, I.; Matsuura, N.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition in bone mineral phosphate is known to reflect the local water composition, environmental humidity, and diet1. Once ingested, biochemical processes presumably equilibrate PO43- with "body water" by the many biochemical reactions involving PO43- 2. Blake et al. demonstrated that enzymatic release of PO43- from organophosphorus compounds, and microbial metabolism of dissolved orthophosphate, significantly exchange the oxygen in precipitated apatite within environmental water3,4, which otherwise does not exchange with water at low temperatures. One of the enzymes that can cleave phosphates from organic substrates is alkaline phosphastase5, the enzyme also associated with bone mineralization. The literature often states that the mineral in bone in hydroxylapatite, however the mineral in bone is carbonated apatite that also contains some fluoride6. Deprotonation of HPO32- occurs at pH 12, which is impossibly high for biological system, and the predominate carbonate species in solution at neutral pH is HCO3-. To produce an apatite mineral without a significant hydroxyl content, it is possible that apatite biomineralization occurs through a polyphosphate pathway, where the oxygen atom required to transform polyphosphate into individual phosphate ions is from carbonate: [PO3-]n + CO32- -> [PO3-]n-1 + PO43- + CO2. Alkaline phosphatase can depolymerise polyphosphate into orthophosphate5. If alkaline phosphatase cleaves an oxygen atom from a calcium-carbonate complex, then there is no requirement for removing a hydrogen atom from the HCO3- or HPO43- ions of body water to form bioapatite. A mix of 1 mL of 1 M calcium polyphosphate hydogel, or nano-particles of calcium polyphosphate, and amorphous calcium carbonate were reacted with alkaline phosphatase, and maintained at neutral to basic pH. After two weeks, carbonated apatite and other calcium phosphate minerals were identified by powder x-ray diffraction. Orthophosphate and unreacted

  5. Characterization of mercury bioremediation by transgenic bacteria expressing metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ruiz Gloriene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of transgenic bacteria has been proposed as a suitable alternative for mercury remediation. Ideally, mercury would be sequestered by metal-scavenging agents inside transgenic bacteria for subsequent retrieval. So far, this approach has produced limited protection and accumulation. We report here the development of a transgenic system that effectively expresses metallothionein (mt-1 and polyphosphate kinase (ppk genes in bacteria in order to provide high mercury resistance and accumulation. Results In this study, bacterial transformation with transcriptional and translational enhanced vectors designed for the expression of metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase provided high transgene transcript levels independent of the gene being expressed. Expression of polyphosphate kinase and metallothionein in transgenic bacteria provided high resistance to mercury, up to 80 μM and 120 μM, respectively. Here we show for the first time that metallothionein can be efficiently expressed in bacteria without being fused to a carrier protein to enhance mercury bioremediation. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry analyzes revealed that the mt-1 transgenic bacteria accumulated up to 100.2 ± 17.6 μM of mercury from media containing 120 μM Hg. The extent of mercury remediation was such that the contaminated media remediated by the mt-1 transgenic bacteria supported the growth of untransformed bacteria. Cell aggregation, precipitation and color changes were visually observed in mt-1 and ppk transgenic bacteria when these cells were grown in high mercury concentrations. Conclusion The transgenic bacterial system described in this study presents a viable technology for mercury bioremediation from liquid matrices because it provides high mercury resistance and accumulation while inhibiting elemental mercury volatilization. This is the first report that shows that metallothionein expression provides mercury resistance and

  6. Aluminium trihydroxide in combination with ammonium polyphosphate as flame retardants for unsaturated polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and reaction to fire characteristics of a flame retardant unsaturated polyester (UP ternary system are presented here. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed an improved thermal stability between 200–600°C with the addition of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and aluminium trihydroxide (ATH formulation. Cone calorimetry tests indicated that ATH is more efficient than calcium carbonate at delaying the ignition time, lowering the carbon monoxide yield and lowering the peak heat release (PHRR. However the addition of APP and ATH to the formulation failed to demonstrate any significant synergistic effect at reducing the PHRR.

  7. 3D printing of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Calcium-polyphosphate microparticles encapsulated by polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shunfeng; Steffen, Renate; Ackermann, Maximilian; Haep, Natalie D; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2017-12-01

    Here we describe the formulation of a morphogenetically active bio-ink consisting of amorphous microparticles (MP) prepared from Ca 2+ and the physiological inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP). Those MP had been fortified by mixing with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) to allow 3D-bioprinting. The resulting granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material, liquefied by short-time heating to 100 °C, was used for the 3D-printing of tissue-like scaffolds formed by strands with a thickness of 400 µm and a stacked architecture leaving ≈0.5 mm 2 -sized open holes enabling cell migration. The printed composite scaffold turned out to combine suitable biomechanical properties (Young's modulus of 1.60 ± 0.1 GPa; Martens hardness of 153 ± 28 MPa), matching those of cortical and trabecular bone, with morphogenetic activity. This scaffold was capable of attracting and promoting the growth of human bone-related SaOS-2 cells as demonstrated by staining for cell viability (Calcein AM), cell density (DRAQ5) and SEM studies. Furthermore, the hybrid material was demonstrated to upregulate the steady-state-expression of the cell migration-inducing chemokine SDF-1α. EDX analysis and FTIR measurements revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the mineral deposits formed on the scaffold surface. Based on the results we conclude that granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material is suitable for the fabrication of bioprintable scaffold which comprises not only biomechanical stability but also morphogenetic potential. In present-day regenerative engineering efforts, biomaterial- and cell-based strategies are proposed that meet the required functional and spatial characteristics and variations, especially in the transition regions between soft (cartilage, tendon or ligament) and hard (bone) tissues. In a biomimetic approach we succeeded to fabricate amorphous Ca-polyP nanoparticles/microparticles which are highly biocompatible. Together with polycaprolactone (PCL), polyP can be

  8. Investigation of lanthanum- and neodymium ion interaction with potassium polyphosphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhova, Zh.A.; Tananaev, I.V.; Koval', E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the interaction in the LaCl 3 -KPO 3 -H 2 O and NdCl 3 -KPO 3 -H 2 O systems at 0 deg C by methods of solubility of residual concentrations and measurement of the pH value. The formation of binary KLa 2 (PO 3 ) 7 x10H 2 O and KLa(PO 3 ) 4 X5H 2 O lanthanum- and potassium polyphosphates, as well as KNd 2 (PO 3 ) 7 X10H 2 O and KNd(PO 3 ) 4 X5H 2 O neodymium- apd potassiUm polyphasphates was established. Chemical, paper-chromatographic, infrared spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses of the prepared compoUnds were conducted. Anhydrous binary lanthanum- and neodymium polyphosphates with potassium-=Kla(PO 3 ) 4 , KNd(PO 3 ) 4 , KLa 2 (PO 3 ) 7 and KNd 2 x(PO 3 ) 7 - eere prepared

  9. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen [Department of Aviation Mechanical Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu County, 303, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang [Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Tainan, 744, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jia-Ming [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chin-Lung, E-mail: dragon@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  10. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  11. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen; Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang; Yang, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  12. In situ identification of polyphosphate- and polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating traits for microbial populations in a biological phosphorus removal process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.-T.; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Wu, JH

    2001-01-01

    , electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was used to validate the staining specificity of 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for intracellular polyphosphate and revealed the composition of polyphosphate granules accumulated in predominant bacteria as mostly P, Ca and Na. As a result, DAPI......, one novel rod-shaped group, closely related to coccus-shaped Tetrasphaera, and one filamentous group resembling Candidatus Nostocoidia limicola in the HGC group were found to accumulate polyphosphate but not PHA, No cellular inclusions were detected in most members of the alpha -Proteobacteria...

  13. Rebalancing β-Amyloid-Induced Decrease of ATP Level by Amorphous Nano/Micro Polyphosphate: Suppression of the Neurotoxic Effect of Amyloid β-Protein Fragment 25-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Morbus Alzheimer neuropathology is characterized by an impaired energy homeostasis of brain tissue. We present an approach towards a potential therapy of Alzheimer disease based on the high-energy polymer inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, which physiologically occurs both in the extracellular and in the intracellular space. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12 cells, as well as rat primary cortical neurons were exposed to the Alzheimer peptide Aβ25-35. They were incubated in vitro with polyphosphate (polyP; ortho-phosphate was used as a control. The polymer remained as Na+ salt; or complexed in a stoichiometric ratio to Ca2+ (Na-polyP[Ca2+]; or was processed as amorphous Ca-polyP microparticles (Ca-polyP-MP. Ortho-phosphate was fabricated as crystalline Ca-phosphate nanoparticles (Ca-phosphate-NP. We show that the pre-incubation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons with polyP protects the cells against the neurotoxic effect of the Alzheimer peptide Aβ25-35. The strongest effect was observed with amorphous polyP microparticles (Ca-polyP-MP. The effect of the soluble sodium salt; Na-polyP (Na-polyP[Ca2+] was lower; while crystalline orthophosphate nanoparticles (Ca-phosphate-NP were ineffective. Ca-polyP-MP microparticles and Na-polyP[Ca2+] were found to markedly enhance the intracellular ATP level. Pre-incubation of Aβ25-35 during aggregate formation, with the polyP preparation before exposure of the cells, had a small effect on neurotoxicity. We conclude that recovery of the compromised energy status in neuronal cells by administration of nontoxic biodegradable Ca-salts of polyP reverse the β-amyloid-induced decrease of adenosine triphosphate (ATP level. This study contributes to a new routes for a potential therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology.

  14. Decreased bone uptake of technetium-99m polyphosphate in thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, V.A.; Jacobstein, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Bone scans were performed with Tc-99m stannous polyphosphate on four patients with thalassemia major. Three of the scans show generalized decrease in skeletal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, associated with renal enlargement and markedly increased renal radioactivity. The skeletal findings are consistent with the known bone abnormalities in thalassemia major, which are secondary to the extensive marrow hyperplasia and include loss of trabeculae and cortical thinning with consequent loss of bone mass. The increased renal uptake is probably due in part to the increased renal excretion (secondary to the poor bone uptake) and in part to the tubular dilatation and renal enlargement associated with thalassemia major. In addition, the presence of excessive amounts of iron in these patients may play a role in both the skeletal and renal findings

  15. Spores of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae host yeasts that solubilize phosphate and accumulate polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal Alonso, Loreli; Kleiner, Diethelm; Ortega, Eduardo

    2008-04-01

    The present paper reports the presence of bacteria and yeasts tightly associated with spores of an isolate of Glomus mosseae. Healthy spores were surface disinfected by combining chloramine-T 5%, Tween-40, and cephalexin 2.5 g L(-1) (CTCf). Macerates of these spores were incubated on agar media, microorganisms were isolated, and two yeasts were characterized (EndoGm1, EndoGm11). Both yeasts were able to solubilize low-soluble P sources (Ca and Fe phosphates) and accumulate polyphosphates (polyPs). Sequence analysis of 18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid showed that the yeasts belong to the genera Rhodotorula or Rhodosporidium (EndoGm1) and Cryptococcus (EndoGm11). Results from inoculation experiments showed an effect of the spore-associated yeasts on the root growth of rice, suggesting potential tripartite interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and plants.

  16. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  17. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  18. Distributions and activities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and polyphosphate accumulating organisms in a pumped-flow biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxue; Nielsen, Michael; Sorensen, Ketil; Zhan, Xinmin; Rodgers, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The spatial distributions and activities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) were investigated for a novel laboratory-scale sequencing batch pumped-flow biofilm reactor (PFBR) system that was operated for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The PFBR comprised of two 16.5l tanks (Reactors 1 and 2), each with a biofilm module of 2m(2) surface area. To facilitate the growth of AOB and PAOs in the reactor biofilms, the influent wastewater was held in Reactor 1 under stagnant un-aerated conditions for 6 h after feeding, and was then pumped over and back between Reactors 1 and 2 for 12 h, creating aerobic conditions in the two reactors during this period; as a consequence, the biofilm in Reactor 2 was in an aerobic environment for almost all the 18.2 h operating cycle. A combination of micro-sensor measurements, molecular techniques, batch experiments and reactor studies were carried out to analyse the performance of the PFBR system. After 100 days operation at a filtered chemical oxygen demand (COD(f)) loading rate of 3.46 g/m(2) per day, the removal efficiencies were 95% COD(f), 87% TN(f) and 74% TP(f). While the PFBR microbial community structure and function were found to be highly diversified with substantial AOB and PAO populations, about 70% of the phosphorus release potential and almost 100% of the nitrification potential were located in Reactors 1 and 2, respectively. Co-enrichment of AOB and PAOs was realized in the Reactor 2 biofilm, where molecular analyses revealed unexpected microbial distributions at micro-scale, with population peaks of AOB in a 100-250 microm deep sub-surface zone and of PAOs in the 0-150 microm surface zone. The micro-distribution of AOB coincided with the position of the nitrification peak identified during micro-sensor analyses. The study demonstrates that enrichment of PAOs can be realized in a constant or near constant aerobic biofilm environment. Furthermore, the findings suggest

  19. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  20. Enhancement of Wound Healing in Normal and Diabetic Mice by Topical Application of Amorphous Polyphosphate. Superior Effect of a Host–Guest Composite Material Composed of Collagen (Host and Polyphosphate (Guest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E.G. Müller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyphosphate (polyP microparticles on wound healing was tested both in vitro and in a mice model in vivo. Two approaches were used: pure salts of polyphosphate, fabricated as amorphous microparticles (MPs, consisting of calcium and magnesium salts of polyP, “Ca–polyp-MPs” and “Mg–polyp-MPs”, and host–guest composite particles, prepared from amorphous collagen (host and polyphosphate (guest, termed “col/polyp-MPs”. Animal experiments with polyP on healing of excisional wounds were performed using both normal mice and diabetic mice. After a healing period of 7 days “Ca–polyp-MP” significantly improved re-epithelialization in normal mice from 31% (control to 72% (polyP microparticle-treated. Importantly, in diabetic mice, particularly the host–guest particles “col/polyp-MP”, increased the rate of re-epithelialization to ≈40% (control, 23%. In addition, those particles increased the expression of COL-I and COL-III as well as the expression the α-smooth muscle actin and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. We propose that “Ca–polyp-MPs”, and particularly the host–guest “col/polyp-MPs” are useful for topical treatment of wounds.

  1. Polyphosphates as a source of enhanced P fluxes in marine sediments overlain by anoxic waters: Evidence from 31P NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingall Ellery

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary phosphorus (P composition was investigated in Effingham Inlet, a fjord located on the west coast of Vancouver Island in Barkley Sound. Solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to demineralized sediment samples from sites overlain by oxic and anoxic bottom waters. The two sites were similar in terms of key diagenetic parameters, including the mass accumulation rate, integrated sulfate reduction rate, and bulk sediment organic carbon content. In contrast, P benthic fluxes were much higher at the anoxic site. 31P NMR results show that P esters and phosphonates are the major organic P species present at the surface and at depth in sediments at both sites. Polyphosphates were only found in the surface sediment of the site overlain by oxic waters. The varying stability of polyphosphates in microorganisms under different redox conditions may, in part, explain their distribution as well as differences in P flux between the two sites.

  2. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  3. Studies on the flammability of polypropylene/ammonium polyphosphate and montmorillonite by using the cone calorimeter test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna A.A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire performance of polypropylene (PP containing different percentages of ammonium polyphosphate (APP with montmorillonite (Mt or treated montmorillonite (MtT was carried out by using the cone calorimeter test (CCT. Different samples from ammonium polyphosphate and montmorillonite were mixed with 90% polypropylene. The characterization of the prepared samples indicates that there is incorporation between the components of the samples. Heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (PHRR, average heat release rate (Av-HRR, and time to ignition (TTI of the samples were obtained from the cone calorimeter test. Also, the fire performance index (FPI and the fire growth rate (FIGRA were calculated. The interpretation of the curves and the parameters results from the cone calorimeter test which indicates that the addition of montmorillonite to APP increases its action as a flame retardant for PP. Moreover, the samples contain acid treatment montmorillonite showed an increase in the efficiency of ammonium polyphosphate when used. This result may be due to an increase in the SiO2 content by acid treatment.

  4. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  5. Thorium inorganic gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.; Brandel, V.

    1988-01-01

    The optimum pH and concentration values of thorium salts and oxoacids or oxoacid salts which lead to transparent and stable inorganic gels have been determined. The isotherm drying process of the gel at 50 0 C leads successively to a partly dehydrated gel, then, to the formation of an unusual liquid phase and, finally to a dry amorphous solid phase which is still transparent. This kind of transparent inorganic gels and amorphous phase can be used as matrices for spectroscopic studies [fr

  6. Experimental Plan: 300 Area Treatability Test: In Situ Treatment of the Vadose Zone and Smear Zone Uranium Contamination by Polyphosphate Infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Oostrom, Mart; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The overall objectives of the treatability test is to evaluate and optimize polyphosphate remediation technology for infiltration either from ground surface, or some depth of excavation, providing direct stabilization of uranium within the deep vadose and capillary fringe above the 300 Area aquifer. Expected result from this experimental plan is a data package that includes: (1) quantification of the retardation of polyphosphate, (2) the rate of degradation and the retardation of degradation products as a function of water content, (3) an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, (4) an understanding of the transformation mechanism, identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, (5) quantification of the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and capillary fringe, and (6) quantification of reliable equilibrium solubility values for autunite under hydraulically unsaturated conditions allowing accurate prediction of the long-term stability of autunite. Moreover, results of intermediate scale testing will quantify the transport of polyphosphate and degradation products, and yield degradation rates, at a scale that is bridging the gap between the small-scale UFA studies and the field scale. These results will be used to test and verify a site-specific, variable saturation, reactive transport model and to aid in the design of a pilot-scale field test of this technology. In particular, the infiltration approach and monitoring strategy of the pilot test would be primarily based on results from intermediate-scale testing. Results from this

  7. The application of synthetic inorganic ion exchangers to analytical chemistry, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuo

    1974-01-01

    Regarding acidic salts, description is made on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals and each of zirconium salts, titanium salts, stannic salts, cerium salts, thorium salts, chromium salts, and others. On heteropolyacid salts, ammonium 12-molybdophosphated and phosphorus wolframate are described. On insoluble ferrocyanides, the behaviour of various complex salts is explained. In the discussion on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals, the ideality of ion exchange, the stability and solubility of the acidic salts, thermal stability and radiation resistance, the ion sieving effect of various acidic salts, and the selectivity of the acidic salts are stated. Zirconium gives a number of acidic salts, such as zirconium phosphate, crystalline zirconium phosphate, zirconium phrophosphate, various polyphosphates of zirconium, zirconium phosphate-silicate, zirconium arsenate, zirconium antimonate, zirconium molybdate, zirconium tungstate, etc. Useful titanium salts for ion exchange are titanium phosphate, titanium aresenate, titanium antimonate, titanium tungstate, titanium molybdate, titanium vanadate, and titanium selenate. The distribution coefficients of metal ions, inorganic-separation of various inorganic ion exchangers, the exchange characteristics of various elements on various ion exchangers, and the selectivity of various inorganic ion-exchangers are tabulated. (Fukutomi, T.)

  8. Fire Performance of Plywood Treated with Ammonium Polyphosphate and 4A Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plywood samples treated with ammonium polyphosphate (APP and 4A zeolite were prepared to investigate the effect of zeolite on wood’s burning behavior using a cone calorimeter under a heat flux of 35 kW/m2. Results showed that APP decreased the heat release rate (HRR, total heat release (THR, and mass loss rate (MLR of treated plywood. However, APP significantly increased the total smoke release (TSR and carbon monoxide (CO yield. The addition of 4A zeolite reduced the HRR, peak HRR, and THR of the plywood treated with only APP. The second HRR peak in a typical plywood curve diminished with the addition of as little as 2% 4A zeolite. The average specific extinction area (ASEA and CO yield decreased significantly with the presence of zeolite in the APP. The ignition time did not change significantly and the TSR increased when zeolite was present. Thus, a suitable amount of 4A zeolite works synergistically with APP in promoting flame retardancy in flame retardant plywood.

  9. Brownian motion of polyphosphate complexes in yeast vacuoles: characterization by fluorescence microscopy with image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchkov, Evgeny O

    2010-06-01

    In the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, vividly moving insoluble polyphosphate complexes (IPCs) movement of the IPCs and to evaluate the viscosity in the vacuoles using the obtained data. Studies were conducted on S. cerevisiae cells stained by DAPI and fluorescein isothyocyanate-labelled latex microspheres, using fluorescence microscopy combined with computer image analysis (ImageJ software, NIH, USA). IPC movement was photorecorded and shown to be Brownian motion. On latex microspheres, a methodology was developed for measuring a fluorescing particle's two-dimensional (2D) displacements and its size. In four yeast cells, the 2D displacements and sizes of the IPCs were evaluated. Apparent viscosity values in the vacuoles of the cells, computed by the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation using the obtained data, were found to be 2.16 +/- 0.60, 2.52 +/- 0.63, 3.32 +/- 0.9 and 11.3 +/- 1.7 cP. The first three viscosity values correspond to 30-40% glycerol solutions. The viscosity value of 11.3 +/- 1.7 cP was supposed to be an overestimation, caused by the peculiarities of the vacuole structure and/or volume in this particular cell. This conclusion was supported by the particular quality of the Brownian motion trajectories set in this cell as compared to the other three cells.

  10. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results

  11. Suppressive effects of lysozyme on polyphosphate-mediated vascular inflammatory responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jiwoo [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Sae-Kwang [Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suyeon [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong-Sup, E-mail: baejs@knu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-10

    Lysozyme, found in relatively high concentration in blood, saliva, tears, and milk, protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection. Previous studies have reported proinflammatory responses of endothelial cells to the release of polyphosphate(PolyP). In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of lysozyme and its effects on PolyP-induced septic activities in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. The survival rates, septic biomarker levels, behavior of human neutrophils, and vascular permeability were determined in PolyP-activated HUVECs and mice. Lysozyme suppressed the PolyP-mediated vascular barrier permeability, upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers, adhesion/migration of leukocytes, and activation and/or production of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, lysozyme demonstrated protective effects on PolyP-mediated lethal death and the levels of the related septic biomarkers. Therefore, these results indicated the therapeutic potential of lysozyme on various systemic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis or septic shock. -- Highlights: •PolyP is shown to be an important mediator of vascular inflammation. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated hyperpermeability. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated septic response. •Lysozyme reduced PolyP-induced septic mortality.

  12. Polyphosphate present in DNA preparations from fungal species of Collectotrichum inhibits restriction endonucleases and other enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    During the development of a procedure for the isolation of total genomic DNA from filamentous fungi (Rodriguez, R. J., and Yoder, 0. C., Exp. Mycol. 15, 232-242, 1991) a cell fraction was isolated which inhibited the digestion of DNA by restriction enzymes. After elimination of DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids, the active compound was purified by gel filtration to yield a single fraction capable of complete inhibition of restriction enzyme activity. The inhibitor did not absorb uv light above 220 nm, and was resistant to alkali and acid at 25°C and to temperatures as high as 100°C. More extensive analyses demonstrated that the inhibitor was also capable of inhibiting T4 DNA ligase and TaqI DNA polymerase, but not DNase or RNase. Chemical analyses indicated that the inhibitor was devoid of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids but rich in phosphorus. A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, metachromatic shift of toluidine blue, and gel filtration indicated that the inhibitor was a polyphosphate (polyP) containing approximately 60 phosphate molecules. The mechanism of inhibition appeared to involve complexing of polyP to the enzymatic proteins. All species of Colletotrichum analyzed produced polyP equivalent in chain length and concentration. A modification to the original DNA extraction procedure is described which eliminates polyP and reduces the time necessary to obtain DNA of sufficient purity for restriction enzyme digestion and TaqI polymerase amplification.

  13. Decreasing extracellular Na+ concentration triggers inositol polyphosphate production and Ca2+ mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.B.; Dwyer, S.D.; Smith, L.

    1989-01-01

    Removing extracellular Na+ (Na+o) evoked a large increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in human skin fibroblasts. Decreasing [Na+]o from 120 to 14 mM caused the half-maximal peak increase in [Ca2+]i. Removing Na+o strongly stimulated 45 Ca2+ efflux and decreased total cell Ca2+ by about 40%. Bradykinin caused changes in [Ca2+]i, total Ca2+, and 45 Ca2+ fluxes similar to those evoked by removing Na+o. Prior stimulation of the cells with bradykinin prevented Na+o removal from increasing [Ca2+]i and vice versa. Na+o removal rapidly increased [ 3 H]inositol polyphosphate production. Loading the cells with Na+ had no effect on the increase in 45 Ca2+ efflux produced by Na+o removal. Therefore, decreasing [Na+]o probably stimulates a receptor(s) which is sensitive to extracellular, not intracellular, Na+. Removing Na+o also mobilized intracellular Ca2+ in smooth muscle and endothelial cells cultured from human umbilical and dog coronary arteries, respectively

  14. A novel surface modification on calcium polyphosphate scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, S.-M.; Liu, C.-K.; Huang, T.-J.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of porous three-dimensional (3D) calcium polyphosphate (CPP) scaffold was modified by treatment of quenching-after-sintering in the fabrication process. Scanning electron microscopic examination and degradation tests confirmed a new type of surface modification. A rotary-shaking culture was compared to that of a stationary culture and the results showed that rotary shaking led to enhanced extracellular matrices (ECM) secretion of both proteoglycans and collagen. Rotary-shaking cultured results showed that the quenching-treated CPP scaffold produced a better cartilage tissue, with both proteoglycans and collagen secretions enhanced, than the air-cooled-after-sintering scaffolds. Moreover, β-CPP scaffolds were better for the ECM secretion of both proteoglycans and collagen than the β-CPP + γ-CPP multiphase scaffold. However, the multiphase scaffold led to higher growth rate than that of β-CPP scaffold; the quenching-after-sintering treatment reversed this. In addition, the ECM secretions of both proteoglycans and collagen in the quenching-treated β-CPP scaffold were higher than those in the air-cooled one. Thus, the novel treatment of quenching-after-sintering has shown merits to the porous 3D CPP scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering

  15. Caveats in studies of the physiological role of polyphosphates in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Ramström, Sofia; Boknäs, Niklas; Faxälv, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Platelet-derived polyphosphates (polyP), stored in dense granule and released upon platelet activation, have been claimed to enhance thrombin activation of coagulation factor XI (FXI) and to activate FXII directly. The latter claim is controversial and principal results leading to these conclusions are probably influenced by methodological problems. It is important to consider that low-grade contact activation is initiated by all surfaces and is greatly amplified by the presence of phospholipids simulating the procoagulant membranes of activated platelets. Thus, proper use of inhibitors of the contact pathway and a careful choice of materials for plates and tubes is important to avoid artefacts. The use of phosphatases used to degrade polyP has an important drawback as it also degrades the secondary activators ADP and ATP, which are released from activated platelets. In addition, the use of positively charged inhibitors, such as polymyxin B, to inhibit polyP in platelet-rich plasma and blood is problematic, as polymyxin B also slows coagulation in the absence of polyP. In conclusion we hope awareness of the above caveats may improve research on the physiological roles of polyP in coagulation. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Filled Polypropylene (PP) Containing Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atikah Ismail; Azman Hassan; Aznizam Abu Bakar; Jawaid, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as flame retardant and kenaf as fillers on flammability, thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were determined. Test specimens were prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder for the compounding process followed by injection molding. The flame retardancy of the composites was determined by using limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Addition of flame retardant into kenaf-PP composites significantly increased the LOI values that indicated the improvement of flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis was done to examine the thermal stability of the composites. The addition of kenaf fiber in PP composites decreased the thermal stability significantly but the influence of APP on thermal properties of the kenaf-filled PP composites was not significant. The flexural strength and modulus of composites increased with the addition of APP into kenaf filled PP composite. The addition of APP into kenaf filled PP causes increase in the impact strength while increasing the APP content in the kenaf filled PP composite show decrease in impact strength. (author)

  17. Suppressive effects of lysozyme on polyphosphate-mediated vascular inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jiwoo; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, Suyeon; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Lysozyme, found in relatively high concentration in blood, saliva, tears, and milk, protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection. Previous studies have reported proinflammatory responses of endothelial cells to the release of polyphosphate(PolyP). In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of lysozyme and its effects on PolyP-induced septic activities in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. The survival rates, septic biomarker levels, behavior of human neutrophils, and vascular permeability were determined in PolyP-activated HUVECs and mice. Lysozyme suppressed the PolyP-mediated vascular barrier permeability, upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers, adhesion/migration of leukocytes, and activation and/or production of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, lysozyme demonstrated protective effects on PolyP-mediated lethal death and the levels of the related septic biomarkers. Therefore, these results indicated the therapeutic potential of lysozyme on various systemic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis or septic shock. -- Highlights: •PolyP is shown to be an important mediator of vascular inflammation. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated hyperpermeability. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated septic response. •Lysozyme reduced PolyP-induced septic mortality.

  18. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  19. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  20. Inositol Polyphosphate Multikinase Inhibits Angiogenesis via Inositol Pentakisphosphate-Induced HIF-1α Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chenglai; Tyagi, Richa; Chin, Alfred C; Rojas, Tomas; Li, Ruo-Jing; Guha, Prasun; Bernstein, Isaac A; Rao, Feng; Xu, Risheng; Cha, Jiyoung Y; Xu, Jing; Snowman, Adele M; Semenza, Gregg L; Snyder, Solomon H

    2018-02-02

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) and its major product inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5) regulate a variety of cellular functions, but their role in vascular biology remains unexplored. We have investigated the role of IPMK in regulating angiogenesis. Deletion of IPMK in fibroblasts induces angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. IPMK deletion elicits a substantial increase of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), which mediates the regulation of angiogenesis by IPMK. The regulation of VEGF by IPMK requires its catalytic activity. IPMK is predominantly nuclear and regulates gene transcription. However, IPMK does not apparently serve as a transcription factor for VEGF. HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1α is a major determinant of angiogenesis and induces VEGF transcription. IPMK deletion elicits a major enrichment of HIF-1α protein and thus VEGF. HIF-1α is constitutively ubiquitinated by pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) followed by proteasomal degradation under normal conditions. However, HIF-1α is not recognized and ubiquitinated by pVHL in IPMK KO (knockout) cells. IP5 reinstates the interaction of HIF-1α and pVHL. HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which is prerequisite for pVHL recognition, is interrupted in IPMK-deleted cells. IP5 promotes HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation and thus pVHL-dependent degradation of HIF-1α. Deletion of IPMK in mouse brain increases HIF-1α/VEGF levels and vascularization. The increased VEGF in IPMK KO disrupts blood-brain barrier and enhances brain blood vessel permeability. IPMK, via its product IP5, negatively regulates angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF expression. IP5 acts by enhancing HIF-1α hydroxylation and thus pVHL-dependent degradation of HIF-1α. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. In Vitro Effects of Polyphosphate against Prevotella intermedia in Planktonic Phase and Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Young; Kim, Minjung; Noh, Mi Hee; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) has gained a wide interest in the food industry due to its potential as a decontaminating agent. In this study, we examined the effect of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3; Na5P3O10) against planktonic and biofilm cells of Prevotella intermedia, a major oral pathogen. The MIC of polyP3 against P. intermedia ATCC 49046 determined by agar dilution method was 0.075%, while 0.05% polyP3 was bactericidal against P. intermedia in time-kill analysis performed using liquid medium. A crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that sub-MICs of polyP3 significantly decreased biofilm formation. Under the scanning electron microscope, decreased numbers of P. intermedia cells forming the biofilms were observed when the bacterial cells were incubated with 0.025% or higher concentrations of polyP3. Assessment of biofilm viability with LIVE/DEAD staining and viable cell count methods showed that 0.05% or higher concentrations of polyP3 significantly decreased the viability of the preformed biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. The zone sizes of alpha-hemolysis formed on horse blood agar produced by P. intermedia were decreased in the presence of polyP3. The expression of the genes encoding hemolysins and the genes of the hemin uptake (hmu) locus was downregulated by polyP3. Collectively, our results show that polyP is an effective antimicrobial agent against P. intermedia in biofilms as well as planktonic phase, interfering with the process of hemin acquisition by the bacterium. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Involvement of polyphosphate kinase in virulence and stress tolerance of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Jiang, Qiao; Pan, Jia-Yun; Deng, Cong; Yu, Jing-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Sheng-He; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), a gram-negative enteric bacterium, frequently causes urinary tract infections. Many virulence factors of uropathogenic P. mirabilis have been identified, including urease, flagella, hemolysin and fimbriae. However, the functions of polyphosphate kinase (PPK), which are related to the pathogenicity of many bacteria, remain entirely unknown in P. mirabilis. In this study, a ppk gene encoding the PPK insertional mutant in P. mirabilis strain HI4320 was constructed, and its biological functions were examined. The results of survival studies demonstrated that the ppk mutant was deficient in resistance to oxidative, hyperosmotic and heat stress. The swarming and biofilm formation abilities of P. mirabilis were also attenuated after the ppk interruption. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that ppk was required for P. mirabilis to invade the bladder. The negative phenotypes of the ppk mutant could be restored by ppk gene complementation. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteomes of the wild-type strain and the ppk mutant. Compared with the wild-type strain, seven proteins including TonB-dependent receptor, universal stress protein G, major mannose-resistant/Proteus-like fimbrial protein (MR/P fimbriae), heat shock protein, flagellar capping protein, putative membrane protein and multidrug efflux protein were down-regulated, and four proteins including exported peptidase, repressor protein for FtsI, FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and phosphotransferase were up-regulated in the ppk mutant. As a whole, these results indicate that PPK is an important regulator and plays a crucial role in stress tolerance and virulence in uropathogenic P. mirabilis.

  3. Combination effect of melamine polyphosphate and graphene on flame retardant properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guobo; Liang Huading; Wang Yong; Wang Xu; Gao Jianrong; Fei Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PVA/graphene/MPP composites were prepared by solvent blending. ► PVA/graphene systems improved the flame retardancy of the nanocomposites. ► Flame retardation mechanism was explained by SEM, FT-IR and XPS. - Abstract: A novel flame retardant poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/melamine polyphosphate (MPP)–graphene nanocomposite has been prepared by solvent blending. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggest that an excellent dispersion of exfoliated graphene and MPP in the PVA matrix was achieved. The thermal and flammability properties of the nanocomposite were investigated using thermogravimetry, cone calorimetry, and flammability tests (UL 94 and LOI). The presence of both MPP and graphene in the polymer matrix led to an enhanced thermal stability and significantly reduced flammability for the nanocomposite. PVA composites filled with 10 wt% MPP and 1 wt% graphene (PVA/G1/MPP10) achieved the LOI value of 29.6 and UL-94 V0 grade. Compared to pure PVA, the peak heat release rate (PHRR) of PVA/G1/MPP10 is reduced by about 60%. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of PVA/G1/MPP10 composites exhibit almost no deterioration compared with pure PVA. The morphology and composition of residues generated after cone calorimeter tests were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images showed the compact and dense intumescent char jammed with graphene sheets was formed for PVA/G1/MPP10 during combustion. The results of XPS confirmed that carbon content of the char for PVA/G1/MPP10 is increased obviously by the combination effect of the flame retardant MPP and graphene.

  4. Linear-to-λ-Shape P-O-P Bond Transmutation in Polyphosphates with Infinite (PO3)∞ Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Lin; Han, Shujuan; Lei, Bing-Hua; Abudoureheman, Maierhaba; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-09-05

    A new metal polyphosphate, α-CsBa 2 (PO 3 ) 5 , exhibiting the first example of a linear P-O-P bond angle in a one-dimensional (PO 3 ) ∞ chain has been reported. Interestingly, α → β phase transition occurs in CsBa 2 (PO 3 ) 5 along with the P-O-P bonds varying from linear to λ-shape, suggesting that α-CsBa 2 (PO 3 ) 5 with unfavorable linear P-O-P bonds is more stable at ambient temperature.

  5. Amorphous, Smart, and Bioinspired Polyphosphate Nano/Microparticles: A Biomaterial for Regeneration and Repair of Osteo-Articular Impairments In-Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using femur explants from mice as an in vitro model, we investigated the effect of the physiological polymer, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, on differentiation of the cells of the bone marrow in their natural microenvironment into the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. In the form of amorphous Ca-polyP nano/microparticles, polyP retains its function to act as both an intra- and extracellular metabolic fuel and a stimulus eliciting morphogenetic signals. The method for synthesis of the nano/microparticles with the polyanionic polyP also allowed the fabrication of hybrid particles with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid, a drug used in therapy of bone metastases in cancer patients. The results revealed that the amorphous Ca-polyP particles promote the growth/viability of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of the bone marrow cells in rat femur explants, as revealed by an upregulation of the expression of the transcription factors SOX9 (differentiation towards osteoblasts and RUNX2 (chondrocyte differentiation. In parallel to this bone anabolic effect, incubation of the femur explants with these particles significantly reduced the expression of the gene encoding the osteoclast bone-catabolic enzyme, cathepsin-K, while the expression of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase remained unaffected. The gene expression data were supported by the finding of an increased mineralization of the cells in the femur explants in response to the Ca-polyP particles. Finally, we show that the hybrid particles of polyP complexed with zoledronic acid exhibit both the cytotoxic effect of the bisphosphonate and the morphogenetic and mineralization inducing activity of polyP. Our results suggest that the Ca-polyP nano/microparticles are not only a promising scaffold material for repairing long bone osteo-articular damages but can also be applied, as a hybrid with zoledronic acid, as a drug delivery system for

  6. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  7. Phosphorus recycling from an unexplored source by polyphosphate accumulating microalgae and cyanobacteria – a step to phosphorus security in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan eMukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp. and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  8. Complete Nutrient Removal Coupled to Nitrous Oxide Production as a Bioenergy Source by Denitrifying Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; Liu, Miaomiao; Griffin, James S; Xu, Longcheng; Xiang, Da; Scherson, Yaniv D; Liu, Wen-Tso; Wells, George F

    2017-04-18

    Coupled aerobic-anoxic nitrous decomposition operation (CANDO) is a promising emerging bioprocess for wastewater treatment that enables direct energy recovery from nitrogen (N) in three steps: (1) ammonium oxidation to nitrite; (2) denitrification of nitrite to nitrous oxide (N 2 O); and (3) N 2 O conversion to N 2 with energy generation. However, CANDO does not currently target phosphorus (P) removal. Here, we demonstrate that denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) enrichment cultures are capable of catalyzing simultaneous biological N and P removal coupled to N 2 O generation in a second generation CANDO process, CANDO+P. Over 7 months (>300 cycles) of operation of a prototype lab-scale CANDO+P sequencing batch reactor treating synthetic municipal wastewater, we observed stable and near-complete N removal accompanied by sustained high-rate, high-yield N 2 O production with partial P removal. A substantial increase in abundance of the PAO Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis was observed, increasing from 5% of the total bacterial community in the inoculum to over 50% after 4 months. PAO enrichment was accompanied by a strong shift in the dominant Accumulibacter population from clade IIC to clade IA, based on qPCR monitoring of polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene variants. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of combining high-rate, high-yield N 2 O production for bioenergy production with combined N and P removal from wastewater, and it further suggests a putative denitrifying PAO niche for Accumulibacter clade IA.

  9. Crystal structures and theoretical studies of polyphosphate LiZnP3O9 for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiqing; Su, Xin; Ding, Hanqin; Li, Hongyi

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear optical materials have attracted worldwide attention owing to their wide range of applications, specially in the laser field. Phosphates with noncentrosymmetric structures are potential candidates for novel ultraviolet (UV)-NLO materials, because they usually display short UV cut-off edges. In this work, a polyphosphate, the LiZnP3O9 polyphosphate crystals were grown through spontaneous crystallization from high-temperature melts. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell parameters a = 8.330(3) Å, b = 8.520(3) Å, c = 8.635(3) Å, and Z = 4. In the structure, all the P atoms are coordinated by four oxygen atoms forming the [PO4] tetrahedra and further connected to generate a zig-zag [PO3]∞ anionic framework. Thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum and powder second harmonic generation measurements are performed. In addition, the first-principles calculation was employed for better understanding the structure-property relationships of LiZnP3O9.

  10. Platelet-Derived Short-Chain Polyphosphates Enhance the Inactivation of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor by Activated Coagulation Factor XI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puy

    Full Text Available Factor (F XI supports both normal human hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Activated FXI (FXIa promotes thrombin generation by enzymatic activation of FXI, FIX, FX, and FV, and inactivation of alpha tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPIα, in vitro. Some of these reactions are now known to be enhanced by short-chain polyphosphates (SCP derived from activated platelets. These SCPs act as a cofactor for the activation of FXI and FV by thrombin and FXIa, respectively. Since SCPs have been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant function of TFPIα, we herein investigated whether SCPs could serve as cofactors for the proteolytic inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa, further promoting the efficiency of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation to generate thrombin.Purified soluble SCP was prepared by size-fractionation of sodium polyphosphate. TFPIα proteolysis was analyzed by western blot. TFPIα activity was measured as inhibition of FX activation and activity in coagulation and chromogenic assays. SCPs significantly accelerated the rate of inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa in both purified systems and in recalcified plasma. Moreover, platelet-derived SCP accelerated the rate of inactivation of platelet-derived TFPIα by FXIa. TFPIα activity was not affected by SCP in recalcified FXI-depleted plasma.Our data suggest that SCP is a cofactor for TFPIα inactivation by FXIa, thus, expanding the range of hemostatic FXIa substrates that may be affected by the cofactor functions of platelet-derived SCP.

  11. Dual protection of wood surface treated with melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin mixed with ammonium polyphosphate against both fire and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing-xia Ma; Grant T. Kirker; Ming-liang Jiang; Yu-zhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Surface coatings of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins (MUFs) containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) have been shown to significantly improve the fire retardancy of wood by prolonging the ignition time and reducing the heat release rate, total heat released, and mass loss rate. Dual protection of wood against both decay and fire has been proposed for remedial...

  12. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  13. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-16

    Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 14. No. 9. 1975 Karl 0. Christ¢ (21) L. J. Basile . P. LaBonvillk. J. R. Ferraro, and J. M. Williams. J. Claim. (38) K. 0. Chriae. E... basils of a nonplanar structure of symmetry CI, are revised for six fundamental frequencies. Imalredetle either the 1:2 adduct N 2F4.2SbF5 or the 1:3...8217 in mT are 7 2.1 for B, facility. We aba thank L. K. White and R. L. Belford 111.0 for C, 55.0 for N, and 17100 for F, and the atomic aniso- trop’c

  14. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  15. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  16. Structure determination, electronic and optical properties of rubidium holmium polyphosphate RbHo(PO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wang, Yude; Guan, Hongtao; Xiao, Xuechun

    2012-12-01

    Structural, optical, and electronic properties of a new alkali metal-rare earth polyphosphate, RbHo(PO3)4, have been investigated by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and spectral measurement. RbHo(PO3)4 crystallizes in the monoclinic with space group P21/n and Z = 4. It is described as a three-dimensional (3D) architecture built up of PO4 double spiral chains and HoO8 polyhedra by corner-sharing. The 11-coordinated rubidium atoms are located in infinite tunnels. Additionally, in order to gain further insight into the relationship between property and structure of RbHo(PO3)4, theoretical calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed using the total-energy code CASTEP.

  17. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator for serum response factor-dependent induction of immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Tyagi, Richa; Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Young-ran; Beon, Jiyoon; Chen, Po Yu; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Kim, Seyun

    2013-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a notably pleiotropic protein. It displays both inositol phosphate kinase and phosphatidylinositol kinase catalytic activities. Noncatalytically, IPMK stabilizes the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and acts as a transcriptional coactivator for CREB-binding protein/E1A binding protein p300 and tumor suppressor protein p53. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor for a wide range of immediate early genes. We report that IPMK, in a noncatalytic role, is a transcriptional coactivator for SRF mediating the transcription of immediate early genes. Stimulation by serum of many immediate early genes is greatly reduced by IPMK deletion. IPMK stimulates expression of these genes, an influence also displayed by catalytically inactive IPMK. IPMK acts by binding directly to SRF and thereby enhancing interactions of SRF with the serum response element of diverse genes. PMID:24248338

  18. Process optimization by decoupled control of key microbial populations: distribution of activity and abundance of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and nitrifying populations in a full-scale IFAS-EBPR plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Majed, Nehreen; Schramm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance and distribution of key functional microbial populations and their activities in a full-scale integrated fixed film activated sludgeeenhanced biological phosphorus removal (IFAS-EBPR) process. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) including Accumulibacter...

  19. Probiotic-derived polyphosphate enhances the epithelial barrier function and maintains intestinal homeostasis through integrin-p38 MAPK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Segawa

    Full Text Available Probiotics exhibit beneficial effects on human health, particularly in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis in a complex manner notwithstanding the diversity of an intestinal flora between individuals. Thus, it is highly probable that some common molecules secreted by probiotic and/or commensal bacteria contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protect the intestinal epithelium from injurious stimuli. To address this question, we aimed to isolate the cytoprotective compound from a lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 which possess the ability to induce cytoprotective heat shock proteins in mouse small intestine. L. brevis was incubated in MRS broth and the supernatant was passed through with a 0.2-µm filter. Caco2/bbe cells were treated with the culture supernatant, and HSP27 expression was evaluated by Western blotting. HSP27-inducible components were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and HPLC. Finally, we identified that the HSP27-inducible fraction was polyphosphate (poly P, a simple repeated structure of phosphates, which is a common product of lactobacilli and other bacteria associated with intestinal microflora without any definitive physiological functions. Then, poly P was synthesized by poly P-synthesizing enzyme polyphosphate kinase. The synthesized poly P significantly induced HSP27 from Caco2/BBE cells. In addition, Poly P suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in the mouse small intestine and pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and integrins counteract its protective effect. Daily intrarectal administration of poly P (10 µg improved the inflammation grade and survival rate in 4% sodium dextran sulfate-administered mice. This study, for the first time, demonstrated that poly P is the molecule responsible for maintaining intestinal barrier actions which are mediated through the intestinal integrin β1-p38 MAPK.

  20. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  1. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  2. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  3. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  4. Intraosseous phlebography, intraosseous pressure measurements and sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphate scintigraphy in patients with various painful conditions in the hip and knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldi, C.C.; Djurhuus, J.C.; Heerfordt, J.; Karle, A.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with pain in the knee or hip were examined by means of bilateral intraosseous phlebography, intraosseous pressure measurements and sup(99m) technetium polyphosphate scintigraphy. All patients with typical rest pain - either due to osteoarthritis or to the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome - showed venous statis and increased pressure in the bone marrow near the painful joint and abnormally high uptake of the radiotracer. In patients with other types of pain this correlation was absent. The results indicate that sup(99m)technetium polyphosphate scintigraphy can be used as a screening method in the diagnosis of the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome in patients with a typical history. However, increased isotope uptake in a joint region may be due to a variety of other causes. The identical findings with all three methods of investigation in patients with the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome and osteoarthritis suggest a common pathomechanism. (author)

  5. Improved Prediction of Phosphorus Dynamics in Biotechnological Processes by Considering Precipitation and Polyphosphate Formation: A Case Study on Antibiotic Production with Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürger, Patrick; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey

    2018-01-01

    The multiplicity of physicochemical and biological processes, where phosphorus is involved, makes their accurate prediction using current mathematical models in biotechnology quite a challenge. In this work, an antibiotic production model of Streptomyces coelicolor is chosen as a representative...... approach describing intracellular polyphosphate accumulation and consumption has been developed and implemented. A heuristic re-estimation of selected parameters is carried out to improve overall model performance. The improved process model predicts phosphate dynamics (root mean squared error ≤52h: −90...

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis accompanies enhanced expression of multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1): a possible role for Minpp1 in cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaparty, Surya P; Agarwal, Rakhee; Singh, Pooja; Kannan, Krishnaswamy; Ali, Nawab

    2016-07-01

    Inositol polyphosphates represent a group of differentially phosphorylated inositol metabolites, many of which are implicated to regulate diverse cellular processes such as calcium mobilization, vesicular trafficking, differentiation, apoptosis, etc. The metabolic network of these compounds is complex and tightly regulated by various kinases and phosphatases present predominantly in the cytosol. Multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1) is the only known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal enzyme that hydrolyzes various inositol polyphosphates in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. However, access of the Minpp1 to cytosolic substrates has not yet been demonstrated clearly and hence its physiological function. In this study, we examined a potential role for Minpp1 in ER stress-induced apoptosis. We generated a custom antibody and characterized its specificity to study the expression of Minpp1 protein in multiple mammalian cells under experimentally induced cellular stress conditions. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in the expression of Minpp1 in response to a variety of cellular stress conditions. The protein expression was corroborated with the expression of its mRNA and enzymatic activity. Further, in an attempt to link the role of Minpp1 to apoptotic stress, we studied the effect of Minpp1 expression on apoptosis following silencing of the Minpp1 gene by its specific siRNA. Our results suggest an attenuation of apoptotic parameters following knockdown of Minpp1. Thus, in addition to its known role in inositol polyphosphate metabolism, we have identified a novel role for Minpp1 as a stress-responsive protein. In summary, our results provide, for the first time, a probable link between ER stress-induced apoptosis and Minpp1 expression.

  7. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the influences of. gamma. -ray irradiation upon food additives, (8). Influences of. gamma. -ray irradiation on polyphosphates in aqueous solution and in 'kamaboko'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M; Ishio, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1981-08-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-ray irradiation on polyphosphates in aqueous solution and in ''kamaboko'' was investigated to evaluate the rate of decomposition and to examine the safety of the decomposed products. Tripolyphosphate, pyrophosphate and o-phosphate in aqueous solution were very stable against ..gamma..-ray irradiation, respectively. Tripolyphosphate added to ''surimi'' (minced and washed flesh of Alaska Pollack) completely changed to o-phosphate during the period of processing ''kamaboko'', but pyrophosphate was retained. Pyrophosphate content in ''kamaboko'' decreased in proportion to the dose of ..gamma..-ray. Decreased pyrophosphate was presumed to change into such products as insolubles which can not be extracted with 6% per chloric acid solution. Both tripolyphosphate and pyrophosphate changed enzymatically to o-phosphate. The activity of exopolyphosphatase in ''surimi'' was still retained. Polyphosphates added to ''surimi'' changed completely to o-phosphate during the frozen storage of ''surimi'', therefore, the application of ..gamma..-ray irradiation on ''kamaboko'' was considered not to induce any injurious substances from polyphosphates.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  10. Anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge process as an effective nutrient removal process utilizing denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Naohiro; Kim, Juhyun; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sudo, Ryuichi

    2006-07-01

    In a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, the utilization of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) has many advantages such as effective use of organic carbon substrates and low sludge production. As a suitable process for the utilization of DNPAOs in BNR, an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge (AOAGS) process was proposed in this study. In spite of performing aeration for nitrifying bacteria, the AOAGS process can create anaerobic/anoxic conditions suitable for the cultivation of DNPAOs because anoxic zones exist inside the granular sludge in the oxic phase. Thus, DNPAOs can coexist with nitrifying bacteria in a single reactor. In addition, the usability of DNPAOs in the reactor can be improved by adding the anoxic phase after the oxic phase. These characteristics enable the AOAGS process to attain effective removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When acetate-based synthetic wastewater (COD: 600 mg/L, NH4-N: 60 mg/L, PO(4)-P: 10 mg/L) was supplied to a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor under the operation of anaerobic/oxic/anoxic cycles, granular sludge with a diameter of 500 microm was successfully formed within 1 month. Although the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus was almost complete at the end of the oxic phase, a short anoxic period subsequent to the oxic phase was necessary for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. As a result, effluent concentrations of NH(4)-N, NO(x)-N and PO(4)-P were always lower than 1 mg/L. It was found that penetration depth of oxygen inside the granular sludge was approximately 100 microm by microsensor measurements. In addition, from the microbiological analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization, existence depth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms was further than the maximum oxygen penetration depth. The water quality data, oxygen profiles and microbial community structure demonstrated that DNPAOs inside the granular sludge may be responsible for denitrification in the

  11. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of salt, polyphosphates and their blends at different levels on physicochemical properties of buffalo meat and patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, A S; Sharma, N; Kondaiah, N

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) and their blends at different levels (0·3, 0·5 and 0·7%), along with 2% sodium chloride on certain quality parameters of buffalo meat and patties were evaluated. The SPP, STPP and phosphate blends significantly increased pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), emulsifying capacity (EC), extractability of salt soluble proteins (SSP), colour of ground meat, decreased cooking loss (CL), improved emulsion stability (ES) and enhanced yield, texture and moisture retention of cooked patties. Compared to these phosphates, SAPP and SHMP had significantly poorer effects on improving the quality of meat and patties. The order of effectiveness of phosphates was SPP > STPP > SHMP. In general, pH, WHC, SSP, ES, yield and moisture content of patties increased progressively with increasing level of phosphate while CL decreased. Among blends containing two polyphosphates, those of 90% SPP + 10% SHMP and 75% SPP + 25% STPP were relatively more effective. A phosphate blend consisting of 65% SPP, 17·5% STPP and 17·5% SAPP was equally effective as that of SPP in improving the functionality of hot and chilled meat and had the advantage of reducing the amount of sodium by 3%. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  14. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  15. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    KEYWORDS. Inorganic chemistry, gold, atomic theory, history of chemistry. .... Figure 2 (a) shows Moir's model for the C atom, where the black circles represent the ..... Na filled the hole in the F atom, both becoming ions even in the crystal state ...

  17. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  18. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  19. Nucleic acid and nucleotide-mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Lorenzo; Burley, Glenn A.

    2008-02-01

    Since the advent of practical methods for achieving DNA metallization, the use of nucleic acids as templates for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) has become an active area of study. It is now widely recognized that nucleic acids have the ability to control the growth and morphology of inorganic NPs. These biopolymers are particularly appealing as templating agents as their ease of synthesis in conjunction with the possibility of screening nucleotide composition, sequence and length, provides the means to modulate the physico-chemical properties of the resulting NPs. Several synthetic procedures leading to NPs with interesting photophysical properties as well as studies aimed at rationalizing the mechanism of nucleic acid-templated NP synthesis are now being reported. This progress article will outline the current understanding of the nucleic acid-templated process and provides an up to date reference in this nascent field.

  20. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  1. Porous calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes: additive manufacturing versus conventional gravity sinter processing-effect on structure and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youxin; Shanjani, Yaser; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Grynpas, Marc; Wang, Rizhi; Pilliar, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures proposed as bone-substitute implants and made by sintering CPP powders to form bending test samples of approximately 35 vol % porosity were machined from preformed blocks made either by additive manufacturing (AM) or conventional gravity sintering (CS) methods and the structure and mechanical characteristics of samples so made were compared. AM-made samples displayed higher bending strengths (≈1.2-1.4 times greater than CS-made samples), whereas elastic constant (i.e., effective elastic modulus of the porous structures) that is determined by material elastic modulus and structural geometry of the samples was ≈1.9-2.3 times greater for AM-made samples. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples made by either method displayed the same crystal structure forming β-CPP after sinter annealing. The material elastic modulus, E, determined using nanoindentation tests also showed the same value for both sample types (i.e., E ≈ 64 GPa). Examination of the porous structures indicated that significantly larger sinter necks resulted in the AM-made samples which presumably resulted in the higher mechanical properties. The development of mechanical properties was attributed to the different sinter anneal procedures required to make 35 vol % porous samples by the two methods. A primary objective of the present study, in addition to reporting on bending strength and sample stiffness (elastic constant) characteristics, was to determine why the two processes resulted in the observed mechanical property differences for samples of equivalent volume percentage of porosity. An understanding of the fundamental reason(s) for the observed effect is considered important for developing improved processes for preparation of porous CPP implants as bone substitutes for use in high load-bearing skeletal sites. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Potentiation of the Cytotoxic Activity of Copper by Polyphosphate on Biofilm-Producing Bacteria: A Bioinspired Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz C. Schröder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including ship hulls and heat exchangers of power plants. This is termed biofouling. The search for less toxic anti-biofilm strategies has intensified since the ban of efficient and cost-effective anti-fouling paints, enriched with the organotin compound tributyltin, not least because of our finding of the ubiquitous toxic/pro-apoptotic effects displayed by this compound [1]. Our proposed bio-inspired approach for controlling, suppressing and interfluencing the dynamic biofouling complex uses copper as one component in an alternative anti-fouling system. In order to avoid and overcome the potential resistance against copper acquired by microorganisms we are using the biopolymer polyphosphate (polyP as a further component. Prior to being functionally active, polyP has to be hydrolyzed to ortho-phosphate which in turn can bind to copper and export the toxic compound out of the cell. It is shown here that inhibition of the hydrolysis of polyP by the bisphosphonate DMDP strongly increases the toxic effect of copper towards the biofilm-producing Streptococcus mutans in a synergistic manner. This bisphosphonate not only increases the copper-caused inhibition of cell growth but also of biofilm production by the bacteria. The defensin-related ASABF, a marine toxin produced by the sponge Suberites domuncula, caused only an additive inhibitory effect in combination with copper. We conclude that the new strategy, described here, has a superior anti-biofilm potential and can be considered as a novel principle for developing bio-inspired antifouling compounds, or cocktails of different compounds, in the future.

  3. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  4. Wavelength-tunable waveguides based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jingying; Xu, Zai-Quan; Xue, Yunzhou; Jiang, Liangcong; Song, Jingchao; Huang, Fuzhi; Wang, Yusheng; Zhong, Yu Lin; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as new photovoltaic materials with impressively high power conversion efficiency due to their high optical absorption coefficient and long charge carrier diffusion length. In addition to high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and chemical tunability, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites also show intriguing potential for diverse photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires can function as active optical waveguides with small propagation loss. The successful production of high quality perovskite microwires with different halogen elements enables the guiding of light with different colours. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that out-coupled light intensity from the microwire can be effectively modulated by an external electric field, which behaves as an electro-optical modulator. This finding suggests the promising applications of perovskite microwires as effective building blocks in micro/nano scale photonic circuits.

  5. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, optical and thermal properties of lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förg, Katharina; Höppe, Henning A

    2015-11-28

    Lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) were synthesised as colourless (Ln = Tb, Dy) and light pink (Ln = Ho) crystalline powders by reaction of Tb4O7/Dy2O3/Ho2O3 with H3PO3 at 380 °C. All compounds crystallise isotypically (P2(1)/c (no. 14), Z = 4, a(Tb) = 1368.24(4) pm, b(Tb) = 710.42(2) pm, c(Tb) = 965.79(3) pm, β(Tb) = 101.200(1)°, 3112 data, 160 parameters, wR2 = 0.062, a(Ho) = 1363.34(5) pm, b(Ho) = 709.24(3) pm, c(Ho) = 959.07(4) pm, β(Ho) = 101.055(1)°, 1607 data, 158 parameters, wR2 = 0.058). The crystal structure comprises two different infinite helical chains of corner-sharing phosphate tetrahedra. In-between these chains the lanthanide ions are located, coordinated by seven oxygen atoms belonging to four different polyphosphate chains. Vibrational, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) as well as Dy[H(PO3)4]:Ln (Ln = Ce, Eu) and the magnetic and thermal behaviour of Tb[H(PO3)4] are reported.

  7. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  8. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  9. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  10. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  11. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  12. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  13. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  14. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  15. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  16. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  17. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  18. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  19. Influence of sludge retention time on tolerance of copper toxicity for polyphosphate accumulating organisms linked to polyhydroxyalkanoates metabolism and phosphate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Pin; Chen, Hsiu-Ting

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the influence of sludge retention time (SRT) on tolerance of copper invasion for polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The experimental data showed the anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage for the sludge at 10d SRT was less influenced by copper invasion than those at 5d and 15d SRTs. The reaction of PAOs aerobically taking up phosphate for the sludge at 5d or 15d SRT almost ceased at 2 mg Cu L(-1), whereas PAOs in the sludge at 10d SRT retained half of the ability to take up phosphate. Both the PHAs degradation and synthesis rates decreased with increasing copper concentration, regardless of the SRTs. However, the copper inhibition of the former was greater than that of the later. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The antimicrobial efficacy of sustained release silver–carbene complex-loaded l-tyrosine polyphosphate nanoparticles: Characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Khadijah M.; Ditto, Andrew J.; Panzner, Matthew J.; Medvetz, Douglas A.; Han, Daniel S.; Hovis, Christine E.; Hilliard, Julia K.; Taylor, Jane B.; Yun, Yang H.; Cannon, Carolyn L.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    2009-01-01

    The pressing need to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria in the chronically infected lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has given rise to novel nebulized antimicrobials. We have synthesized a silver–carbene complex (SCC10) active against a variety of bacterial strains associated with CF and chronic lung infections. Our studies have demonstrated that SCC10-loaded into l-tyrosine polyphosphate nanoparticles (LTP NPs) exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the CF relevant bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Encapsulation of SCC10 in LTP NPs provides sustained release of the antimicrobial over the course of several days translating into efficacious results in vivo with only two administered doses over a 72 h period. PMID:19395021

  1. Multiple antibiotic susceptibility of polyphosphate kinase mutants (ppk1 and ppk2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as revealed by global phenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Ortiz-Severín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to be a multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen. Particularly, P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase mutant (ppk1 is deficient in motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence FINDINGS: By using Phenotypic Microarrays (PM we analyzed near 2000 phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyP kinase mutants (ppk1 and ppk2. We found that both ppk mutants shared most of the phenotypic changes and interestingly many of them related to susceptibility toward numerous and different type of antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol and Rifampicin CONCLUSIONS: Combining the fact that ppk1 mutants have reduced virulence and are more susceptible to antibiotics, polyP synthesis and particularly PPK1, is a good target for the design of molecules with anti-virulence and anti-persistence properties.

  2. Oxidation of the diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase-like Nudix hydrolase Aps from Drosophila melanogaster induces thermolability--A possible regulatory switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Lucinda; Whitfield, William G F; McLennan, Alexander G; Safrany, Stephen T

    2010-07-01

    Unlike mammalian cells, Drosophila melanogaster contains only a single member of the diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase subfamily of the Nudix hydrolases, suggesting that functional specialisation has not occurred in this organism. In order to evaluate its function, Aps was cloned and characterized. It hydrolyses a range of (di)nucleoside polyphosphates, the most efficient being guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate (K(m)=11 microM, k(cat)=0.79 s(-1)). However, it shows a 5-fold preference for the hydrolysis of diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-InsP(5), K(m)=0.07 microM, k(cat)=0.024 s(-1)). Assayed at 26 degrees C, Aps had an alkaline pH optimum and required a divalent ion: Mg(2+) (10-20 mM) or Mn(2+) (1 mM) were preferred for nucleotide hydrolysis and Mg(2+) (0.5-1 mM) or Co(2+) (1-100 microM) for PP-InsP(5) hydrolysis. GFP-fusions showed that Aps was predominantly cytoplasmic, with some nuclear localization. In the absence of dithiothreitol Aps was heat labile, rapidly losing activity even at 36 degrees C, while in the presence of dithiothreitol, Aps was heat stable, surviving for 5 min at 76 degrees C. Heat lability was restored by H(2)O(2) and mass spectrometric analysis suggested that this was due to reversible dimerisation involving two inter-molecular disulphides between Cys23 and Cys25. Aps expression was highest in embryos and declined throughout development. The ratio of PP-InsP(5) to inositol hexakisphosphate also decreased throughout development, with the highest level of PP-InsP(5) found in embryos. These data suggest that the redox state of Aps may play a role in controlling its activity by altering its stability, something that could be important for regulating PP-InsP(5) during development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  4. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  5. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  6. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  7. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  8. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  9. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  10. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  11. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  12. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  13. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  14. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  15. Regulating the electrical behaviors of 2D inorganic nanomaterials for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Wu, Junchi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-11

    Recent years have witnessed great developments in inorganic 2D nanomaterials for their unique dimensional confinement and diverse electronic energy bands. Precisely regulating their intrinsic electrical behaviors would bring superior electrical conductivity, rendering 2D nanomaterials ideal candidates for active materials in electrochemical applications when combined with the excellent reaction activity from the inorganic lattice. This Concept focuses on highly conducting inorganic 2D nanomaterials, including intrinsic metallic 2D nanomaterials and artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials. The intrinsic metallicity of 2D nanomaterials is derived from their closely packed atomic structures that ensure maximum overlapping of electron orbitals, while artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials could be achieved by designed methodologies of surface modification, intralayer ion doping, and lattice strain, in which atomic-scale structural modulation plays a vital role in realizing conducting behaviors. Benefiting from fast electron transfer, high reaction activity, as well as large surface areas arising from the 2D inorganic lattice, highly conducting 2D nanomaterials open up prospects for enhancing performance in electrochemical catalysis and electrochemical capacitors. Conductive 2D inorganic nanomaterials promise higher efficiency for electrochemical applications of energy conversion and storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  17. Quantitative determination of polyphosphate in sediments using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Aazam; Cook, Perran L M; Wood, Bayden R

    2012-08-21

    Phosphorus (P) is a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality in freshwater ecosystems. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. Despite the broad relevance of polyphosphate (Poly-P) in bioremediation and P release processes in the environment, its quantification is not yet well developed for sediment samples. Current methods possess significant disadvantages because of the difficulties associated with using a single extractant to extract a specific P compound without altering others. A fast and reliable method to estimate the quantitative contribution of microorganisms to sediment P release processes is needed, especially when an excessive P accumulation in the form of polyphosphate (Poly-P) occurs. Development of novel approaches for application of emerging spectroscopic techniques to complex environmental matrices such as sediments significantly contributes to the speciation models of P mobilization, biogeochemical nutrient cycling and development of nutrient models. In this study, for the first time Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) was used to quantify Poly-P in sediments. To reduce the high absorption matrix components in sediments such as silica, a physical extraction method was developed to separate sediment biological materials from abiotic particles. The aim was to achieve optimal separation of the biological materials from sediment abiotic particles with minimum chemical change in the sample matrix prior to ATR-FTIR analysis. Using a calibration set of 60 samples for the PLS prediction models in the Poly-P concentration range of 0-1 mg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight of sediment) (R(2) = 0.984 and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.041 at Factor-1) Poly-P could be detected at less than 50 μg g(-l) d.w. Using this technique, there is no solvent extraction or chemical

  18. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  19. Industrial inorganic chemistry. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, W.; Schliebs, R.; Winter, G.; Buechel, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is a branch of considerable economic and technical importance. Apart from supplying the market with metals, fertilizers, building materials, pigments and glass it is one of the major suppliers of process materials to the organic chemical industry. Many modern products of other industrial sectors (video tapes, optical fibers or silicon chips) could not have been developed and manufactured without the achievements of industrial inorganic chemistry. The publication is the first of its kind to give a compact description of the inorganic chemistry sector. A clearly arranged survey facilitates access to production processes, economic aspects, ecological implications, energy consumption and raw material consumption as well as to many other data and facts. Due to its clear arrangement and the combination of technical and economic facts the book is a valuable source of information. (orig./EF) [de

  20. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  1. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  3. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  4. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  5. Chronic inorganic mercury induced peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.-C.; Huang, C.-C.; Ryu, S.-J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Dept. of Neurology, Tapei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, T.-N. [Executive Yuan, Dept. of Health, Surveillance and Quarantine Service, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-01

    We report the clinical features, electrophysiological studies, and morphometric analysis of sural nerve pathology in a patient with polyneuropathy due to inorganic mercury intoxication. He developed slowly progressive generalized paralysis of all limbs after 3 months ingestion of herb drugs which contained mercuric sulfate. Electrophysiologic studies revealed axonal polyneuropathy involving both motor and sensory fibers. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated axonal degeneration with demyelination and a predominant loss of large myelinated fibers. His muscle strength showed only mild improvement after 2 years` follow-up. We concluded that inorganic mercury exposure may induce severe axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in humans and that neurological deficits may persist in severe cases. (au) 21 refs.

  6. Relative accretion of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate by forming and resorbing bone systems in rats: its significance in the pathologic basis of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Tow, D.E.; Kapur, K.K.; Wells, H.

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of osteogenesis and osteolysis in the production of positive radionuclide images of skeletal lesions were investigated. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (Tc-PP) by each process was measured in an animal model that permitted bone formation and resorption to be studied independently. Ten rats received intramuscular implants of bone-forming demineralized matrix (DM) and resorbing devitalized bone (DV). Radiographs and Tc-PP scintiscans were made each week thereafter. At 6 to 10 weeks, the implants and normal bone samples were removed, counted for /sup 99m/Tc, and examined histologically. The uptake of Tc-PP by DM implants was first detected on images made 3 weeks after implantation, and by DV implants, 1 to 2 weeks later. Serial radiography showed progressive calcification of DM and resorption of DV implants. Microscopic examinations of undecalcified sections, stained with a modified Goldner preparation, revealed vital-bone formation in the DM implants and osteoclastic resorption in the DV. Activity counts per gram of DM and DV implants were, respectively, 200 percent and 90 percent that of normal bone. Since only the bone-forming system (DM) accumulated Tc-PP at greater than normal concentrations, this study indicates that positive bone images of osteolytic lesions solely reflect compensatory osteogenic responses

  7. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen; Tian, Meng; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. - Highlights: • SCPP/UHMWPE composites could enhance biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. • SCPP would improve biological efficacy with a few sacrifice of wear resistance. • The results might provide a promising wear-resistant material for fabricating acetabular cup.

  8. Positively-charged semi-tunnel is a structural and surface characteristic of polyphosphate-binding proteins: an in-silico study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zachory Wei

    Full Text Available Phosphate is essential for all major life processes, especially energy metabolism and signal transduction. A linear phosphate polymer, polyphosphate (polyP, linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, can interact with various proteins, playing important roles as an energy source and regulatory factor. However, polyP-binding structures are largely unknown. Here we proposed a putative polyP binding site, a positively-charged semi-tunnel (PCST, identified by surface electrostatics analyses in polyP kinases (PPKs and many other polyP-related proteins. We found that the PCSTs in varied proteins were folded in different secondary structure compositions. Molecular docking calculations revealed a significant value for binding affinity to polyP in PCST-containing proteins. Utilizing the PCST identified in the β subunit of PPK3, we predicted the potential polyP-binding domain of PPK3. The discovery of this feature facilitates future searches for polyP-binding proteins and discovery of the mechanisms for polyP-binding activities. This should greatly enhance the understanding of the many physiological functions of protein-bound polyP and the involvement of polyP and polyP-binding proteins in various human diseases.

  9. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhipeng [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tian, Meng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, the 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu 610021 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. - Highlights: • SCPP/UHMWPE composites could enhance biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. • SCPP would improve biological efficacy with a few sacrifice of wear resistance. • The results might provide a promising wear-resistant material for fabricating acetabular cup.

  10. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An ‘anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems. PMID:23778238

  11. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  12. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Worldwide sales of inorganic drugs are growing rapidly. Although about 26 elements in the periodic table are considered essential for mammalian life, both ... Lithium like alcohol can influence mood. Lithium drugs such as lithium carbonate Li2C03. , are used for the treatment of manic-depressive disorders, most likely ...

  13. Corrosion performance of inorganic coatings in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.; Westing, E. van; Kowalski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic coatings are widely used to protect carbon steel hydraulic cylinder rods from wear and corrosion in aggressive offshore environment. Different types of lay-ers such as Ni/Cr, Al2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, and Inconel 625 layers were applied to the carbon steels by plasma, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

  14. Inorganic mass spectrometry of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Vertes, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this review some recent developments in the field of inorganic mass spectrometry of solids are described with special emphasis on the actual state of understanding of the ionization processes. It concentrates on the common characteristics of methods such as spark source-, laser-, secondary ion-, inductively coupled plasma- and glow discharge mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  15. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962). For over a century w...

  16. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  17. Studies on inorganic exchanger: zirconium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The inorganic exchanger zirconium antimonate has been prepared and its characteristics evaluated. A method has been developed for the separation of 90 Sr and 144 Ce from fission products solution using this exchanger. (author). 23 refs., 18 f igs., 9 tabs

  18. Phytochemical, inorganic and proximate composition-guided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterols, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all samples. The inorganic composition result showed relatively high concentration of potassium (very high for seed), calcium (for bark and leaf), magnesium and sulphur in Avocado samples. The Avocado seed contained relatively high content of moisture, carbohydrate ...

  19. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  20. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of Kale ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... fertilizer gave leaf yields comparable to those applied with exclusively inorganic sources of fertilizer.

  1. Review of progress in soil inorganic carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. G.; Jiao, Y.; Yang, W. Z.; Gu, P.; Yang, J.; Liu, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is one of the main carbon banks in the near-surface environment, and is the main form of soil carbon library in arid and semi-arid regions, which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. This paper mainly focuses on the inorganic dynamic process of soil inorganic carbon in soil environment in arid and semi-arid regions, and summarized the composition and source of soil inorganic carbon, influence factors and soil carbon sequestration.

  2. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  3. Inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is closely related to salivary components. Saliva consists of water, inorganic and organic materials. Fasting changes one???s meal and drinking time that in turn can affect the environment in oral cavity, including inorganic componenet of saliva. The purpose of this study is to determine the inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break.

  4. The inhibitory effect of strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate particles on cytokines from macrophages and osteoblasts leading to aseptic loosening in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chengcheng; Yu, Xixun; Gu, Zhipeng; Li, Li; Zhang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is a common cause of joint implant failure in humans. In order to enhance implant stability, we need to develop a new material that not only promotes the wear resistance of components of an artificial joint, but also possesses the pharmaceutical efficacy of protecting patients against aseptic loosening. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) has been found to have this potential ability. The goal of this study is to respectively quantify the levels of TNF-α (for macrophages), receptor activator of NF- k B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) (for osteoblasts) when osteoblasts and macrophages are challenged with various particles (including SCPP). In this study, the osteoblasts ROS 17/2.8 and macrophages RAW 264.7 were challenged with various wear particles (8% SCPP, the molar percentage of Sr in SCPP is 8%, UHMWPE, hydroxyapatite (HA) and CPP). The secretion of TNF-α (from RAW 264.7), OPG and RANKL protein (from ROS 17/2.8) was analyzed by ELISA. The OPG and RANKL mRNA from ROS 17/2.8 was detected by RT-PCR. The data of ELISA indicated that the amount of TNF-α challenged with 8% SCPP particles was more than three-fold lower than that of all other test groups. The ratio of OPG/RANKL in the 8% SCPP group was significantly increased compared to that of all other test groups. The results of OPG and RANKL mRNA expression showed the same tendency as the ELISA results. In general, this study showed that 8% SCPP particles can inhibit the expression of TNF-α and RANKL, promote the expression of OPG so that SCPP can inhibit bone resorption and promote bone formation, and then inhibit aseptic loosening. Thus SCPP could be a promising material for the construction of artificial joints. (paper)

  5. Restoration of Impaired Metabolic Energy Balance (ATP Pool and Tube Formation Potential of Endothelial Cells under “high glucose”, Diabetic Conditions by the Bioinorganic Polymer Polyphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-vascularization is a fast, energy-dependent process that is compromised by elevated glucose concentrations such as in diabetes mellitus disease. Here, we studied the effect of the physiological bioinorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP, on the reduced ATP content and impaired function of endothelial cells cultivated under “high glucose” (35 mM diabetes mellitus conditions concentrations. This high-energy biopolymer has been shown to provide a source of metabolic energy, stored in its phosphoanhydride bonds. We show that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC cells to “high glucose” levels results in reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic cell death, and a decline in intracellular ATP level. As a consequence, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tube-like structures in the in vitro cell tube formation assay was almost completely abolished under “high glucose” conditions. Those cells were grown onto a physiological collagen scaffold (collagen/basement membrane extract. We demonstrate that these adverse effects of increased glucose levels can be reversed by administration of polyP to almost normal values. Using Na-polyP, complexed in a stoichiometric (molar ratio to Ca2+ ions and in the physiological concentration range between 30 and 300 µM, an almost complete restoration of the reduced ATP pool of cells exposed to “high glucose” was found, as well as a normalization of the number of apoptotic cells and energy-dependent tube formation. It is concluded that the adverse effects on endothelial cells caused by the metabolic energy imbalance at elevated glucose concentrations can be counterbalanced by polyP, potentially opening new strategies for treatment of the micro-vascular complications in diabetic patients.

  6. Radwaste issues belong in the inorganic classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The safe isolation of high level radioactive wastes is a matter of significant importance. This material is derived primarily from spent nuclear fuel and defense weapon production. Every element on the periodic chart is represented. The majority are metallic elements. Over the thousands of years that they are to be isolated the primary chemistry will be oxidation. The mobility and fate of particular inner and outer transition element ions become very important. For that, one must understand their hydrolytic nature, their complexing tendencies and the solubilities of various compounds. This topic could easily serve as a centerpiece for an inorganic chemistry course. At the very least, it demands the attention of every teacher of inorganic chemistry and consideration by those whose research is directed to tangible problems. The discussion includes notes on the abundance and lifetimes of particular radioisotopes. The positive student responses to this approach are also shared

  7. The quest for the ideal inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Klintenberg, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The past half century has witnessed the discovery of many new inorganic scintillator materials and numerous advances in our understanding of the basic physical processes governing the transformation of ionizing radiation into scintillation light. Whereas scintillators are available with a good combination of physical properties, none provides the desired combination of stopping power, light output, and decay time. A review of the numerous scintillation mechanisms of known inorganic scintillators reveals why none of them is both bright and fast. The mechanisms of radiative recombination in wide-bandgap direct semiconductors, however, remain relatively unexploited for scintillators. We describe how suitably doped semiconductor scintillators could provide a combination of high light output, short decay time, and linearity of response that approach fundamental limits

  8. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon (C) fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated to reveal controlling underlying...... mechanisms. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO(2)), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO(2), alkalinity and the water flux...... to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modeled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 +/- 0.07 and 4.9 +/- 0.07 mu mol Cm-2 s(-1), respectively...

  9. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  10. Inorganic Materials Division annual report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, A.; Hornady, B.

    1976-01-01

    This compilation lists abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1975 at national and international meetings by members of the Geoscience and Engineering Section, Inorganic Materials Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Titles of talks at university and local meetings are also listed when available. The subjects range from the in situ retorting of coal to the temperature profile of the moon. A subject classification is included

  11. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  12. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  13. Characterization of inorganic phosphate transport in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Lacerda-Abreu, Marco Antônio; Gomes, Tainá; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Carvalho-de-Araújo, Ayra Diandra; Rodrigues, Mariana Figueiredo; Oliveira, Ana Carolina Leal de; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Monteiro, Robson de Queiroz; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that interstitial inorganic phosphate is significantly elevated in the breast cancer microenvironment as compared to normal tissue. In addition it has been shown that breast cancer cells express high levels of the NaPi-IIb carrier (SLC34A2), suggesting that this carrier may play a role in breast cancer progression. However, the biochemical behavior of inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter in this cancer type remains elusive. In this work, we characterize the kinetic parameters of Pi transport in the aggressive human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and correlated Pi transport with cell migration and adhesion. We determined the influence of sodium concentration, pH, metabolic inhibitors, as well as the affinity for inorganic phosphate in Pi transport. We observed that the inorganic phosphate is dependent on sodium transport (K0,5 value = 21.98 mM for NaCl). Furthermore, the transport is modulated by different pH values and increasing concentrations of Pi, following the Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K0,5 = 0.08 mM Pi). PFA, monensin, furosemide and ouabain inhibited Pi transport, cell migration and adhesion. Taken together, these results showed that the uptake of Pi in MDA-MB-231 cells is modulated by sodium and by regulatory mechanisms of intracellular sodium gradient. General Significance: Pi transport might be regarded as a potential target for therapy against tumor progression.

  14. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  15. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Ananthakrishnan, M.; Ramani, K.S.; Varma, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO 3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO 3 +6M HNO 3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  16. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  17. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  18. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  19. Inorganic nitrogen in precipitation and atmospheric sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, D H

    1951-01-01

    In an investigation covering 18 months, daily determinations were made of the inorganic nitrogen contained in precipitation and atmospheric sediments collected at Hamilton, Ont. The nitrogen fall for the whole period averaged 5.8 lb. N per acre per year. Sixty-one per cent of the total nitrogen was collected on 25% of the days when precipitation occurred. The balance, occurring on days without precipitation, is attributable solely to the sedimentation of dust. Ammonia nitrogen averaged 56% of the total, but the proportion for individual days varied widely.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) conducted a review of the scientific basis supporting the human health cancer hazard and dose-response assessment of inorganic arsenic that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA revised the assessment and is now returning the assessment to the SAB and releasing the document to the public for a focused review of EPA's responses to the SAB recommendations. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses only cancer human health effects that may result from chronic exposure to this chemical.

  1. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  2. Inorganic Arsenic?Related Changes in the Stromal Tumor Microenvironment in a Prostate Cancer Cell?Conditioned Media Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Joseph J.; Wold, Eric A.; Umbaugh, Charles S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Nilsson, Carol L.; Figueiredo, Marxa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer by mediating stromal?epithelial paracrine signaling, which can aberrantly modulate cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis. Exposure to environmental toxicants, such as inorganic arsenic (iAs), has also been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. Objective: The role of iAs exposure in stromal signaling in the tumor microenvironment has been largely unexplored. Our objective was to elucidate...

  3. Acceleration of segmental bone regeneration in a rabbit model by strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate scaffold through stimulating VEGF and bFGF secretion from osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xu; Li, Li; Wang, Qiguang; Yu, Xixun; Feng, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The development of suitable bioactive three-dimensional scaffold for the promotion of bone regeneration is critical in bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo osteogenesis of the porous strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) scaffolds for bone repair, as well as the relationship between osteogenic properties of SCPP scaffolds and the secretion of bFGF and VEGF from osteoblasts stimulated by SCPP. Besides, the advantages of scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone repair were also studied. Firstly, the bone repair evaluation of scaffolds was performed on a rabbit segmental bony defects model over a period of 16 weeks by histology combined with X-ray microradiography. And then, in order to avoid the influence from the other factors such as hypoxia which emerge in vivo study and affect the secretion of VEGF and bFGF from host cells, human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were seeded to SCPP, CPP and HA scaffolds in vitro to determine the ability of these scaffolds to stimulate the secretion of angiogenic growth factors (VEGF and bFGF) from MG63 and further explore the reason for the better osteogenic properties of SCPP scaffolds. The histological and X-ray microradiographic results showed that the SCPP scaffolds presented better osteogenic potential than CPP and HA scaffolds, when combined with MSCs, the SCPP scaffolds could further accelerate the bone repair. And the amounts of VEGF measured by ELISA assay in SCPP, CPP and HA groups after cultured for 7 days were about 364.989 pg/mL, 244.035 pg/mL and 232.785 pg/mL, respectively. Accordingly, the amounts of bFGF were about 27.085 pg/mL, 15.727 pg/mL and 8.326 pg/mL. The results revealed that the SCPP scaffolds significantly enhanced the bFGF and VEGF secretion compared with other scaffolds. The results presented in vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that the SCPP could accelerate bone formation through stimulating the secretion of VEGF and bFGF from

  4. Steric Effects on the Binding of Phosphate and Polyphosphate Anions by Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Dinuclear Complexes of m-Xylyl-bis-cyclen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Catarina V; Esteban-Gómez, David; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Tripier, Raphaël; Delgado, Rita

    2018-05-11

    The triethylbenzene-bis-cyclen (cyclen = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) compound (tbmce) was designed with an imposed structural rigidity at the m-xylyl spacer to be compared to a less restrained and known parent compound (bmce). The framework of both compounds differs only in the substituents of the m-xylyl spacer. The study was centered in the differences observed in the acid-base reactions of both compounds, their copper(II) and zinc(II) complexation behaviors, as well as in the uptake of phosphate and polyphosphate anions (HPPi 3- , ATP 4- , ADP 3- , AMP 2- , PhPO 4 2- , and HPO 4 2- ). On the one hand, the acid-base reactions showed lower values for the third and fourth protonation constants of tbmce than for bmce, suggesting that the ethyl groups of the spacer in tbmce force the two cyclen units to more conformational restricted positions. On the other hand, the stability constant values for copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes revealed that bmce is a better chelator than tbmce pointing out to additional conformational restraints imposed by the triethylbenzene spacer. The binding studies of phosphates by the dinuclear copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes showed much smaller effective association constants for the dicopper complexes. Single-crystal X-ray and computational (density functional theory) studies suggest that anion binding promotes the formation of tetranuclear entities in which anions are bridging the metal centers. Our studies also revealed the dinuclear zinc(II) complex of bmce as a promising receptor for phosphate anions, with the largest effective association constant of 5.94 log units being observed for the formation of [Zn 2 bmce(HPPi)] + . Accordingly, a colorimetric study via an indicator displacement assay to detect phosphates in aqueous solution found that the [Zn 2 bmce] 4+ complex acts as the best receptor for pyrophosphate displaying a detection limit of 2.5 nM by changes visible to naked eye.

  5. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  6. Bio-Based Approaches to Inorganic Material Synthesis (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slocik, Joseph M; Stone, Morley O; Naik, Rajesh R

    2007-01-01

    .... Marine sponges create silica spicules also using proteins, termed silicateins. In recent years, our group and others have used biomolecules as templates for the deposition of inorganic materials...

  7. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  8. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  9. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  10. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  11. Engineering properties of inorganic polymer concretes (IPCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofi, M.; Deventer, J.S.J. van; Mendis, P.A.; Lukey, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering properties of inorganic polymer concretes (IPCs) with a compressive strength of 50 MPa. The study includes a determination of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, compressive strength, and the splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of IPCs, formulated using three different sources of Class-F fly ash. Six IPC mix designs were adopted to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of coarse aggregates and granulated blast furnace slag into the mixes. A total of 90 cylindrical and 24 small beam specimens were investigated, and all tests were carried out pursuant to the relevant Australian Standards. Although some variability between the mixes was observed, the results show that, in most cases, the engineering properties of IPCs compare favorably to those predicted by the relevant Australian Standards for concrete mixtures

  12. Scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, L M

    1999-01-01

    A method to evaluate the scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators to different heavy ionizing particles is suggested. A function describing the rate of the energy consumed as fluorescence emission is derived, i.e., the differential response with respect to time. This function is then integrated for each ion and scintillator (anthracene, stilbene and CsI(Tl)) to determine scintillation response. The resulting scintillation responses are compared to the previously reported measured responses. Agreement to within 2.5% is observed when these data are normalized to each other. In addition, conclusions regarding the quenching parameter kB dependence on the type of the particle and the computed values of kB for certain ions are included. (author)

  13. Neutron Diffraction and Inorganic Materials Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosseinsky, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of complex inorganic materials is an important academic and technological challenge because of the opportunities these systems offer for observation of new phenomena, and the questions they pose for fundamental understanding. This presentation will illustrate the key role of neutron powder diffraction in enabling the discovery of new classes of materials, and in evaluating their properties and the conditions under which they need to be processed to optimise their behaviour in devices for applications. New chemistry is illustrated by the transition metal oxide hydrides, where both structure and ionic mobility required neutron scattering characterisation. The relationship between chemistry, structure and properties will be addressed by considering the difficulties in inducing superconductivity in analogues of magnesium diboride. The role of both neutron and X-ray diffraction in evaluating the processing of microwave dielectric ceramics will be highlighted, with the discovery of new phases shown to be a useful bonus in this type of in-situ study. (author)

  14. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  15. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  16. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  17. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  18. Solubility and stability of inorganic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of inorganic carbonates is reviewed, with emphasis on solubility and hydrolytic stability, in order to identify candidate waste forms for immobilization and disposal of 14 C. At present, CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 are the two most widely favoured wasted forms, primarily because they are the products of proven CO 2 -scrubbing technology. However, they have relatively high solubilities in non-alkaline solutions, necessitating care in selecting and assessing an appropriate disposal environment. Three compounds with better solubility characteristics in near-neutral waters are identified: bismutite, (BiO) 2 CO 3 ; hydrocerussite, Pb 3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ; and rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Some of the limitations of each of these alternative waste forms are discussed

  19. Mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    The purpose of this series is to provide a continuing critical review of the literature concerned with mechanistic aspects of inorganic and organo­ metallic reactions in solution, with coverage being complete in each volume. The papers discussed are selected on the basis of relevance to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and many include results of a nonkinetic nature when useful mechanistic information can be deduced. The period of literature covered by this volume is July 1982 through December 1983, and in some instances papers not available for inclusion in the previous volume are also included. Numerical results are usually reported in the units used by the original authors, except where data from different papers are com­ pared and conversion to common units is necessary. As in previous volumes material included covers the major areas of redox processes, reactions of the nonmetallic elements, reaction of inert and labile metal complexes and the reactions of organometallic compounds. While m...

  20. Characterisation of the inorganic chemistry of surface waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to determine a simple inorganic chemistry index that can be used for all surface waters in South Africa, in order to characterise the inorganic chemistry of surface waters. Water quality data collected up until 1999 from all sample monitoring stations (2 068 monitoring stations, 364 659 ...

  1. Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer on the Microbial degradation of Diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Inorganic Fertilizer (IF) on the microbial degradation of diesel polluted soil in Abeokuta was assessed by collecting Top soil (0 – 15 cm depth) from diesel polluted site of Information and Communication Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Inorganic fertilizer was added to the polluted soil ...

  2. Graphene templated Directional Growth of an Inorganic Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    14,23–25 have only formed randomly oriented or poorly aligned inorganic nanostructures. Here, we show that inorganic nanowires of gold(I) cyanide can... complex . TEM image simulation from the crystal structure The TEM image simulations are performed using MacTempas and CrystalKit. The imaging

  3. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  4. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  5. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Kappert, Emiel; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal

  6. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S

    2010-01-01

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  7. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  8. Contamination of Kallar Kahar Lake by Inorganic Elements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to find out the contamination of Kallar Kahar Lake by inorganic elements and heavy metals and the temporal variation of these chemicals in the lake water. Water samples were collected on monthly basis during December 2001 to November 2002. Concentration of 10 inorganic elements ...

  9. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  10. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andalaft, E; Vega, R; Correa, M; Araya, R; Loyola, P [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-02-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs.

  11. Artificial inorganic Biohybrids: the functional combination of microorganisms and cells with inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeister, Ib; Schamel, Martha; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe; Vorndran, Elke

    2018-04-23

    Biohybrids can be defined as the functional combination of proteins, viable cells or microorganisms with non-biological materials. This article reviews recent findings on the encapsulation of microorganisms and eukaryotic cells in inorganic matrices such as silica gels or cements. The entrapment of biological entities into a support material is of great benefit for processing since the encapsulation matrix protects sensitive cells from shear forces, unfavourable pH changes, or cytotoxic solvents, avoids culture-washout, and simplifies the separation of formed products. After reflecting general aspects of such an immobilization as well as the chemistry of the inorganic matrices, we focused on manufacturing aspects and the application of such biohybrids in biotechnology, medicine as well as in environmental science and for civil engineering purpose. The encapsulation of living cells and microorganisms became an intensively studied and rapidly expanding research field with manifold applications in medicine, bio- and environmental technology, or civil engineering. Here, the use of silica or cements as encapsulation matrices have the advantage of a higher chemical and mechanical resistance towards harsh environmental conditions during processing compared to their polymeric counterparts. In this perspective, the article gives an overview about the inorganic material systems used for cell encapsulation, followed by reviewing the most important applications. The future may lay in a combination of the currently achieved biohybrid systems with additive manufacturing techniques. In a longer perspective, this would enable the direct printing of cell loaded bioreactor components. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andalaft, E.; Vega, R.; Correa, M.; Araya, R.; Loyola, P.

    1997-01-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-08-21

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of "inorganic molecular wrapping" of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as "armour-plated" enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  14. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of ``inorganic molecular wrapping'' of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as ``armour-plated'' enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  15. Characterization of plasma membrane bound inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... N-ethylmaliemide (NEM), phenylarsineoxide, ABC superfamily transport modulator verapamil and was also by F1Fo-ATPase inhibitor quercetin. Conclusion: We conclude that there are significant differences within promastigote, amastigote and mammalian host in cytosolic pH homeostasis to merit the inclusion of PPase ...

  16. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  17. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  18. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  19. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Sun, Guoxin; Williams, Paul N.; Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  20. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  1. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  2. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  3. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics.

  4. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  5. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  6. Inorganic and organic radiation chemistry: state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyazin, E.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inorganic and organic chemistry is presented on the basis of the general scheme and classification of radiolysis products and elementary processes, by which evolution of radiation-affected substances up to the final radiolysis products takes place. The evolution is traced for the representatives of inorganic and organic compounds. The contribution of radiation inorganic and organic chemistry to radiation technology, radiation materials technology, radiation ecology and medicine, is shown. Tendencies in the development of radiation chemistry and prediction of its certain directions are considered

  7. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...... improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigated the effect of band offset between inorganic HTM/absorber layers. The solar cell simulation program adopted in this work is named wxAMPS, an updated version of the AMPS tool (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure)....

  8. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd 3 (Al, Ga) 5 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6 LiCaAlF 6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3 He. (author)

  9. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  10. Protonation of inorganic 5-Fluorocytosine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Matheus S.; da Silva, Cecília C. P.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Diniz, Luan F.; Andrade, Marcelo B.; Ellena, Javier

    2018-06-01

    5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been widely used for the treatment of fungal infections and recently was found to exert an extraordinary antineoplastic activity in gene directed prodrug therapy. However, despite of its intense use, 5-FC exhibits tabletability issues due its physical instability in humid environments, leading to transition from the anhydrous to monohydrate phase. By considering that salt formation is an interesting strategy to overcome this problem, in this paper crystal engineering approach was applied to the supramolecular synthesis of new 5-FC salts with sulfuric, hydrobromic and methanesulfonic inorganic acids. A total of four structures were obtained, namely 5-FC sulfate monohydrate (1:1:1), 5-FC hydrogen sulfate (1:1), 5-FC mesylate (1:1) and 5-FC hydrobromide (1:1), the last one being a polymorphic form of a structure already reported in the literature. These novel salts were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and its supramolecular organization were analyses by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The vibrational behavior was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and it was found to be consistent with the crystal structures.

  11. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  12. Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

  13. Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Fabian, P. E.; Stewart, M. W.; Grandlienard, S. D.; Kano, K. S.

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass

  14. Applications of inorganic Ion-conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-03-01

    Physical properties and application of solid electrolyte, particularly of inorganic solid electrolyte, are described. Ion conductors have been widely used not only for electric power application but also for sensors, gas separators, display elements, Coulomb meters, storage elements, etc. The most extensively used pacemakers now employ Li/I{sub 2}(PVP) primary batteries. Thin film lithium secondary battery has a feature of providing comparatively large electric current, with 2.5 V charging, 1.8 V discharging, and 3 mA.cm{sup {minus}2} short circuit current. The capacity of about 4 mAh per 1 cm{sup 2} electrode has been achieved. The most widely used solid electrolyte for the oxygen sensor is the stabilized ZrO{sub 2}. The relation of air/fuel mix proportion with the change in electromotive force is shown. Although solid electrolyte fuel cell is not yet put to practical use, a result of an experiment is introduced. Brief explanations are made on the oxygen pump, electrochromic display elements, Coulomb meter and voltage storage element. 18 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Efficiency and yield spectra of inorganic scintillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodnyi, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of energy loss in inorganic scintillators are reviewed. The main parameters, which control the fundamental limit of the scintillator energy efficiency, are determined. It is shown that together with simple cascade processes one should take into account the production of plasmons to estimate the energy efficiency of scintillators or other phosphors excited by an ionizing radiation. Core-to-valence luminescence related to 5pCs→3pCl transitions is investigated in some chlorides: CsCl, KCl, RbCl, NaCl, KCaCl 3 , RbCaCl 3 . The yield spectra of the crystals in the VUV and X-ray regions are also studied. It is shown that the 4pRb-core states are involved in the process of creation of holes in the 5pCs-core band in Rb-based crystals. The formation of holes in the potassium core band acts as a competing process and suppresses the radiative core-to-valence transitions

  17. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  18. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chicken fat and inorganic nitrogen source for lipase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MA41) from Atlantic Forest, using chicken fat and association of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation to seek economically attractive bioprocess. A 2-level, 4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and response ...

  20. Sol-gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    chemistry and photocatalysis, provides an opportunity to teach valuable laboratory skills and to introduce students to the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of inorganic materials. This laboratory activity is adaptable to a range of educational levels and to various instrumental techniques....

  1. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  2. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  3. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  4. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  5. Metal oxalate complexes as novel inorganic dopants: Studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    UV-visible and IR spectral features not only confirmed the polyaniline doping by complex anions but also substantiated ... MoS3 dopant. Although inorganic metal complexes bear- ... distilled water and then with methanol and acetone until.

  6. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with atmospheric ... molecular weight carboxylic acids in aerosol samples collected from a rural ... include biomass burning, agriculture, livestock and soil dust. Tropical ...

  7. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  8. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for food packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available packaging application. Numerous hybrid inorganic-organic materials have been developed using low temperature sol-gel chemistry, which enables the tailoring of the nanostructure and the resulting material is often multifunctional, offering a wide range...

  9. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  10. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  12. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  13. Biomarkers of Exposure: A Case Study with Inorganic Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental contaminant inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Most mammals metabolize iAs by reducing it to trivalency, followed by oxidative methylation to pentavalency. iAs and its methylated metabolites are primarily excreted in urine within 4–5 days by most species and have a relatively low rate of bioaccumulation. Intra- and interindividual differences in the methylation of iAs may affect the adverse health effects of arsenic. Both inorganic and organic trival...

  14. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  15. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  16. Inorganic membranes for carbon capture and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Matthew T.

    Inorganic membranes are under consideration for cost-effective reductions of carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants, both in the capture of pollutants post-firing and in the direct electrochemical conversion of coal-derived fuels for improved plant efficiency. The suitability of inorganic membrane materials for these purposes stems as much from thermal and chemical stability in coal plant operating conditions as from high performance in gas separations and power generation. Hydrophilic, micro-porous zeolite membrane structures are attractive for separating CO2 from N2 in gaseous waste streams due to the attraction of CO2 to the membrane surface and micropore walls that gives the advantage to CO2 transport. Recent studies have indicated that retention of the templating agent used in zeolite synthesis can further block N2 from the micropore interior and significantly improve CO2/N2 selectivity. However, the role of the templating agent in micro-porous transport has not been well investigated. In this work, gas sorption studies were conducted by high-pressure thermo-gravimetric analysis on Zeolite Y membrane materials to quantify the effect of the templating agent on CO2, N2, and H2O adsorption/desorption, as well as to examine the effect of humidification on overall membrane performance. In equilibrium conditions, the N2 sorption enthalpy was nearly unchanged by the presence of the templating agent, but the N2 pore occupation was reduced ˜1000x. Thus, the steric nature of the blocking of N2 from the micropores by the templating agent was confirmed. CO2 and H2O sorption enthalpies were similarly unaffected by the templating agent, and the micropore occupations were only reduced as much as the void volume taken up by the templating agent. Thus, the steric blocking effect did not occur for molecules more strongly attracted to the micropore walls. Additionally, in time-transient measurements the CO 2 and H2O mobilities were significantly enhanced by the presence

  17. Durability of an inorganic polymer concrete coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Kenneth

    The objective of the research program reported in this thesis is to evaluate the durability of an inorganic polymer composite coating exposed to freeze/thaw cycling and wet-dry cycling. Freeze/thaw cycling is performed following ASTM D6944-09 Standard Practice for Resistance of Cured Coatings to Thermal Cycling and wet/dry cycling is performed following guidelines set forth in a thesis written by Ronald Garon at Rutgers University. For both sets of experiments, four coating mixture proportions were evaluated. The variables were: silica/alumina ratio, mixing protocol using high shear and normal shear mixing, curing temperatures of 70 and 120 degrees Fahrenheit and use of nano size constituent materials. The mix with highest silica/alumina ratio was designated as Mix 1 and mixes with lower ratios were designated as Mix 2 and Mix 3. Mix 4 had nano silica particles. Four prisms were used for each variable including control that had no coating. The performance of the coating was evaluated using adhesion strength measured using: ASTM D7234 Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coatings on Concrete Using Portable Adhesion Testers. Tests were performed after every five consecutive cycles of thermal conditioning and six consecutive cycles of wet-dry exposure. Results from the thermal cycling and wet-dry testing demonstrate that all coating formulations are durable. The minimum adhesion strength was 300 psi even though a relatively weak base concrete surface was chosen for the study. The weak surface was chosen to simulate aged concrete surfaces present in actual field conditions. Due to the inherent nature of the test procedure the variation in test results is high. However, based on the test results, high shear mixer and high temperature curing are not recommended. As expected nano size constituent materials provide better performance.

  18. Synthesis of polymer/inorganic nanocomposite films using highly porous inorganic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanjun; Popp, Matthias; Hartwig, Andreas; Mädler, Lutz

    2012-04-07

    Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO(2) films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO(2) surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO(2) nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO(2) primary particles as the polymerization proceeds. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  19. Holographic patterning of organic-inorganic photopolymerizable nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Stumpe, J.

    2009-09-01

    We present here novel easily processible organic-inorganic nanocomposites suitable for holographic fabrication of diffraction optical elements (DOE). The nanocomposites are based on photocurable acrylate monomers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP). The compatibility of inorganic NP with monomers was achieved by capping the NP surface with proper organic shells. Surface modification allows to introduce up to 50wt.% of inorganic NP in organic media. Depending on the NP nature (metal oxides, phosphates, semiconductors, noble metals) and their properties, the materials for both efficient DOE and multifunctional elements can be designed. Organic-inorganic composites prepared have been successfully used for the effective inscription of periodic volume refractive index structures using the holographic photopolymerization method. The nanocomposite preparation procedure, their properties and optical performance of holographic gratings are reported. The use of functional NP makes it possible to obtain effective holographic gratings having additional physical properties such as light-emission or NLO. Some examples of such functional polymer-NP structures and their possible application fields are presented. The combination of easy photo-patterning of soft organic compounds with physical properties of inorganic materials in new nanocomposites and the flexibility of the holographic patterning method allow the fabrication of mono- and multifunctional one- and multi-dimensional passive or active optical and photonic elements.

  20. Controllable synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid MoOx/polyaniline nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sinong; Gao, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yahong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    A novel chemical oxidative polymerization approach has been proposed for the controllable preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid MoO(x)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites based on the nanowire precursor of Mo(3)O(10)(C(6)H(8)N)(2)·2H(2)O with sub-nanometer periodic structures. The nanotubes, nanowires, and rambutan-like nanoparticles of MoO(x)/PANI were successfully obtained through simply modulating the pH values to 2.5-3.5, ≈2.0 and ≈1.0, respectively. Through systematic physicochemical characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and so forth, the composition and structure of MoO(x)/PANI hybrid nanocomposites are well confirmed. It is found that the nanowire morphology of the precursor is the key to achieve the one-dimensional (1D) structures of final products. A new polymerization-dissolution mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of such products with different morphologies, in which the match between polymerization and dissolution processes of the precursor plays the important role. This approach will find a new way to controllably prepare various organic-inorganic hybrid 1D nanomaterials especially for polymer-hybrid nanostructures. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Purification and molecular cloning of SH2- and SH3-containing inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, which is involved in the signaling pathway of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, erythropoietin, and Bcr-Abl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odai, H; Sasaki, K; Iwamatsu, A; Nakamoto, T; Ueno, H; Yamagata, T; Mitani, K; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1997-04-15

    Grb2/Ash and Shc are the adapter proteins that link tyrosine-kinase receptors to Ras and make tyrosine-kinase functionally associated with receptors and Ras in fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells. Grb2/Ash and Shc have the SH3, SH2, or phosphotyrosine binding domains. These domains bind to proteins containing proline-rich regions or tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and contribute to the association of Grb2/Ash and Shc with other signaling molecules. However, there could remain unidentified signaling molecules that physically and functionally interact with these adapter proteins and have biologically important roles in the signaling pathways. By using the GST fusion protein including the full length of Grb2/Ash, we have found that c-Cbl and an unidentified 135-kD protein (pp135) are associated with Grb2/Ash. We have also found that they become tyrosine-phosphorylated by treatment of a human leukemia cell line, UT-7, with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We have purified the pp135 by using GST-Grb2/Ash affinity column and have isolated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the pp135 using a cDNA probe, which was obtained by the degenerate polymerase chain reaction based on a peptide sequence of the purified pp135. The cloned cDNA has 3,958 nucleotides that contain a single long open reading frame of 3,567 nucleotides, encoding a 1,189 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 133 kD. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals that pp135 is a protein that has one SH2, one SH3, and one proline-rich domain. The pp135, which contains two motifs conserved among the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase proteins, was shown to have the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase activity. The pp135 was revealed to associate constitutively with Grb2/Ash and inducibly with Shc using UT-7 cells stimulated with GM-CSF. In the cell lines derived from human chronic myelogenous leukemia, pp135 was constitutively tyrosine

  2. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  3. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  4. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  5. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  6. The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Eiko; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes was investigated by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR). When erythrocytes stored for 5 weeks were incubated at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, in medium containing 2 mM adenine and 10 mM inosine, with or without 5 mM glucose, a substance of around 4 ppm, as assessed by 31 P NMR chemical shift, was detected in the mixture. However, this substance disappeared by the addition of inorganic phosphate. When erythrocytes stored for 4 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution were incubated with 2 mM adenine, 10 mM inosine, 5 mM glucose, 50 mM inorganic phosphate and 10 mM pyruvate at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, the 2,3-DPG level increased gradually, whereas the ATP level initially increased and then decreased. Intracellular inorganic phosphate appeared to be used for the synthesis of ATP and 2,3-DPG during the first 30 min. of the reaction. These results suggests that the inorganic phosphate accelerates glycolysis by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes rather than its direct involvement in synthesizing organic phosphorus compounds in stored erythrocytes. The results also suggests that the reserve energy from ATP synthesis is not sufficient for the synthesis of 2,3-DPG. (author)

  7. Efficient in situ growth of enzyme-inorganic hybrids on paper strips for the visual detection of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, WanYun; Lu, ShiYu; Bao, ShuJuan; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Lu, Zhisong; Li, ChangMing; Yu, Ling

    2018-01-15

    A visual colorimetric microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was constructed following the direct synthesis of enzyme-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials on the paper matrix. An inorganic solution of MnSO 4 and KH 2 PO 4 containing a diluted enzyme (glucose oxidase, GOx) was subsequently pipetted onto cellulose paper for the in situ growth of GOx@Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 hybrid functional materials. The characterization of the morphology and chemical composition validated the presence of hybrid materials roots in the paper fiber, while the Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 of the hybrid provided both a surface for enzyme anchoring and a higher peroxidase-like catalytic activity as compared to the Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 crystal that was synthesized without enzyme modulation. This new approach for the in situ growth of an enzyme-inorganic hybrid on a paper matrix eliminates centrifugation and the dry process by casting the solution on paper. The sensing material loading was highly reproducible because of the accuracy and stability of pipetting, which eventually contributed to the reliability of the μPAD. The self-assembled natural and artificial enzyme hybrid on the μPADs specifically detected glucose from a group of interferences, which shows great specificity using this method. Moreover, the colorimetric signal exhibited detection limitation for glucose is 0.01mM, which lies in the physiological range of glucose in biological samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Zande, Arend M. van der; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Kim, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS 2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS 2 /WSe 2 /graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors

  9. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  10. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF 2 nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications

  11. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  12. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  13. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  14. Mechanical Designs for Inorganic Stretchable Circuits in Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuodao; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical concepts and designs in inorganic circuits for different levels of stretchability are reviewed in this paper, through discussions of the underlying mechanics and material theories, fabrication procedures for the constituent microscale/nanoscale devices, and experimental characterization. All of the designs reported here adopt heterogeneous structures of rigid and brittle inorganic materials on soft and elastic elastomeric substrates, with mechanical design layouts that isolate large deformations to the elastomer, thereby avoiding potentially destructive plastic strains in the brittle materials. The overall stiffnesses of the electronics, their stretchability, and curvilinear shapes can be designed to match the mechanical properties of biological tissues. The result is a class of soft stretchable electronic systems that are compatible with traditional high-performance inorganic semiconductor technologies. These systems afford promising options for applications in portable biomedical and health-monitoring devices. Mechanics theories and modeling play a key role in understanding the underlining physics and optimization of these systems.

  15. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  16. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  17. The host plant Pinus pinaster exerts specific effects on phosphate efflux and polyphosphate metabolism of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum: a radiotracer, cytological staining and 31 P NMR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Aquino, Margarita; Becquer, Adeline; Le Guernevé, Christine; Louche, Julien; Amenc, Laurie K; Staunton, Siobhan; Quiquampoix, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2017-02-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association can improve plant phosphorus (P) nutrition. Polyphosphates (polyP) synthesized in distant fungal cells after P uptake may contribute to P supply from the fungus to the host plant if they are hydrolyzed to phosphate in ECM roots then transferred to the host plant when required. In this study, we addressed this hypothesis for the ECM fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum grown in vitro and incubated without plant or with host (Pinus pinaster) and non-host (Zea mays) plants, using an experimental system simulating the symbiotic interface. We used 32 P labelling to quantify P accumulation and P efflux and in vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and cytological staining to follow the fate of fungal polyP. Phosphate supply triggered a massive P accumulation as newly synthesized long-chain polyP in H. cylindrosporum if previously grown under P-deficient conditions. P efflux from H. cylindrosporum towards the roots was stimulated by both host and non-host plants. However, the host plant enhanced 32 P release compared with the non-host plant and specifically increased the proportion of short-chain polyP in the interacting mycelia. These results support the existence of specific host plant effects on fungal P metabolism able to provide P in the apoplast of ectomycorrhizal roots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  19. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  20. Inorganic electret with enhanced charge stability for energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We report a new surface treatment of inorganic electret materials which enhances the charge stability. Coating the surfaces with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) makes the electret surface more hydrophobic which improves the surface charge stability under high humidity condit...... conditions. Thermal tests show that the thermal stability of charge in the inorganic electrets is also much better than that of polymer materials such as CYTOP. A demonstrator device with SiO2 electrets shows promising results for energy harvesting applications....

  1. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  2. Organic and inorganic osmolytes at lipid membrane interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, P.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interactions of organic osmolytes and membranous interfaces, and the effects of these interactions on the properties of the membrane. It also includes a treatment of inorganic ions at the membrane interface since osmolyte effects involve a balance between organic...... and inorganic components. Before turning to the physicochemical discussion of interfacial interactions, the chapter outlines some central parts of the biology and biotechnology of organic osmolytes. It reviews the central relationships in preferential interaction theory, which we use in subsequent paragraphs...

  3. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  4. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  5. Effects of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles S; Luo, Chao

    2007-01-01

     We perform a sensitivity study with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to understand the impact of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry and air-sea CO2 exchange. Simulations involved examining the response to three different atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition scenarios namely, Pre-industrial (22 Tg N/year), 1990s (39 Tg N/year), and an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prediction for 2100, IPCC-A1FI (69 Tg N/year). Glob...

  6. Sol-gel additive for systems with inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstinat, M.; Antenen, D.; Suter, W.

    1996-01-01

    A sol-gel additive for inorganic binder systems and sol-gel process for producing air-placed concrete and mortar by using such sol-gel additives are disclosed. Sol-gel additives for gel-derived inorganic binder systems (for example plaster, cement, lime, special slags, etc.) marked improve the consistency of such binder systems during processing or allow their consistency to be regulated. In addition, these sol-gel additives regulate setting times and substantially improve durability (chemical resistance, reduced permeability) and the mechanical properties of the set binder system. (author)

  7. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  8. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  9. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  10. Electrochemical determination of inorganic mercury and arsenic--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib, Maria; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof; Saeed, Asma; Farooq, Umar

    2015-12-15

    Inorganic mercury and arsenic encompasses a term which includes As(III), As(V) and Hg(II) species. These metal ions have been extensively studied due to their toxicity related issues. Different analytical methods are used to monitor inorganic mercury and arsenic in a variety of samples at trace level. The present study reviews various analytical techniques available for detection of inorganic mercury and arsenic with particular emphasis on electrochemical methods especially stripping voltammetry. A detailed critical evaluation of methods, advantages of electrochemical methods over other analytical methods, and various electrode materials available for mercury and arsenic analysis is presented in this review study. Modified carbon paste electrode provides better determination due to better deposition with linear and improved response under studied set of conditions. Biological materials may be the potent and economical alternative as compared to macro-electrodes and chemically modified carbon paste electrodes in stripping analysis of inorganic mercury and arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchrotron radiation studies of inorganic-organic semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.A.; Steiner, H.J.; Vearey-Roberts, A.R.; Bushell, A.; Cabailh, G.; O'Brien, S.; Wells, J.W.; McGovern, I.T.; Dhanak, V.R.; Kampen, T.U.; Zahn, D.R.T.; Batchelor, D.

    2003-01-01

    Organic semiconductors (polymers and small molecules) are widely used in electronic and optoelectronic technologies. Many devices are based on multilayer structures where interfaces play a central role in device performance and where inorganic semiconductor models are inadequate. Synchrotron radiation techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW) provide a powerful means of probing the structural, electronic and chemical properties of these interfaces. The surface-specificity of these techniques allows key properties to be monitored as the heterostructure is fabricated. This methodology has been directed at the growth of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor interfaces involving copper phthalocyanine as the model organic material and InSb and GaAs as the model inorganic semiconductor substrates. Core level PES has revealed that these interfaces are abrupt and chemically inert due to the weak bonding between the molecules and the inorganic semiconductor. NEXAFS studies have shown that there is a preferred orientation of the molecules within the organic semiconductor layers. The valence band offsets for the heterojunctions have been directly measured using valence level PES and were found to be very different for copper phthalocyanine on InSb and GaAs (0.7 and -0.3 eV respectively) although an interface dipole is present in both cases

  12. Extraordinary Interfacial Stitching between Single All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Leyre; Lin, Junhao; De Weerd, Chris; Poirier, Lucas; Boehme, Simon C.; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2018-01-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are extensively studied because of their outstanding optoelectronic properties. Being of a cubic shape and typically featuring a narrow size distribution, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystals are the ideal starting material for the

  13. Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory Studies of Its Accumulation, Depuration and Distribution. ... coefficient, indicating that it could act as one of the excretion routes for Hg and it can be proposed as a sensitive biomonitoring material for Hg. The fecal materials released by the mussel had elevated ...

  14. Heavy metals and inorganic constituents in medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd, and inorganic ions like HCO3-, CO32-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NO3-, Fe2+ and F- were investigated in medicinally important plants: Taraxacam officinale, Cichorium intybus and Figonia critica, applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. In the ...

  15. Development of ultrafiltration and inorganic adsorbents: January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultrafiltration media with and without the assistance of bone char filters were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing radionuclides from contaminated solutions. Precipitants, resin, adsorbents, and inorganic adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in decontaminating solutions. A study of the effects of radiation on ultrafiltration media was initiated. An ultrafiltration media pilot plant was ordered and is being installed

  16. Comparative assessment of different poultry manures and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. M.B. Adewole

    20-10-10) applied at 0.4 t ha-1 and zero manure/inorganic fertilizer application served as ... poultry composts were air-dried, ground and analyzed for their chemical ..... research. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporation, New York, 680 p.

  17. Properties of extended inorganic solids predicted/rationalized by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Due to the vastly complex nature of the problem, guidelines for the preparation of extended inorganic solids with specific electronic properties remain meagre. Here we present the use of First Principles LMTO band structure calculations for the rationalization of the properties of a number of interesting extended solids.

  18. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Njuguna, J.; Pielichowski, K.; Zhu, H.

    2014-01-01

    For persistent inorganic and carbon nanomaterials, considerable scope exists for a form of recycling called ‘resource cascading’. Resource cascading is aimed at the maximum exploitation of quality and service time of natural resources. Options for resource cascading include engineered nanomaterials

  19. Influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remez, V.P.; Charina, M.V.; Klass, S.M.; Shubin, A.S.; Tkachev, K.V.; Isaeva, O.F.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents. The influence of component composition of matrix on sorption properties of sorbents and their stability in different mediums is studied. The dependence of sorption capacity of sorbent on component matrix composition and its porous structure is defined.

  20. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjects presenting with major VOC. Keywords: Serum creatine kinase activity, Serum inorganic phosphate concentration, Sickle cell disease,. Steady state, Vaso‑occlusive crisis. Original Article. Address for correspondence: Dr. John C Aneke,. Department of Hematology,. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching. Hospital ...

  1. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  2. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected in April–May 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions and low molecular weight carboxylic acids using ion chromatography. PM2.5 and PM10 low-volume samplers with quartz fibre filters were deployed and aerosol ...

  3. Technical note: An inorganic water chemistry dataset (1972–2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A national dataset of inorganic chemical data of surface waters (rivers, lakes, and dams) in South Africa is presented and made freely available. The dataset comprises more than 500 000 complete water analyses from 1972 up to 2011, collected from more than 2 000 sample monitoring stations in South Africa. The dataset ...

  4. Thermal hazard assessment of TMCH mixed with inorganic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chi-Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH is a typical peroxide with two peroxy groups that may runaway and/or explode due to mixing with inorganic acids, such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, or H3PO4. In this study, reactivities of TMCH mixed with the above inorganic acids were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Furthermore, data obtained by DSC, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0, maximum temperature (Tmax, and heat of decomposition (ΔHd could be employed to acquire thermal safety parameters. Moreover, thermal activity monitor III (TAM III was employed to investigate the thermal hazards while storing or transporting TMCH and TMCH mixed with four types of commonly used inorganic acids, here as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, or H3PO4 under isothermal conditions. Mixing TMCH with those inorganic acids resulted in higherΔHd except H3PO4, and mixing TMCH with HCl clearly decreased T0. Therefore, the phenomena of mixing those incompatible materials with TMCH can be concluded as the worst cases in terms of contamination hazards during storage and transportation of TMCH.

  5. Fundamentals of EUV resist-inorganic hardmask interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Glodde, Martin; De Silva, Anuja; Sheshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Lionti, Krystelle; Magbitang, Teddie

    2017-03-01

    High resolution Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) patterning is currently limited by EUV resist thickness and pattern collapse, thus impacting the faithful image transfer into the underlying stack. Such limitation requires the investigation of improved hardmasks (HMs) as etch transfer layers for EUV patterning. Ultrathin (<5nm) inorganic HMs can provide higher etch selectivity, lower post-etch LWR, decreased defectivity and wet strippability compared to spin-on hybrid HMs (e.g., SiARC), however such novel layers can induce resist adhesion failure and resist residue. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of EUV resist-inorganic HM interactions is needed in order to optimize the EUV resist interfacial behavior. In this paper, novel materials and processing techniques are introduced to characterize and improve the EUV resist-inorganic HM interface. HM surface interactions with specific EUV resist components are evaluated for open-source experimental resist formulations dissected into its individual additives using EUV contrast curves as an effective characterization method to determine post-development residue formation. Separately, an alternative adhesion promoter platform specifically tailored for a selected ultrathin inorganic HM based on amorphous silicon (aSi) is presented and the mitigation of resist delamination is exemplified for the cases of positive-tone and negative-tone development (PTD, NTD). Additionally, original wafer priming hardware for the deposition of such novel adhesion promoters is unveiled. The lessons learned in this work can be directly applied to the engineering of EUV resist materials and processes specifically designed to work on such novel HMs.

  6. Identification of inorganic anions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayanagi, Masataka; Yamada, Yaeko; Sakabe, Chikako; Watanabe, Kunio; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2006-03-10

    Inorganic anions were identified by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Derivatization of the anions was achieved with pentafluorobenzyl p-toluenesulphonate (PFB-Tos) as the reaction reagent and a crown ether as a phase transfer catalyst. When PFB-Br was used as the reaction reagent, the retention time of it was close to those of the derivatized inorganic anions and interfered with the analysis. In contrast, the retention time of PFB-Tos differed greatly from the PFB derivatives of the inorganic anions and the compounds of interest could be detected without interference. Although the PFB derivatives of SO4, S2O3, CO3, ClO4, and ClO3 could not be detected, the derivatives of F, Cl, Br, I, CN, OCN, SCN, N3, NO3, and NO2 were detected using PFB-Tos as the derivatizing reagent. The inorganic anions were detectable within 30 ng approximately, which is of sufficient sensitivity for use in forensic chemistry. Accurate mass number was measured for each PFB derivative by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) within a measurement error of 2 millimass units (mmu), which allowed determination of the compositional formula from the mass number. In addition, actual analysis was performed successively by our method using trial samples of matrix.

  7. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations in plantain ( Musa spp.) ... Fruit parameters measured were fruit weight, edible proportion and pulp dry matter content; also, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in fruits were determined.

  8. Evaluation of Serum Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of calcium and inorganic phosphate in pregnancy cannot be overemphasized. Their adequacy or otherwise amongst pregnant and lactating women in Enugu metropolis receiving their routine antenatal supplements was the focus of this study. Two hundred subjects (forty in each trimester; forty lactating and ...

  9. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry of inorganic and organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this short review of IDMS is to provide an introduction into the principles of this analytical method and to show possible applications of this accurate technique, e.g. negative thermal ionization IDMS for inorganic anion analysis or the analysis of organic compounds in the field of clinical chemistry. (orig./RB)

  10. Evaluation of Pollutant Loads: Organic and Inorganic in River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the organic and inorganic pollutant loads in River Ukoghor of the Lower Benue Basin. Grab water samples were collected from the outlet of the River into River Benue, twice a month in three replications for a period of eight months (April November, 2002) using sterilized one-litre ...

  11. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of amending soil with organic (poultry manure) and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) was carried out at the Teaching and Research (T&R) Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University, (O.A.U.) Ile - Ife, Nigeria. The experiment ...

  12. Turning Sunlight into Electricity-Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Turning Sunlight into Electricity - Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond. A K Shukla. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1294-1302. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry (MTIC-XIII)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAC 10

    Institute of Science, Bangalore during December 7–10, 2009. The MTIC series of ... The topics covered in this issue span a wide range from ... chemistry that reflect the current trends of research in inorganic chemistry in India. We thank the ...

  14. Response of food organisms to inorganic nitrogen availability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of inorganic N2 forms on pond food organisms was investigated. Seven identified plankton taxa comprising four phytoplankton: Desmidiaceae (desmids), Bacillariophyceae (diatoms), Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) and Chlorophyceae (green algae) and three zooplankton: Protozoa, Cladocera and Rotifera ...

  15. Generalized synthesis of periodic surfactant/inorganic composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huo, Q.; Margolese, D.I.; Ciesla, U.; Feng, P.; Gier, T.E.; Sieger, P.; Leon, R.; Petroff, P.M.; Schüth, F.; Stucky, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    THE recent synthesis of silica-based mesoporous materials by the cooperative assembly of periodic inorganic and surfactant-based structures has attracted great interest because it extends the range of molecular-sieve materials into the very-large-pore regime. If the synthetic approach can be

  16. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects ...

  17. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  18. Concentrations of inorganic elements in biomass fuels and recovery in the different ash fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.; Biedermann, F.; Widmann, W.; Riedl, R.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic elements and compounds in biomass fuels influence the combustion process and the composition of the ashes produced. Consequently, knowledge about the material fluxes of inorganic elements and compounds during biomass combustion for different kinds of biofuels and their influencing

  19. Uptake and Transformation of Methylated and Inorganic Antimony in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Mestrot, Adrien; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Used as a hardening agent in lead bullets, antimony (Sb) has become a major contaminant in shooting range soils of some countries including Switzerland. Soil contamination by Sb is also an environmental problem in countries with Sb-mining activities such as China and Bolivia. Because of its toxicity and relatively high mobility, there is concern over the risk of Sb transfer from contaminated soils into plants, and thus into the food chain. In particular there is very little information on the environmental behavior of methylated antimony, which can be produced by microbial biomethylation of inorganic Sb in contaminated soils. Using a new extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method, we investigated antimony speciation in roots and shoots of wheat, fescue, rye, and ryegrass plants exposed to trimethyl antimony(V) (TMSb), antimonite (Sb(III)), and antimonate (Sb(V)) in hydroponics. The total root Sb concentrations followed the order Sb(III) treatment > Sb(V) treatment > TMSb treatment, except for fescue. Shoot Sb concentrations, however, did not differ among the three treatments. In the Sb(V) treatment small quantities of TMSb were found in the roots, whereas no TMSb was detected in the roots of Sb(III)-treated plants. In contrast, similar concentrations of TMSb were found in the shoots in both inorganic Sb treatments. The results indicate that biomethylation of Sb may occur in plants. In the TMSb treatment TMSb was the major Sb species, but the two inorganic Sb species were also found both in shoots and roots along with some unknown Sb species, suggesting that also TMSb demethylation may occur within plant tissues. The results furthermore indicate that methylated Sb is more mobile in plants than inorganic Sb species. Knowledge about this is important in risk assessments of Sb-contaminated sites, as methylation may render Sb more toxic than inorganic Sb, as it is known for arsenic (As).

  20. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  2. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  3. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  4. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  5. Distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRASAKOPOULOU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (measured as TCO2 and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf were obtained during May 1997. High TCO2 concentrations were recorded close to the bottom, especially in the northern part of the gulf, as a result of organic matter remineralisation. The positive relatively good correlation between TCO2 and both apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU and phosphate at the last sampling depth confi rmed the regenerative origin of a large proportion of TCO2. The comparatively conservative behaviour of alkalinity, together with the relatively low value of the homogenous buffer factor β (β = ∂lnfCO2/∂lnTCO2 revealed that calcifi cation or carbonate dissolution takes place on a very small scale, simultaneously with the organic carbon production. The correlations between fCO2 and chlorophyll α, as well as AOU and the surface temperature, revealed that the carbon dioxide fi xation through the biological activity is the principal factor that modulates the variability of fCO2. A rough first estimate of the magnitude of the air-sea CO2 exchange and the potential role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the transfer of atmospheric CO2 was also obtained. The results showed that during May 1997, the Thermaikos Gulf acted as a weak sink for atmospheric CO2 at a rate of -0.60 - -1.43 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on which formula for the gas transfer velocity was used, and in accordance to recent reports regarding other temperate continental shelves. Extensive study of the dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters, and continuous shipboard measurements of fCO2 a and fCO2 w during all seasons are necessary to safely quantify the role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the context of the coastal margins CO2 dynamics.

  6. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  7. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP) and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica), as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Feng, Qingling; Draenert, Florian; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s) of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP) and biogenic silica (bio-silica) have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation). In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer. PMID:23528950

  8. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  9. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Logullo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 µg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos.

  10. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Eldo; Façanha, Arnoldo R.; Costa, Evenilton P.; Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Masuda, Aoi; Logullo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX) and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 μg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5′-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos. PMID:21747692

  11. Does the determination of inorganic arsenic in rice depend on the method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Calle, Maria Beatriz; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P.J.

    2011-01-01

    , on the determination of total and inorganic arsenic (As) in rice. The main aim of this PT was to judge the state of the art of analytical capability for the determination of total and inorganic As in rice. For this reason, participation in this exercise was open to laboratories from all over the world. Some 98...... laboratories reported results for total As and 32 for inorganic As. The main conclusions of IMEP-107 were that the concentration of inorganic As determined in rice does not depend on the analytical method applied and that introduction of a maximum level for inorganic As in rice should not be postponed because...

  12. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together on N and P absorption and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kuibo; Yu Meiyan; Shen Xiuzhen; Wang Tongyan; Chen Xueliu; Wang Zhifen

    1994-01-01

    15 N trace experiments show that organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together promotes organic N mineralization and absorption. Base fertilizer is mainly for nutrition organs and spring fertilizer for reproduction organs. Organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together obtained the highest production efficiency of total N. Total P amount in wheat plant is slightly higher than that of inorganic N applied only, but P distribution in nutrition organs was slightly lower than that of inorganic N applied only. Organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together, not only promoted the production but also increased fertility of soil, so it is an important measure for wheat to obtain high production continuously

  13. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  16. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  17. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  18. Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are suitable, with appropriate modifications for other inorganic pollutants. For example, the collection of samples for mercury may require modifications of handling procedures. River water samples are collected at the most down-river point where no estuarine influences effect results. Samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and separated into aqueous and particulate phases for pollutant analysis. As is the case of all trace pollutant analyses, meticulous care is required to prevent pollution of the sample and in addition to the precautions described in this method, great personal attention is required to minimize sample handling, pollution by smoke, hands, hair, dust, talc from gloves, etc., and to avoid all contact of the samples and reagents with skin and metallic objects. 1 ref., 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Comparison of several ethanol productions using xylanase, inorganic salts, surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Lu, Jie; Yang, Rui-feng; Song, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-ming; Wang, Hai-song; Zhou, Jing-hui

    2017-03-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. Corn stover was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and then subjected to semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) to obtain high ethanol concentration and yield. The present study aimed to confirm the effect of several additives on the fermentation digestibility of unwashed WIS of corn stover pretreated with LHW. So we also investigated the process, such as enzyme addition, inorganic salts, surfactant and different loading Triton. Results show that high ethanol concentration is necessary to add xylanase in the stage of saccharification. The ethanol concentration increased mainly with magnesium ion on fermentation. Comparing with Tween 80, Span 80 and Polyethylene glycol, Triton is the best surfactant. In contrast to using xylanase and Triton respectively, optimization can make up the lack of stamina and improve effect of single inorganic salts.

  20. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  1. Modern state of radiation chemistry of inorganic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Yu.A.; Nevostruev, V.A.; Ryabykh, S.M.; Safonov, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Regularities of radiolysis of different metal salts and inorganic acid complex anions are considered taking account of the nature of electron states and radiation transformations in them. By chemical processes during irradiation the solid salts considered are divided into 2 groups: salts in which the processes stimulated by radiation lead to chemical transformations in anion and cation subsystems, their valency changed, (1st group); salts in which radiation-chemical transformations influence anion sublattice and cation valency is without any change (2nd group). It is shown that the main part of secondary chemical transformations is realized from low-energy excited electron states. For first group salts these states are of cation nature, at this secondary reactions are determined by ionization processes. For second group salts low-energy electron terms are mostly of anion nature. Classification of inorganic salts by the character of transformations in anion sublattices is marked to be developed

  2. Composite inorganic ion-exchangers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  3. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Maldonado, Emilio Raymundo; Casanova-Lugo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion and their response in plant were reviewed. Agricultural wastes are considered a pollutant reservoir in Mexico; however, for another perspective this represent an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. The production of compost and vermicompost is an option that minimize the risk of contamination and improve quality. Both processes are an alternative for organic production. The efficiency of irrigation and fertilization are affected for the reducing the volumen of an organic material incresase compaction and compression of roots. The mixtures with inorganic materials are used in the development of a new material to obtain better growing conditions for the plant. (author) [es

  4. Energy-effective Grinding of Inorganic Solids Using Organic Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Weibel, Martin; Müller, Thomas; Heinz, Hendrik; Flatt, Robert J

    2017-08-09

    We present our research findings related to new formulations of the organic additives (grinding aids) needed for the efficient grinding of inorganic solids. Even though the size reduction phenomena of the inorganic solid particles in a ball mill is purely a physical process, the addition of grinding aids in milling media introduces a complex physicochemical process. In addition to further gain in productivity, the organic additive helps to reduce the energy needed for grinding, which in the case of cement clinker has major environmental implications worldwide. This is primarily due to the tremendous amounts of cement produced and almost 30% of the associated electrical energy is consumed for grinding. In this paper, we examine the question of how to optimize these grinding aids linking molecular insight into their working mechanisms, and also how to design chemical additives of improved performance for industrial comminution.

  5. A novel lattice energy calculation technique for simple inorganic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Cemal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Banerjee, Priyabrata [Surface Engineering and Tribology Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2017-01-01

    In this pure theoretical study, a hitherto unexplored equation based on Shannon radii of the ions forming that crystal and chemical hardness of any crystal to calculate the lattice energies of simple inorganic ionic crystals has been presented. To prove the credibility of this equation, the results of the equation have been compared with experimental outcome obtained from Born-Fajans-Haber- cycle which is fundamentally enthalpy-based thermochemical cycle and prevalent theoretical approaches proposed for the calculation of lattice energies of ionic compounds. The results obtained and the comparisons made have demonstrated that the new equation is more useful compared to other theoretical approaches and allows to exceptionally accurate calculation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic crystals without doing any complex calculations.

  6. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  7. Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Rafaelle, Ryne P.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly amorphous silicon and (polycrystalline) copper indium selenide. Some of the advanced concepts discussed include multi-junction III-V (and thin-film) devices, utilization of nanotechnology, specifically quantum dots, low-temperature chemical processing, polymer substrates for lightweight and low-cost solar arrays, concentrator cells, and integrated power devices. While many of these technologies will eventually be used for utility and consumer applications, their genesis can be traced back to challenging problems related to power generation for aerospace and defense. Because this overview of inorganic materials is included in a monogram focused on organic photovoltaics, fundamental issues and metrics common to all solar cell devices (and arrays) will be addressed.

  8. Enhanced mobilization of major inorganics during coalification of peats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, A.M. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States); Cohen, A.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Orem, W.H. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Release patterns for Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, and Si from Cladium, Rhizophora, and Cyrilla peats have been determined by means of experiments to 60{degrees}C and 2100 psi. Where pore solution concentrations are high, significant mobilization is directly through loss of pore solutions. Changes in organic structures during early stage coalification may also mobilize exchangeable ions. Attack on solid inorganic phases begins during peatification and may be accelerated at temperatures above 40{degrees}C by increased organic acid production. Respective maximum concentrations for acetate, formate, and oxalate are around 900, 700, and 70 mg/l in the Cyrilla experiments at 60{degrees}C. Enhanced concentrations of Si, Al and other inorganics may result from these.

  9. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  10. Inorganic Carbon Utilization of the Freshwater Red Alga Compsopogon coeruleus (Balbis Montagne (Compsopogonaceae, Rhodophyta Evaluated by in situ Measurement of Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lun Liu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the inorganic carbon utilization of the freshwater red alga Compsopogon coeruleus, photosynthetic rates in response to increasing of bicarbonate concentration, the addition of alkaline HEPES buffer (pH 8.8, acid HEPES buffer (pH 4.0 and the extracellular carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide, AZ, respectively, were examined in situ by using a submersible pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer. Among the treatments, adding acid HEPES buffer significantly reduced photosynthetic rates of the alga, while others showed no effect. Accordingly, we concluded that C. coeruleus had less or no inorganic carbon (Ci limitation in its natural habitat. The alga might have higher affinity for bicarbonate and directly uptake bicarbonate as main Ci source without the aid of extracellular carbonic anhydrase.

  11. Characterization of inorganic wastes from metal working industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Viguri, J.R.; Andres, A.; Irabien, A.; Guise, L.; Magalhaes, J.; Castro, F.

    1999-01-01

    The paper present the results obtained in the characterisation of metalworking wastes, with the sampling of wastes and characterisation data interpretation subjects as the main studied steps. The results of this work allow to establish the environmental impact assessment of the inorganic wastes from a wide range of metalworking processes in order to determine the optimum options to their management (treatment and/or reuses)

  12. Effect of combined application of organic P and inorganic N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to assess the effect of combined application of organic-P and inorganic-N fertilizers on post harvest quality of carrot (Daucus carota l.) stored at 1°C and ambient conditions (8.6 - 24.8°C). For the fertilizer treatments, 309 kg orga ha-1 (for P) in combination with each of six rates of urea (0, 68.5, 267.2, ...

  13. Radiation effects on thermal decomposition of inorganic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effects on the thermal decomposition characteristics of inorganic oxyanions like permanganates, nitrates, zeolites and particularly ammonium perchlorate (AP) have been highlighted.The last compound finds wide application as an oxidizer in solid rocket propellents and although several hundred papers have been published on it during the last 30-40 years, most of which from the point of view of understanding and controlling the decomposition behaviour, there are only a few reports available in this area following the radiation treatment. (author)

  14. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  15. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  16. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  17. Inorganic ion exchangers. Application to liquid effluent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1983-10-01

    Main inorganic ion exchangers used for radioactive liquid effluents presented in this report are: synthetic and natural zeolites, in titanium oxides, titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, some insoluble salts of zirconium, molybdenum and tin, heteropolyacids and polyantimonic acid. Properties of these ion exchangers are described: structure, adsoption, radiation effects and thermal stability, application to waste processing, radioactive waste storage uranium and cesium 137 recovery are evoked [fr

  18. Precaecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphate sources in male broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, P.; Spek, J. W.; Van Emous, R. A.; Van Krimpen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study, comprising two experiments, was (1) to determine in Experiment 1 the relationship of incremental dietary P (phosphorus) content on precaecal digestible P in male broilers and (2) to determine in Experiment 2 the precaecal P digestibility of various inorganic P sources at marginal levels of P supply.In Experiment 1, a total of 260 male Ross 308 broilers were divided into groups of 10 birds per pen resulting in 8 replicates for treatment 1 and 6 replicates for treatments 2–4. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 4 incremental concentrations of digestible P by means of increasing concentrations of monocalcium phosphate (MCP). In the second experiment, 480-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were divided in groups of 12 birds per pen resulting in 16 replicates for the basal diet and 6 replicates for each test diet. A total of 4 inorganic P sources, MCP, monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP) were added to the basal diet to determine the precaecal P digestibility. Three of the 4 inorganic P sources (MCP, MDCP and DCP) represented a mix of batches from different producers. At the end of both experiments, the chyme of the posterior part of the small intestine was collected. Digestibility of P and Ca was determined using titanium dioxide as indigestible marker.In Experiment 1, a reduction in precaecal digestibility of P was observed above an estimated precaecal digestible dietary P concentration of 4.8 g/kg.The precaecal P digestibility of the tested inorganic P sources in Experiment 2 was 78.3% for MCP, 59.0% for DCP, 70.7% for MDCP and 31.5% for DFP. PMID:27635437

  19. Inorganic anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; Jamil, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic anion exchangers are evaluated for Tc, I and S isotope removal from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities were examined. Selected exchangers were examined in detail for their selectivities, kinetics and mechanism of the sorption process (especially in NO 3 - , OH - and BO 3 - environments). Cement encapsulation and leaching experiments were made on the exchangers showing most promise for 'radwaste' treatment. (author)

  20. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins ...

  1. Thermal studies on some new inorganic exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, G.S.; Satyanarayana, J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The new inorganic exchangers developed in this laboratory zirconium phosphate-ammonium molybdophosphate (ZrP-AMP), titanium phosphate-ammonium molybdophosphate (TiP-AMP) and alumina-ammonium molybdophosphate (alumina-AMP) have been investigated extensively to study the removal of Cs from high level nuclear waste. As a part of these studies thermal studies on these substances have been carried out to elucidate the information on thermal stability of these exchangers. Results obtained are presented here and discussed. (author)

  2. Effects of electron beam irradiation on inorganic exchanger AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.L.N.; Mathew, C.; Deshpande, R.S.; Jadhav, A.V.; Pande, B.M.; Shukla, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The heteropolyacid salt inorganic exchanger ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) was subjected to an electron dose upto 2 MGy to assess any possible radiation damage. The breakthrough and total exchange capacity of AMP for Cs + from simulated fission product solutions were determined for both control and irradiated samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were deployed to examine any marked microscopic changes taking place in this exchanger. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. Effectiveness of liquid radioactive waste purification by inorganic granulated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarevskij, V.M.; Stepanets, O.V.; Sharygin, L.M.; Matveev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on purification of simulative and real liquid radioactive wastes from fission products radionuclides and by inorganic corrosion-nature sorbents 'Thermoxide' are presented. Properties by sorption of cesium, strontium and cobalt are studied; results of experiments on purification of weakly-salted water solutions (waste waters, ships drainage tanks, showers and laundries) of the Beloyarsk NPP are presented. Sorbents source characteristics are determined. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Development of a Research-Oriented Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, L. M.; Polo, D. L.; Esperdy, K.

    2001-02-01

    We report the development of a research-oriented, senior-level laboratory course in inorganic chemistry, which is a requirement for chemistry majors who plan to receive the ACS-approved Bachelor of Science degree and is a recommended elective for other chemistry majors. The objective of this course is to give all students the advantage of a research experience in which questions stemming from the literature lead to the formulation of hypotheses, and answers are sought through experiment. The one-semester Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory is ideal for this purpose, since for most students it represents the last laboratory experience before graduation and can assume the role of "capstone" course--a course where students are challenged to recall previously learned concepts and skills and put them into practice in the performance of an individual, original research project. The medium chosen for this teaching approach is coordination chemistry, a branch of chemistry that involves the interaction of inorganic and organic compounds and requires the use of various synthetic and analytical methods. This paper presents an outline of the course organization and requirements, examples of activities performed by the students, and a critical evaluation of the first five years' experience.

  5. Relationships between lattice energies of inorganic ionic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Savaş

    2018-06-01

    Lattice energy, which is a measure of the stabilities of inorganic ionic solids, is the energy required to decompose a solid into its constituent independent gaseous ions. In the present work, the relationships between lattice energies of many diatomic and triatomic inorganic ionic solids are revealed and a simple rule that can be used for the prediction of the lattice energies of inorganic ionic solids is introduced. According to this rule, the lattice energy of an AB molecule can be predicted with the help of the lattice energies of AX, BY and XY molecules in agreement with the experimental data. This rule is valid for not only diatomic molecules but also triatomic molecules. The lattice energy equations proposed in this rule provides compatible results with previously published lattice energy equations by Jenkins, Kaya, Born-Lande, Born-Mayer, Kapustinskii and Reddy. For a large set of tested molecules, calculated percent standard deviation values considering experimental data and the results of the equations proposed in this work are in general between %1-2%.

  6. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio; Razo, Luz Maria del; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values ≥126 mg/100 ml (≥7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 μg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic

  7. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  8. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Shepherd, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2α/. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with [ 3 H]norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle

  9. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA C. THOMAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix; 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements; and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements. Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  10. Quantum chemical studies on the some inorganic corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some quantum chemical parameters are important to determine inhibition efficiency. •Quantum chemical calculations were performed on six inorganic inhibitors. •Five experimental reports were used to explain the theoretical results. •Atomic charges and %contributions were used to determine the atom at protonation process. •For inorganic inhibitors, the best method and basis set were investigated. -- Abstract: Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated by using Hartree–Fock (HF) approximation, Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) and Møller Plesset perturbation theory (MP3) methods at LANL2DZ, LANL2MB and SDD levels in gas phase and water for dichromate (Cr 2 O 7 2- ), chromate (CrO 4 2- ), tungstate (WO 4 2- ), molybdate (MoO 4 2- ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) which are used as inorganic corrosion inhibitors. All theoretical results and experimental inhibition efficiencies of inhibitors were subjected to correlation analyses. In a summary, MP3/SDD level in water was found as the best level. In this level, the inhibition efficiency ranking was found as CrO 4 2- >WO 4 2- >MoO 4 2- >Cr 2 O 7 2- >NO 2 - ≈NO 3 -

  11. Redox-responsive theranostic nanoplatforms based on inorganic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Long; Li, Xi; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Min; Hu, Kun; Li, Lu-Hai; Wei, Yen

    2017-08-10

    Spurred on by advances in materials chemistry and nanotechnology, scientists have developed many novel nanopreparations for cancer diagnosis and therapy. To treat complex malignant tumors effectively, multifunctional nanomedicines with targeting ability, imaging properties and controlled drug release behavior should be designed and exploited. The therapeutic efficiency of loaded drugs can be dramatically improved using redox-responsive nanoplatforms which can sense the differences in the redox status of tumor tissues and healthy ones. Redox-sensitive nanocarriers can be constructed from both organic and inorganic nanomaterials; however, at present, drug delivery nanovectors progressively lean towards inorganic nanomaterials because of their facile synthesis/modification and their unique physicochemical properties. In this review, we focus specifically on the preparation and application of redox-sensitive nanosystems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), carbon nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanomaterials and other inorganic nanomaterials. We discuss relevant examples of redox-sensitive nanosystems in each category. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future strategies from the aspect of material design and practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

    2010-12-01

    Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.

  13. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2011-01-01

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a γ-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  14. Inorganic carbon availability in benthic diatom communities: photosynthesis and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Cruz, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2017-09-05

    Diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) is the main primary producer of many intertidal and shallow subtidal environments, being therefore of critical importance to estuarine and coastal food webs. Owing to tidal cycles, intertidal MPB diatoms are subjected to environmental conditions far more variable than the ones experienced by pelagic diatoms (e.g. light, temperature, salinity, desiccation and nutrient availability). Nevertheless, benthic diatoms evolved adaptation mechanisms to these harsh conditions, including the capacity to move within steep physical and chemical gradients, allowing them to perform photosynthesis efficiently. In this contribution, we will review present knowledge on the effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability on photosynthesis and productivity of diatom-dominated MPB. We present evidence of carbon limitation of photosynthesis in benthic diatom mats and highly productive MPB natural communities. Furthermore, we hypothesize that active vertical migration of epipelic motile diatoms could overcome local depletion of DIC in the photic layer, providing the cells alternately with light and inorganic carbon supply. The few available longer-term experiments on the effects of inorganic carbon enrichment on the productivity of diatom-dominated MPB have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, further studies are needed to properly assess the response of MPB communities to increased CO 2 and ocean acidification related to climate change.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Cross-Linked Silica, Organic Polyimide, and Inorganic Aluminosilicate Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Guo, Haiquan N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs. Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments. Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced (hybrid) silica-based aerogels, polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined.

  16. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in bromine (often exceeding 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight

  17. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  18. CDC 7600 module slice

    CERN Multimedia

    Each module contained 8 circuit cards for a total of about 300-500 uncovered transistors packaged with face plates so the Freon plates wouldn't touch the circuits. (cooling plates that surrounded each module).

  19. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  20. Effects of inorganic substances on water splitting in ion-exchange membranes; II. Optimal contents of inorganic substances in preparing bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon-Sung; Choi, Yong-Jin; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-05-15

    An approach to enhancing the water-splitting performance of bipolar membranes (BPMs) is introducing an inorganic substance at the bipolar (BP) junction. In this study, the immobilization of inorganic matters (i.e., iron hydroxides and silicon compounds) at the BP junction and the optimum concentration have been investigated. To immobilize these inorganic matters, novel methods (i.e., electrodeposition of the iron hydroxide and processing of the sol-gel to introduce silicon groups at the BP junction) were suggested. At optimal concentrations, the immobilized inorganic matters significantly enhanced the water-splitting fluxes, indicating that they provide alternative paths for water dissociation, but on the other hand possibly reduce the polarization of water molecules between the sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium groups at high contents. Consequently, the amount of inorganic substances introduced should be optimized to obtain the maximum water splitting in the BPM.

  1. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  2. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  3. An investigation into modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, E.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the MEA-update it is important to establish which modulators are necessary. In this report it is lookedif the existing modulators can be maintained or new modulators have to be made. Besides technical aspects also material expenses and necessary manpower play a role. 12 figs.; 6 tabs

  4. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  5. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  7. Ionic behavior of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-05-24

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Despite the achievements in device performance, the electrical properties of perovskites have stagnated. Ion migration is speculated to be the main contributing factor for the many unusual electrical phenomena in perovskite-based devices. Here, to understand the intrinsic electrical behavior of perovskites, we constructed metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors based on perovskite films and performed capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the capacitors. The results provide direct evidence for the mixed ionic-electronic transport behavior within perovskite films. In the dark, there is electrical hysteresis in both the C-V and I-V curves because the mobile negative ions take part in charge transport despite frequency modulation. However, under illumination, the large amount of photoexcited free carriers screens the influence of the mobile ions with a low concentration, which is responsible for the normal C-V properties. Validation of ion migration for the gate-control ability of MOS capacitors is also helpful for the investigation of perovskite MOS transistors and other gate-control photovoltaic devices.

  8. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  9. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Khattak, A. M.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.

    2015-01-01

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  10. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  11. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  13. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  14. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  15. Combustion synthesis of inorganic materials; Muki zairyo no nensho gose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyanagi, M. [Ryukoku University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Combustion synthesis of porous titan carbide is outlined. In combustion synthesis, exothermic chain reaction, which is induced by igniting at one point of the simple substance mixture, propagates the combustion wave, and the compound is synthesized, which can be sintered by it. By this method, to this day intermetallic compounds, ceramics and high melting point composite materials have been synthesized, and synthetics can be made compact by adding pressure during or just after the reaction. Recently, applying the induction heating jointly, preheating before the reaction and heat treatment after the reaction can be controlled, accordingly, many high melting point inorganic compounds and composite materials can be made by combustion synthesis under pressure. (NEDO)

  16. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA; Brosseau, Douglas A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  17. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  18. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  19. Modified inorganic surfaces as a model for hydroxyapatite growth

    CERN Document Server

    Pramatarova, Lilyana

    2006-01-01

    The process by which organisms in Nature create minerals is known as biomineralization - a process that involves complex interactions between inorganic ions, crystals and organic molecules; resulting in a controlled nucleation and growth of minerals from aqueous solutions. During the last few decades, biomineralization has been intensively studied, due to its involvement in a wide range of biological events; starting with the formation of bones, teeth, cartilage, shells, coral (so-called physiological mineralization) and encompassing pathological mineralization, i.e. the formation of kidney st

  20. Inorganic elements in sugar samples consumed in several countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, P.M.B.; Campos, T.P.R.; Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Jacimovic, Radojko

    2016-01-01

    Sugar is considered safe food ingredient, however, it can present inorganic elements as impurities uptake during cultivation and production process. Therefore, this study aimed at identifies the presence of these elements in granulated and brown sugar samples available for consumption in public places in several countries. The neutron activation technique applying the methodology to analyse larger samples, 5 g-sample, established at CDTN/CNEN based on k 0 -method was used to determine the elemental concentrations. Several essential and nonessential elements were determined in a large range of concentrations. The results are discussed comparing to maximum values foreseen in the international and Brazilian legislations. (author)

  1. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of volautile inorganic hydrides in binary gaseous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezchikov, V.G.; Skachkova, I.N.; Kuznetsova, T.S.; Khrushcheva, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of single and continuons analysis of binary mixtures (hydride-gas) for the content of volatile inorganic hydrides (VIH) from absorption spectra in the 185-280 nm band. Dependences of the percentage of VIH transmission on the wavelength are presented. It is shown that the maximum of their absorption depends on the element-hydrogen the bond length and binding energy. Detection limit for boron hydride was established to be n x 10 -3 % vol at 185-190 nm wavelength. Technique for spectrophotometric hydride determination in binary mixtures with hydrogen, argon, helium was developed. The technique provides the continuous control of gaseous mixture composition

  3. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  4. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  5. Potential Role of Inorganic Confined Environments in Prebiotic Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Avinash Vicholous; Jaber, Maguy; Brack, André; Foucher, Frédéric; Kee, Terence P; Georgelin, Thomas; Westall, Frances

    2018-03-05

    A concise outlook on the potential role of confinement in phosphorylation and phosphate condensation pertaining to prebiotic chemistry is presented. Inorganic confinement is a relatively uncharted domain in studies concerning prebiotic chemistry, and even more so in terms of experimentation. However, molecular crowding within confined dimensions is central to the functioning of contemporary biology. There are numerous advantages to confined environments and an attempt to highlight this fact, within this article, has been undertaken, keeping in context the limitations of aqueous phase chemistry in phosphorylation and, to a certain extent, traditional approaches in prebiotic chemistry.

  6. Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.

  7. Mass spectrometry a versatile aid to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1976-01-01

    Several hundred publications have appeared in the last three years that deal with applications of Mass Spectrometry to inorganic analysis. Bulk and localized trace analysis, surface and thin film characterization and microstructure examination are currently performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Spark Source Mass Spectrometry and the newly developed Laser Probe Mass Spectrometry. Suitable experimental procedures allow insulators, biologic materials and microsamples to be analysed. In spite of the classification by techniques this review is essentially devoted to the most significant papers in analytical applications but instrumental and basic features are sometimes introduced to support the discussions

  8. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmüller, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) have been realized and investigated. A photo-induced charge transfer could be demonstrated in composites made of silicon nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) via light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. With bulk heterojunction solar cells made of P3HT/Si-nc composites in a sandwich structure, open-circuit voltages of up to 0....

  9. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1976

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1976 presents an annual review of synthetically useful information that would prove beneficial to nearly all organic chemists, both specialist and nonspecialist in synthesis. It should help relieve some of the information storage burden of the specialist and should aid the nonspecialist who is seeking help with a specific problem to become rapidly aware of recent synthetic advances.This is the fifth volume of ARIGS and is organized along the lines developed for the preceding volumes. The authors were encouraged to use synthetic aspects as their

  10. Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, David

    2014-05-31

    To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

  11. Forecasting of heat capacity of molecular inorganic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkov, I.B.; Neganov, O.S.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of experimental material on heat capacity of liquids, covering 350 molecular inorganic compounds, atomic parts of heat capacity for 58 elements of the Periodic system were obtained. Data on the accuracy of heat capacity calculation by the Neumann-Kopp rule using the recommended atomic parts C p are presented. For the Kelli rule it is assertained that the factor of proportiomality between heat capacity and the number of atoms in compound molecule in the general case depends on the type of anion and compound coordination. The Neumann-Kopp-Kelli rules provide a satisfactory accuracy of prediction

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugov, Yu.S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of concentration, separation, detection in gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds including low-boiling gases, reactive gases, organometallic compounds, free metals, anions, etc. are reviewed. Methods of reaction gas chromatography for determining reactive gases, water, anions, metal chelates are considered in detail as well as methods of reaction-sorption concentration and reaction gas extraction. The application of gas chromatograpny ior anaiysis of water and atmosphere contamination, for determination of impurities in highly pure solid substances and gases is described

  13. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  14. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  15. The spectrographic analysis of inorganic impurities in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Normand, J.; Vie, R.

    1961-01-01

    Inorganic impurities in heavy water are determined by two spectrographic methods. First is described the copper-spark method which is sensitive and directly applicable, and is particular useful because of the absence of a support. Secondly the graphite impregnation method is given; this is used when the first method is not applicable (determination of copper) and for the alkali metals. For the usual elements, the sensitivity of the copper spark method is of the order of 0,1 μg/ml whereas for the graphite impregnation method the sensitivity is only 0,3 μg/ml. (author) [fr

  16. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  17. Qualitative tests for the determination of inorganic bases

    OpenAIRE

    Založnik, Urša

    2013-01-01

    The unit on acids, bases and salts is dealt with in primary and secondary schools and can be very interesting to students because they encounter these substances on an everyday basis. In my Diploma thesis I will focus on bases, especially on how the students could determine in the most interesting way whether a solution is acid or base and which solution (base) that actually is. My goal is to develop simple qualitative tests to determine inorganic bases in primary schools. In nature, ba...

  18. Multi length-scale characterisation inorganic materials series

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the first five volumes in the Inorganic Materials Series focused on particular classes of materials (synthesis, structures, chemistry, and properties), it is now very timely to provide complementary volumes that introduce and review state-of-the-art techniques for materials characterization. This is an important way of emphasizing the interplay of chemical synthesis and physical characterization. The methods reviewed include spectroscopic, diffraction, and surface techniques that examine the structure of materials on all length scales, from local atomic structure to long-range crystall

  19. The use of ethephon and mixtures of ethephon luith inorganic defoliants to defoliate apple nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Basak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethephon alone and in a mixture with inorganic defoliants was used to defoliate apple nursery trees of three cultivars: Yellow Transparent, McIntosh and Jonathan. The mixture of ethephon with copper sulphate or magnesium chlorate defoliated the trees better than ethophon or inorganic defoliants used seperately in twice as high concentrations as in a mixture. The tress defoliated with the mixtures of defoliants suffered less from frost injury than those treated with only the inorganic defoliants.

  20. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  1. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  2. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  3. Proceedings of the Alfred O. Nier symposium on inorganic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokop, D.J.

    1993-05-01

    Over 100 inorganic mass spectroscopists, including representatives from 9 different countries, attended. This proceedings contains 12 papers, 11 abstracts, and 38 poster abstracts; an author index is included

  4. The Electrical Characteristics of The N-Organic Semiconductor/P-Inorganic Semiconductor Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    n-organic semiconductor (PEDOT) / p-inorganic semiconductor Si diode was formed by deep coating method. The method has been achieved by coating n-inorganic semiconductor PEDOT on top of p-inorganic semiconductor. The n-organic semiconductor PEDOT/ p-inorganic semiconductor diode demonstrated rectifying behavior by the current-voltage (I-V) curves studied at room temperature. The barrier height , ideality factor values were obtained as of 0.88 eV and 1.95 respectively. The diode showed non-ideal I-V behavior with an ideality factor greater than unity that could be ascribed to the interfacial layer

  5. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties

  6. Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles: Ab ovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous remarkable studies related to the self-organization of polymers, coordination compounds, microscale particles, biomolecules, macroscale particles, surfactants, and reactive molecules on surfaces. The focus of this paper is on the self-organization of nanoscale inorganic particles or simply nanoparticles (NPs). Although there are fascinating and profound discoveries made with other self-assembling structures, the ones involving NPs deserve particular attention because they (a) are omnipresent in Nature; (b) have relevance to numerous disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, Earth sciences, and others); (c) embrace most of the features, geometries, and intricacies observed for the self-organization of other chemical species; (d) offer new tools for studies of self-organization phenomena; and (e) have a large economic impact, extending from energy and construction industries, to optoelectronics, biomedical technologies, and food safety. Despite the overall success of the field it is necessary to step back from its multiple ongoing research venues and consider two questions: What is self-assembly of nanoparticles? and Why do we need to study it? The reason to bring them up is to achieve greater scientific depth in the understanding of these omnipresent phenomena and, perhaps, deepen their multifaceted impact. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  7. MANOVA statistical analysis of inorganic compounds in groundwater Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanty, Heruna, E-mail: herunatanty@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Bekti, Rokhana Dwi, E-mail: groo-jgroo@yahoo.com [Department of Statistics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Herlina, Tati, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id; Nurlelasari, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, University of Padjajaran, Jl. Raya Jatinangor-Sumedang km 21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    The present study was carried out to determine levels of inorganic compounds contained in the ground water and Reverse Osmosis (RO) water filtration result. The data in groundwater samples was collected from Bekasi, Tangerang and Jakarta in Indonesia. A total of 30 samples were collected and analyzed for the determine Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Cyanide (CN) and Lead (Pb). The results of the study revealed that in groundwater, the average of Cd 0.0058 mg / l, Mn 1.5233 mg / l, Cr 0.0127 mg/l, Pb 0.0060 mg / l, and CN 0.0040 mg / l. The level of RO result were: Cd 0.0027 mg / l, Mn 0.1767 mg / l, Cr 0.0024 mg / l, Pb 0.0021 mg / l, and CN 0.0023 mg / l . This means that Cd and Mn in ground water were higher than the values recommended by PAK-EPA and WHO or the standard of Indonesian Ministry of Health. But after filtration Reverse Osmosis (RO) Mn and Cd levels decreased to levels below the standardized value. By comparing of mean in MANOVA and nonparametric MANOVA in α=5%, there are differences in average levels of inorganic substances Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and CN between before and after RO filtration.

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Hongwen; Li, Jiayu; Tang, Yuying; Cao, Yu; Jiang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) had been synthesized directly by one-step ultrasonic treatment under mild conditions. During the functionalization process, Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS) was used as stabilizing and passivation agent, which lead to self-assembling of CDs in aqueous medium solution. OA-POSS was obtained via hydrolytic condensation of γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The average size of CDs prepared was approximately 3.3 nm with distribution between 2.5 nm and 4.5 nm. The prepared organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots have several characteristics such as photoluminescence emission wavelength, efficient cellular uptake, and good biocompatibility. The results indicate that OA-POSS can maintain the fluorescence properties of the carbon dots effectively, and reduced cytotoxicity provides the possibility for biomedical applications. More than 89% of the Hela cells were viable when incubated with 2 mg ml‑1 or lesser organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots. Thus, it provides a potential for multicolor imaging with HeLa cells.

  9. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Brown; G. Matthern; A. Glenn (INEEL); J. Kauffman (EnviroIssues); S. Rock (USEPA); M. Kuperberg (Florida State U); C. Ainsworth (PNNL); J. Waugh (Roy F. Weston Assoc.)

    2000-02-01

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies.

  10. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.T.; Matthern, G.; Glenn, A.; Kauffman, J.; Rock, S.; Kuperberg, M.; Ainsworth, C.; Waugh, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies

  11. Distribution of inorganic elements in single cells of Chara corallina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zijie; Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang; Yu Ming; Zhou Yunlong

    2005-01-01

    There are actually 20 chemical elements necessary or beneficial for plant growth. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are supplied by air and water. The six macronutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium., calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are required by plants in large amounts. The rest of the elements are required in trace amounts (micronutrients). Essential trace elements include boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, molybdenum, and nickel. Beneficial mineral elements include silicon and cobalt. The functions of the inorganic elements closely related to their destinations in plant cells. Plant cells have unique structures, including a central vacuole, plastids, and a thick cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane. Generally, it is very difficult to determine concentrations of inorganic elements in a single plant cell. Chara corallina is a freshwater plant that inhabits temperate zone ponds and lakes. It consists of alternating nodes and internodes. Each internodal segment is a single large cell, up to 10 cm in length, and 1 mm in diameter. With this species it was possible to isolate subcellular fractions with surgical methods with minimal risk of cross contamination. In this study, concentrations of magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum in the cell wall, cytoplasm, and vacuole of single cells of Chara corallina were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution characteristics of these elements in the cell components were discussed.

  12. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  13. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  14. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  15. Mean age distribution of inorganic soil-nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed landscapes causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a model to characterize the "age" of inorganic soil-nitrogen (nitrate, and ammonia/ammonium). We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the time elapsed since inorganic nitrogen has been introduced into the soil system. We analyze a corn-corn-soybean rotation, common in the Midwest United States, as an example application. We observe two counter-intuitive results: (1) the mean nitrogen age in the topsoil layer is relatively high; and (2) mean nitrogen age is lower under soybean cultivation compared to corn although no fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation. The first result can be explained by cation-exchange of ammonium that retards the leaching of nitrogen, resulting in an increase in the mean nitrogen age near the soil surface. The second result arises because the soybean utilizes the nitrogen fertilizer left from the previous year, thereby removing the older nitrogen and reducing mean nitrogen age. Estimating the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as an important tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing a nuanced characterization of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes.

  16. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  17. Micronutrients as Impurities of Inorganic Fertilizers Marketed in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Modaihsh

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic fertilizers with major nutrients are likely to be contaminated with some micronutrients. Fertilizers, utilized in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed for their total and water-soluble content of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. They represented three categories namely: phosphatic, solid multiple nutrient fertilizers (SMNF and water-soluble multiple nutrient fertilizers (WSMF. Total iron content in examined fertilizers was higher in phosphatic fertilizers and lower in WSMF. Nevertheless, only a very small portion of the total iron content is likely to be available to plants. It was estimated, on the basis of total content, that almost 2 g of iron would be applied to soil for each added kg of phosphatic fertilizer. The highest total content of Zn was recorded for phosphatic fertilizers. The data suggested that less than half kg of Zn would be accumulated in soil if 500 kg of phosphatic fertilizers were applied in one year. This value however, fell dramatically, to one fourth of the value, when only the available forms of Zn were considered. Fertilizer content of manganese and copper were lower than both Fe and Zn. Micronutrient impurities present in inorganic fertilizers might not have an immediate influence on plant nutrition due to their lower solubility.

  18. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  19. Inorganic photovoltaic devices fabricated using nanocrystal spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Lumb, Matthew P; Tischler, Joseph G; Townsend, Troy K

    2013-09-25

    Soluble inorganic nanocrystals offer a potential route to the fabrication of all-inorganic devices using solution deposition techniques. Spray processing offers several advantages over the more common spin- and dip-coating procedures, including reduced material loss during fabrication, higher sample throughput, and deposition over a larger area. The primary difference observed, however, is an overall increase in the film roughness. In an attempt to quantify the impact of this morphology change on the devices, we compare the overall performance of spray-deposited versus spin-coated CdTe-based Schottky junction solar cells and model their dark current-voltage characteristics. Spray deposition of the active layer results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.3 ± 0.3% with a fill factor of 45.7 ± 3.4%, Voc of 0.39 ± 0.06 V, and Jsc of 13.3 ± 3.0 mA/cm(2) under one sun illumination.

  20. Characterization of Nanoreinforcement Dispersion in Inorganic Nanocomposites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal and ceramic matrix composites have been developed to enhance the stiffness and strength of metals and alloys, and improve the toughness of monolithic ceramics, respectively. It is possible to further improve their properties by using nanoreinforcement, which led to the development of metal and ceramic matrix nanocomposites, in which case, the dimension of the reinforcement is on the order of nanometer, typically less than 100 nm. However, in many cases, the properties measured experimentally remain far from those estimated theoretically. This is mainly due to the fact that the properties of nanocomposites depend not only on the properties of the individual constituents, i.e., the matrix and reinforcement as well as the interface between them, but also on the extent of nanoreinforcement dispersion. Therefore, obtaining a uniform dispersion of the nanoreinforcement in the matrix remains a key issue in the development of nanocomposites with the desired properties. The issue of nanoreinforcement dispersion was not fully addressed in review papers dedicated to processing, characterization, and properties of inorganic nanocomposites. In addition, characterization of nanoparticles dispersion, reported in literature, remains largely qualitative. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive description of characterization techniques used to evaluate the extent of nanoreinforcement dispersion in inorganic nanocomposites and critically review published work. Moreover, methodologies and techniques used to characterize reinforcement dispersion in conventional composites, which may be used for quantitative characterization of nanoreinforcement dispersion in nanocomposites, is also presented.