WorldWideScience

Sample records for inorganic carbon acquisition

  1. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S

    2008-01-01

    . In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris......The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo...... activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (e...

  2. Photosynthesis and Calcification by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) as a Function of Inorganic Carbon Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Veldhuis, Marcel J.W.

    1999-01-01

    To test the possibility of inorganic carbon limitation of the marine unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay and Mohler, its carbon acquisition was measured as a function of the different chemical species of inorganic carbon present in the medium. Because these different species are

  3. Review of progress in soil inorganic carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. G.; Jiao, Y.; Yang, W. Z.; Gu, P.; Yang, J.; Liu, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is one of the main carbon banks in the near-surface environment, and is the main form of soil carbon library in arid and semi-arid regions, which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. This paper mainly focuses on the inorganic dynamic process of soil inorganic carbon in soil environment in arid and semi-arid regions, and summarized the composition and source of soil inorganic carbon, influence factors and soil carbon sequestration.

  4. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  5. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC

  6. Bioengineering aspects of inorganic carbon supply to mass algal cultures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    The work included in this report is part of an ongoing study (currently funded by the Solar Energy Research Institute - Subcontract No. XR-9-8144-1) on the inorganic carbon requirements of microalgae under mass culture conditions and covers the period June 1, 1978 through May 31, 1979. It is divided into two parts appended herein. The first part is a literature review on the inorganic carbon chemical system in relation to algal growth requirements, and the second part deals with the kinetics of inorganic carbon-limited growth of two freshwater chlorophytes including the effect of carbon limitation on cellular chemical composition. Additional experiment research covered under this contract was reported in the Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conferences, pp. 25-32, Bioengineering aspects of inorganic carbon supply to mass algal cultures. Report No. SERI/TP-33-285.

  7. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Hongwen; Li, Jiayu; Tang, Yuying; Cao, Yu; Jiang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) had been synthesized directly by one-step ultrasonic treatment under mild conditions. During the functionalization process, Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS) was used as stabilizing and passivation agent, which lead to self-assembling of CDs in aqueous medium solution. OA-POSS was obtained via hydrolytic condensation of γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The average size of CDs prepared was approximately 3.3 nm with distribution between 2.5 nm and 4.5 nm. The prepared organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots have several characteristics such as photoluminescence emission wavelength, efficient cellular uptake, and good biocompatibility. The results indicate that OA-POSS can maintain the fluorescence properties of the carbon dots effectively, and reduced cytotoxicity provides the possibility for biomedical applications. More than 89% of the Hela cells were viable when incubated with 2 mg ml‑1 or lesser organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots. Thus, it provides a potential for multicolor imaging with HeLa cells.

  9. Simulating the effects of light intensity and carbonate system composition on particulate organic and inorganic carbon production in Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Lena-Maria; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thoms, Silke

    2015-05-07

    Coccolithophores play an important role in the marine carbon cycle. Variations in light intensity and external carbonate system composition alter intracellular carbon fluxes and therewith the production rates of particulate organic and inorganic carbon. Aiming to find a mechanistic explanation for the interrelation between dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes and particulate carbon production rates, we develop a numerical cell model for Emiliania huxleyi, one of the most abundant coccolithophore species. The model consists of four cellular compartments, for each of which the carbonate system is resolved dynamically. The compartments are connected to each other and to the external medium via substrate fluxes across the compartment-confining membranes. By means of the model we are able to explain several pattern observed in particulate organic and inorganic carbon production rates for different strains and under different acclimation conditions. Particulate organic and inorganic carbon production rates for instance decrease at very low external CO2 concentrations. Our model suggests that this effect is caused mainly by reduced HCO3(-) uptake rates, not by CO2 limitation. The often observed decrease in particulate inorganic carbon production rates under Ocean Acidification is explained by a downregulation of cellular HCO3(-) uptake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional polarity of the tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis: role in inorganic carbon acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furla, P; Bénazet-Tambutté, S; Jaubert, J; Allemand, D

    1998-02-01

    The oral epithelial layers of anthozoans have a polarized morphology: photosynthetic endosymbionts live within endodermal cells facing the coelenteric cavity and are separated from the external seawater by the ectodermal layer and the mesoglea. To study if this morphology plays a role in the supply of inorganic carbon for symbiont photosynthesis, we measured the change in pH and the rate of OH- (H+) fluxes induced by each cell layer on a tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Light-induced pH increase of the medium bathing the endodermal layers led to the generation of a transepithelial pH gradient of approximately 0.8 pH units across the tentacle, whereas darkness induced acidification of this medium. The light-induced pH change was associated with an increase of total alkalinity. Only the endodermal layer was able to induce a net OH- secretion (H+ absorption). The light-induced OH- secretion by the endodermal cell layer was dependent on the presence of HCO3- in the compartment facing the ectoderm and was sensitive to several inhibitors of ion transport. [14C] HCO3- incorporation into photosynthates confirmed the ectodermal supply, the extent of which varied from 25 to > 90%, according to HCO3- availability. Our results suggest that the light-induced OH- secretion by the endodermal cell layer followed the polarized transport of HCO3- and its subsequent decarboxylation within the endodermal cell layer. This polarity may play a significant role both in inorganic carbon absorption and in the control of light-enhanced calcification in scleractinian corals.

  11. Effects of land use on soil inorganic carbon stocks in the Russian Chernozem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Elena A; Post, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks with depth and with land use in grassland ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine SIC stocks under different management regimes in the Mollisol, one of the typical soils in grasslands. Four sites were sampled: a native grassland field (not cultivated for at least 300 yr), an adjacent 50-yr continuous fallow field, a yearly cut hay field in the V.V. Alekhin Central-Chernozem Biosphere State Reserve in the Kursk region of Russia, and a continuously cropped field in the Experimental Station of the Kursk Institute of Agronomy and Soil Erosion Control. All sampled soils were classified as fine-silty, mixed, frigid Pachic Hapludolls. Significant differences occurred in SIC stocks between cultivated and grassland soil. The inorganic carbon stocks in the top 2 m were 107 Mg ha(-1) for the native grassland, 91 Mg ha(-1) for the yearly cut hay field, 242 Mg ha(-1) for the continuously cropped field, and 196 Mg ha(-1) for the 50-yr continuous fallow. The SIC was in the form of calcium carbonate and was mostly stored below the 1-m depth. The largest difference between inorganic carbon stocks was observed between the continuously cropped field and native grassland. The increase in inorganic carbon in the continuously cropped field and continuous fallow was attributed to initial cultivation and fertilization. Soil inorganic carbon in Mollisols is not accounted for in the current global carbon estimates.

  12. Kinetics of inorganic carbon utilization by microalgal biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.H.; Leu, J.Y.; Lan, C.R.; Lin, P.H.P.; Chang, F.L. [Development Center for Biotechnology, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. for Environmental Program

    2003-11-01

    A kinetic model was developed to describe inorganic carbon utilization by microalgae biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor. The model incorporates the fundamental mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and biological reaction of inorganic carbon by microalgal biofilm. An advanced numerical technique, the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method, was employed to solve this kinetic model. The model solutions included the concentration profiles of inorganic carbon in the microalgal biofilm, the growths of suspended microalgae and microalgal biofilm, the effluent concentrations of inorganic carbon, and the flux of inorganic carbon from bulk liquid into biofilm. The batch kinetic test was independently conducted to determine biokinetic parameters used in the microalgal biofilm model simulation while initial thickness of microalgal biofilm were assumed. A laboratory-scale flat plate photoreactor with a high recycle flow rate was set up and conducted to verify the model. The volume of photoreactor is 60 l which yields a hydraulic retention time of 1.67 days. The model-generated inorganic carbon and the suspended microalgae concentration curves agreed well with those obtained in the laboratory-scale test. The fixation efficiencies of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and CO{sub 2} are 98.5% and 90% at a steady-state condition, respectively. The concentration of suspended microalgal cell reached up to 12 mg/l at a maximum growth rate while the thickness of microalgal biofilm was estimated to be 104 pm at a steady-state condition. The approaches of experiments and model simulation presented in this study could be employed for the design of a flat plate photoreactor to treat CO{sub 2} by microalgal biofilm in a fossil-fuel power plant.

  13. Inorganic carbon availability in benthic diatom communities: photosynthesis and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Cruz, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2017-09-05

    Diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) is the main primary producer of many intertidal and shallow subtidal environments, being therefore of critical importance to estuarine and coastal food webs. Owing to tidal cycles, intertidal MPB diatoms are subjected to environmental conditions far more variable than the ones experienced by pelagic diatoms (e.g. light, temperature, salinity, desiccation and nutrient availability). Nevertheless, benthic diatoms evolved adaptation mechanisms to these harsh conditions, including the capacity to move within steep physical and chemical gradients, allowing them to perform photosynthesis efficiently. In this contribution, we will review present knowledge on the effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability on photosynthesis and productivity of diatom-dominated MPB. We present evidence of carbon limitation of photosynthesis in benthic diatom mats and highly productive MPB natural communities. Furthermore, we hypothesize that active vertical migration of epipelic motile diatoms could overcome local depletion of DIC in the photic layer, providing the cells alternately with light and inorganic carbon supply. The few available longer-term experiments on the effects of inorganic carbon enrichment on the productivity of diatom-dominated MPB have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, further studies are needed to properly assess the response of MPB communities to increased CO 2 and ocean acidification related to climate change.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Autotrophic and heterotrophic acquisition of carbon and nitrogen by a mixotrophic chrysophyte established through stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrado, Ramon; Pasulka, Alexis L; Lie, Alle A-Y; Orphan, Victoria J; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2017-09-01

    Collectively, phagotrophic algae (mixotrophs) form a functional continuum of nutritional modes between autotrophy and heterotrophy, but the specific physiological benefits of mixotrophic nutrition differ among taxa. Ochromonas spp. are ubiquitous chrysophytes that exhibit high nutritional flexibility, although most species generally fall towards the heterotrophic end of the mixotrophy spectrum. We assessed the sources of carbon and nitrogen in Ochromonas sp. strain BG-1 growing mixotrophically via short-term stable isotope probing. An axenic culture was grown in the presence of either heat-killed bacteria enriched with 15 N and 13 C, or unlabeled heat-killed bacteria and labeled inorganic substrates ( 13 C-bicarbonate and 15 N-ammonium). The alga exhibited high growth rates (up to 2 divisions per day) only until heat-killed bacteria were depleted. NanoSIMS and bulk IRMS isotope analyses revealed that Ochromonas obtained 84-99% of its carbon and 88-95% of its nitrogen from consumed bacteria. The chrysophyte assimilated inorganic 13 C-carbon and 15 N-nitrogen when bacterial abundances were very low, but autotrophic (photosynthetic) activity was insufficient to support net population growth of the alga. Our use of nanoSIMS represents its first application towards the study of a mixotrophic alga, enabling a better understanding and quantitative assessment of carbon and nutrient acquisition by this species.

  15. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    The Lomagundi (2.22-2.1 Ga) positive carbon isotope excursion in shallow-marine sedimentary carbonates has been associated with the rise in atmospheric oxygen, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that the carbon isotope excursion was preceded by the rise in atmospheric oxygen. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon, which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected. We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2.22 and 2.06 Ga along the margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in an open-marine deltaic setting and experienced lower greenschist facies metamorphism. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8.3 to 11.2‰ vs. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents range from 0.01 to 0.6% and δ13C values range from - 24.8 to - 13.9‰. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average 30.3 ± 2.8‰ ( n = 32) in the shallow-marine environment. The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents (0.14 to 21.94%) and δ13C values (- 33.7 to - 20.8‰) with an average of - 27.0 ± 3.0‰ ( n = 50). Considering that the shales were also deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, and taking δ13C values of the overlying carbonates as representative of the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon during shale deposition, a carbon

  16. Modelling the inorganic ocean carbon cycle under past and future climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    This study used a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model with an inorganic carbon component to examine the inorganic ocean carbon cycle with particular reference to how climate feedback influences future uptake. In the last 150 years, the increase in atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have been higher than any time during the Earth's history. Although the oceans are the largest sink for carbon dioxide, it is not know how the ocean carbon cycle will respond to increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide concentrations in the future. Climate feedbacks could potentially reduce further uptake of carbon by the ocean. In addition to examining past climate transitions, including both abrupt and glacial-interglacial climate transitions, this study also examined the sensitivity of the inorganic carbon cycle to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were also projected under a range of global warming scenarios. Most simulations identified a transient weakening of the North Atlantic and increased sea surface temperatures (SST). These positive feedbacks act on the carbon system to reduce uptake. However, the ocean has the capacity to take up 65 to 75 per cent of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide increases. An analysis of climate feedback on future carbon uptake shows that oceans store 7 per cent more carbon when there are no climate feedbacks acting on the system. Sensitivity experiments using the Gent McWilliams parameterization for mixing associated with mesoscale eddies show a further 6 per cent increase in oceanic uptake. Inclusion of sea ice dynamics resulted in a 2 per cent difference in uptake. This study also examined changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration that occur during abrupt climate change events. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon solubility cause significant increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations when melt water episodes are simulated in both hemispheres. The response of the carbon

  17. Dissolved organic carbon biodegradability from thawing permafrost stimulated by sunlight rather than inorganic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, L.; Zhang, B.; Wang, G.; Qin, S.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost thaw could result in a large portion of frozen carbon being laterally transferred to aquatic ecosystems as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). During this delivery process, the size of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) determines the proportion of DOC mineralized by microorganisms and associated carbon loss to the atmosphere, which may further trigger positive carbon-climate feedback. Thermokarst is an abrupt permafrost thaw process that can enhance DOC export and also impact DOC processing through increased inorganic nitrogen (N) and sunlight exposure. However, it remains unclear how thermokarst-impacted BDOC responds to inorganic N addition and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Here we explored the responses of DOC concentration, composition and its biodegradability to inorganic N and UV light in a typical thermokarst on the Tibetan Plateau, by combining field observation and laboratory incubation with spectra analyses (UV-visible absorption and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra) and parallel factor analyses. Our results showed that BDOC in thermokarst feature outflows was significantly higher than in reference water. Furthermore, inorganic N addition had no influence on thermokarst-impacted BDOC, whereas exposure to UV light significantly increased BDOC by as much as 2.3 times higher than the dark-control. Moreover, N addition and UV irradiation did not generate additive effects on BDOC. These results imply that sunlight rather than inorganic N can increase thermokarst-derived BDOC, potentially strengthening the positive permafrost carbon-climate feedback.

  18. Apparent Disequilibrium of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Compounds in Serpentinizing Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    During serpentinization of ultramafic rocks, ferrous iron in silicates is oxidized to ferric minerals and H2O is reduced to H2. This process is accompanied by the reduction of inorganic carbon, as observed in experiments and natural systems. To test the extent to which stable and metastable equilibria are reached among aqueous organic compounds during serpentinization, we sampled water and dissolved gases from circumneutral surface pools and hyperalkaline seeps in the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman and analyzed for various carbon constituents, including dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, methane, carbon monoxide, formate, acetate, and other small organic acid anions. Measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved H2, O2, major cations, major anions, and major and trace elements were also made. The aqueous composition of the analyzed samples was speciated based on ionic equilibrium interactions in order to obtain activities for inorganic carbon species, reduced carbon species, H2, and O2. The redox disequilibria among carbon species was then assessed using data and parameters for the revised HKF equations of state. This analysis demonstrates that the carbon species in this system are out of equilibrium with respect to one another in ways that cannot be compensated by altering the abundance of the other constituents within analytical uncertainties. Specifically, there is too much formate and too little methane relative to stable and metastable equilibria. This result implies the following: 1) Methane and formate equilibrated in separate parts of the system, given that no reasonable temperature, pressure, or composition changes satisfy equilibrium with their measured abundances. 2) Methane production is kinetically inhibited, as seen in experiments. 3) Microbial methane oxidation altered the abundance of methane and formate; methane oxidation to formate or carbonate is calculated to be extremely thermodynamically favorable in these fluids.

  19. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  20. Autotrophic and heterotrophic acquisition of carbon and nitrogen by a mixotrophic chrysophyte established through stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrado, Ramon; Pasulka, Alexis L; Lie, Alle A-Y; Orphan, Victoria J; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2017-01-01

    Collectively, phagotrophic algae (mixotrophs) form a functional continuum of nutritional modes between autotrophy and heterotrophy, but the specific physiological benefits of mixotrophic nutrition differ among taxa. Ochromonas spp. are ubiquitous chrysophytes that exhibit high nutritional flexibility, although most species generally fall towards the heterotrophic end of the mixotrophy spectrum. We assessed the sources of carbon and nitrogen in Ochromonas sp. strain BG-1 growing mixotrophically via short-term stable isotope probing. An axenic culture was grown in the presence of either heat-killed bacteria enriched with 15N and 13C, or unlabeled heat-killed bacteria and labeled inorganic substrates (13C-bicarbonate and 15N-ammonium). The alga exhibited high growth rates (up to 2 divisions per day) only until heat-killed bacteria were depleted. NanoSIMS and bulk IRMS isotope analyses revealed that Ochromonas obtained 84–99% of its carbon and 88–95% of its nitrogen from consumed bacteria. The chrysophyte assimilated inorganic 13C-carbon and 15N-nitrogen when bacterial abundances were very low, but autotrophic (photosynthetic) activity was insufficient to support net population growth of the alga. Our use of nanoSIMS represents its first application towards the study of a mixotrophic alga, enabling a better understanding and quantitative assessment of carbon and nutrient acquisition by this species. PMID:28524870

  1. Urea route to coat inorganic nanowires, carbon fibers and nanotubes by boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Ramya Harika, M.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2008-01-01

    A simple route involving urea as the nitrogen source has been employed to carry out boron nitride coating on carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanowires. The process involves heating the carbon fibers and nanotubes or inorganic nanowires in a mixture of H 3 BO 3 and urea, followed by a heat treatment at 1000 deg. C in a N 2 atmosphere. We have been able to characterize the BN coating by transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The urea decomposition route affords a simple method to coat boron nitride on one-dimensional nanostructures

  2. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  3. Contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R W; Millero, F J; Taylor, J R; Walsh, P J; Christensen, V; Jennings, S; Grosell, M

    2009-01-16

    Oceanic production of calcium carbonate is conventionally attributed to marine plankton (coccolithophores and foraminifera). Here we report that marine fish produce precipitated carbonates within their intestines and excrete these at high rates. When combined with estimates of global fish biomass, this suggests that marine fish contribute 3 to 15% of total oceanic carbonate production. Fish carbonates have a higher magnesium content and solubility than traditional sources, yielding faster dissolution with depth. This may explain up to a quarter of the increase in titratable alkalinity within 1000 meters of the ocean surface, a controversial phenomenon that has puzzled oceanographers for decades. We also predict that fish carbonate production may rise in response to future environmental changes in carbon dioxide, and thus become an increasingly important component of the inorganic carbon cycle.

  4. Determination of 14C age of inorganic and organic carbon in ancient Siberian permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Liang, R.; Lau, M.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Lloyd, K. G.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Hodgins, G.; Rivkina, E.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost represents a large reservoir of ancient carbon that could have an important impact on the global carbon budget during climate warming. Due to the low turnover rate of carbon by microorganisms at subzero temperatures, the persistence of ancient carbon in younger permafrost deposits could also pose challenges for radiocarbon dating of permafrost sediment. We utilized Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to determine the 14C age of inorganic carbon, labile and recalcitrant organic carbon in Siberian permafrost sediment sampled at various depths from 2.9 to 5.6m. The fraction of inorganic carbon (CO2) was collected after acidification using phosphoric acid. The labile (younger) and recalcitrant (old) organic carbon in the subsequent residues were collected after combustion at 400 ºC and 800 ºC, respectively. The percentages of inorganic carbon increased from the youngest (2.9m) to the oldest (5.6m), whereas the fractions for organic carbon varied significantly at different depths. The 14C age determined in the inorganic fraction in the top sample (2.9 m) was 21,760 yr BP and gradually increased to 33,900 yr BP in the relative deeper sediment (3.5 and 5.6 m). Surprisingly, the fraction of "younger" carbon liberated at 400 oC was older than the more recalcitrant and presumably older organic carbon liberated at 800 oC in all cases. Moreover, the 14C age of the younger and older organic carbon fractions did not increase with depth as observed in the carbonate fraction. In particular, the 14C age of the organic carbon in the top sample (38,590-41,700 yr BP) was much older than the deeper samples at depth of 3.5m (18,228-20,158 yr BP) and 5.6m (29,040-38,020 yr BP). It should be noticed that the metabolism of ancient carbon in frozen permafrost may vary at different depths due to the different proportion of necromass and metabolically active microbes. Therefore, additional knowledge about the carbon dynamics of permafrost and more investigation would be required to

  5. The transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds and the assimilation of organic and inorganic carbon by the sulfur disproportionating bacterium Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Trine-Maria; Finster, Kai

    2004-02-01

    The physiology of the sulfur disproportionator Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens was investigated in batch cultures and in a pH-regulated continuously flushed fermentor system. It was shown that a sulphide scavanger in the form of ferric iron was not obligatory and that the control of pH allowed production of more biomass than was possible in carbonate buffered but unregulated batch cultures. Small amounts of sulphite were produced during disproportionation of elemental sulfur and thiosulphate. In addition, it was shown that in the presence of hydrogen, a respiratory type of process is favored before the disproportionation of sulphite, thiosulphate and elemental sulfur. Sulphate reduction was not observed. D. sulfoexigens assimilated inorganic carbon even in the presence of organic carbon sources. Inorganic carbon assimilation was probably catalyzed by the reverse CO-dehydrogenase pathway, which was supported by the constitutive expression of the gene encoding CO-dehydrogenase in cultures grown in the presence of acetate and by the high carbon fractionation values that are indicative of this pathway.

  6. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon (C) fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated to reveal controlling underlying...... mechanisms. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO(2)), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO(2), alkalinity and the water flux...... to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modeled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 +/- 0.07 and 4.9 +/- 0.07 mu mol Cm-2 s(-1), respectively...

  7. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Njuguna, J.; Pielichowski, K.; Zhu, H.

    2014-01-01

    For persistent inorganic and carbon nanomaterials, considerable scope exists for a form of recycling called ‘resource cascading’. Resource cascading is aimed at the maximum exploitation of quality and service time of natural resources. Options for resource cascading include engineered nanomaterials

  8. Distribution of Coral Reef and Seagrass Ecosystems’s Inorganic Carbon in the Waters of Beras Basah Bontang, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Ramadhan Ritonga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Inorganic carbon is closely related to the calcification process (CaCO3, which is the main constituent of coral reefs or microorganisms that exist in the oceans such as foraminifera and cocolitoporit. Inorganic carbon is also closely linked to the chemical processes that occur when carbon dioxide gas (CO2 dissolved in water. The research of inorganic carbon in the waters of Beras Basah was carried out in January, February and March 2012. The purpose of this study was to understand the distribution and concentration of total inorganic carbon (CT in coral reef and seagrass ecosystems as well as the correlation of Beras Basah. The results showed that the concentration of total inorganic carbon (CT in January average 1166.503 μmol/kgSW, February average 1115.599 μmol/kgSW, and then in March the average 987.443 μmol/kgSW. Distribution patterns of total inorganic carbon (CT is vectoral, where in January, the concentration of total inorganic carbon (CT was highest in the Southeast region, was in February in the South and Southeast, while in March shifted to North region of Beras Basah Island. The concentration difference is thought to be influenced by pH and the seasons, tides, biochemical processes, and biological activity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.1-5 [How to cite this article: Ritonga, I.R., Supriharyono, and Henderarto, B. (2013. Distribution of Coral Reef and Seagrass Ecosystems’s Inorganic Carbon in the Waters of Beras Basah Bontang, East Kalimantan. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(1,1-6. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.1-5]  Mechanisms of inorganic-carbon acquisition in marine phytoplankton and their implications for the use of other resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, J.A.; Johnston, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the marine phytoplankton species for which data are available are rate saturated for photosynthesis and probably for growth with inorganic C at normal seawater concentrations; 2 of the 17 species are not saturated. Photosynthesis in these two species can probably be explained by the 17 species not saturated. Photosynthesis in these two species can probably be explained by assuming that CO 2 reaches the site of its reaction with RUBISCO (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase) by passive diffusion. The kinetics of CO 2 fixation by intact cells are explicable by RUBISCO kinetics typical of algae, and a CO 2 -saturated in vivo RUBISCO activity not more than twice the in vivo light- and inorganic-C-saturated rate of photosynthesis. For the other species, the high affinity in vivo for inorganic C could be other species, the high affinity in vivo for inorganic C could be explained by postulating active influx of inorganic C yielding a higher concentration of CO 2 available to RUBISCO during steady state photosynthesis than in the medium. Although such a higher concentration of internal CO 2 in cells with high affinity for inorganic C is found at low levels of external inorganic C, the situation is more equivocal at normal seawater concentrations. In theory, the occurrence of a CO 2 -concentrating mechanism rather than passive CO 2 entry could reduce the photon, N, Fe, Mn, and Mo costs of growth, but increase the Zn and Se costs. Thus far, data on costs are available only for photons and N; these data generally agree with the predicted lower costs for cells with high affinity for inorganic C

  9. The Mechanisms of Calcification in Coccolithophores - The molecular basis of calcium and inorganic carbon transport in Emiliania huxleyi

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are calcifying marine phytoplankton that through the fixation of inorganic carbon into calcite and particulate organic carbon play a fundamental role in global carbon cycles. As the CO2 concentration of the surface ocean increases through the anthropogenic release of CO2 by burning fossil fuels both a decrease in pH (ocean acidification) and a increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (ocean carbonation) are taking place. To understand the impact of these ocean changes on coccol...

  10. Shifts in nitrogen acquisition strategies enable enhanced terrestrial carbon storage under elevated CO2 in a global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Brzostek, E. R.; Menge, D.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2017-12-01

    Earth System Model (ESM) projections of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake are critical to understanding the future of the global C cycle. Current ESMs include intricate representations of photosynthetic C fixation in plants, allowing them to simulate the stimulatory effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels on photosynthesis. However, they lack sophisticated representations of plant nutrient acquisition, calling into question their ability to project the future land C sink. We conducted simulations using a new model of terrestrial C and nitrogen (N) cycling within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global land model LM4 that uses a return on investment framework to simulate global patterns of N acquisition via fixation of N2 from the atmosphere, scavenging of inorganic N from soil solution, and mining of organic N from soil organic matter (SOM). We show that these strategies drive divergent C cycle responses to elevated CO2 at the ecosystem scale, with the scavenging strategy leading to N limitation of plant growth and the mining strategy facilitating stimulation of plant biomass accumulation over decadal time scales. In global simulations, shifts in N acquisition from inorganic N scavenging to organic N mining along with increases in N fixation supported long-term acceleration of C uptake under elevated CO2. Our results indicate that the ability of the land C sink to mitigate atmospheric CO2 levels is tightly coupled to the functional diversity of ecosystems and their capacity to change their N acquisition strategies over time. Incorporation of these mechanisms into ESMs is necessary to improve confidence in model projections of the global C cycle.

  11. Inorganic carbon uptake during photosynthesis. II. Uptake by isolated Asparagus mesophyll cells during isotopic disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espie, G.S.; Owttrim, G.W.; Colman, B.

    1986-01-01

    The species of inorganic carbon (CO 2 or HCO 3 - ) taken up as a source of substrate for photosynthetic fixation by isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells is investigated. Discrimination between CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport, during steady state photosynthesis, is achieved by monitoring the changes (by 14 C fixation) which occur in the specific activity of the intracellular pool of inorganic carbon when the inorganic carbon present in the suspending medium is in a state of isotopic disequilibrium. Quantitative comparisons between theoretical (CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport) and experimental time-courses of 14 C incorporation, over the pH range of 5.2 to 7.5, indicate that the specific activity of extracellular CO 2 , rather than HCO 3 - , is the appropriate predictor of the intracellular specific activity. It is concluded, therefore, that CO 2 is the major source of exogenous inorganic carbon taken up by Asparagus cells. However, at high pH (8.5), a component of net DIC uptake may be attributable to HCO 3 - transport, as the incorporation of 14 C during isotopic disequilibrium exceeds the maximum possible incorporation predicted on the basis of CO 2 uptake alone. The contribution of HCO 3 - to net inorganic carbon uptake (pH 8.5) is variable, ranging from 5 to 16%, but is independent of the extracellular HCO 3 - concentration. The evidence for direct HCO 3 - transport is subject to alternative explanations and must, therefore, be regarded as equivocal. Nonlinear regression analysis of the rate of 14 C incorporation as a function of time indicates the presence of a small extracellular resistance to the diffusion of CO 2 , which is partially alleviated by a high extracellular concentration of HCO 3 -

  12. Involvement of H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase in inorganic carbon uptake for endosymbiont photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furla, P; Allemand, D; Orsenigo, M N

    2000-04-01

    Symbiotic cnidarians absorb inorganic carbon from seawater to supply intracellular dinoflagellates with CO(2) for their photosynthesis. To determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon transport by animal cells, we used plasma membrane vesicles prepared from ectodermal cells isolated from tentacles of the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. H(14)CO(-)(3) uptake in the presence of an outward NaCl gradient or inward H(+) gradient, showed no evidence for a Cl(-)- or H(+)- driven HCO(-)(3) transport. H(14)CO(-)(3) and (36)Cl(-) uptakes were stimulated by a positive inside-membrane diffusion potential, suggesting the presence of HCO(-)(3) and Cl(-) conductances. A carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured on plasma membrane (4%) and in the cytoplasm of the ectodermal cells (96%) and was sensitive to acetazolamide (IC(50) = 20 nM) and ethoxyzolamide (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). A strong DIDS-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activity was observed (IC(50) = 14 microM). This activity was also highly sensitive to vanadate and allyl isothiocyanate, two inhibitors of P-type H(+)-ATPases. Present data suggest that HCO(-)(3) absorption by ectodermal cells is carried out by H(+) secretion by H(+)-ATPase, resulting in the formation of carbonic acid in the surrounding seawater, which is quickly dehydrated into CO(2) by a membrane-bound CA. CO(2) then diffuses passively into the cell where it is hydrated in HCO(-)(3) by a cytosolic CA.

  13. Bioengineering Aspects of Inorganic Carbon Supply to Mass Algal Cultures: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    Regardless of the application, the basic biotechnology of large-scale outdoor cultures involves many common features, particularly in the requirement for adequate nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to ensure that light is the sole limiting yield determinant. Whereas the required quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus are fairly simple, to estimate, those for inorganic carbon are far more complex.

  14. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations throughout its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers (5.8 million square miles) of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, most of which are retreating as a consequence of increased atmospheric CO2. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often red due to blooms of photoautotrophic algae. Recent evidence suggests the red pigmentation, secondary carotenoids produced in part to thrive under high irradiation, lowers albedo and accelerates melt. However, there are relatively few studies that report the productivity of snow algae communities and the parameters that constrain their growth on snow and ice surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity can be stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. We found an increase in light-dependent carbon assimilation in snow algae microcosms amended with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. Our snow algae communities were dominated by typical cosmopolitan snow algae species recovered from Alpine and Arctic environments. The climate feedbacks necessary to enter and exit glacial/interglacial oscillations are poorly understood. Evidence and models agree that global Snowball events are accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 with increasing CO2 necessary for entering periods of interglacial time. Our results demonstrate a positive feedback between increased CO2 and snow algal productivity and presumably growth. With the recent call for bio-albedo effects to be considered in climate models, our results underscore the need for robust climate models to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO2.

  15. Effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunde [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Laboratory of Basin Hydrology and Wetland Eco-restoration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguozhou@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The effect of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation was evaluated. • The enrichment factors was independent concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup −}, or SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. • Cl{sup −} significantly influenced the carbon isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Understanding the magnitude and variability in isotope fractionation with respect to specific processes is crucial to the application of stable isotopic analysis as a tool to infer and quantify transformation processes. The variability of carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of different inorganic ions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride), was investigated to evaluate the potential effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε value). A comparison of ε values obtained in deionized water, nitrate solution, and sulfate solution demonstrated that the ε values were identical and not affected by the presence of nitrate and sulfate. In the presence of chloride, however, the ε values (ranging from −6.3 ± 0.8 to 10 ± 1.3‰) were variable and depended on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of TCE. Thus, caution should be exercised in selecting appropriate ε values for the field application of stable isotope analysis, as various chloride concentrations may be present due to naturally present or introduced with pH adjustment and iron salts during Fenton-like remediation. Furthermore, the effects of chloride on carbon isotope fractionation may be able to provide new insights about reaction mechanisms of Fenton-like processes.

  16. Effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunde; Zhou, Aiguo; Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation was evaluated. • The enrichment factors was independent concentration of NO_3"−, or SO_4"2"−. • Cl"− significantly influenced the carbon isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Understanding the magnitude and variability in isotope fractionation with respect to specific processes is crucial to the application of stable isotopic analysis as a tool to infer and quantify transformation processes. The variability of carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of different inorganic ions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride), was investigated to evaluate the potential effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε value). A comparison of ε values obtained in deionized water, nitrate solution, and sulfate solution demonstrated that the ε values were identical and not affected by the presence of nitrate and sulfate. In the presence of chloride, however, the ε values (ranging from −6.3 ± 0.8 to 10 ± 1.3‰) were variable and depended on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of TCE. Thus, caution should be exercised in selecting appropriate ε values for the field application of stable isotope analysis, as various chloride concentrations may be present due to naturally present or introduced with pH adjustment and iron salts during Fenton-like remediation. Furthermore, the effects of chloride on carbon isotope fractionation may be able to provide new insights about reaction mechanisms of Fenton-like processes.

  17. Photochemical mineralization of terrigenous DOC to dissolved inorganic carbon in ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnos, Hanna; Gélinas, Yves; Kasurinen, Ville; Gu, Yufei; Puupponen, Veli-Mikko; Vähätalo, Anssi

    2018-01-01

    When terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) rich in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (tCDOM) enters the ocean, solar radiation mineralizes it partially into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This study addresses the amount and the rates of DIC photoproduction from tDOC and the area of ocean required to photomineralize tDOC. We collected water samples from 10 major rivers, mixed them with artificial seawater, and irradiated them with simulated solar radiation to measure DIC photoprod...

  18. Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis andImaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Researchand Education in Low Density Organic Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-02

    Report: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density...Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0475 Organization: University of Texas at El Paso Title: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System ...for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density Organic-Inorganic Materials Report Term: 0-Other Email: dmisra2

  19. Synthesis of PbI(2) single-layered inorganic nanotubes encapsulated within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Laura; Ballesteros, Belén; Batista, Eudar; Magén, César; Arenal, Raúl; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rurali, Riccardo; Tobias, Gerard

    2014-04-02

    The template assisted growth of single-layered inorganic nanotubes is reported. Single-crystalline lead iodide single-layered nanotubes have been prepared using the inner cavities of carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. The diameter of the resulting inorganic nanotubes is merely dependent on the diameter of the host. This facile method is highly versatile opening up new horizons in the preparation of single-layered nanostructures. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  2. Solubility and stability of inorganic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of inorganic carbonates is reviewed, with emphasis on solubility and hydrolytic stability, in order to identify candidate waste forms for immobilization and disposal of 14 C. At present, CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 are the two most widely favoured wasted forms, primarily because they are the products of proven CO 2 -scrubbing technology. However, they have relatively high solubilities in non-alkaline solutions, necessitating care in selecting and assessing an appropriate disposal environment. Three compounds with better solubility characteristics in near-neutral waters are identified: bismutite, (BiO) 2 CO 3 ; hydrocerussite, Pb 3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ; and rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Some of the limitations of each of these alternative waste forms are discussed

  3. Determination of the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in water; RSIL lab code 1710

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Glenda L.; Revesz, Kinga; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 1710 is to present a method to determine the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of water. The DIC of water is precipitated using ammoniacal strontium chloride (SrCl2) solution to form strontium carbonate (SrCO3). The δ13C is analyzed by reacting SrCO3 with 100-percent phosphoric acid (H3PO4) to liberate carbon quantitatively as carbon dioxide (CO2), which is collected, purified by vacuum sublimation, and analyzed by dual inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (DI-IRMS). The DI-IRMS is a DuPont double-focusing mass spectrometer. One ion beam passes through a slit in a forward collector and is collected in the rear collector. The other measurable ion beams are collected in the front collector. By changing the ion-accelerating voltage under computer control, the instrument is capable of measuring mass/charge (m/z) 45 or 46 in the rear collector and m/z 44 and 46 or 44 and 45, respectively, in the front collector. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z 44 = CO2 = 12C16O16O, m/z 45 = CO2 = 13C16O16O primarily, and m/z 46 = CO2 = 12C16O18O primarily. The data acquisition and control software calculates δ13C values.

  4. Instrumentation and analytical methods in carbon balance studies - inorganic components in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvan, I.; Johannessen, T.; Miller, L.; Stoll, M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Substantial amounts of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} enters the atmosphere. The land biota acts as a sink for CO{sub 2}, with uncertain consequences. About 30% of the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} added to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean and how the ocean acts as a sink is central in understanding the carbon cycle. In their project the authors investigate the inorganic carbon in the ocean, especially total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in surface ocean and atmosphere. To determine total dissolved inorganic carbon, coulometric analysis is used in which an exact amount of sea water is acidified and the amount of carbon extracted is determined by a coulometer. Alkalinity is determined by potentiometric titration. In the pCO{sub 2} measurement, a small amount of air is circulated in a large amount of sea water and when after some time the amount of CO{sub 2} in the air reflects the CO{sub 2} concentration in the water, the pCO{sub 2} in the gas phase is determined by infra-red detection. The atmospheric pCO{sub 2} is also determined, and the difference between the two partial pressures gives information about source or sink activities. Total carbon and alkalinity measurements are done on discrete samples taken from all depths in the ocean, but for partial pressure detection an underway system is used, which determines the pCO{sub 2} in the surface ocean continuously

  5. Inorganic carbon turnover caused by digestion of carbonate sands and metabolic activity of holothurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kenneth; Silverman, Jacob; Kravitz, Ben; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider-Mor, Aya; Barbosa, Sergio; Byrne, Maria; Caldeira, Ken

    2013-11-01

    Recent measurements have shown that holothurians (sea cucumbers) may play an important role in the cycling of CaCO3 in tropical coral reef systems through ingestion and processing of carbonate sediment. In this report, we present estimates of inorganic carbon turnover rates determined from laboratory incubations of Holothuria atra, Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus herrmanni. The pH values of the gut lumen ranged from 7.0 to 7.6 when digestive tracts were filled with sediment compared with 6.1-6.7 in animals with empty digestive tracts. Empty gut volume estimates for H. atra and S. herrmanni were 36 ± 4 mL and 151 ± 14 mL, respectively. Based on these measurements and the density and porosity of carbonate sediments of coral reefs, it is estimated that these species process 19 ± 2 kg and 80 ± 7 kg CaCO3 sand yr-1 per individual, respectively. The annual CaCO3 dissolution rates per H. atra and S. herrmanni individual are estimated to be 6.5 ± 1.9 g and 9.6 ± 1.4 g, respectively, suggesting that 0.05 ± 0.02% and 0.1 ± 0.02% of the CaCO3 processed through their gut annually is dissolved. During incubations the CaCO3 dissolution of the fecal casts was 0.07 ± 0.01%, 0.04 ± 0.01% and 0.21 ± 0.05% for H. atra, H. leucospilota and S. herrmanni, respectively. The CaCO3 saturation state in the incubation seawater decreased markedly due to a greater increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) relative to total alkalinity (AT) as a result of respiration by the animals. Our results support the hypothesis that deposit feeders such as sea cucumbers play an important ecological role in the coral reef CaCO3 cycle.

  6. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  7. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon across contiguous mangrove and seagrass systems (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillon, S.; Dehairs, F.; Velimirov, B.; Abril, G.; Borges, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the water column biogeochemistry in adjacent mangrove and seagrass systems in Gazi Bay (Kenya), with a focus on assessing the sources and cycling of organic and inorganic carbon. Mangrove and seagrass-derived material was found to be the dominant organic carbon sources in the water

  8. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Druffel, E. R. M; Bauer, J. E; Griffin, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters...

  9. Acquisition and metabolism of carbon in the Ochrophyta other than diatoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, J. A.; Giordano, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 372, č. 1728 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 20160400. ISSN 1471-2970 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CO2 concentrating mechanism * Rubisco * inorganic carbon Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  10. Simulated In Situ Determination of Soil Profile Organic and Inorganic Carbon With LIBS and VisNIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, R. S.; Brown, D. J.; Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (VisNIR) are complementary analytical techniques that have the potential to fill that need. The LIBS method provides precise elemental analysis of soils, but generally cannot distinguish between organic C and inorganic C. VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for measuring soil properties including SOC and inorganic carbon (IC). As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership, 240 intact core samples (3.8 x 50 cm) have been collected from six agricultural fields in north central Montana, USA. Each of these core samples were probed concurrently with LIBS and VisNIR at 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, 27.5, 35 and 45 cm (+/- 1.5 cm) depths. VisNIR measurements were taken using an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Boulder, CO, USA) Agrispec spectrometer to determine the partition of SOC vs. IC in the samples. The LIBS scans were collected with the LANL LIBS Core Scanner Instrument which collected the entire 200 - 900 nm plasma emission including the 247.8 nm carbon emission line. This instrument also collected the emission from the elements typically found in inorganic carbon (Ca and Mg) and organic carbon (H, O, and N). Subsamples of soil (~ 4 g) were taken from interrogation points for laboratory determination of SOC and IC. Using this analytical data, we constructed several full spectrum multivariate VisNIR/LIBS calibration models for SOC and IC. These models were then applied to independent validation cores for model evaluation.

  11. Inorganic Carbon Turnover caused by Digestion of Carbonate Sands and Metabolic Activity of Holothurians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Kenneth; Silverman, Jacob; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider-Mor, Aya; Barbosa, Sergio; Byrne, Maria; Caldeira, Ken

    2013-11-20

    Recent measurements have shown that holothurians (sea cucumbers) play an important role in the cycling of CaCO3 in tropical coral reef systems through ingestion and processing of carbonate sediment. In this study inorganic additional aspects of carbon turnover were determined in laboratory incubations of Holothuria atra, H. leucospilota and Stichopus herrmanni from One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef. The pH values of the gut lumen ranged from 6.1 to 6.7 in animals with empty digestive tracts as opposed to 7.0 to 7.6 when digestive tracts were filled with sediment. Empty gut volume estimates for H. atra and S. herrmanni were 36 ± 4 mL and 151 ± 14 mL, respectively. Based on these measurements it is estimated that these species process 19 ± 2kg and 80 ± 7kg CaCO3 sand yr-1 per individual, respectively. The annual dissolution rates of H. atra and S. herrmanni of 6.5±1.9g and 9.6±1.4g, respectively, suggest that 0.05±0.02% and 0.1±0.02% of the CaCO3 processed through their gut annually is dissolved. During the incubations the CaCO3 dissolution was 0.07±0.01%, 0.04±0.01% and 0.21±0.05% of the fecal casts for H. atra, H. leucospilota and S. herrmanni, respectively. The CaCO3 saturation state for both aragonite and calcite minerals during laboratory incubations decreased markedly due to a greater increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) relative to total alkalinity (AT) as a result of respiration by the animals. Our results support the hypothesis that deposit feeders such as sea cucumbers play an important ecological role in the coral reef CaCO3 cycle.

  12. Methodologies for extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon for stable carbon isotope studies : evaluation and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1982-01-01

    The gas evolution and the strontium carbonate precipitation techniques to extract dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for stable carbon isotope analysis were investigated. Theoretical considerations, involving thermodynamic calculations and computer simulation pointed out several possible sources of error in delta carbon-13 measurements of the DIC and demonstrated the need for experimental evaluation of the magnitude of the error. An alternative analytical technique, equilibration with out-gassed vapor phase, is proposed. The experimental studies revealed that delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted from a 0.01 molar NaHC03 solution by both techniques agreed within 0.1 per mil with the delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted by the precipitation technique, and an increase of only 0.27 per mil in that extracted by the gas evolution technique. The efficiency of extraction of DIC decreased with sulfate concentration in the precipitation technique but was independent of sulfate concentration in the gas evolution technique. Both the precipitation and gas evolution technique were found to be satisfactory for extraction of DIC from different kinds of natural water for stable carbon isotope analysis, provided appropriate precautions are observed in handling the samples. For example, it was found that diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide does alter the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the precipitation technique; hot manganese dioxide purification changes the delta carbon-13 of carbon dioxide. (USGS)

  13. Studies on sorption of plutonium on inorganic exchangers from sodium carbonate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pius, I C; Charyulu, M M; Sivaramakrishnan, C K [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Venkataramani, B [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sorption of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate medium has been investigated by using different inorganic exchangers alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these exchangers from sodium carbonate medium were found to be sufficiently high indicating the suitability of these exchangers for the removal of Pu(IV). The presence of uranium and dibutyl phosphate do not have any effect on distribution ratio. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities for above exchangers have been determined with 5 ml bed at a flow rate of 30 ml/hour. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Elemental and stable isotopic approaches for studying the organic and inorganic carbon components in natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, J-F

    2009-01-01

    The carbon cycle is an important part of major biogeochemical cycles. Many techniques may be used to characterize carbon amounts and sources in the environment. Here we first review the most popular techniques for the determination of organic and inorganic carbon concentrations. Decarbonatation techniques are also reviewed in details since it is often an important part of organic carbon analysis. The second part of this paper addresses the use of carbon stable isotopes to characterize organic carbon sources and processes in the environment. An overview of general stable isotopes background and terminology is given as well as the most popular analytical techniques.

  15. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  16. Watershed scale spatial variability in dissolved and total organic and inorganic carbon in contrasting UK catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, S.; Baker, A.; Hudson, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    Approximately 800 organic and inorganic carbon analyses have been undertaken from watershed scale and regional scale spatial surveys in various British catchments. These include (1) a small (urban catchment (Ouseburn, N England); (2) a headwater, lowland agricultural catchment (River Tern, C England) (3) a large UK catchment (River Tyne, ~3000 sq-km) and (4) a spatial survey of ~300 analyses from rivers from SW England (~1700 sq-km). Results demonstrate that: (1) the majority of organic and inorganic carbon is in the dissolved (DOC and DIC) fractions; (2) that with the exception of peat rich headwaters, DIC concentration is always greater than DOC; (3) In the rural River Tern, riverine DOC and DIC are shown to follow a simple end- member mixing between DIC (DOC) rich (poor) ground waters and DOC (DIC) rich (poor) riparian wetlands for all sample sites. (4) In the urbanized Ouseburn catchment, although many sample sites also show this same mixing trend, some tributaries follow a pollutant trend of simultaneous increases in both DOC and DIC. The Ouseburn is part of the larger Tyne catchment: this larger catchment follows the simple groundwater DIC- soil water DOC end member mixing model, with the exception of the urban catchments which exhibit an elevated DIC compared to rural sites. (5) Urbanization is demonstrated to increase DIC compared to equivalent rural catchments; this DIC has potential sources including diffuse source inputs from the dissolution of concrete, point sources such as trade effluents and landfill leachates, and bedrock derived carbonates relocated to the soil dissolution zone by urban development. (6) DIC in rural SW England demonstrates that spatial variability in DIC can be attributed to variations in geology; but that DIC concentrations in the SW England rivers dataset are typically lower than the urbanized Tyne catchments despite the presence of carbonate bedrock in many of the sample catchments in the SW England dataset. (7) Recent

  17. Modelling the 13C and 12C isotopes of inorganic and organic carbon in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, 12C and 13C contents of all carbon containing state variables (dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, detrital carbon, and the carbon content of autotrophs and heterotrophs) have for the first time been explicitly included in a coupled physical-biogeochemical Baltic Sea model. Different processes in the carbon cycling have distinct fractionation values, resulting in specific isotopic fingerprints. Thus, in addition to simulating concentrations of different tracers, our new model formulation improves the possibility to constrain the rates of processes such as CO2 assimilation, mineralization, and air-sea exchange. We demonstrate that phytoplankton production and respiration, and the related air-sea CO2 fluxes, are to a large degree controlling the isotopic composition of organic and inorganic carbon in the system. The isotopic composition is further, but to a lesser extent, influenced by river loads and deep water inflows as well as transformation of terrestrial organic carbon within the system. Changes in the isotopic composition over the 20th century have been dominated by two processes - the preferential release of 12C to the atmosphere in association with fossil fuel burning, and the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea related to increased nutrient loads under the second half of the century.

  18. Inorganic markers, carbonaceous components and stable carbon isotope from biomass burning aerosols in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-12-01

    To better characterize the sources of fine particulate matter (i.e. PM2.5) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, aerosol chemical composition such total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and inorganic ions were studied as well as stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of TC. Intensively open biomass burning episodes were identified from late September to early October by satellite fire and aerosol optical depth maps. During the biomass burning episodes, concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC, and WSOC increased by a factor of 4-12 compared to non-biomass-burning periods. Non-sea-salt potassium is strongly correlated with PM2.5, OC, EC and WSOC, suggesting an important contribution of biomass burning emission. The enrichment in both the non-sea-salt potassium and chlorine is significantly larger than other inorganic species, indicating that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly fresh and less aged. In addition, WSOC to OC ratio is relatively lower compared to that reported in biomass burning aerosols in tropical regions, supporting that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly primary and secondary organic aerosols is not significant. A lower average δ13C value (-26.2‰) is found for the biomass-burning aerosols, suggesting a dominant contribution from combustion of C3 plants in the studied region.

  19. Coulometric precise analysis of total inorganic carbon in seawater and measurements of radiocarbon for the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and for the total inorganic carbon in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masao; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Matsueda Hidekazu

    2000-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest issues on the earth, and the research on the climate system has been paid much attention today. The behavior of carbon dioxide (Co 2 ), one of the major green house gases, and its related substances within and among the atmosphere, the ocean and the land biosphere is playing a key role in regulating the climate. The ocean contains ca. 4x10 19 g of carbon, which is about 50 times of that in the atmosphere. The change in carbon cycle in the ocean is considered to have a crucial impact on the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere. However, little has been quantitatively known about the variability of CO 2 in the ocean and its controlling physical, chemical and biological processes. The observations of the concentration and carbon isotopic ratio of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO 2 ) in seawater occupy important part of the research on the behavior of carbon in the ocean. In the first part of this report, we describe the fundamental knowledge of CO 2 system in seawater and the method to precisely measure TCO 2 including sampling method, the structure and the operation of the instrument we developed, and the way to assure the quality of the data. We also present some results we obtained in the western North Pacific and the equatorial Pacific. In the second part, we report the methods to collect and treat samples for the analysis of the isotopic ratio of radio carbon ( 14 C) in the atmospheric CO 2 and TCO 2 in sea water. (author)

  20. Physiological conditions and uptake of inorganic carbon-14 by plant roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Ewing, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of inorganic 14 C by bean plant roots was measured. The plants were grown in a nutrient solution culture at pH 6 and a NaH 14 CO 3 tracer was added to the growth medium. Photosynthesis and transpiration were varied by exposing the aerial portions of the plants to different atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, humidities and light levels in a cuvette system. Leaf concentrations of 14 C were measured at the end of the experiments using liquid scintillation counting. Plant uptake of 14 C via the roots was independent of the photosynthetic rate and, in most cases, could be predicted by knowing the transpiration rate and the nutrient solution concentration. However, when a less efficient root-medium aeration system was used, 14 C uptake was greater than that predicted using transpiration, a phenomenon observed by other researchers. This contrasted to results of another experiment where the measured uptake of iodine was much slower than that predicted using transpiration. Knowledge of transpiration rates is useful in predicting inorganic carbon uptake via the roots and in estimating 14 C transport from contaminated soils to biota. Also, the independence of the uptake from photosynthesis and ambient CO 2 concentrations suggests that future increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may not have a direct effect on root uptake of soil carbon. (author)

  1. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  2. Sources and fluxes of inorganic carbon in a deep, oligotrophic lake (Loch Ness, Scotland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. I.; Grey, J.; Quarmby, Christopher; Sleep, Darren

    2001-12-01

    The main river inflows to Loch Ness and several depths in the water column within the loch were sampled over an annual cycle. The carbon isotope composition of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the samples was determined as well as that of phytoplankton from the loch. Values of δ13C for DIC in the rivers indicated that this DIC was derived from soil respiration in the catchment and achieved only partial equilibrium with the atmosphere during river transport. Riverine loading accounted for most of the DIC in Loch Ness, and the great depth of the loch relative to its surface area allows only limited exchange with the atmosphere. Despite the low productivity in Loch Ness, DIC concentrations in the low alkalinity water are appreciably influenced by plankton metabolism, and seasonal fluctuations in δ13C of DIC and phytoplankton revealed the particular impact of photosynthetic carbon fixation on DIC. However, the photosynthetic depletion of DIC during summer does not offset the riverine loading sufficiently to prevent the loch waters being supersaturated with CO2 throughout the year. Annual efflux of CO2 from Loch Ness is estimated to be 253 × 106 mol yr-1, of which around one quarter may be due to net heterotrophic mineralization within the loch of organic carbon of terrestrial origin. The remainder is attributable to inorganic carbon input to the lake via river inflow and derived from prior mineralization of soil organic matter within the drainage area. This annual efflux of CO2 can represent around 6% of net ecosystem production in the catchment.

  3. Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel Using Poly aniline Composite with Inorganic Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dulaimi, A.A.; Shahrir Hashim; Khan, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Two inorganic pigments (TiO 2 and SiO 2 ) were used to prepare composites with poly aniline (PANI) by situ polymerization method. PANI and PANI composites with SiO 2 and TiO 2 were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the synthesized pigments (PANI , PANI-SiO 2 and PANI-TiO 2 ) was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Samples were then used as pigments through blending them with acrylic paint and applied on the surface of carbon steel panels. Corrosion was evaluated for coating of carbon steel panels through full immersion test up to standard ASTMG 31. Mass loss was calculated after they have been exposed in acidic media. A digital camera was also used for monitoring corrosion visually on the surface of carbon steel specimens. The results revealed that acrylic paint pigmented by PANI-SiO 2 composite was more efficient in corrosion protection for carbon steel compared with the other synthesized pigments. (author)

  4. Seasonal variability of the inorganic carbon system in a large coastal plain estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesoef, Andrew; Kirchman, David L.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. More work is needed to understand how changes in land-use activity influence watershed export of organic and inorganic carbon, acids, and nutrients to the coastal ocean. To investigate the seasonal variation of the inorganic carbon system in the Delaware Estuary, one of the largest estuaries along the US east coast, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH were measured along the estuary from June 2013 to April 2015. In addition, DIC, TA, and pH were periodically measured from March to October 2015 in the nontidal freshwater Delaware, Schuylkill, and Christina rivers over a range of discharge conditions. There were strong negative relationships between river TA and discharge, suggesting that changes in HCO3- concentrations reflect dilution of weathering products in the drainage basin. The ratio of DIC to TA, an understudied but important property, was high (1.11) during high discharge and low (0.94) during low discharge, reflecting additional DIC input in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), most likely from terrestrial organic matter decomposition, rather than bicarbonate (HCO3-) inputs due to drainage basin weathering processes. This is also a result of CO2 loss to the atmosphere due to rapid water transit during the wet season. Our data further show that elevated DIC in the Schuylkill River is substantially different than that in the Delaware River. Thus, tributary contributions must be considered when attributing estuarine DIC sources to the internal carbon cycle versus external processes such as drainage basin mineralogy, weathering intensity, and discharge patterns. Long-term records in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers indicate shifts toward higher alkalinity in estuarine waters over time, as has been found in other estuaries worldwide. Annual DIC input flux to the estuary and export flux to the coastal ocean are estimated to be 15.7 ± 8.2 × 109 mol C yr-1 and 16

  5. Seasonal variability of the inorganic carbon system in a large coastal plain estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joesoef

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. More work is needed to understand how changes in land-use activity influence watershed export of organic and inorganic carbon, acids, and nutrients to the coastal ocean. To investigate the seasonal variation of the inorganic carbon system in the Delaware Estuary, one of the largest estuaries along the US east coast, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, total alkalinity (TA, and pH were measured along the estuary from June 2013 to April 2015. In addition, DIC, TA, and pH were periodically measured from March to October 2015 in the nontidal freshwater Delaware, Schuylkill, and Christina rivers over a range of discharge conditions. There were strong negative relationships between river TA and discharge, suggesting that changes in HCO3− concentrations reflect dilution of weathering products in the drainage basin. The ratio of DIC to TA, an understudied but important property, was high (1.11 during high discharge and low (0.94 during low discharge, reflecting additional DIC input in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2, most likely from terrestrial organic matter decomposition, rather than bicarbonate (HCO3− inputs due to drainage basin weathering processes. This is also a result of CO2 loss to the atmosphere due to rapid water transit during the wet season. Our data further show that elevated DIC in the Schuylkill River is substantially different than that in the Delaware River. Thus, tributary contributions must be considered when attributing estuarine DIC sources to the internal carbon cycle versus external processes such as drainage basin mineralogy, weathering intensity, and discharge patterns. Long-term records in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers indicate shifts toward higher alkalinity in estuarine waters over time, as has been found in other estuaries worldwide. Annual DIC input flux to the estuary and export flux to the coastal ocean are estimated to be 15.7 ± 8.2

  6. Inorganic Carbon and Oxygen Dynamics in a Marsh-dominated Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. R.; Di Iorio, D.; Cai, W. J.; Hopkinson, C.

    2017-12-01

    A free-water mass balance-based study was conducted to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. Open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2. Rates of metabolism were extremely high, with respiration (43 mol m-2 yr-1) greatly exceeding gross primary production (28 mol m-2 yr-1), such that the overall system was net heterotrophic. Metabolism measured with DIC were higher than with O2, which we attribute to high rates of anaerobic respiration and reduced sulfur storage in salt marsh sediments, and we assume substantial levels of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We found gas exchange from a flooded marsh is substantial, accounting for about 28% of total O2 and CO2 air-water exchange. A significant percentage of the overall estuarine aquatic metabolism is attributable to metabolism of marsh organisms during inundation. Our study suggests not rely on oceanographic stoichiometry to convert from O2to C based measurements when constructing C balances for the coastal ocean. We also suggest eddy covariance measurements of salt marsh net ecosystem exchange underestimate net ecosystem production as they do not account for lateral DIC exchange associated with marsh tidal inundation. With the increase of global temperature and sea level rise, salt marshes are likely to export more inorganic carbon to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean due to the decrease of solubility, the increase of aquatic and benthic metabolic activities and the longer marsh inundation.

  7. Drivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Sebastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    , of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equa- tions. Carbonate chemistry, the consumption, and release of CO2 by primary production and respiration, the precipitation and dissolution of ikaite (CaCO3ﰀ6H2O) and ice-air CO2 fluxes, are also...... included. The model is evaluated using observations from a 6 month field study at Point Barrow, Alaska, and an ice-tank experi- ment. At Barrow, results show that the DIC budget is mainly driven by physical processes, wheras brine-air CO2 fluxes, ikaite formation, and net primary production, are secondary...

  8. Inorganic Carbon Utilization of the Freshwater Red Alga Compsopogon coeruleus (Balbis Montagne (Compsopogonaceae, Rhodophyta Evaluated by in situ Measurement of Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lun Liu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the inorganic carbon utilization of the freshwater red alga Compsopogon coeruleus, photosynthetic rates in response to increasing of bicarbonate concentration, the addition of alkaline HEPES buffer (pH 8.8, acid HEPES buffer (pH 4.0 and the extracellular carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide, AZ, respectively, were examined in situ by using a submersible pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer. Among the treatments, adding acid HEPES buffer significantly reduced photosynthetic rates of the alga, while others showed no effect. Accordingly, we concluded that C. coeruleus had less or no inorganic carbon (Ci limitation in its natural habitat. The alga might have higher affinity for bicarbonate and directly uptake bicarbonate as main Ci source without the aid of extracellular carbonic anhydrase.

  9. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  10. Comparing carbon to carbon: Organic and inorganic carbon balances across nitrogen fertilization gradients in rainfed vs. irrigated Midwest US cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S. K.; McGill, B.

    2017-12-01

    The top meter of the earth's soil contains about twice the amount of carbon than the atmosphere. Agricultural management practices influence whether a cropland soil is a net carbon source or sink. These practices affect both organic and inorganic carbon cycling although the vast majority of studies examine the former. We will present results from several rarely-compared carbon fluxes: carbon dioxide emissions and sequestration from lime (calcium carbonate) weathering, dissolved gases emitted from groundwater-fed irrigation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching to groundwater, and soil organic matter storage. These were compared in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation under no-till management across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient where half of the replicated blocks are irrigated with groundwater. DOC and liming fluxes are also estimated from a complementary study in neighboring plots comparing a gradient of management practices from conventional to biologically-based annuals and perennials. These studies were conducted at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in Michigan where previous work estimated that carbon dioxide emissions from liming accounted for about one quarter of the total global warming impact (GWI) from no-till systems—our work refines that figure. We will present a first time look at the GWI of gases dissolved in groundwater that are emitted when the water equilibrates with the atmosphere. We will explore whether nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation increase soil organic carbon sequestration by producing greater crop biomass and residues or if they enhance microbial activity, increasing decomposition of organic matter. These results are critical for more accurately estimating how intensive agricultural practices affect the carbon balance of cropping systems.

  11. Carbon isotopic fractionation in live benthic foraminifera -comparison with inorganic precipitate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, E L [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1984-07-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses have been performed on live-stained aragonitic and calcitic benthic foraminifera and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Southern California Borderland to examine carbon isotopic fractionation in foraminifera. Temperature, salinity and pH data have also been collected to permit accurate determination of the delta/sup 13/C of bicarbonate ion and thus aragonite-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and calcite-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ isotopic enrichment factors (epsilonsub(ar-b) and epsilonsub(cl-b), respectively). Only species which precipitate in /sup 18/O equilibrium have been considered. epsilonsub (ar-b) values based on Hoeglundina elegans range from 1.9 per mille at 2.7 deg C to 1.1 per mille at 9.5 deg C. The temperature dependence of epsilonsub(ar-b) is considerably greater than the equilibrium equation would predict and may be due to a vital effect. The calcitic foraminifera Cassidulina tortuosa, Cassidulina braziliensis, and Cassidulina limbata, Bank and Terrace dwellers, have s

  12. Distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRASAKOPOULOU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (measured as TCO2 and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf were obtained during May 1997. High TCO2 concentrations were recorded close to the bottom, especially in the northern part of the gulf, as a result of organic matter remineralisation. The positive relatively good correlation between TCO2 and both apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU and phosphate at the last sampling depth confi rmed the regenerative origin of a large proportion of TCO2. The comparatively conservative behaviour of alkalinity, together with the relatively low value of the homogenous buffer factor β (β = ∂lnfCO2/∂lnTCO2 revealed that calcifi cation or carbonate dissolution takes place on a very small scale, simultaneously with the organic carbon production. The correlations between fCO2 and chlorophyll α, as well as AOU and the surface temperature, revealed that the carbon dioxide fi xation through the biological activity is the principal factor that modulates the variability of fCO2. A rough first estimate of the magnitude of the air-sea CO2 exchange and the potential role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the transfer of atmospheric CO2 was also obtained. The results showed that during May 1997, the Thermaikos Gulf acted as a weak sink for atmospheric CO2 at a rate of -0.60 - -1.43 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on which formula for the gas transfer velocity was used, and in accordance to recent reports regarding other temperate continental shelves. Extensive study of the dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters, and continuous shipboard measurements of fCO2 a and fCO2 w during all seasons are necessary to safely quantify the role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the context of the coastal margins CO2 dynamics.

  13. Variations in the inorganic carbon components in the thermal fronts during winter in the Northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Delabehra, H.B.; Sudharani, P.; Remya, R.; Patil, J.S.; Desai, D.V.

    of high phytoplankton biomass. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was higher in the frontal zone by 3 to 41.5 Mu M than outside. The salinity normalized DIC displayed linear relation with Chl-a and inverse correlation with dissolved oxygen saturation...

  14. Dynamics regulating major trends in Barents Sea temperatures and subsequent effect on remotely sensed particulate inorganic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovland, Erlend Kjeldsberg; Dierssen, Heidi M.; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A more comprehensive understanding of how ocean temperatures influence coccolithophorid production of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) will make it easier to constrain the effect of ocean acidification in the future. We studied the effect of temperature on Emiliania huxleyi PIC production...

  15. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2009-01-01

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO 2 and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO 2 , (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO 2 , and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO 2 showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO 3 - -N/L and 9.09 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO 3 - -N/L

  16. Effect of inorganic nutrients on relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislav Gulis; Keller Suberkropp

    2003-01-01

    The relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decaying plant litter at different levels of inorganic nutrients (N and P) were studied. We estimated leaf mass loss, fungal and bacterial biomass and production, and microbial respiration and constructed partial carbon budgets for red maple leaf disks precolonized in a stream and then...

  17. Barium carbonate sediment sampling for inorganic dissolved carbon using isotope mass ratio spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Rohaimah Demanah; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2009-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 solutions that will be used to analyze 13 C from field work in Kelana Jaya, Selangor, Langkawi, Kedah and Taiping, Perak. The sampling involves collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemicals used. The main purpose of this sampling is to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 for 13 C analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise result. With this, the data from the laboratory analysis result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  18. Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon with a high surface area, synthesized through organic-inorganic coassembly, and its application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanfang; Li, Li; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Congxiao; Guo, Zaipin; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-07-21

    A new nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-doped OMC) is synthesized by using an organic-inorganic coassembly method, in which resol is used as the carbon precursor, dicyandiamide as the nitrogen precursor, silicate oligomers as the inorganic precursors, and F127 as the soft template. The N-doped OMC possesses a surface area as high as 1374 m(2)  g(-1) and a large pore size of 7.4 nm. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the obtained carbon exhibits excellent cycling stability and delivers a reversible specific capacitance as high as 308 F g(-1) in 1 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) aqueous electrolyte, of which 58 % of the capacity is due to pseudo-capacitance. The large specific capacitance is attributed to proper pore size distributions, large surface area, and high nitrogen content. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: mk_aroua@um.edu.my

    2009-03-15

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO{sub 2} and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO{sub 2} showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L and 9.09 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L.

  20. Carbon-Electrode-Tailored All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells To Harvest Solar and Water-Vapor Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-05-14

    Moisture is the worst enemy for state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the flowing water vapor within nanoporous carbonaceous materials can create potentials. Therefore, it is a challenge to integrate water vapor and solar energies into a single PSC device. We demonstrate herein all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) solar cells tailored with carbon electrodes to simultaneously harvest solar and water-vapor energy. Upon interfacial modification and plasma treatment, the bifunctional PSCs yield a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 9.43 % under one sun irradiation according to photoelectric conversion principle and a power output of 0.158 μW with voltage of 0.35 V and current of 0.45 μA in 80 % relative humidity through the flowing potentials at the carbon/water interface. The initial efficiency is only reduced by 2 % on exposing the inorganic PSC with 80 % humidity over 40 days. The successful realization of physical proof-of-concept multi-energy integrated solar cells provides new opportunities of maximizing overall power output. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Understanding the carbon cycle in a Late Quaternary-age limestone aquifer system using radiocarbon of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Andersen, Martin S.; Post, Vincent E. A.

    2017-04-01

    Estimating groundwater residence time is critical for our understanding of hydrogeological systems, for groundwater resource assessments and for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Due to its capacity to date groundwater up to 30 thousand years old, as well as the ubiquitous nature of dissolved carbon (as organic and inorganic forms) in groundwater, 14C is the most widely used radiogenic dating technique in regional aquifers. However, the geochemistry of carbon in groundwater systems includes interaction with the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere, which results in multiple sources and sinks of carbon that vary in time and space. Identifying these sources of carbon and processes relating to its release or removal is important for understanding the evolution of the groundwater and essential for residence time calculations. This study investigates both the inorganic and organic facets of the carbon cycle in groundwaters throughout a freshwater lens and mixing zone of a carbonate island aquifer and identifies the sources of carbon that contribute to the groundwater system. Groundwater samples were collected from shallow (5-20 m) groundwater wells on a small carbonate Island in Western Australia in September 2014 and analysed for major and minor ions, stable water isotopes (SWIs: δ18O, δ2H), 3H, 14C and 13C carbon isotope values of both DIC and DOC, and 3H. The composition of groundwater DOC was investigated by Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis. The presence of 3H (0.12 to 1.35 TU) in most samples indicates that groundwaters on the Island are modern, however the measured 14CDIC values (8.4 to 97.2 pmc) suggest that most samples are significantly older due to carbonate dissolution and recrystallisation reactions that are identified and quantified in this work. 14CDOC values (46.6 to 105.6 pMC) were higher than 14CDIC values and were well correlated with 3H values, however deeper groundwaters had lower 14CDOC values than

  2. Preliminary Study: Application of Off-Axis ICOS to Determine Stable Carbon Isotope in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, J. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is one of the major causes for global climate change. Because stable carbon isotope ratio is used to trace carbon source, several analytical techniques likes IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) and LAS (Laser Absorption Spectrometry) were extensively used. Off-axis ICOS, a kind of LAS, has merits on long-term stability and field application, therefore it is widely being used in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) field. The aim of this study is to extend the application scope of OA-ICOS to determine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Because OA-ICOS showed dependence of δ13C on CO2 concentration, data processing is required. We tested CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyzer (CCIA-36-EP, Los Gatos Research) with both reference gas (δ13C= -28.28‰) and aqueous solutions prepared by dissolving sodium bicarbonate standards (δ13C= -12.26‰ and +3.96‰). The differences of δ13C between reference and measurement values are plotted by CO2 concentrations, then compared. At first, we checked the similarity between our curve pattern for reference gas and Guillon's research (δ13C= -43.99‰) by other Analyzer. To analyze aqueous samples, more errors can be caused than gas analysis. The carbon isotope fractionation occurs during dissolving standard reagents and extracting DIC as CO2 gas form. This effect is mixed with CO2 concentration dependence effect, therefore the curve patterns are different with that for reference gas. Our experiments are done for various δ13C values. It could be an important point to use OA-ICOS to analyze DIC, too.

  3. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  4. Growth limitation of three Arctic sea-ice algae species: effects of salinitty, pH and inorganic carbon availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Hansen, Per Juel; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO(2)) on growth and survival of three Arctic sea ice algal species, two diatoms (Fragilariopsis nana and Fragilariopsis sp.), and one species of chlorophyte (Chlamydomonas sp.) was assessed in controlled laboratory experiments. Our res...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from time series and surface observations using Moored Autonomous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (MADIC) System, Sunburst SAMI2 pH sensor, and other instruments from Kewalo Buoy near the coast of Honolulu, Hawaii from 2013-10-31 to 2014-06-15 (NCEI Accession 0132048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To expand the number of tools available for autonomous carbonate system observations, we have developed a robust surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)...

  6. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and biogenic silica concentration in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) to make quantitative measures of total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sediment. FTIRS is a fast and cost-effective technique and only small sediment samples...... varied between r = 0.84-0.99 for TOC, r = 0.85-0.99 for TIC, and r = 0.68-0.94 for BSi. Because FTIR spectra contain information on a large number of both inorganic and organic components, there is great potential for FTIRS to become an important tool in paleolimnology....

  8. Inorganic carbon dynamics of melt pond-covered first year sea ice in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, R.J.; Crabeck, O.

    2014-01-01

    Melt pond formation is a common feature of the spring and summer Arctic sea ice. However, the role of the melt ponds formation and the impact of the sea ice melt on both the direction and size of CO2 flux between air and sea is still unknown. Here we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of melting...... a strong decrease of the total alkalinity (TA), total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) within the bulk sea ice and the brine. Later on, melt pond formation affects both the bulk sea ice and the brine system. As melt ponds are formed from melted snow the in situ melt pond...

  9. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  10. A systematic investigation of the preparation and properties of composite carbon molecular sieves containing inorganic oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Henry C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to define the methodology for the preparation and characterization of new carbon-based molecular sieves with composite structures. Carbon molecular sieves have found increasing application in the field of separation and purification of gases. These materials are relatively easy to prepare and their surfaces can be modified to some extent. It is expected that by combining inorganic oxides with the carbonaceous structure one can begin to design composite materials with a wider range of possible chemical and physical properties. In this way, the IOM-CMS materials may confer distinct advantages over pure carbon molecular sieves, not just for separation, but also for catalysis. The most recent results in the design and characterization of these IOM-CMS materials are reviewed and summarized. Directions for further research are also presented.

  11. Steady-State Growth under Inorganic Carbon Limitation Conditions Increases Energy Consumption for Maintenance and Enhances Nitrous Oxide Production in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellbye, Brett L; Giguere, Andrew; Chaplen, Frank; Bottomley, Peter J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to obtain energy for growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) and can also produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas. We interrogated the growth, physiological, and transcriptome responses of N. europaea to conditions of replete (>5.2 mM) and limited inorganic carbon (IC) provided by either 1.0 mM or 0.2 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) supplemented with atmospheric CO2 IC-limited cultures oxidized 25 to 58% of available NH3 to nitrite, depending on the dilution rate and Na2CO3 concentration. IC limitation resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in cellular maintenance energy requirements compared to those for NH3-limited cultures. Rates of N2O production increased 2.5- and 6.3-fold under the two IC-limited conditions, increasing the percentage of oxidized NH3-N that was transformed to N2O-N from 0.5% (replete) up to 4.4% (0.2 mM Na2CO3). Transcriptome analysis showed differential expression (P ≤ 0.05) of 488 genes (20% of inventory) between replete and IC-limited conditions, but few differences were detected between the two IC-limiting treatments. IC-limited conditions resulted in a decreased expression of ammonium/ammonia transporter and ammonia monooxygenase subunits and increased the expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism, including the genes for RuBisCO (cbb gene cluster), carbonic anhydrase, folate-linked metabolism of C1 moieties, and putative C salvage due to oxygenase activity of RuBisCO. Increased expression of nitrite reductase (gene cluster NE0924 to NE0927) correlated with increased production of N2O. Together, these data suggest that N. europaea adapts physiologically during IC-limited steady-state growth, which leads to the uncoupling of NH3 oxidation from growth and increased N2O production. Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is an important process in the global nitrogen cycle. This process is generally dependent on ammonia

  12. Carbon isotopic fractionation in live benthic foraminifera -comparison with inorganic precipitate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses have been performed on live-stained aragonitic and calcitic benthic foraminifera and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Southern California Borderland to examine carbon isotopic fractionation in foraminifera. Temperature, salinity and pH data have also been collected to permit accurate determination of the delta 13 C of bicarbonate ion and thus aragonite-HCO 3 - and calcite-HCO 3 - isotopic enrichment factors (epsilonsub(ar-b) and epsilonsub(cl-b), respectively). Only species which precipitate in 18 O equilibrium have been considered. epsilonsub (ar-b) values based on Hoeglundina elegans range from 1.9 per mille at 2.7 deg C to 1.1 per mille at 9.5 deg C. The temperature dependence of epsilonsub(ar-b) is considerably greater than the equilibrium equation would predict and may be due to a vital effect. The calcitic foraminifera Cassidulina tortuosa, Cassidulina braziliensis, and Cassidulina limbata, Bank and Terrace dwellers, have similar delta 13 C values and yield an average epsilonsub(cl-b) value of -0.2 +- 0.1 per mille between 8 deg and 10 deg C. Calcitic Uvigerina curticosta, Uvigerina peregrina, and megalospheric B, argentea, Slope and Basin dwellers, are -0.7 +- 0.1 per mille enriched relative to ambient bicarbonate for 3 to 9 deg C. (author)

  13. Stable carbon isotope signals in particulate organic and inorganic carbon of coccolithophores - A numerical model study for Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Lena-Maria; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thoms, Silke

    2017-05-07

    A recent numerical cell model, which explains observed light and carbonate system effects on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC and PIC) production rates under the assumption of internal pH homeostasis, is extended for stable carbon isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C). Aim of the present study is to mechanistically understand the stable carbon isotopic fractionation signal (ε) in POC and PIC and furthermore the vital effect(s) included in measured ε PIC values. The virtual cell is divided into four compartments, for each of which the 12 C as well as the 13 C carbonate system kinetics are implemented. The compartments are connected to each other via trans-membrane fluxes. In contrast to existing carbon fractionation models, the presented model calculates the disequilibrium state for both carbonate systems and for each compartment. It furthermore calculates POC and PIC production rates as well as ε POC and ε PIC as a function of given light conditions and the compositions of the external carbonate system. Measured POC and PIC production rates as well as ε PIC values are reproduced well by the model (comparison with literature data). The observed light effect on ε POC (increase of ε POC with increasing light intensities), however, is not reproduced by the basic model set-up, which is solely based on RubisCO fractionation. When extending the latter set-up by assuming that biological fractionation includes further carbon fractionation steps besides the one of RubisCO, the observed light effect on ε POC is also reproduced. By means of the extended model version, four different vital effects that superimpose each other in a real cell can be detected. Finally, we discuss potential limitations of the ε PIC proxy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: Model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; Van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation,

  15. Study on radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl monomers adsorbed on inorganic substances. II. Radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate adsorbed on several inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, K.; Kageyama, E.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) adsorbed on such inorganic substances as silica gel, white carbon, silicic acid anhydride, zeolite, and activated alumina was carried out to compare with the case of styrene. The rate of radiation-induced polymerization adsorbed on inorganic substances was high compared with that of radiation-induced bulk state polymerization, as was the case with styrene. Inorganic substrates which contain aluminum as a component element are more likely to be grafted than those which consist of SiO 2 alone, as with styrene. The molecular weight distribution of unextractable polymer and extractable polymer differs, depending on the type of inorganic substance. Experiments by a preirradiation method were carried out in case of silica gel, white carbon, and silicic acid anhydride. GPC spectra of the polymer obtained were different from those of polymer formed by the simultaneous irradiation method. It appears that all the unextractable polymer is grafted to the inorganic surface with chemical bond

  16. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  17. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Zarzycki, Jan; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon (Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2) concentrations. Several uptake systems facilitate inorganic carbon accumulation in the cell, which can in turn be fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine (alpha) cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters. These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels. In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.

  18. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Mucci, Alfonso

    2018-02-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2) water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d-1 m-2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10-3 Tg C d-1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O) are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis for understanding how it will

  19. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4 configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2 water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d−1 m−2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10−3 Tg C d−1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis

  20. Inorganic carbon cycle in soil-rock-groundwater system in karst and fissured aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Koceli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic analysis of the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13CCaCO3 in carbonate rocks in central Slovenia, representing karst and fissured aquifers, and share of carbon contributions from carbonate dissolution and degradation of organic matter in aquifers, calculated from the mass balance equation. 59 samples of rocks (mainly dolomites from Upper Permian to Upper Triassic age were analyzed. Samples of carbonate rocks were pulverized and ground to fraction of 45 μm and for determination of δ13CCaCO3 analyzed with mass spectrometer for analyses of stable isotopes of light elements-IRMS. The same method was used for determination of isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC in groundwater for 54 of 59 locations. Values of δ13CCaCO3 are in the range from -2.0 ‰ to +4.1 ‰, with an average δ13CCaCO3 value of +2.2 ‰. These values are typical for marine carbonates with δ13CCaCO3 around 0 ‰, although δ13CCaCO3 values differ between groups depending on the origin and age. Early diagenetic dolomites have relatively higher values of δ13CCaCO3 compared to other analyzed samples. The lowest values of δ13CCaCO3 were observed in Cordevolian and Bača dolomite, probably due to late diagenesis, during which meteoric water with lower isotopic carbon composition circulated in the process of sedimentation. Values of δ13CDIC range from -14.6 ‰ to -8.2 ‰. Higher δ13CDIC values (-8.2 ‰ indicate a low proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and rapid infiltration, while lower values (-14.6 ‰ indicate higher proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and slower infiltration. Calculated contributions of carbon from organic matter / dissolution of carbonates in the karstic and fissured aquifers s how a similar proportion (50 % : 50 %.

  1. Effect of changes in water salinity on ammonium, calcium, dissolved inorganic carbon and influence on water/sediment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P.

    2003-04-01

    The effect of a sudden increase in salinity from 10 to 37 in porewater concentration and the benthic fluxes of ammonium, calcium and dissolved inorganic carbon were studied in sediments of a small coastal lagoon, the Albufera d'Es Grau (Minorca Island, Spain). The temporal effects of the changes in salinity were examined over 17 days using a single diffusion-reaction model and a mass-balance approach. After the salinity change, NH 4+-flux to the water and Ca-flux toward sediments increased (NH 4+-flux: 5000-3000 μmol m -2 d -1 in seawater and 600/250 μmol m -2 d -1 in brackish water; Ca-flux: -40/-76 meq m -2 d -1 at S=37 and -13/-10 meq m -2 d -1 at S=10); however, later NH 4+-flux decreased in seawater, reaching values lower than in brackish water. In contrast, Ca-flux presented similar values in both conditions. The fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon, which were constant at S=10 (55/45 mmol m -2 d -1), increased during the experiment at S=37 (from ˜30 mmol m -2 d -1 immediately after salinity increase to ˜60 mmol m -2 d -1 after 17 days). In brackish conditions, NH 4+ and Ca 2+ fluxes were consistent with a single diffusion-reaction model that assumes a zero-order reaction for NH 4+ production and a first-order reaction for Ca 2+ production. In seawater, this model explained the Ca-flux observed, but did not account for the high initial flux of NH 4+. The mass balance for 17 days indicated a higher retention of NH 4+ in porewater in the littoral station in seawater conditions (9.5 mmol m -2 at S=37 and 1.6 mmol m -2 at S=10) and a significant reduction in the water consumption at both sites (5 mmol m -2 at S=37; 35/23 mmol m -2 at S=10). In contrast, accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon in porewater was lower in seawater incubations (-10/-1 meq m -2 at S=37; 50/90 meq m -2 at S=10) and was linked to a higher efflux of CO 2 to the atmosphere, because of calcium carbonate precipitation in water (675/500 meq m -2). These results indicate that increased

  2. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  3. Inter-annual Variability in Global Suspended Particulate Inorganic Carbon Inventory Using Space-based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, J.; Balch, W. M.; Henson, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.; Lubelczyk, L.

    2016-02-01

    Coccolithophores, the single celled phytoplankton that produce an outer covering of calcium carbonate coccoliths, are considered to be the greatest contributors to the global oceanic particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) pool. The reflective coccoliths scatter light back out from the ocean surface, enabling PIC concentration to be quantitatively estimated from ocean color satellites. Here we use datasets of AQUA MODIS PIC concentration from 2003-2014 (using the recently-revised PIC algorithm), as well as statistics on coccolithophore vertical distribution derived from cruises throughout the world ocean, to estimate the average global (surface and integrated) PIC standing stock and its associated inter-annual variability. In addition, we divide the global ocean into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces, update the PIC biomass statistics and identify those regions that have the greatest inter-annual variability and thus may exert the greatest influence on global PIC standing stock and the alkalinity pump.

  4. Radiocarbon and stable-isotope geochemistry of organic and inorganic carbon in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigah, Prosper K.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Werne, Josef P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a lake-wide investigation of Lake Superior carbon and organic matter biogeochemistry using radiocarbon, stable isotope, and carbon concentrations. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) abundance in the lake was 121-122 Tg C, with offshore concentration andδ13C values being laterally homogenous and tightly coupled to the physical and thermal regime and biochemical processes. Offshore Δ14C of DIC (50-65‰) exhibited lateral homogeneity and was more 14C enriched than co-occurring atmospheric CO2 (˜38‰); nearshore Δ14C of DIC (36-38‰) was similar to atmospheric CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abundance was 14.2-16.4 Tg C. DOC's concentration and δ13C were homogenous in June (mixed lake), but varied laterally during August (stratification) possibly due to spatial differences in lake productivity. Throughout sampling, DOC had modern radiocarbon values (14-58‰) indicating a semilabile nature with a turnover time of ≤60 years. Lake particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.9-1.3 Tg C) was consistently 13C depleted relative to DOC. The δ15N of epilimnetic particulate organic nitrogen shifted to more negative values during stratification possibly indicating greater use of nitrate (rather than ammonium) by phytoplankton in August. POC's radiocarbon was spatially heterogeneous (Δ14C range: 58‰ to -303‰), and generally 14C depleted relative to DOC and DIC. POC 14C depletion could not be accounted for by black carbon in the lake but, because of its spatial and temporal distribution, is attributed to sediment resuspension. The presence of old POC within the epilimnion of the open lake indicates possible benthic-pelagic coupling in the lake's organic carbon cycle; the ultimate fate of this old POC bears further investigation.

  5. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  6. Electrochemical determination of inorganic mercury and arsenic--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib, Maria; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof; Saeed, Asma; Farooq, Umar

    2015-12-15

    Inorganic mercury and arsenic encompasses a term which includes As(III), As(V) and Hg(II) species. These metal ions have been extensively studied due to their toxicity related issues. Different analytical methods are used to monitor inorganic mercury and arsenic in a variety of samples at trace level. The present study reviews various analytical techniques available for detection of inorganic mercury and arsenic with particular emphasis on electrochemical methods especially stripping voltammetry. A detailed critical evaluation of methods, advantages of electrochemical methods over other analytical methods, and various electrode materials available for mercury and arsenic analysis is presented in this review study. Modified carbon paste electrode provides better determination due to better deposition with linear and improved response under studied set of conditions. Biological materials may be the potent and economical alternative as compared to macro-electrodes and chemically modified carbon paste electrodes in stripping analysis of inorganic mercury and arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, K M

    1984-11-01

    Photosynthetic carbon uptake of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers was studied by several methods. Photosynthesis in buffered seawater in media in the range of pH 6 to pH 9 showed an exponentially increasing rate with decreasing pH, thus indicating that free CO(2) was a photosynthetic substrate. However, these experiments were unable to determine whether photosynthesis at alkaline pH also contained some component due to HCO(3) (-) uptake. This aspect was further investigated by studying photosynthetic rates in a number of media of varying pH (7.8-8.61) and total inorganic carbon (0.75-13.17 millimolar). In these media, photosynthetic rate was correlated with free CO(2) concentration and was independent of the HCO(3) (-) concentration in the medium. Short time-course experiments were conducted during equilibration of free CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) after injection of (14)C labeled solution at acid or alkaline pH. High initial photosynthetic rates were observed when acidic solutions (largely free CO(2)) were used but not with alkaline solutions. The concentration of free CO(2) was found to be a limiting factor for photosynthesis in this plant.

  8. Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porowska, Dorota

    2015-05-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock (Poland) were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater. In the natural (background) groundwater, DIC concentrations and the isotopic composition of DIC (δ(13)CDIC) comes from two sources: decomposition of organic matter and carbonate dissolution within the aquifer sediments, whereas in the leachate-contaminated groundwater, DIC concentrations and δ(13)CDIC values depend on the degradation of organic matter within the aquifer sediments and biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. From the mixing model, about 4-54% of the DIC pool is derived from organic matter degradation and 96-46% from carbonate dissolution in natural conditions. In the leachate-contaminated groundwater, about 20-53% of the DIC is derived from organic matter degradation of natural origin and 80-47% from biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. Partial pressure of CO2 (P CO2) was generally above the atmospheric, hence atmospheric CO2 as a source of carbon in DIC pool was negligible in the aquifer. P CO2 values in the aquifer in Otwock were always one to two orders of magnitude above the atmospheric P CO2, and thus CO2 escaped directly into the vadose zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of CO(2) and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources for triacylglycerol and starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert D; Lohman, Egan; Gerlach, Robin; Cooksey, Keith E; Peyton, Brent M

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are capable of accumulating high levels of lipids and starch as carbon storage compounds. Investigation into the metabolic activities involved in the synthesis of these compounds has escalated since these compounds can be used as precursors for food and fuel. Here, we detail the results of a comprehensive analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using high or low inorganic carbon concentrations and speciation between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and the effects these have on inducing lipid and starch accumulation during nitrogen depletion. High concentrations of CO(2) (5%; v/v) produced the highest amount of biofuel precursors, transesterified to fatty acid methyl esters, but exhibited rapid accumulation and degradation characteristics. Low CO(2) (0.04%; v/v) caused carbon limitation and minimized triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch accumulation. High bicarbonate caused a cessation of cell cycling and accumulation of both TAG and starch that was more stable than the other experimental conditions. Starch accumulated prior to TAG and then degraded as maximum TAG was reached. This suggests carbon reallocation from starch-based to TAG-based carbon storage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. On-line technique for preparingand measuring stable carbon isotopeof total dissolved inorganic carbonin water samples ( d13CTDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inguaggiato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast and completely automated procedure is proposed for the preparation and determination of d13C of total inorganic carbon dissolved in water ( d13CTDIC. This method is based on the acidification of water samples transforming the whole dissolved inorganic carbon species into CO2. Water samples are directly injected by syringe into 5.9 ml vials with screw caps which have a pierciable rubber septum. An Analytical Precision «Carbonate Prep System» was used both to flush pure helium into the vials and to automatically dispense a fixed amount of H3PO4. Full-equilibrium conditions between produced CO2 and water are reached at a temperature of 70°C (± 0.1°C in less than 24 h. Carbon isotope ratios (13C/ 12C were measured on an AP 2003 continuous flow mass spectrometer, connected on-line with the injection system. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed method was tested both on aqueous standard solutions prepared using Na2CO3 with d13C=-10.78 per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.08, n = 11, and at five different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 mmol/l and on more than thirty natural samples. Mean d13CTDIC on standard solution samples is ?10.89 < per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.18, n = 50, thus revealing both a good analytical precision and reproducibility. A comparison between average d13CTDIC values on a quadruplicate set of natural samples and those obtained following the chemical and physical stripping method highlights a good agreement between the two analytical methods.

  11. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, E.; Hang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine sediment is an important carbon reservoir thus may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) in the surface sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, a large estuary in northern China. In this study, we applied element analyses and isotopic approach to study spatial distribution and sources of OC and IC in the Yellow River Estuary. We found that TIC concentration (6.3-20.1 g kg-1) was much higher than TOC (0.2-4.4 g kg-1) in the surface sediment. There showed a large spatial variability in TOC and TIC and their stable isotopes. Both TOC and TIC were higher to the north (2.6 and 14.5 g kg-1) than to the south (1.6 and 12.2 g kg-1), except in the southern bay where TOC and TIC reached 2.7 and 15.4 g kg-1, respectively. Generally, TOC and TIC in our study area was mainly autochthonous. The lower TOC values in the south section were due to relatively higher kinetic energy level whereas the higher values in the bay was attributable to terrigenous matters accumulation and lower kinetic energy level. However, the southern bay revealed the most negative δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb, suggesting that there might exist some transfer of OC to IC in the section. Our study points out that the dynamics of sedimentary carbon in the Yellow River Estuary is influenced by multiple and complex processes, and highlights the importance of carbonate in carbon sequstration.

  12. The EC CAST project (carbon-14 source term)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of underground geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. It is possible for carbon-14 to be released from waste packages in a variety of chemical forms, both organic and inorganic, and as dissolved or gaseous species The EC CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) project aims to develop understanding of the generation and release of carbon-14 from radioactive waste materials under conditions relevant to packaging and disposal. It focuses on the release of carbon-14 from irradiated metals (steels and zirconium alloys), from irradiated graphite and from spent ion-exchange resins. The CAST consortium brings together 33 partners. CAST commenced in October 2013 and this paper describes progress to March 2015. The main activities during this period were reviews of the current status of knowledge, the identification and acquisition of suitable samples and the design of experiments and analytical procedures. (authors)

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca{sup 2+} associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca 2+ associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved

  15. Corrosion performance of inorganic coatings in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.; Westing, E. van; Kowalski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic coatings are widely used to protect carbon steel hydraulic cylinder rods from wear and corrosion in aggressive offshore environment. Different types of lay-ers such as Ni/Cr, Al2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, and Inconel 625 layers were applied to the carbon steels by plasma, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

  16. Inorganic membranes for carbon capture and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Matthew T.

    Inorganic membranes are under consideration for cost-effective reductions of carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants, both in the capture of pollutants post-firing and in the direct electrochemical conversion of coal-derived fuels for improved plant efficiency. The suitability of inorganic membrane materials for these purposes stems as much from thermal and chemical stability in coal plant operating conditions as from high performance in gas separations and power generation. Hydrophilic, micro-porous zeolite membrane structures are attractive for separating CO2 from N2 in gaseous waste streams due to the attraction of CO2 to the membrane surface and micropore walls that gives the advantage to CO2 transport. Recent studies have indicated that retention of the templating agent used in zeolite synthesis can further block N2 from the micropore interior and significantly improve CO2/N2 selectivity. However, the role of the templating agent in micro-porous transport has not been well investigated. In this work, gas sorption studies were conducted by high-pressure thermo-gravimetric analysis on Zeolite Y membrane materials to quantify the effect of the templating agent on CO2, N2, and H2O adsorption/desorption, as well as to examine the effect of humidification on overall membrane performance. In equilibrium conditions, the N2 sorption enthalpy was nearly unchanged by the presence of the templating agent, but the N2 pore occupation was reduced ˜1000x. Thus, the steric nature of the blocking of N2 from the micropores by the templating agent was confirmed. CO2 and H2O sorption enthalpies were similarly unaffected by the templating agent, and the micropore occupations were only reduced as much as the void volume taken up by the templating agent. Thus, the steric blocking effect did not occur for molecules more strongly attracted to the micropore walls. Additionally, in time-transient measurements the CO 2 and H2O mobilities were significantly enhanced by the presence

  17. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An ‘anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems. PMID:23778238

  18. Form of inorganic carbon utilized for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris 11h cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyachi, Shigetoh; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    1979-01-01

    The rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation in Chlorella vulgaris 11h cells in the presence of 0.55 mM NaH 14 CO 3 at pH 8.0 (20 0 C) was greatly enhanced by the addition of carbonic anhydrase (CA). However, when air containing 400 ppm 14 CO 2 was bubbled through the algal suspension, the rate of 14 CO 2 fixation immediately after the start of the bubbling was suppressed by CA. These effects of CA were observed in cells which had been grown in air containing 2% CO 2 (high-CO 2 cells) as well as those grown in ordinary air (containing 0.04% CO 2 , low-CO 2 cells). We therefore concluded that, irrespective of the CO 2 concentration given to the algal cells during growth, the active species of inorganic carbon absorbed by Chlorella cells is free CO 2 and they cannot utilize bicarbonate. The effects observed in the high-CO 2 cells were much more pronounced than those in the low-CO 2 cells. This difference was accounted for by the difference in the affinity for CO 2 in photosynthesis between the high- and low-CO 2 cells. (author)

  19. Environmental Conditions Influencing Sorption of Inorganic Anions to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Studied by Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-05-02

    Sorption to carbon-based nanomaterials is typically studied in batch experiments. An alternative method offering advantages to study sorption is column chromatography. Sorbent packed columns are used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. We have now for the first time applied this technique to study the influence of environmental conditions on sorption of inorganic anions (bromide, nitrite, nitrate, and iodide) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were best described by the Freundlich model. Sorption increased in the order bromide 4.5 the surface charge was negative, but sorption was still detectable at pH 6 and 9. Consequently, other forces than electrostatic attraction contributed to sorption. These forces may include H-bonding as indicated by sorption enthalpy determined by variation of column temperature. Overall, column chromatography represents a promising alternative in sorption studies to reveal sorbent properties.

  20. Engineered in situ bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: assessment of mineralization based on alkalinity, inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotope balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Bernasconi, Stefano; Zeyer, Josef

    1999-04-01

    A concept is proposed to assess in situ petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization by combining data on oxidant consumption, production of reduced species, CH 4, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with measurements of stable isotope ratios. The concept was applied to a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, which was treated by engineered in situ bioremediation. In the contaminated aquifer, added oxidants (O 2 and NO 3-) were consumed, elevated concentrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), CH 4, alkalinity and DIC were detected and the DIC was generally depleted in 13C compared to the background. The DIC production was larger than expected based on the consumption of dissolved oxidants and the production of reduced species. Stable carbon isotope balances revealed that the DIC production in the aquifer originated mainly from microbial petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization, and that geochemical reactions such as carbonate dissolution produced little DIC. This suggests that petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization can be underestimated if it is determined based on concentrations of dissolved oxidants and reduced species.

  1. Treated Wastewater Changes the Export of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Its Isotopic Composition and Leads to Acidification in Coastal Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufeng; Xue, Liang; Li, Yunxiao; Han, Ping; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Longjun; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2018-04-25

    Human-induced changes in carbon fluxes across the land-ocean interface can influence the global carbon cycle, yet the impacts of rapid urbanization and establishment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on coastal ocean carbon cycles are poorly known. This is unacceptable as at present ∼64% of global municipal wastewater is treated before discharge. Here, we report surface water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and sedimentary organic carbon concentrations and their isotopic compositions in the rapidly urbanized Jiaozhou Bay in northeast China as well as carbonate parameters in effluents of three large WWTPs around the bay. Using DIC, δ 13 C DIC and total alkalinity (TA) data and a tracer model, we determine the contributions to DIC from wastewater DIC input, net ecosystem production, calcium carbonate precipitation, and CO 2 outgassing. Our study shows that high-DIC and low-pH wastewater effluent represents an important source of DIC and acidification in coastal waters. In contrast to the traditional view of anthropogenic organic carbon export and degradation, we suggest that with the increase of wastewater discharge and treatment rates, wastewater DIC input may play an increasingly more important role in the coastal ocean carbon cycle.

  2. Effects of resuspension on benthic fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, dissolved inorganic carbon, iron and manganese in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almroth, E.; Tengberg, A.; Andersson, J.H.; Pakhomova, S.; Hall, P.O.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of resuspension on benthic fluxes of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), silicate (Si(OH)4), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total dissolved iron (Fe) and total dissolved manganese (Mn) was studied at three different stations in the Gulf of Finland (GoF),

  3. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, E. R. M.; Bauer, J. E.; Griffin, S.

    2005-03-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters, with slightly higher values at the river mouth. The low DIC δ13C signature of the river end-member (-11‰) demonstrates that about half of the DIC originated from the remineralization of terrestrially derived organic matter. A linear relationship between DIC and salinity indicates that DIC was mixed nearly conservatively in the transition zone from the river mouth to the open ocean, though there was a small amount (≤10%) of organic matter remineralization in the mesohaline region. The POC Δ14C values in the river mouth were markedly lower than those values from the western Amazon region (Hedges et al., 1986). We conclude that the dominant source of POC near the river mouth and in the inner Amazon plume during November 1991 was aged, resuspended material of significant terrestrial character derived from shelf sediments, while the outer plume contained mainly marine-derived POC.

  4. Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porowska, Dorota, E-mail: dorotap@uw.edu.pl

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Research showed the origin of DIC in the groundwater around a reclaimed landfill. • Carbon isotope was used to evaluate the contributions of carbon from different sources. • The leachate-contaminated water was isotopically distinct from the natural groundwater. • DIC in the natural groundwater comes from organic matter and dissolution of carbonates. • In the contaminated water, DIC comes from organic matter in the aquifer and landfill. - Abstract: Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock (Poland) were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater. In the natural (background) groundwater, DIC concentrations and the isotopic composition of DIC (δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) comes from two sources: decomposition of organic matter and carbonate dissolution within the aquifer sediments, whereas in the leachate-contaminated groundwater, DIC concentrations and δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values depend on the degradation of organic matter within the aquifer sediments and biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. From the mixing model, about 4–54% of the DIC pool is derived from organic matter degradation and 96–46% from carbonate dissolution in natural conditions. In the leachate-contaminated groundwater, about 20–53% of the DIC is derived from organic matter degradation of natural origin and 80–47% from biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. Partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P CO{sub 2}) was generally above the atmospheric, hence atmospheric CO{sub 2} as a source of carbon in DIC pool was negligible in the

  5. Controls on the Origin and Cycling of Riverine Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in the Brazos River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, F.; Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2008-12-01

    Rivers are generally supersaturated in CO2 with respect to the atmosphere. However, there is little agreement on the sources and turnover times of excess CO2 in river waters. This is likely due to varying dominant controls on carbon sources (e.g. geologic setting, climate, land use, or human activities). In this study, we measured carbon isotopic signatures (δ13C and Δ14C) of riverine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), as well as solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of particulate organic carbon (POC), to determine carbon sources fuelling respiration of the Brazos River in Texas. We found that sources of riverine CO2 varied significantly along the length of the Brazos. In the middle Brazos (between Graham and Waco), which is partially underlain by limestone, riverine DIC had average Δ14C of 74 ‰ and δ13C of -7.5 ‰, suggesting that riverine CO2 is derived almost entirely from contemporary carbon (less than 5 years old) with little evidence of carbonate input, probably due to the damming upstream of Waco. In the lower Brazos (downstream of Bryan), riverine DIC was highly depleted in 14C (average Δ14C = -148.5 ‰) and enriched in 13C (average δ13C= -9.32 ‰), indicative of the presence of old carbonate. Since there is no carbonate bedrock in contact with the river in this area, the most likely source of old carbonate is the shell used in road and building construction throughout the 19th century. Our results suggest that the effect of human activities superimposes and even surpasses the effect of natural controls (e.g. geologic setting and climate) on C cycling in the Brazos.

  6. A robust and fast method of sampling and analysis of delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in ground waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph

    2005-09-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta13C(DIC)) is traditionally determined using either direct precipitation or gas evolution methods in conjunction with offline gas preparation and measurement in a dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. A gas evolution method based on continuous-flow technology is described here, which is easy to use and robust. Water samples (100-1500 microl depending on the carbonate alkalinity) are injected into He-filled autosampler vials in the field and analysed on an automated continuous-flow gas preparation system interfaced to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Sample analysis time including online preparation is 10 min and overall precision is 0.1 per thousand. This method is thus fast and can easily be automated for handling large sample batches.

  7. Carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin controls high-affinity iron uptake in diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Jeffrey B.; Kustka, Adam B.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; McCrow, John P.; Karas, Bogumil J.; Zheng, Hong; Kindeberg, Theodor; Andersson, Andreas J.; Barbeau, Katherine A.; Allen, Andrew E.

    2018-03-01

    In vast areas of the ocean, the scarcity of iron controls the growth and productivity of phytoplankton. Although most dissolved iron in the marine environment is complexed with organic molecules, picomolar amounts of labile inorganic iron species (labile iron) are maintained within the euphotic zone and serve as an important source of iron for eukaryotic phytoplankton and particularly for diatoms. Genome-enabled studies of labile iron utilization by diatoms have previously revealed novel iron-responsive transcripts, including the ferric iron-concentrating protein ISIP2A, but the mechanism behind the acquisition of picomolar labile iron remains unknown. Here we show that ISIP2A is a phytotransferrin that independently and convergently evolved carbonate ion-coordinated ferric iron binding. Deletion of ISIP2A disrupts high-affinity iron uptake in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and uptake is restored by complementation with human transferrin. ISIP2A is internalized by endocytosis, and manipulation of the seawater carbonic acid system reveals a second-order dependence on the concentrations of labile iron and carbonate ions. In P. tricornutum, the synergistic interaction of labile iron and carbonate ions occurs at environmentally relevant concentrations, revealing that carbonate availability co-limits iron uptake. Phytotransferrin sequences have a broad taxonomic distribution and are abundant in marine environmental genomic datasets, suggesting that acidification-driven declines in the concentration of seawater carbonate ions will have a negative effect on this globally important eukaryotic iron acquisition mechanism.

  8. Expression of the pyr operon of Lactobacillus plantarum is regulated by inorganic carbon availability through a second regulator, PyrR2, homologous to the pyrimidine-dependent regulator PyrR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Valérie Kugler, Valérie; Martinussen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (IC), such as bicarbonate or carbon dioxide, stimulates the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. At low IC levels, one-third of natural isolated L. plantarum strains are nutritionally dependent on exogenous arginine and pyrimidine, a phenotype previously defined as high-CO2-requiri...

  9. Root carbon input in organic and inorganic fertilizer-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John

    2012-01-01

    C input to remain scant. This study aimed at determining macro-root C input and topsoil root related respiration in response to nutrient management and soil fertility building measures. Methods We sampled roots and shoots of cereals and catch crops in inorganic and organic fertilizer-based arable...... season of winter wheat by subtracting soil respiration from soil with and without exclusion of roots. Results Catch crop roots accounted for more than 40 % of total plant C. For spring barley in 2008 and spring wheat in 2010, root C was higher in the organic than in the inorganic fertilizer-based systems...... was higher (31–131 %) in inorganic than in organic fertilizer-based systems. Conclusions Our findings show that macro-roots of both cereal crops and catch crops play a relatively larger role in organically managed systems than in mineral fertilizer based systems; and that the use of fixed biomass S/R ratios...

  10. Carbon budget of a marine phytoplankton-herbivore system with carbon-14 as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copping, A.E.; Lorenzen, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Adult female and stage V Calanus pacificus were fed 14 C-labeled phytoplankton in the laboratory in the form of monospecific cultures and natural populations. A carbon budget was constructed by following the 14 C activity and the specific activity, over 48 h, in the phytoplankton, copepod, dissolved organic, dissolved inorganic, and fecal carbon compartments. The average incorporation of carbon into the copepod's body was 45% of the phytoplankton carbon available. Of the phytoplankton carbon, 27% appeared as dissolved organic carbon, 24% as dissolved inorganic carbon, and 3 to 4% in the form of fecal pellets. All of the tracer was recovered at the end of the experiments. The specific activity of the phytoplankton compartment was constant throughout each experiment. The other compartments had initial specific activities of zero, or close to zero, and increased throughout the experiment. In most experiments, the copepod specific activity equalled that of the phytoplankton at the end of 48 h, while the dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, and fecal specific activities remained well below that of the phytoplankton

  11. Drivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Sébastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno; Tison, Jean-Louis; Zhou, Jiayun; Kotovich, Marie; Thomas, David; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Goosse, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes, and vertical transport, of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equations. Carbonate chemistry, the consumption and release of CO2 by primary production and respiration, the precipitation and dissolution of ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O) and ice-air CO2 fluxes, are also included. The model is evaluated using observations from a 6-month field study at Point Barrow, Alaska and an ice-tank experiment. At Barrow, results show that the DIC budget is mainly driven by physical processes, wheras brine-air CO2 fluxes, ikaite formation, and net primary production, are secondary factors. In terms of ice-atmosphere CO2 exchanges, sea ice is a net CO2 source and sink in winter and summer, respectively. The formulation of the ice-atmosphere CO2 flux impacts the simulated near-surface CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), but not the DIC budget. Because the simulated ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes are limited by DIC stocks, and therefore < 2 mmol m-2 day-1, we argue that the observed much larger CO2 fluxes from eddy covariance retrievals cannot be explained by a sea ice direct source and must involve other processes or other sources of CO2. Finally, the simulations suggest that near surface TA/DIC ratios of ~2, sometimes used as an indicator of calcification, would rather suggest outgassing.

  12. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, C. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Correcher, V., E-mail: v.correcher@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Virgos, M.D. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  13. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V.; Virgos, M.D.; Garcia-Guinea, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  14. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Phuoc, Duong; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  15. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-02-13

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  16. A Comparison of Recent Organic and Inorganic Carbon Isotope Records: Why Do They Covary in Some Settings and Not In Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlert, A. M.; Swart, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Covariance between inorganic and organic δ13C records has been used to determine whether a deposit has been altered by diagenesis, how the dynamics of the global carbon cycle changed during the production of the sediments in the deposit, and also for chronostratigraphic correlations. Although covariant records are observed in the ancient geologic record in a variety of depositional environments, such comparisons are not widely applied to modern deposits where definitive data regarding sediment producers, sea level fluctuations, and changes in the global carbon cycle are available. This study uses paired δ13C records from cores collected by the Ocean Drilling Program from three modern periplatform settings (the Great Bahama Bank, the Great Australian Bight, and the Great Barrier Reef), and two pelagic settings (the Walvis Ridge, and the Madingley Rise). These sites were selected in order to assess the influence of several different environmental factors including; sediment and organic matter producers, sediment mineralogy, margin architecture, sea level oscillations, and sediment transport pathways. In the three periplatform settings, multiple cores arranged in a margin to basin transect were analyzed in order to provide insights into the effects of downslope sediment transport. The preliminary results of this study suggest that sea level oscillations and margin architecture may artificially generate a covarying relationship in periplatform sediments that is unrelated to changes in the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, preliminary results from the Walvis Ridge and the Madingley Rise sediments suggest that the relationship between inorganic and organic δ13C records may not always exhibit a positive covariance as is currently assumed for pelagic carbonates.

  17. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Worldwide sales of inorganic drugs are growing rapidly. Although about 26 elements in the periodic table are considered essential for mammalian life, both ... Lithium like alcohol can influence mood. Lithium drugs such as lithium carbonate Li2C03. , are used for the treatment of manic-depressive disorders, most likely ...

  18. Predicting Species-Resolved Macronutrient Acquisition during Succession in a Model Phototrophic Biofilm Using an Integrated ‘Omics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Lindemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The principles governing acquisition and interspecies exchange of nutrients in microbial communities and how those exchanges impact community productivity are poorly understood. Here, we examine energy and macronutrient acquisition in unicyanobacterial consortia for which species-resolved genome information exists for all members, allowing us to use multi-omic approaches to predict species’ abilities to acquire resources and examine expression of resource-acquisition genes during succession. Metabolic reconstruction indicated that a majority of heterotrophic community members lacked the genes required to directly acquire the inorganic nutrients provided in culture medium, suggesting high metabolic interdependency. The sole primary producer in consortium UCC-O, cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. OSCR, displayed declining expression of energy harvest, carbon fixation, and nitrate and sulfate reduction proteins but sharply increasing phosphate transporter expression over 28 days. Most heterotrophic members likewise exhibited signs of phosphorus starvation during succession. Though similar in their responses to phosphorus limitation, heterotrophs displayed species-specific expression of nitrogen acquisition genes. These results suggest niche partitioning around nitrogen sources may structure the community when organisms directly compete for limited phosphate. Such niche complementarity around nitrogen sources may increase community diversity and productivity in phosphate-limited phototrophic communities.

  19. Investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for differentiating inorganic and organic C in a variety of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Mayes, Melanie A.; Heal, Katherine R.; Brice, Deanne J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) along with multivariate analysis was used to differentiate between the total carbon (C), inorganic C, and organic C in a set of 58 different soils from 5 soil orders. A 532 nm laser with 45 mJ of laser power was used to excite the 58 samples of soil and the emission of all the elements present in the soil samples was recorded in a single spectrum with a wide wavelength range of 200–800 nm. The results were compared to the laboratory standard technique, e.g., combustion on a LECO-CN analyzer, to determine the true values for total C, inorganic C, and organic C concentrations. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the characteristic spectra of soils containing different amounts of organic and inorganic C, and 2) to examine the viability of this technique for differentiating between soils that contain predominantly organic and/or inorganic C content for a range of diverse soils. Previous work has shown that LIBS is an accurate and reliable approach to measuring total carbon content of soils, but it remains uncertain whether inorganic and organic forms of carbon can be separated using this approach. Total C and inorganic C exhibited correlation with rock-forming elements such as Al, Si, Fe, Ti, Ca, and Sr, while organic C exhibited minor correlation with these elements and a major correlation with Mg. We calculated a figure of merit (Mg/Ca) based on our results to enable differentiation between inorganic versus organic C. We obtained the LIBS validation prediction for total, inorganic, and organic C to have a coefficient of regression, r 2 = 0.91, 0.87, and 0.91 respectively. These examples demonstrate an advance in LIBS-based techniques to distinguish between organic and inorganic C using the full wavelength spectra. - Highlights: • This research has successfully identified the organic and inorganic carbon in soil. • Multivariate analysis was used to show success in building a statistical model. • Can be used to

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  1. Selection of pecan shell-based activated carbons for removal of organic and inorganic impurities from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niandou, Mohamed A S; Novak, Jeffrey M; Bansode, Rishipal R; Yu, Jianmei; Rehrah, Djaafar; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbons are a byproduct from pyrolysis and have value as a purifying agent. The effectiveness of activated carbons is dependent on feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions that modify their surface properties. Therefore, pecan shell-based activated carbons (PSACs) were prepared by soaking shells in 50% (v/v) HPO or 25 to 50% of KOH-NaHCO followed by pyrolysis at 400 to 700°C under a N atmosphere. Physically activated PSACs were produced by pyrolysis at 700°C under N followed by activation with steam or CO at 700 to 900°C. Physicochemical, surface, and adsorption properties of the PSACs were compared with two commercially available activated carbons. The average mass yield of PSACs with respect to the initial mass of the biomass was about 20 and 34% for physically activated and chemically activated carbons, respectively. Acid-activated carbons exhibited higher surface area, higher bulk density, and lower ash content compared with steam- or CO-activated carbons and the two commercial products. Base activation led to the development of biochar with moderate to high surface area with surface charges suitable for adsorption of anionic species. Regardless of the activation method, PSACs had high total surface area ranging from 400 to 1000 m g, better pore size distribution, and more surface charges than commercial samples. Our results also showed that PSACs were effective in removing inorganic contaminants such as Cu and NO as well as organic contaminants such as atrazine and metolachlor. This study showed that pyrolysis conditions and activation had a large influence on the PSAC's surface characteristics, which can limit its effectiveness as a custom sorbent for targeted water contaminants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  3. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  4. Do international acquisitions by emerging-economy firms create shareholder value? The case of Indian firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbi, Sathyajit R.; Aulakh, Preet S.; Ray, Sougata; Sarkar, M. B.; Chittoor, Raveendra

    While overseas acquisitions by emerging-economy firms are gaining increased attention from the business press, our understanding of whether and why this inorganic mode of international expansion creates value to acquirer firms is limited. We argue that international acquisitions facilitate

  5. Carbon-14 measurements in aquifers with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.F.; Fritz, P.; Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of various groundwater systems indicates that methane is a common trace constituent and occasionally a major carbon species in groundwaters. Thermocatalytic methane had delta 13 Csub(CH 4 )>-45 per mille and microbially produced or biogenic methane had delta 13 Csub(CH 4 ) 13 C values for the inorganic carbon. Thermocatalytic methane had no apparent effect on the inorganic carbon. Because methanogenesis seriously affects the carbon isotope geochemistry of groundwaters, the correction of raw 14 C ages of affected groundwaters must consider these effects. Conceptual models are developed which adjust the 14 C activity of the groundwater for the effects of methanogenesis and for the dilution of carbon present during infiltration by simple dissolution of rock carbonate. These preliminary models are applied to groundwaters from the Alliston sand aquifer where methanogenesis has affected most samples. In this system, methanogenic bacteria using organic matter present in the aquifer matrix as substrate have added inorganic carbon to the groundwater which has initiated further carbonate rock dissolution. These processes have diluted the inorganic carbon 14 C activity. The adjusted groundwater ages can be explained in terms of the complex hydrogeology of this aquifer, but also indicate that these conceptual models must be more rigorously tested to evaluate their appropriateness. (author)

  6. On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, T.J.; Petit, C. [CUNY City College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-10-15

    Ammonia adsorption was studied under dynamic conditions, at room temperature, on activated carbons of different origins (coal-based, wood-based and coconut-shell-based carbons) before and after their impregnation with various inorganic compounds including metal chlorides, metal oxides and polycations. The role of humidity was evaluated by running tests in both dry and moist conditions. Adsorbents were analyzed before and after exposure to ammonia by thermal analyses, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Results of breakthrough tests show significant differences in terms of adsorption capacity depending on the parent carbon, the impregnates and the experimental conditions. It is found that surface chemistry governs ammonia adsorption on the impregnated carbons. More precisely, it was demonstrated that a proper combination of the surface pH, the strength, type and amount of functional groups present on the adsorbents' surface is a key point in ammonia uptake. Water can have either positive or negative effects on the performance of adsorbents. It can enhance NH{sub 3} adsorption capacity since it favors ammonia dissolution and thus enables reaction between ammonium ions and carboxylic groups from the carbons' surface. On the other hand, water can also reduce the performance from the strength of adsorption standpoint. It promotes dissolution of ammonia and that ammonia is first removed from the system when the adsorbent bed is purged with air. Ammonia, besides adsorption by van der Waals forces and dissolution in water, is also retained on the surface via reactive mechanisms such as acid-base reactions (Bronsted and Lewis) or complexation. Depending on the materials used and the experimental conditions, 6-47% ammonia adsorbed is strongly retained on the surface even when the bed is purged with air.

  7. A paradox resolved: Sulfide acquisition by roots of seep tubeworms sustains net chemoautotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, John K.; Girguis, Peter R.; Bergquist, Derk C.; Andras, Jason P.; Childress, James J.; Fisher, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Vestimentiferan tubeworms, symbiotic with sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria, dominate many cold-seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico. The most abundant vestimentiferan species at these sites, Lamellibrachia cf. luymesi, grows quite slowly to lengths exceeding 2 meters and lives in excess of 170–250 years. L. cf. luymesi can grow a posterior extension of its tube and tissue, termed a “root,” down into sulfidic sediments below its point of original attachment. This extension can be longer than the anterior portion of the animal. Here we show, using methods optimized for detection of hydrogen sulfide down to 0.1 μM in seawater, that hydrogen sulfide was never detected around the plumes of large cold-seep vestimentiferans and rarely detectable only around the bases of mature aggregations. Respiration experiments, which exposed the root portions of L. cf. luymesi to sulfide concentrations between 51–561 μM, demonstrate that L. cf. luymesi use their roots as a respiratory surface to acquire sulfide at an average rate of 4.1 μmol⋅g−1⋅h−1. Net dissolved inorganic carbon uptake across the plume of the tubeworms was shown to occur in response to exposure of the posterior (root) portion of the worms to sulfide, demonstrating that sulfide acquisition by roots of the seep vestimentiferan L. cf. luymesi can be sufficient to fuel net autotrophic total dissolved inorganic carbon uptake. PMID:11687647

  8. Variation of photoautotrophic fatty acid production from a highly CO2 tolerant alga, Chlorococcum littorale, with inorganic carbon over narrow ranges of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Masaki; Takenaka, Motohiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard L; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Photoautotrophic fatty acid production of a highly CO2 -tolerant green alga Chlorococcum littorale in the presence of inorganic carbon at 295 K and light intensity of 170 µmol-photon m(-2) s(-1) was investigated. CO2 concentration in the bubbling gas was adjusted by mixing pure gas components of CO2 and N2 to avoid photorespiration and β-oxidation of fatty acids under O2 surrounding conditions. Maximum content of total fatty acid showed pH-dependence after nitrate depletion of the culture media and increased with the corresponding inorganic carbon ratio. Namely, [HCO3 (-) ]/([CO2 ]+n[ CO32-]) ratio in the culture media was found to be a controlling factor for photoautotrophic fatty acid production after the nitrate limitation. At a CO2 concentration of 5% (vol/vol) and a pH of 6.7, the fatty acid content was 47.8 wt % (dry basis) at its maximum that is comparable with land plant seed oils. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Tidal day organic and inorganic material flux of ponds in the Liberty Island freshwater tidal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Peggy W; Mayr, Shawn; Liu, Leji; Tang, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The loss of inorganic and organic material export and habitat produced by freshwater tidal wetlands is hypothesized to be an important contributing factor to the long-term decline in fishery production in San Francisco Estuary. However, due to the absence of freshwater tidal wetlands in the estuary, there is little information on the export of inorganic and organic carbon, nutrient or phytoplankton community biomass and the associated mechanisms. A single-day study was conducted to assess the potential contribution of two small vegetated ponds and one large open-water pond to the inorganic and organic material flux within the freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island in San Francisco Estuary. The study consisted of an intensive tidal day (25.5 h) sampling program that measured the flux of inorganic and organic material at three ponds using continuous monitoring of flow, chlorophyll a, turbidity and salt combined with discrete measurements of phytoplankton community carbon, total and dissolved organic carbon and nutrient concentration at 1.5 h intervals. Vegetated ponds had greater material concentrations than the open water pond and, despite their small area, contributed up to 81% of the organic and 61% of the inorganic material flux of the wetland. Exchange between ponds was important to wetland flux. The small vegetated pond in the interior of the wetland contributed as much as 72-87% of the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a and 10% of the diatom flux of the wetland. Export of inorganic and organic material from the small vegetated ponds was facilitated by small-scale topography and tidal asymmetry that produced a 40% greater material export on ebb tide. The small vegetated ponds contrasted with the large open water pond, which imported 29-96% of the inorganic and 4-81% of the organic material into the wetland from the adjacent river. This study identified small vegetated ponds as an important source of inorganic and organic material to the wetland and the

  10. Carbonic anhydrase 2-like in the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa: characterization, localization, response to light, and possible role in the transport of inorganic carbon from the host to its symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Koh, Clarissa Z Y; Hiong, Kum C; Choo, Celine Y L; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Neo, Mei L; Chew, Shit F

    2017-12-01

    The fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , lives in symbiosis with zooxanthellae which reside extracellularly inside a tubular system. Zooxanthellae fix inorganic carbon (C i ) during insolation and donate photosynthate to the host. Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO3-, of which carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) is the most ubiquitous and involved in many biological processes. This study aimed to clone a CA2 homolog ( CA2-like ) from the fleshy and colorful outer mantle as well as the thin and whitish inner mantle of T. squamosa , to determine its cellular and subcellular localization, and to examine the effects of light exposure on its gene and protein expression levels. The cDNA coding sequence of CA2-like from T. squamosa comprised 789 bp, encoding 263 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 29.6 kDa. A phenogramic analysis of the deduced CA2-like sequence denoted an animal origin. CA2-like was not detectable in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid. Hence, CA2-like is unlikely to participate directly in light-enhanced calcification. By contrast, the outer mantle, which contains the highest density of tertiary tubules and zooxanthellae, displayed high level of CA2-like expression, and CA2-like was localized to the tubule epithelial cells. More importantly, exposure to light induced significant increases in the protein abundance of CA2-like in the outer mantle. Hence, CA2-like could probably take part in the increased supply of inorganic carbon (C i ) from the host clam to the symbiotic zooxanthellae when the latter conduct photosynthesis to fix C i during light exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Nuclear graphite waste's behaviour under disposal conditions: Study of the release and repartition of organic and inorganic forms of carbon 14 and tritium in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vende, L.

    2012-01-01

    23000 tons of graphite wastes will be generated during dismantling of the first generation of French reactors (9 gas cooled reactors). These wastes are classified as Long Lived Low Level wastes (LLW-LL). As requested by the law, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) is studying concepts of low-depth disposals.In this work we focus on carbon 14, the main long-lived radionuclide in graphite waste (5730 y), but also on tritium, which is the main contributor to the radioactivity in the short term. Carbon 14 and tritium may be released from graphite waste in many forms in gaseous phase ( 14 CO 2 , HT...) or in solution ( 14 CO 3 2- , HTO...). Their speciation will strongly affect their migration from the disposal site to the environment. Leaching experiments, in alkaline solution (0.1 M NaOH simulating repository conditions) have been performed on irradiated graphite, from Saint-Laurent A2 and G2 reactors, in order to quantify their release and characterize their speciation. The studies show that carbon 14 exists in both gaseous and aqueous phases. In the gaseous phase, release is weak (≤0.1%) and corresponds to oxidizable species. Carbon 14 is mainly released into liquid phase, as both inorganic and organic species. 65% of released fraction is inorganic and 35% organic carbon. Two tritiated species have been identified in gaseous phase: HTO and HT/Organically Bond Tritium. More than 90% of tritium in that phase corresponds to HT/OBT. But release is weak (≤0.1%). HTO is mainly in the liquid phase. (author)

  12. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  13. Use of carbonates for biological and chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-09-09

    A system of using carbonates, especially water-insoluble or sparing soluble mineral carbonates, for maintaining or increasing dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in aqueous media. In particular, the system generates concentrated dissolve inorganic carbon substrates for photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, or abiotic chemical production of carbonaceous or other compounds in solution. In some embodiments, the invention can also enhance the dissolution and retention of carbon dioxide in aqueous media, and can produce pH buffering capacity, metal ions, and heat, which can be beneficial to the preceding syntheses.

  14. Stable isotope composition of inorganic carbonates from Lake Abiyata (Ethiopia): Attempt of reconstructing δ18O palaeohydrological changes during the Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, E.; Massault, M.; Travi, Y.; Chernet, T.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity of its regional climate to the African monsoon seasonal shifting, Ethiopia has been designated as a key site for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions mainly within the IGBP-PAGES-PEPIII programme. Under the French-Ethiopian ERICA project, we focused on Lake Abiyata located in the Ziway-Shala basin (Central Ethiopia) which has experienced several lacustrine highstands during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. At present, Lake Abiyata is a closed lake with a very flat catchment area, and corresponds to a half, deep graben infilled by 600-m of sedimentary deposits. In 1995, a 12.6-m-long sequence ABII was cored in Lake Abiyata. A reliable 14 C-AMS chronology was defined on both organic matter and inorganic carbonates. Both the modern hydrologeological and geochemical balances of the 'groundwater-lake' system indicate that (i) carbonate cristallization mainly occurs at the water-sediment interface via the mixing of lake water and 14 C-depleted groundwaters, and that (ii) modern algae form in equilibrium with the atmospheric reservoir. Phytoplankton is thus considered as an authigenic material, and Core ABII has registered 13,500 cal. yr B.P. of environmental history. The evidence of calcite precipitation at the water-sediment interface calls into question the direct palaeoclimatic reconstruction based on inorganic carbonates. Since the evolution of isotopic contents of carbonates might be linked to the variable proportion of the 'lake/groundwater' end-members in the mixing, calculations based on isotopic mass balance models may allow for the reconstruction of δ 18 O composition of the lake water. Two major changes can be highlighted: (i) the ∼12,000-5500 cal. yr B.P. period is associated to low 18 O contents of lake water, and corresponds to an open hydrological system, with a high lacustrine phytoplanktonic productivity, and (ii) from ∼5500 cal. yr B.P. to Present, regressive conditions are suggested by the δ 18 O enrichment of the lake

  15. Organic and inorganic carbon dynamics in a karst aquifer: Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Moore, Paul J.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2014-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), major ions concentrations and other geochemical parameters including stable carbon isotopes of DIC (δ13CDIC), were measured in surface water and deep and shallow well water samples of the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise eogenetic karst system, north Florida, USA. Three end-member water sources were identified: one DOC-rich/DIC-poor/δ13CDIC-depleted, one DOC-poor/DIC-rich/δ13CDIC-enriched, and one enriched in major ions. Given their spatiotemporal distributions, they were presumed to represent soil water, upper aquifer groundwater, and deep aquifer water sources, respectively. Using assumed ratios of Na+, Cl, and SO42- for each end-member, a mixing model calculated the contribution of each water source to each sample. Then, chemical effects of biogeochemical reactions were calculated as the difference between those predicted by the mixing model and measured species concentrations. In general, carbonate mineral dissolution occurred throughout the Sink-Rise system, surface waters were net autotrophic and the subsurface was in metabolic balance, i.e., no net DOC or DIC production or consumption. However, there was evidence for chemolithoautotrophy, perhaps by hydrogen oxidizing microbes, at some deep aquifer sites. Mineralization of this autochthonous natural dissolved organic matter (NDOM) led to localized carbonate dissolution as did surface water-derived NDOM supplied to shallow well sites during the highest flow periods. This study demonstrates linkages between hydrology, abiotic and microbial processes and carbon dynamics and has important implications for groundwater quality, karst morphologic evolution, and hydrogeologic projects such as aquifer storage and recovery in karst systems.

  16. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated determination of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aqueous samples: RSIL lab codes 1851 and 1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Kinga M.; Doctor, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab codes 1851 and 1852 are to determine the total carbon mass and the ratio of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, lab code 1851) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC, lab code 1852) in aqueous samples. The analysis procedure is automated according to a method that utilizes a total carbon analyzer as a peripheral sample preparation device for analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas by a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The carbon analyzer produces CO2 and determines the carbon mass in parts per million (ppm) of DIC and DOC in each sample separately, and the CF-IRMS determines the carbon isotope ratio of the produced CO2. This configuration provides a fully automated analysis of total carbon mass and δ13C with no operator intervention, additional sample preparation, or other manual analysis. To determine the DIC, the carbon analyzer transfers a specified sample volume to a heated (70 °C) reaction vessel with a preprogrammed volume of 10% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), which allows the carbonate and bicarbonate species in the sample to dissociate to CO2. The CO2 from the reacted sample is subsequently purged with a flow of helium gas that sweeps the CO2 through an infrared CO2 detector and quantifies the CO2. The CO2 is then carried through a high-temperature (650 °C) scrubber reactor, a series of water traps, and ultimately to the inlet of the mass spectrometer. For the analysis of total dissolved organic carbon, the carbon analyzer performs a second step on the sample in the heated reaction vessel during which a preprogrammed volume of sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) is added, and the hydroxyl radicals oxidize the organics to CO2. Samples containing 2 ppm to 30,000 ppm of carbon are analyzed. The precision of the carbon isotope analysis is within 0.3 per mill for DIC, and within 0.5 per mill for DOC.

  18. Natural vegetation restoration is more beneficial to soil surface organic and inorganic carbon sequestration than tree plantation on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Dong, Yunshe; Wang, Yunqiang; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yafeng; Cui, Buli; Zhou, Weijian

    2014-07-01

    Natural vegetation restoration and tree plantation are the two most important measures for ecosystem restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. However, few studies have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on soil organic and inorganic carbon (SOC and SIC) sequestration or have further used SOC and SIC isotopes to analyze the inherent sequestration mechanism. This study examined a pair of neighboring small watersheds with similar topographical and geological backgrounds. Since 1954, natural vegetation restoration has been conducted in one of these watersheds, and tree plantation has been conducted in the other. The two watersheds have now formed completely different landscapes (naturally restored grassland and artificial forestland). Differences in soil bulk density, SOC and SIC content and storage, and SOC and SIC δ(13)C values were investigated in the two ecosystems in the upper 1m of the soil. We found that SOC storage was higher in the grassland than in the forestland, with a difference of 14.90 Mg ha(-1). The vertical changes in the δ(13)CSOC value demonstrated that the two ecosystems have different mechanisms of soil surface organic carbon accumulation. The SIC storage in the grassland was lower than that in the forestland, with a difference of 38.99 Mg ha(-1). The δ(13)CSIC values indicated that the grassland generates more secondary carbonate than the forestland and that SIC was most likely transported to the rivers from the grassland as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The biogeochemical characteristics of the grassland were favorable for the formation of bicarbonate. Thus, more DIC derived from the dissolution of root and microbial respired CO2 into soil water could have been transported to the rivers through flood runoff. It is necessary to study further the transportation of DIC from the grassland because this process can produce a large potential carbon sink. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Inorganic Nanoparticle-Modified Poly(Phenylene Sulphide/ Carbon Fiber Laminates: Thermomechanical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Díez-Pascual

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF-reinforced high-temperature thermoplastics such as poly(phenylene sulphide (PPS are widely used in structural composites for aerospace and automotive applications. The porosity of CF-reinforced polymers is a very important topic for practical applications since there is a direct correlation between void content and mechanical properties. In this study, inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulphide (IF-WS2 lubricant nanoparticles were used to manufacture PPS/IF-WS2/CF laminates via melt-blending and hot-press processing, and the effect of IF-WS2 loading on the quality, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the hybrid composites was investigated. The addition of IF-WS2 improved fiber impregnation, resulting in lower degree of porosity and increased delamination resistance, compression and flexural properties; their reinforcement effect was greater at temperatures above the glass transition (Tg. IF-WS2 contents higher than 0.5 wt % increased Tg and the heat deflection temperature while reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion. The multiscale laminates exhibited higher ignition point and notably reduced peak heat release rate compared to PPS/CF. The coexistence of micro- and nano-scale fillers resulted in synergistic effects that enhanced the stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity and flame retardancy of the matrix. The results presented herein demonstrate that the IF-WS2 are very promising nanofillers to improve the thermomechanical properties of conventional thermoplastic/CF composites.

  20. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  1. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  2. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adsorption of p-cresol on novel diatomite/carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjar, H; Hamdi, B; Ania, C O

    2011-04-15

    Hybrid inorganic/organic adsorbents were synthesized using mixtures of diatomite and carbon charcoal as precursors, and explored for the removal of p-cresol from aqueous solution. The carbon/diatomite composites displayed a bimodal and interconnected porous structure which was partially inherited from both precursors. They display moderate surface areas (between 100 and 400 m(2)g(-1)) due to their large inorganic content (between 70 and 90 wt.%), since the diatomite is a non-porous material. Compared to activated carbons with a more developed porosity, p-cresol adsorption on the prepared carbon/diatomite composites was much faster, showing adsorption capacities similar to those of conventional adsorbents over a wide pH range. These results show a good affinity of p-cresol molecules towards the hybrid inorganic/organic composites, and demonstrate the suitability of these novel materials for the removal of aromatic (polar) molecules, despite their dominant inorganic character. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of inorganic carbon on the nitrous oxide emissions and microbial diversity of an anaerobic ammonia oxidation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Dunqiu; Jin, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic carbon (IC) is important for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). In this study, the effects of the IC concentration on N 2 O emissions and microbial diversity in an anammox reactor were investigated. N 2 O emissions were positively correlated with IC concentrations, and IC concentrations in the range of 55-130 mg/L were optimal, considering the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions. High IC concentrations resulted in the formation of CaCO 3 on the surface of anammox granules, which impacted the diffusion conditions of the substrate. Microbial community analysis indicated that high IC concentrations decreased the populations of specific bacteria, such as Achromobacter spanius strain YJART-7, Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain IHB B 6801, and Denitratisoma oestradiolicum clone 20b_15. D. oestradiolicum clone 20b_15 appeared to be the key contributor to N 2 O emissions. High N 2 O emissions may result from changes in organic carbon sources, which lead to denitrification by D. oestradiolicum clone 20b_15. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biogeochemical generation of dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen in the North Branch of inner Changjiang Estuary in a dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wei-Dong; Yan, Xiu-Li; Qi, Di

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the surface water carbonate system, nutrients, and relevant hydrochemical parameters in the inner Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary in early spring 2009 and 2010. The two surveys were carried out shortly after spring-tide days, and covered both the channel-like South Branch and the freshwater-blocked North Branch. In the North Branch, with a water residence time of approximately one month, we detected remarkable partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) of 930-1518 μatm with a salinity range of 4.5-17.4, which were substantially higher than the South Branch pCO2 values of 700-1100 μatm at salinities of less than 0.88. The North Branch pCO2 distribution pattern is unique compared with many other estuaries where aquatic pCO2 normally declines with salinity increase. Furthermore, the biogeochemical additions of ammonium (7.4-65.7 μmol kg-1) and alkalinity (196-695 μmol kg-1) were identified in salinities between 4 and 16 in the North Branch. Based on field data analyses and simplified stoichiometric equations, we suggest that the relatively high North Branch pCO2 values and estuarine additions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen/carbon in the mid-salinity area were strongly associated with each other. These signals were primarily controlled by biogeochemical processes in the North Branch, combining biogenic organic matter decomposition (i.e. respiration), ammonia oxidation, CaCO3 dissolution, and CO2 degassing. In the upper reach of the South Branch, notable salinity values of 0.20-0.88 were detected, indicating saltwater spillover from the North Branch. These spillover waters had minor contributions (1.5-6.9%) to the springtime nutrient, dissolved inorganic carbon, and alkalinity export fluxes from Changjiang to the adjacent East China Sea. This is the first attempt to understand the biogeochemical controls of the unique pCO2 distributions in the North Branch, and to evaluate the effects of saltwater spillover from the North Branch on dry-season export fluxes

  6. Carbonate counter pump stimulated by natural iron fertilization in the Polar Frontal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Ian; Schiebel, Ralf; Ziveri, Patrizia; Movellan, Aurore; Lampitt, Richard; Wolff, George A.

    2014-12-01

    The production of organic carbon in the ocean's surface and its subsequent downward export transfers carbon dioxide to the deep ocean. This CO2 drawdown is countered by the biological precipitation of carbonate, followed by sinking of particulate inorganic carbon, which is a source of carbon dioxide to the surface ocean, and hence the atmosphere over 100-1,000 year timescales. The net transfer of CO2 to the deep ocean is therefore dependent on the relative amount of organic and inorganic carbon in sinking particles. In the Southern Ocean, iron fertilization has been shown to increase the export of organic carbon, but it is unclear to what degree this effect is compensated by the export of inorganic carbon. Here we assess the composition of sinking particles collected from sediment traps located in the Polar Frontal Zone of the Southern Ocean. We find that in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions that are characterized by naturally high iron concentrations, fluxes of both organic and inorganic carbon are higher than in regions with no iron fertilization. However, the excess flux of inorganic carbon is greater than that of organic carbon. We estimate that the production and flux of carbonate in naturally iron-fertilized waters reduces the overall amount of CO2 transferred to the deep ocean by 6-32%, compared to 1-4% at the non-fertilized site. We suggest that an increased export of organic carbon, stimulated by iron availability in the glacial sub-Antarctic oceans, may have been accompanied by a strengthened carbonate counter pump.

  7. Variability in carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene during degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron: Effects of inorganic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunde [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguozhou@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis has the potential to be used for assessing the performance of in situ remediation of organic contaminants. Successful application of this isotope technique requires understanding the magnitude and variability in carbon isotope fractionation associated with the reactions under consideration. This study investigated the influence of inorganic anions (sulfate, bicarbonate, and chloride) on carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) during its degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron. The results demonstrated that the significant carbon isotope fractionation (enrichment factors ε ranging from − 3.4 ± 0.3 to − 4.3 ± 0.3 ‰) was independent on the zero-iron dosage, sulfate concentration, and bicarbonate concentration. However, the ε values (ranging from − 7.0 ± 0.4 to − 13.6 ± 1.2 ‰) were dependent on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during TCE degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron. The dependence of ε values on chloride concentration, indicated that TCE degradation mechanisms may be different from the degradation mechanism caused by sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}). Ignoring the effect of chloride on ε value may cause numerous uncertainties in quantitative assessment of the performance of the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). - Highlights: • Significant C isotope fractionation for TCE degradation by Fe{sup 0} activated persulfate. • The enrichment factors was independent of Fe{sup 0}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, or HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration. • Cl{sup −} significantly influenced the carbon isotope fractionation.

  8. Variability in carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene during degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron: Effects of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunde; Zhou, Aiguo; Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis has the potential to be used for assessing the performance of in situ remediation of organic contaminants. Successful application of this isotope technique requires understanding the magnitude and variability in carbon isotope fractionation associated with the reactions under consideration. This study investigated the influence of inorganic anions (sulfate, bicarbonate, and chloride) on carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) during its degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron. The results demonstrated that the significant carbon isotope fractionation (enrichment factors ε ranging from − 3.4 ± 0.3 to − 4.3 ± 0.3 ‰) was independent on the zero-iron dosage, sulfate concentration, and bicarbonate concentration. However, the ε values (ranging from − 7.0 ± 0.4 to − 13.6 ± 1.2 ‰) were dependent on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during TCE degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron. The dependence of ε values on chloride concentration, indicated that TCE degradation mechanisms may be different from the degradation mechanism caused by sulfate radical (SO_4·"−). Ignoring the effect of chloride on ε value may cause numerous uncertainties in quantitative assessment of the performance of the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). - Highlights: • Significant C isotope fractionation for TCE degradation by Fe"0 activated persulfate. • The enrichment factors was independent of Fe"0, SO_4"2"−, or HCO_3"− concentration. • Cl"− significantly influenced the carbon isotope fractionation.

  9. [Impact of Rocky Desertification Treatment on Underground Water Chemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Isotope in Karst Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Xiong, Kang-ning; Lan, Jia-cheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Five springs representing different land-use types and different karst rocky desertification treatment models were chosen at the Huajiang Karst Rocky Desertification Treatment Demonstration Site in Guanling-Zhenfeng Counties in Guizhou, to analyze the features of underground water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes (δ13C(DIC)) and reveal the effect of rocky desertification treatment on karstification and water quality. It was found that, the underground water type of the research area was HCO3-Ca; the water quality of the springs which were relatively less affected by human activities including Shuijingwan Spring (SJW) , Gebei Spring (GB), and Maojiawan Spring (MJW) was better than those relatively more affected by human activities including Diaojing Spring (DJ) and Tanjiazhai Spring (TJZ) , the main ion concentrations and electrical conductivity of which were higher; pH, SIc and pCO2 were sensitive to land-use types and rocky desertification treatment, which could be shown by the higher pH and SIc and lower pCO2 in MJW than those in the other four springs; (Ca(2+) + Mg2+)/HCO(3-) of SJW, MJW and GB were nearly 1:1, dominated by carbonate rock weathering by carbon acid, while the (Ca(2+) + Mg2+) of DJ and TJZ was much higher than HCO3-, suggesting that sulfate and nitrate might also dissolve carbonate rock because of the agricultural activities; δ13C(DIC) was lighter in wet season because of the higher biological activities; the average δ13C(DIC) was in the order of DJ (-12.79 per thousand) desertification and lighter after the rocky desertification are treated and controlled.

  10. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  11. Advanced inorganic fluorides. Proceedings of the Second International Siberian workshop INTERSIBFLUORINE-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.; Mit'kin, V.N.; Bujnovskij, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    Proceedings of the Second International Siberian workshop ISIF-2006 on modern inorganic fluorides contain full author's texts of 82 plenary reports and posters on the main trends in chemistry and technology of inorganic fluorides and their various applications. The following new trends are reflected in the ISIF-2006 Proceedings versus the ISIF-2003 ones: production and use of of nano-sized systems and materials based on fluoride phases and fluorinating systems; chemistry of fluorofullerenes, fluorides of graphite and carbon materials; development of research and technical principles of economically viable process of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion; vitrifying systems based on metal fluorides possessing valuable functional optical properties; mechanochemical processes and phenomena in chemistry of inorganic fluorides [ru

  12. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  14. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Gliwa, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian-Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-)sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the observed signal of carbon

  15. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schobben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian–Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the

  16. Hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles: From tumor-targeted drug delivery to cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Hemasa, Ayman L; Freag, May S

    2016-12-10

    Recently, a great interest has been paid to the development of hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery and cancer diagnostics in order to combine the merits of both inorganic and protein nanocarriers. This review primarily discusses the most outstanding advances in the applications of the hybrids of naturally-occurring proteins with iron oxide, gadolinium, gold, silica, calcium phosphate NPs, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots in drug delivery and cancer imaging. Various strategies that have been utilized for the preparation of protein-functionalized inorganic NPs and the mechanisms involved in the drug loading process are discussed. How can the protein functionalization overcome the limitations of colloidal stability, poor dispersibility and toxicity associated with inorganic NPs is also investigated. Moreover, issues relating to the influence of protein hybridization on the cellular uptake, tumor targeting efficiency, systemic circulation, mucosal penetration and skin permeation of inorganic NPs are highlighted. A special emphasis is devoted to the novel approaches utilizing the protein-inorganic nanohybrids in combined cancer therapy, tumor imaging, and theranostic applications as well as stimuli-responsive drug release from the nanohybrids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical study of oxidation process of promethazine using sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing immobilized DNA on inorganic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Marco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the voltammetric behavior and the oxidation process of promethazine (PHZ in electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing DNA immobilized on the inorganic matrix prepared by sol-gel process (SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5. The method of Laviron verified that the system is irreversible and high speed of electron transfer between the electrode and DNA. The study of the oxidation of PHZ and influence of pH showed slope of 0.054 V / pH (near the nernstian system: 0.0592 V / pH suggesting that it involves the transfer of two protons and two electrons.

  18. [Study on the content and carbon isotopic composition of water dissolved inorganic carbon from rivers around Xi'an City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Xiang-Zhong; Liu, Wei-Guo

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the content and isotopic compositions of water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from four typical rivers (Chanhe, Bahe, Laohe and Heihe) around Xi'an City were studied to trace the possible sources of DIC. The results of this study showed that the content of DIC in the four rivers varied from 0.34 to 5.66 mmol x L(-1) with an average value of 1.23 mmol x L(-1). In general, the content of DIC increased from the headstream to the river mouth. The delta13C(DIC) of four rivers ranged from -13.3 per thousand to -7.2 per thousand, with an average value of -10.1 per thousand. The delta13C(DIC) values of river water were all negative (average value of -12.6 per thousand) at the headstream of four rivers, but the delta13C(DIC) values of downstream water were more positive (with an average value of -9.4 per thousand). In addition, delta13C(DIC) of river water showed relatively negative values (the average value of delta13C(DIC) was -10.5 per thousand) near the estuary of the rivers. The variation of the DIC content and its carbon isotope suggested that the DIC sources of the rivers varied from the headstream to the river mouth. The negative delta13C(DIC) value indicated that the DIC may originate from the soil CO2 at the headstream of the rivers. On the other hand, the delta13C(DIC) values of river water at the middle and lower reaches of rivers were more positive, and it showed that soil CO2 produced by respiration of the C4 plants (like corn) and soil carbonates with positive delta13C values may be imported into river water. Meanwhile, the input of pollutants with low delta13C(DIC) values may result in a decrease of delta13C(DIC) values in the rivers. The study indicated that the DIC content and carbon isotope may be used to trace the sources of DIC in rivers around Xi'an City. Our study may provide some basic information for tracing the sources of DIC of rivers in the small watershed area in the Loess Plateau of China.

  19. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  20. Redox-responsive theranostic nanoplatforms based on inorganic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Long; Li, Xi; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Min; Hu, Kun; Li, Lu-Hai; Wei, Yen

    2017-08-10

    Spurred on by advances in materials chemistry and nanotechnology, scientists have developed many novel nanopreparations for cancer diagnosis and therapy. To treat complex malignant tumors effectively, multifunctional nanomedicines with targeting ability, imaging properties and controlled drug release behavior should be designed and exploited. The therapeutic efficiency of loaded drugs can be dramatically improved using redox-responsive nanoplatforms which can sense the differences in the redox status of tumor tissues and healthy ones. Redox-sensitive nanocarriers can be constructed from both organic and inorganic nanomaterials; however, at present, drug delivery nanovectors progressively lean towards inorganic nanomaterials because of their facile synthesis/modification and their unique physicochemical properties. In this review, we focus specifically on the preparation and application of redox-sensitive nanosystems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), carbon nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanomaterials and other inorganic nanomaterials. We discuss relevant examples of redox-sensitive nanosystems in each category. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future strategies from the aspect of material design and practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EELS data acquisition, processing and display for the Zeiss CEM 902 based on LOTUS 1-2-3: application examples from a biological system and inorganic transition metal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, M; Cantow, H J

    1991-04-01

    A personal computer combined with LOTUS 1-2-3 software, including the RS232 module of LOTUS MEASURE and a 12-bit ADC, has been used for data acquisition of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra with the Zeiss CEM 902. The internal macro language of LOTUS 1-2-3 allows a menu-driven procedure. Macro-programs partly combined with external FORTRAN programs can be chosen from the menu for background subtraction, removal of multiple scattering effects by deconvolution, elemental quantification and several utilities. For special applications or conditions the macro programs can easily be modified. Spectra from crystals of two inorganic transition metal compounds, ruthenium trichloride and vanadium disulphide, and from a biological sample are presented as examples of the application of this software.

  2. [Effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus content of upland red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chen, Xiao-min; Liu, Zu-xiang; Huang, Qian-ru; LiI, Qiu-xia; Chen, Chen; Lu, Shao-shan

    2013-04-01

    Aiming at the low content of available phosphorus in upland red soil of Southern China, this paper studied the effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus and organic carbon contents and the pH of this soil. With the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers, the soil physical and chemical properties improved to different degrees. As compared with the control, the soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents at different growth stages of oil rape after the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers all had an improvement, with the increments at bolting stage, flowering stage, and ripening stage being 16%, 24% and 26%, 23%, 34% and 38%, and 100%, 191% and 317% , respectively. The soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were increased with the increasing amount of applied biochar. Under-the application of biochar, the soil available phosphorus had a significant correlation with the soil pH and soil organic carbon content. This study could provide scientific basis to improve the phosphorus deficiency and the physical and chemical properties of upland red soil.

  3. Mechanisms of carbon dioxide acquisition and CO2 sensing in marine diatoms: a gateway to carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Hopkinson, Brian M; Nakajima, Kensuke; Dupont, Christopher L; Tsuji, Yoshinori

    2017-09-05

    Diatoms are one of the most successful marine eukaryotic algal groups, responsible for up to 20% of the annual global CO 2 fixation. The evolution of a CO 2 -concentrating mechanism (CCM) allowed diatoms to overcome a number of serious constraints on photosynthesis in the marine environment, particularly low [CO 2 ] aq in seawater relative to concentrations required by the CO 2 fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), which is partly due to the slow diffusion rate of CO 2 in water and a limited CO 2 formation rate from [Formula: see text] in seawater. Diatoms use two alternative strategies to take up dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the environment: one primarily relies on the direct uptake of [Formula: see text] through plasma-membrane type solute carrier (SLC) 4 family [Formula: see text] transporters and the other is more reliant on passive diffusion of CO 2 formed by an external carbonic anhydrase (CA). Bicarbonate taken up into the cytoplasm is most likely then actively transported into the chloroplast stroma by SLC4-type transporters on the chloroplast membrane system. Bicarbonate in the stroma is converted into CO 2 only in close proximity to RubisCO preventing unnecessary CO 2 leakage. CAs play significant roles in mobilizing DIC as it is progressively moved towards the site of fixation. However, the evolutionary types and subcellular locations of CAs are not conserved between different diatoms, strongly suggesting that this DIC mobilization strategy likely evolved multiple times with different origins. By contrast, the recent discovery of the thylakoid luminal θ-CA indicates that the strategy to supply CO 2 to RubisCO in the pyrenoid may be very similar to that of green algae, and strongly suggests convergent coevolution in CCM function of the thylakoid lumen not only among diatoms but among eukaryotic algae in general. In this review, both experimental and corresponding theoretical models of the diatom CCMs are

  4. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  5. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability...... rates of photosynthesis in water. The study did not support the hypothesis that the low competitive ability of L. natans is caused by inefficient photosynthesis or a lack of plasticity in photosynthesis. However, the somewhat low photosynthetic performance of the submerged leaves may be a contributing...

  6. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonyuy, Ernest W.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ 13 C DIC ) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ 13 C DIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe 2+ , alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ 13 C DIC . We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13 C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe 2+ followed by Fe 3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH) 3(s) . The extent of DIC decrease and 13 C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO 3 - dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13 C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO 3 - or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe 3+ hydrolysis for HCO 3 - dehydration. The 13 C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe 2+ was proportional to HCO 3 - concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13 C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO 3 - input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC

  7. Determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters by sequential injection spectrophotometry with on-line UV photo-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue-Ngeun, Orawan; Sandford, Richard C.; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; McKelvie, Ian D.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) method for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters is presented. For DIC measurement on-line sample acidification (sulphuric acid, pH 2 which subsequently diffused through a PTFE membrane into a basic, cresol red acceptor stream. The CO 2 increased the concentration of the acidic form of the cresol red indicator, with a resultant decrease in absorbance at 570 nm being directly proportional to DIC concentration. DIC + DOC was determined after on-line sample irradiation (15 W low power UV lamp) coupled with acid-peroxydisulfate digestion, with the subsequent detection of CO 2 as described above. DOC was determined by subtraction of DIC from (DIC + DOC). Analytical figures of merit were linear ranges of 0.05-5.0 mg C L -1 for both DIC and DIC + DOC, with typical R.S.D.s of less than 7% (0.05 mg C L -1 -5.3% for DIC and 6.6% for DIC + DOC; 4.0 mg C L -1 -2.6% for DIC and 2.4% for DIC + DOC, n = 3) and an LOD (blank + 3S.D.) of 0.05 mg C L -1 . Sample throughput for the automated system was 8 h -1 for DIC and DOC with low reagent consumption (acid/peroxydisulfate 200 μL per DIC + DOC analysis). A range of model carbon compounds and Tamar River (Plymouth, UK) samples were analysed for DIC and DOC and the results showed good agreement with a high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) reference method (t-test, P = 0.05)

  8. Determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters by sequential injection spectrophotometry with on-line UV photo-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tue-Ngeun, Orawan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sandford, Richard C. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drakes Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rsandford@plymouth.ac.uk; Jakmunee, Jaroon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Grudpan, Kate [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); McKelvie, Ian D. [Water Studies Centre, School of Chemistry, Monash University, P.O. Box 23, Clayton Campus, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Worsfold, Paul J. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drakes Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-04

    An automated sequential injection (SI) method for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters is presented. For DIC measurement on-line sample acidification (sulphuric acid, pH < 2), converted DIC to CO{sub 2} which subsequently diffused through a PTFE membrane into a basic, cresol red acceptor stream. The CO{sub 2} increased the concentration of the acidic form of the cresol red indicator, with a resultant decrease in absorbance at 570 nm being directly proportional to DIC concentration. DIC + DOC was determined after on-line sample irradiation (15 W low power UV lamp) coupled with acid-peroxydisulfate digestion, with the subsequent detection of CO{sub 2} as described above. DOC was determined by subtraction of DIC from (DIC + DOC). Analytical figures of merit were linear ranges of 0.05-5.0 mg C L{sup -1} for both DIC and DIC + DOC, with typical R.S.D.s of less than 7% (0.05 mg C L{sup -1}-5.3% for DIC and 6.6% for DIC + DOC; 4.0 mg C L{sup -1}-2.6% for DIC and 2.4% for DIC + DOC, n = 3) and an LOD (blank + 3S.D.) of 0.05 mg C L{sup -1}. Sample throughput for the automated system was 8 h{sup -1} for DIC and DOC with low reagent consumption (acid/peroxydisulfate 200 {mu}L per DIC + DOC analysis). A range of model carbon compounds and Tamar River (Plymouth, UK) samples were analysed for DIC and DOC and the results showed good agreement with a high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) reference method (t-test, P = 0.05)

  9. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha−1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha−1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  10. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V.; Virgos, M. D.; Garcia-Guinea, J.

    2017-06-01

    As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle - littorina littorera - shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180-320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  11. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  12. A lake classification concept for a more accurate global estimate of the dissolved inorganic carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Fabian; Farrell, Kaitlin J.; McCullough, Ian M.; Scordo, Facundo; Denfeld, Blaize A.; Dugan, Hilary A.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hanson, Paul C.; McClure, Ryan P.; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Ryder, Elizabeth; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2018-04-01

    The magnitude of lateral dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters strongly influences the estimate of the global terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) sink. At present, no reliable number of this export is available, and the few studies estimating the lateral DIC export assume that all lakes on Earth function similarly. However, lakes can function along a continuum from passive carbon transporters (passive open channels) to highly active carbon transformers with efficient in-lake CO2 production and loss. We developed and applied a conceptual model to demonstrate how the assumed function of lakes in carbon cycling can affect calculations of the global lateral DIC export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. Using global data on in-lake CO2 production by mineralization as well as CO2 loss by emission, primary production, and carbonate precipitation in lakes, we estimated that the global lateral DIC export can lie within the range of {0.70}_{-0.31}^{+0.27} to {1.52}_{-0.90}^{+1.09} Pg C yr-1 depending on the assumed function of lakes. Thus, the considered lake function has a large effect on the calculated lateral DIC export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. We conclude that more robust estimates of CO2 sinks and sources will require the classification of lakes into their predominant function. This functional lake classification concept becomes particularly important for the estimation of future CO2 sinks and sources, since in-lake carbon transformation is predicted to be altered with climate change.

  13. Influence of surface chemistry of carbon materials on their interactions with inorganic nitrogen contaminants in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaraj; Padhye, Lokesh P

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic nitrogen contaminants (INC) (NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 3 , NO, NO 2 , and N 2 O) pose a growing risk to the environment, and their remediation methods are highly sought after. Application of carbon materials (CM), such as biochar and activated carbon, to remediate INC from agricultural fields and wastewater treatment plants has gained a significant interest since past few years. Understanding the role of surface chemistry of CM in adsorption of various INC is highly critical to increase adsorption efficiency as well as to assess the long term impact of using these highly recalcitrant CM for remediation of INC. Critical reviews of adsorption studies related to INC have revealed that carbon surface chemistry (surface functional groups, pH, Eh, elemental composition, and mineral content) has significant influence on adsorption of INC. Compared to basic functional groups, oxygen containing surface functional groups have been found to be more influential for adsorption of INC. However, basic sites on carbon materials still play an important role in chemisorption of anionic INC. Apart from surface functional groups, pH, Eh and pH zpc of CM and elemental and mineral composition of its surface are important properties capable of altering INC interactions with CM. This review summarizes our current understanding of INC interactions with CM's surface through the known chemisorption mechanisms: electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, electron donor-acceptor mechanism, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction, chemisorption aided by minerals, and interactions influenced by pH and elemental composition. Change in surface chemistry of CM in soil during aging is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Voltammetric methods for determination and speciation of inorganic arsenic in the environment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Douglas E. [Centre for Clean Water and Sustainable Technologies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 20120 (United States); Hussam, Abul, E-mail: ahussam@gmu.edu [Centre for Clean Water and Sustainable Technologies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 20120 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    The measurement of inorganic arsenic in the environment has received considerable attention over the past 40+ years due to its toxicity and prevalence in drinking water. This paper provides an overview of voltammetric techniques used since 2001. More than fifty papers from refereed analytical chemistry journals on the speciation and measurement of inorganic arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) in practical and environmental samples are included. The present review shows that stripping voltammetry is a sensitive and inexpensive technique. The new approaches include development of novel measurement protocols through media variation, development and use of new boron doped diamond electrodes modified with metals, nano Au-modified electrodes on carbon or carbon nano-tubes, novel rotating disc and vibrating electrodes to enhance mass transfer, and modified Hg(l) and thin film Bi on carbon for cathodic stripping voltammetry are discussed. Although, majority of the papers were of exploratory in nature, the trend towards developing a commercial standalone instrument for field use is still in progress.

  15. MIR and FIR Analysis of Inorganic Species in a Single Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shilov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    The extension of the mid IR towards the far IR spectral range below 400 \\wn is of great interest for molecular vibrational analysis for inorganic and organometallic chemistry, for geological, pharmaceutical, and physical applications, polymorph screening and crystallinity analysis as well as for matrix isolation spectroscopy. In these cases, the additional far infrared region offers insight to low energy vibrations which are observable only there. This includes inorganic species, lattice vibrations or intermolecular vibrations in the ordered solid state. The spectral range of a FTIR spectrometer is defined by the major optical components such as the source, beamsplitter, and detector. The globar source covers a broad spectral range from 8000 to 20 \\wn. However a bottle neck exists with respect to the beamsplitter and detector. To extend the spectral range further into the far IR and THz spectral ranges, one or more additional far IR beam splitters and detectors have been previously required. Two new optic components have been incorporated in a spectrometer to achieve coverage of both the mid and far infrared in a single scan: a wide range MIR-FIR beam splitter and the wide range DLaTGS detector that utilizes a diamond window. The use of a standard SiC IR source with these components yields a spectral range of 6000 down to 50 \\wn in one step for all types of transmittance, reflectance and ATR measurements. Utilizing the external water cooled mercury arc high power lamp the spectral range can be ultimately extended down to 10 \\wn. Examples of application will include emission in MIR-THz range, identification of pigments, additives in polymers, and polymorphism studies.

  16. Enhanced energy density of carbon-based supercapacitors using Cerium (III) sulphate as inorganic redox electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Patricia; González, Zoraida; Santamaría, Ricardo; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Blanco, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 /H 2 SO 4 redox electrolyte as a new route to increase the energy density of SCs. •Increased operating cell voltage with no electrolyte decomposition. •Redox reactions on the battery-type electrode. •The negative electrode retains its capacitor behaviour. •Outstanding energy density values compared to those measured in H 2 SO 4 . -- ABSTRACT: The energy density of carbon based supercapacitors (CBSCs) was significantly increased by the addition of an inorganic redox species [Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] to an aqueous electrolyte (H 2 SO 4 ). The development of the faradaic processes on the positive electrode not only significantly increased the capacitance but also the operational cell voltage of these devices (up to 1.5 V) due to the high redox potentials at which the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ reactions occur. Therefore, in asymmetric CBSCs assembled using an activated carbon as negative electrode and MWCNTs as the positive one, the addition of Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 moderately increases the energy density of the device (from 1.24 W h kg −1 to 5.08 W h kg −1 ). When a modified graphite felt is used as positive electrode the energy density of the cell reaches values as high as 13.84 W h kg −1 . The resultant systems become asymmetric hybrid devices where energy is stored due to the electrical double layer formation in the negative electrode and the development of the faradaic process in the positive electrode, which acts as a battery-type electrode

  17. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  18. Molecular Characterization of a Dual Domain Carbonic Anhydrase From the Ctenidium of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, and Its Expression Levels After Light Exposure, Cellular Localization, and Possible Role in the Uptake of Exogenous Inorganic Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Z. Y. Koh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Dual-Domain Carbonic Anhydrase (DDCA had been sequenced and characterized from the ctenidia (gills of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, which lives in symbiosis with zooxanthellae. DDCA was expressed predominantly in the ctenidium. The complete cDNA coding sequence of DDCA from T. squamosa comprised 1,803 bp, encoding a protein of 601 amino acids and 66.7 kDa. The deduced DDCA sequence contained two distinct α-CA domains, each with a specific catalytic site. It had a high sequence similarity with tgCA from Tridacna gigas. In T. squamosa, the DDCA was localized apically in certain epithelial cells near the base of the ctenidial filament and the epithelial cells surrounding the tertiary water channels. Due to the presence of two transmembrane regions in the DDCA, one of the Zn2+-containing active sites could be located externally and the other one inside the cell. These results denote that the ctenidial DDCA was positioned to dehydrate HCO3- to CO2 in seawater, and to hydrate the CO2 that had permeated the apical membrane back to HCO3- in the cytoplasm. During insolation, the host clam needs to increase the uptake of inorganic carbon from the ambient seawater to benefit the symbiotic zooxanthellae; only then, can the symbionts conduct photosynthesis and share the photosynthates with the host. Indeed, the transcript and protein levels of DDCA/DDCA in the ctenidium of T. squamosa increased significantly after 6 and 12 h of exposure to light, respectively, denoting that DDCA could participate in the light-enhanced uptake and assimilation of exogenous inorganic carbon.

  19. A Novel Method for Analysis of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentration and δ13C by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.; Gonneea, M. E.; Boze, L. G.; Casso, M.; Pohlman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the largest pool of carbon in the oceans and is where about half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are being sequestered. Determining the concentration and stable carbon isotopic content (δ13C) of DIC allows us to delineate carbon sources that contribute to marine DIC. A simple and reliable method for measuring DIC concentration and δ13C can be used to apportion contributions from external sources and identify effects from biogeochemical reactions that contribute or remove DIC. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a discrete sample analysis module (DSAM) that interfaces to a Picarro G-2201i cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS, Picarro Inc.) to analyze CO2 and methane concentrations and δ13C from discrete gas samples. In this study, we adapted the USGS DSAM-CRDS analysis system to include an AutoMate prep device (Automate FX, Inc.) for analysis of DIC concentration and δ13C from aqueous samples. The Automate prep device was modified to deliver CO2 extracted from DIC to the DSAM, which conditions and transfers the gas to the CRDS. LabVIEW software (National Instruments) triggers the Automate Prep device, controls the DSAM and collects data from the CRDS. CO2 mass concentration data are obtained by numerical integration of the CO2 volumetric concentrations output by the CRDS and subsequent comparison to standard materials. CO2 carbon isotope values from the CRDS (iCO2) are converted to δ13C values using a slope and offset correction calibration procedure. The system design and operation was optimized using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) standards and a certified reference material. Surface water and pore water samples collected from Sage Lot Pond, a salt marsh in Cape Cod MA, have been analyzed for concentration by coulometry and δ13C by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and will be used to validate the DIC-DSAM-CRDS method for field applications.

  20. Understanding the Burial and Migration Characteristics of Deep Geothermal Water Using Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Inorganic Carbon Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal water samples taken from deep aquifers within the city of Kaifeng at depths between 800 and 1650 m were analyzed for conventional water chemical compositions and stable isotopes. These results were then combined with the deuterium excess parameter (d value, and the contribution ratios of different carbon sources were calculated along with distributional characteristics and data on the migration and transformation of geothermal water. These results included the conventional water chemical group, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes (δD-δ18O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and associated isotopes (δ13CDIC. The results of this study show that geothermal water in the city of Kaifeng is weakly alkaline, water chemistry mostly comprises a HCO3-Na type, and the range of variation of δD is between −76.12‰ and −70.48‰, (average: −74.25‰, while the range of variation of δ18O is between −11.08‰ and −9.41‰ (average: −10.15‰. Data show that values of d vary between 1.3‰ and 13.3‰ (average: 6.91‰, while DIC content is between 91.523 and 156.969 mg/L (average: 127.158 mg/L. The recorded range of δ13CDIC was between −10.160‰ and −6.386‰ (average: −9.019‰. The results presented in this study show that as depth increases, so do δD and δ18O, while d values decrease and DIC content and δ13CDIC gradually increase. Thus, δD, δ18O, d values, DIC, and δ13CDIC can all be used as proxies for the burial characteristics of geothermal water. Because data show that the changes in d values and DIC content are larger along the direction of geothermal water flow, so these proxies can be used to indicate migration. This study also shows demonstrates that the main source of DIC in geothermal water is CO2thathas a biological origin in soils, as well as the dissolution of carbonate minerals in surrounding rocks. Thus, as depth increases, the contribution of soil biogenic carbon sources to DIC decreases while the influence

  1. Modelling the ecosystem effects of nitrogen deposition: Model of Ecosystem Retention and Loss of Inorganic Nitrogen (MERLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Cosby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A catchment-scale mass-balance model of linked carbon and nitrogen cycling in ecosystems has been developed for simulating leaching losses of inorganic nitrogen. The model (MERLIN considers linked biotic and abiotic processes affecting the cycling and storage of nitrogen. The model is aggregated in space and time and contains compartments intended to be observable and/or interpretable at the plot or catchment scale. The structure of the model includes the inorganic soil, a plant compartment and two soil organic compartments. Fluxes in and out of the ecosystem and between compartments are regulated by atmospheric deposition, hydrological discharge, plant uptake, litter production, wood production, microbial immobilization, mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification. Nitrogen fluxes are controlled by carbon productivity, the C:N ratios of organic compartments and inorganic nitrogen in soil solution. Inputs required are: 1 temporal sequences of carbon fluxes and pools- 2 time series of hydrological discharge through the soils, 3 historical and current external sources of inorganic nitrogen; 4 current amounts of nitrogen in the plant and soil organic compartments; 5 constants specifying the nitrogen uptake and immobilization characteristics of the plant and soil organic compartments; and 6 soil characteristics such as depth, porosity, bulk density, and anion/cation exchange constants. Outputs include: 1 concentrations and fluxes of NO3 and NH4 in soil solution and runoff; 2 total nitrogen contents of the organic and inorganic compartments; 3 C:N ratios of the aggregated plant and soil organic compartments; and 4 rates of nitrogen uptake and immobilization and nitrogen mineralization. The behaviour of the model is assessed for a combination of land-use change and nitrogen deposition scenarios in a series of speculative simulations. The results of the simulations are in broad agreement with observed and hypothesized behaviour of nitrogen

  2. Inorganic Materials as Supports for Covalent Enzyme Immobilization: Methods and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zucca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several inorganic materials are potentially suitable for enzymatic covalent immobilization, by means of several different techniques. Such materials must meet stringent criteria to be suitable as solid matrices: complete insolubility in water, reasonable mechanical strength and chemical resistance under the operational conditions, the capability to form manageable particles with high surface area, reactivity towards derivatizing/functionalizing agents. Non-specific protein adsorption should be always considered when planning covalent immobilization on inorganic solids. A huge mass of experimental work has shown that silica, silicates, borosilicates and aluminosilicates, alumina, titania, and other oxides, are the materials of choice when attempting enzyme immobilizations on inorganic supports. More recently, some forms of elemental carbon, silicon, and certain metals have been also proposed for certain applications. With regard to the derivatization/functionalization techniques, the use of organosilanes through silanization is undoubtedly the most studied and the most applied, although inorganic bridge formation and acylation with selected acyl halides have been deeply studied. In the present article, the most common inorganic supports for covalent immobilization of the enzymes are reviewed, with particular focus on their advantages and disadvantages in terms of enzyme loadings, operational stability, undesired adsorption, and costs. Mechanisms and methods for covalent immobilization are also discussed, focusing on the most widespread activating approaches (such as glutaraldehyde, cyanogen bromide, divinylsulfone, carbodiimides, carbonyldiimidazole, sulfonyl chlorides, chlorocarbonates, N-hydroxysuccinimides.

  3. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-01-01

    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals.We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect.Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3− and CO32−. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many

  4. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    ;Clumped-isotope; thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope ;clumps;). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  5. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  6. In vitro erythemal UV-A protection factors of inorganic sunscreens distributed in aqueous media using carnauba wax-decyl oleate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Hernández, J R; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the in vitro photoprotection in the UV-A range, i.e. 320-400 nm obtained by the use of carnauba wax-decyl oleate nanoparticles either as encapsulation systems or as accompanying vehicles for inorganic sunscreens such as barium sulfate, strontium carbonate and titanium dioxide. Lipid-free inorganic sunscreen nanosuspensions, inorganic sunscreen-free wax-oil nanoparticle suspensions and wax-oil nanoparticle suspensions containing inorganic sunscreens dispersed either in their oil phase or their aqueous phase were prepared by high pressure homogenization. The in vitro erythemal UV-A protection factors (EUV-A PFs) of the nanosuspensions were calculated by means of a sun protection analyzer. EUV-A PFs being no higher than 4 were obtained by the encapsulation of barium sulfate and strontium carbonate, meanwhile by the distribution of titanium dioxide in presence of wax-oil nanoparticles, the EUV-A PFs varied between 2 and 19. The increase in the EUV-A PFs of the titanium dioxide obtained by the use of wax-oil nanoparticles demonstrated a better performance of the sun protection properties of this pigment in the UV-A region.

  7. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  8. Study on an Improved Phosphate Cement Binder for the Development of Fiber-Reinforced Inorganic Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC has been proven to be a very good repair material for deteriorated concrete structures. It has excellent adhesion performance, leading to high bonding strength with old concrete substrates. This paper presents an experimental study into the properties of MPC binder as the matrix of carbon fiber sheets to form fiber-reinforced inorganic polymer (FRIP composites. The physical and mechanical performance of the fresh mixed and the hardened MPC paste, the bond strength of carbon fiber sheets in the MPC matrix, the tensile strength of the carbon FRIP composites and the microstructure of the MPC matrix and fiber-reinforced MPC composites were investigated. The test results showed that the improved MPC binder is well suited for developing FRIP composites, which can be a promising alternative to externally-bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for the strengthening of concrete structures. Through the present study, an in-depth understanding of the behavior of fiber-reinforced inorganic MPC composites has been achieved.

  9. Patterning between urban soil color and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Herrmann, D.; Shuster, W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban soils are extensively modified compared to their non-urban counterparts. These modifications are expected to affect the vertical distribution of total soil carbon as well as its constituent pools - soil organic carbon, black carbon, and inorganic carbon. Assigning color to soil horizons using the Munsell color system is a standard field method employed by soil scientists that can also reveal generalizable information about various environmental metrics. A new dataset on urban soils and their reference counterparts that cover 11 regions in the United States and advances in quantitative pedology allowed us to construct a log-linear model that relates Value, the lightness of a color hue, to the concentration of total carbon throughout a soil column of up to 450 cm depth. Overall, the relationship between 671 points resulted in an r2 of 0.23 with a p<0.001. As expected, organic carbon, shifted values to the lower end of the scale (darker), whereas inorganic carbon increased soil color values (lighter). These findings allow for a simplified understanding of shifts in carbon pools throughout a soil profile.

  10. An Ocean Acidification Acclimatised Green Tide Alga Is Robust to Changes of Seawater Carbon Chemistry but Vulnerable to Light Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Gao

    Full Text Available Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC and elevated (HC CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity. The inhibitors experiment for photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization demonstrated that acidic compartments, extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA and intracellular CA worked together in the thalli grown at LC and the acquisition of exogenous carbon source in the thalli could be attributed to the collaboration of acidic compartments and extracellular CA. Contrastingly, when U. linza was grown at HC, extracellular CA was completely inhibited, acidic compartments and intracellular CA were also down-regulated to different extents and thus the acquisition of exogenous carbon source solely relied on acidic compartments. The down-regulated CCMs in U. linza did not affect its responses to changes of seawater carbon chemistry but led to a decrease of net photosynthetic rate when thalli were exposed to increased light intensity. This decrease could be attributed to photodamage caused by the combination of the saved energy due to the down-regulated CCMs and high light intensity. Our findings suggest future ocean acidification might impose depressing effects on green tide events when combined with increased light exposure.

  11. Carbon dioxide concentrations are very high in developing oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D; Ruckle, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2004-09-01

    A new method has been developed to rapidly determine the total inorganic carbon concentration (gaseous [CO2] + aqueous [CO(2)] + [HCO3-] + [CO3(2)-]) in developing seeds. Seeds are rapidly dissected and homogenized in 1 N HCl in gas-tight vials. The headspace gas is then analyzed by infrared gas analysis. Developing rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds were analyzed and found to have up to 40 and 12 mM total inorganic carbon, respectively. These concentrations are ca. 600-2000-fold higher than in ambient air or values reported for leaves. Carbon dioxide concentrations in rapeseed peaked during the stage of maximum oil synthesis and declined as seeds matured. The consequences for seed metabolism, physiology and carbon economy are discussed.

  12. Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sillanpää

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites of six European cities as follows: Duisburg (autumn, Prague (winter, Amsterdam (winter, Helsinki (spring, Barcelona (spring and Athens (summer. The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors that divide air particles into fine (PM2.5 and coarse (PM2.5-10 size ranges. From the collected filter samples, elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon contents were analysed with a thermal-optical carbon analyser (TOA; total Ca, Ti, Fe, Si, Al and K by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF; As, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS; Ca2+, succinate, malonate and oxalate by ion chromatography (IC; and the sum of levoglucosan+galactosan+mannosan (∑MA by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The campaign means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM to PM2.5 ranged from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague, while that to PM2.5-10 ranged from 10% in Barcelona to 27% in Prague. The contribution of EC was higher to PM2.5 (5-9% than to PM2.5-10 (1-6% in all the six campaigns. Carbonate (C(CO3, that interferes with the TOA analysis, was detected in PM2.5-10 of Athens and Barcelona but not elsewhere. It was subtracted from the OC by a simple integration method that was validated. The CaCO3 accounted for 55% and 11% of PM2.5-10 in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. It was anticipated that combustion emissions from vehicle engines affected the POM content in PM2.5 of all the six sampling campaigns, but a comparison of mass concentration ratios of the selected inorganic and organic tracers of common sources of organic material to POM suggested

  13. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  14. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  15. Bird community conservation and carbon offsets in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Richard; Martin, Tara G; Arcese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Conservation initiatives to protect and restore valued species and communities in human-dominated landscapes face huge challenges linked to the cost of acquiring habitat. We ask how the sale of forest carbon offsets could reduce land acquisition costs, and how the alternate goals of maximizing α or β-diversity in focal communities could affect the prioritization land parcels over a range of conservation targets. Maximizing total carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential reduced land acquisition costs by up to 48%. Maximizing β rather than α-diversity within forest and savannah bird communities reduced acquisition costs by up to 15%, and when these solutions included potential carbon credit revenues, acquisition cost reductions up to 32% were achieved. However, the total cost of conservation networks increased exponentially as area targets increased in all scenarios. Our results indicate that carbon credit sales have the potential to enhance conservation outcomes in human-dominated landscapes by reducing the net acquisition costs of land conservation in old and maturing forests essential for the persistence of old forest plant and animal communities. Maximizing β versus α-diversity may further reduce costs by reducing the total area required to meet conservation targets and enhancing landscape heterogeneity. Although the potential value of carbon credit sales declined as a fraction of total acquisition costs, even conservative scenarios using a carbon credit value of $12.5/T suggest reductions in acquisition cost of up to $235 M, indicating that carbon credit sales could substantially reduce the costs of conservation.

  16. Isotopic fractionation between organic carbon and carbonate carbon in Precambrian banded ironstone series from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schidlowski, M.; Eichmann, R.; Fiebiger, W.

    1976-01-01

    37 delta 13 Csub(org) and 9 delta 13 Csub(carb) values furnished by argillaceous and carbonate sediments from the Rio das Velhas and Minas Series (Minas Gerais, Brazil) have yielded means of -24.3 +- 3.9 promille [PDB] and -0.9 +- 1.4 promille [PDB], respectively. These results, obtained from a major sedimentary banded ironstone province with an age between 2 and 3 x 10 9 yr, support previous assumptions that isotopic fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon in Precambrian sediments is about the same as in Phanerozoic rocks. This is consistent with a theoretically expected constancy of the kinetic fractionation factor governing biological carbon fixation and, likewise, with a photosynthetic pedigree of the reduced carbon fraction of Precambrian rocks. (orig.) [de

  17. Technical Note: Precise quantitative measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon from small amounts of seawater using a gas chromatographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT is one of the most frequently measured parameters used to calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater. Its determination has become increasingly important because of the rising interest in the biological effects of ocean acidification. Coulometric and infrared detection methods are currently favored in order to precisely quantify CT. These methods however are not sufficiently validated for CT measurements of biological experiments manipulating seawater carbonate chemistry with an extended CT measurement range (~1250–2400 μmol kg–1 compared to natural open ocean seawater (~1950–2200 μmol kg−1. The requirement of total sample amounts between 0.1–1 L seawater in the coulometric- and infrared detection methods potentially exclude their use for experiments working with much smaller volumes. Additionally, precise CT analytics become difficult with high amounts of biomass (e.g., phytoplankton cultures or even impossible in the presence of planktonic calcifiers without sample pre-filtration. Filtration however, can alter CT concentration through gas exchange induced by high pressure. Addressing these problems, we present precise quantification of CT using a small, basic and inexpensive gas chromatograph as a CT analyzer. Our technique is able to provide a repeatability of ±3.1 μmol kg−1, given by the pooled standard deviation over a CT range typically applied in acidification experiments. 200 μL of sample is required to perform the actual CT measurement. The total sample amount needed is 12 mL. Moreover, we show that sample filtration is applicable with only minor alteration of the CT. The method is simple, reliable and with low cumulative material costs. Hence, it is potentially attractive for all researchers experimentally manipulating the seawater carbonate system.

  18. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  19. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO{sub 2} and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni [RSE SpA - Environment and Sustainable Development Department, Milan (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO{sub 2} and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO{sub 2} presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 C and in an inert atmosphere (N{sub 2}). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 {mu}mol/kg of CO{sub 2}, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of

  20. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  1. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs at high relative humidity (RH) (greater than ˜ 95 %) in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than ˜ 95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  2. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  3. Evolution of chemical and isotopic composition of inorganic carbon in a complex semi-arid zone environment: Consequences for groundwater dating using radiocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, K. T.; Han, L. F.; Hollins, S. E.; Cendón, D. I.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Baker, A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimating groundwater age is important for any groundwater resource assessment and radiocarbon (14C) dating of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can provide this information. In semi-arid zone (i.e. water-limited environments), there are a multitude of reasons why 14C dating of groundwater and traditional correction models may not be directly transferable. Some include; (1) the complex hydrological responses of these systems that lead to a mixture of different ages in the aquifer(s), (2) the varied sources, origins and ages of organic matter in the unsaturated zone and (3) high evaporation rates. These all influence the evolution of DIC and are not easily accounted for in traditional correction models. In this study, we determined carbon isotope data for; DIC in water, carbonate minerals in the sediments, sediment organic matter, soil gas CO2 from the unsaturated zone, and vegetation samples. The samples were collected after an extended drought, and again after a flood event, to capture the evolution of DIC after varying hydrological regimes. A graphical method (Han et al., 2012) was applied for interpretation of the carbon geochemical and isotopic data. Simple forward mass-balance modelling was carried out on key geochemical processes involving carbon and agreed well with observed data. High values of DIC and δ13CDIC, and low 14CDIC could not be explained by a simple carbonate mineral-CO2 gas dissolution process. Instead it is suggested that during extended drought, water-sediment interaction leads to ion exchange processes within the top ∼10-20 m of the aquifer which promotes greater calcite dissolution in saline groundwater. This process was found to contribute more than half of the DIC, which is from a mostly 'dead' carbon source. DIC is also influenced by carbon exchange between DIC in water and carbonate minerals found in the top 2 m of the unsaturated zone. This process occurs because of repeated dissolution/precipitation of carbonate that is dependent on

  4. Response of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and δ13CDIC to changes in climate and land cover in SW China karst catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Liu, Zaihua; Li, Hong-Chun; Zeng, Cheng; Yang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Yan, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Monthly hydrochemical data and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in karst water samples from September 2007 to October 2012 were obtained to reveal the controlling mechanisms on DIC geochemistry and δ13CDIC under different conditions of climate and land cover in three karst catchments: Banzhai, Dengzhanhe and Chenqi, in Guizhou Province, SW China. DIC of karst water at the Banzhai site comes mainly from carbonate dissolution under open system conditions with soil CO2 produced by root respiration and organic carbon decomposition with lowest δ13C values under its dense virgin forest coverage. Weaker carbonate bedrock dissolution due to sparse and thin soil cover results in lower δ13CDIC, pCO2, DIC and EC, and lower cation and anion concentrations. At the Chenqi site, larger soil CO2 input from a thick layer of soil results in high pCO2 and DIC, and low pH, SIc and δ13CDIC in the karst water. At the Dengzhanhe site, a lesser soil CO2 input due to stronger karst rock desertification and strong gypsum dissolution contribute to higher δ13CDIC, high EC and high cation and anion concentrations. Soil CO2 inputs, controlled by biological activity and available soil moisture, carbonate bedrock dissolution, dilution and degassing effects, vary seasonally following rainfall and temperature changes. Consequently, there are seasonal cycles in hydrochemistry and δ13CDIC of the karst water, with high pCO2 and low pH, EC, SIc, and δ13CDIC values in the warm and rainy seasons, and vice versa during the cold and dry seasons. A strongly positive shift (>3‰) in δ13CDIC occurred in the drought year, 2011, indicating that δ13CDIC in groundwater systems can be an effective indicator of environmental and/or climate changes.

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of inorganic and organic nutrients in five Galician rias (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Doval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of inorganic (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate and organic (dissolved organic carbon nutrients in five Galician rias (Vigo, Pontevedra, Arousa, Muros and Ares-Betanzos was assessed by considering average values for the upwelling and downwelling periods. Inner stations were significantly different from middle and outer stations, especially during the downwelling period. Spatial differences between the five rías, tested by means of a multivariate analysis, were found in both periods. The behaviour of inorganic and organic nutrient variables was also significantly different between periods with and without shellfish harvesting closures due to the occurrence of toxic phytoplankton species.

  6. Impact of seawater carbonate chemistry on the calcification of marine bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J.; Haynert, K.; Wegner, K. M.; Melzner, F.

    2015-07-01

    Bivalve calcification, particularly of the early larval stages, is highly sensitive to the change in ocean carbonate chemistry resulting from atmospheric CO2 uptake. Earlier studies suggested that declining seawater [CO32-] and thereby lowered carbonate saturation affect shell production. However, disturbances of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation by adverse seawater pCO2 and pH can affect calcification in a secondary fashion. In order to determine the exact carbonate system component by which growth and calcification are affected it is necessary to utilize more complex carbonate chemistry manipulations. As single factors, pCO2 had no effects and [HCO3-] and pH had only limited effects on shell growth, while lowered [CO32-] strongly impacted calcification. Dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) limiting conditions led to strong reductions in calcification, despite high [CO32-], indicating that [HCO3-] rather than [CO32-] is the inorganic carbon source utilized for calcification by mytilid mussels. However, as the ratio [HCO3-] / [H+] is linearly correlated with [CO32-] it is not possible to differentiate between these under natural seawater conditions. An equivalent of about 80 μmol kg-1 [CO32-] is required to saturate inorganic carbon supply for calcification in bivalves. Below this threshold biomineralization rates rapidly decline. A comparison of literature data available for larvae and juvenile mussels and oysters originating from habitats differing substantially with respect to prevailing carbonate chemistry conditions revealed similar response curves. This suggests that the mechanisms which determine sensitivity of calcification in this group are highly conserved. The higher sensitivity of larval calcification seems to primarily result from the much higher relative calcification rates in early life stages. In order to reveal and understand the mechanisms that limit or facilitate adaptation to future ocean acidification, it is necessary to better

  7. Carbon sequestration potential for forage and pasture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland soils represent a large reservoir of organic and inorganic carbon. Regionally, grasslands are annual CO2 sources or sinks depending on crop and soil management, current soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and climate. Land management changes (LMC) impact SOC sequestration rate, the du...

  8. Nitrogen turnover in fresh Douglas fir litter directly after additions of moisture and inorganic nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, K.J.; Tietema, A.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of wetting and drying and inorganic nitrogen (N) addition on carbon (C) and N turnover in fresh Douglas fir litter (Speuld forest, the Netherlands) were investigated. Litter was incubated for 9 days in the laboratory, receiving different moisture and N addition treatments. Following the

  9. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2010-01-01

    Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...... loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical and biological characteristics related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flows. Four organic rotations and an inorganic fertilizer-based system were selected to evaluate effects of fertilizer type...... growth was monitored and grain yields measured at harvest maturity. The different management strategies between 1997 and 2007 led to soil carbon inputs that were on average 18–68% and 32–91% higher in the organic than inorganic fertilizer-based rotations for the sampled winter wheat and spring barley...

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R.T.; Arnold, T.L.; Cannon, W.F.; Graham, D.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and inorganic constituents. PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway. Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Improving Defect-Based Quantum Emitters in Silicon Carbide via Inorganic Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polking, Mark J; Dibos, Alan M; de Leon, Nathalie P; Park, Hongkun

    2018-01-01

    Defect-based color centers in wide-bandgap crystalline solids are actively being explored for quantum information science, sensing, and imaging. Unfortunately, the luminescent properties of these emitters are frequently degraded by blinking and photobleaching that arise from poorly passivated host crystal surfaces. Here, a new method for stabilizing the photoluminescence and charge state of color centers based on epitaxial growth of an inorganic passivation layer is presented. Specifically, carbon antisite-vacancy pairs (CAV centers) in 4H-SiC, which serve as single-photon emitters at visible wavelengths, are used as a model system to demonstrate the power of this inorganic passivation scheme. Analysis of CAV centers with scanning confocal microscopy indicates a dramatic improvement in photostability and an enhancement in emission after growth of an epitaxial AlN passivation layer. Permanent, spatially selective control of the defect charge state can also be achieved by exploiting the mismatch in spontaneous polarization at the AlN/SiC interface. These results demonstrate that epitaxial inorganic passivation of defect-based quantum emitters provides a new method for enhancing photostability, emission, and charge state stability of these color centers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  13. Large increase in dissolved inorganic carbon flux from the Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico due to climatic and anthropogenic changes over the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Cai, Wei-Jun; Lohrenz, Steven E; He, Ruoying; Hopkinson, Charles S

    2015-04-01

    It is recognized that anthropogenic factors have had a major impact on carbon fluxes from land to the ocean during the past two centuries. However, little is known about how future changes in climate, atmospheric CO 2 , and land use may affect riverine carbon fluxes over the 21st century. Using a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, this study examines potential changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico during 2010-2099 attributable to climate-related conditions (temperature and precipitation), atmospheric CO 2 , and land use change. Rates of annual DIC export are projected to increase by 65% under the high emission scenario (A2) and 35% under the low emission scenario (B1) between the 2000s and the 2090s. Climate-related changes along with rising atmospheric CO 2 together would account for over 90% of the total increase in DIC export throughout the 21st century. The predicted increase in DIC export from the Mississippi River basin would alter chemistry of the coastal ocean unless appropriate climate mitigation actions are taken in the near future.

  14. Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the current state of net community production (NCP in the southeastern Bering Sea, we measured the spatio-temporal distribution and controls on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in spring and summer of 2008 across six shelf domains defined by differing biogeochemical characteristics. DIC concentrations were tightly coupled to salinity in spring and ranged from ~1900 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf to ~2400 μmoles kg−1 in the deeper waters of the Bering Sea. In summer, DIC concentrations were lower due to dilution from sea ice melt, terrestrial inputs, and primary production. Concentrations were found to be as low ~1800 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf. We found that DIC concentrations were drawn down 30–150 μmoles kg−1 in the upper 30 m of the water column due to primary production and calcium carbonate formation between the spring and summer occupations. Using the seasonal drawdown of DIC, estimated rates of NCP on the inner, middle, and outer shelf averaged 28 ± 9 mmoles C m−2 d−1. However, higher rates of NCP (40–47 mmoles C m−2 d−1 were observed in the "Green Belt" where the greatest confluence of nutrient-rich basin water and iron-rich shelf water occurs. We estimated that in 2008, total NCP across the shelf was on the order of ~96 Tg C yr−1. Due to the paucity of consistent, comparable productivity data, it is impossible at this time to quantify whether the system is becoming more or less productive. However, as changing climate continues to modify the character of the Bering Sea, we have shown that NCP can be an important indicator of how the ecosystem is functioning.

  15. Liquid–liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS occurs at high relative humidity (RH (greater than  ∼  95 % in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than  ∼  95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  16. The physiological response of two green calcifying algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards high dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer

    Full Text Available Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7 and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1 on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean

  17. The physiological response of two green calcifying algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards high dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC) availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich Wilhelm; Vogel, Nikolas; Teichberg, Mirta; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7) and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1) on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean acidification.

  18. The carbon count of 2000 years of rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus; Fiedler, Sabine; Kölbl, Angelika; Amelung, Wulf; Bräuer, Tino; Cao, Zhihong; Don, Axel; Grootes, Piet; Jahn, Reinhold; Schwark, Lorenz; Vogelsang, Vanessa; Wissing, Livia; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2013-04-01

    More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000-year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the Yangtze delta, China. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170-178 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29-84 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Understanding carbon regulation in aquatic systems - Bacteriophages as a model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4zd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sanmukh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria and their phages are the most abundant constituents of the aquatic environment, and so represent an ideal model for studying carbon regulation in an aquatic system. The microbe-mediated interconversion of bioavailable organic carbon (OC into dissolved organic carbon (DOC by the microbial carbon pump (MCP has been suggested to have the potential to revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration. It is estimated that DOC is the largest pool of organic matter in the ocean and, though a major component of the global carbon cycle, its source is not yet well understood. A key element of the carbon cycle is the microbial conversion of DOC into inedible forms. The primary aim of this study is to understand the phage conversion from organic to inorganic carbon during phage-host interactions. Time studies of phage-host interactions under controlled conditions reveal their impact on the total carbon content of the samples and their interconversion of organic and inorganic carbon compared to control samples. A total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed an increase in inorganic carbon content by 15-25 percent in samples with bacteria and phage compared to samples with bacteria alone. Compared to control samples, the increase in inorganic carbon content was 60-70-fold in samples with bacteria and phage, and 50-55-fold for samples with bacteria alone. This study indicates the potential impact of phages in regulating the carbon cycle of aquatic systems.

  20. Alloy-Controlled Work Function for Enhanced Charge Extraction in All-Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jialong; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-25

    All-inorganic CsPbX 3 (X=I, Br) perovskite solar cells are regarded as cost-effective and stable alternatives for next-generation photovoltaics. However, sluggish charge extraction at CsPbX 3 /charge-transporting material interfaces, which arises from large interfacial energy differences, have markedly limited the further enhancement of solar cell performance. In this work, the work function (WF) of the back electrode is tuned by doping alloyed PtNi nanowires in carbon ink to promote hole extraction from CsPbBr 3 halides, while an intermediate energy by setting carbon quantum dots (CQDs) at TiO 2 /CsPbBr 3 interface bridges electron transportation. The preliminary results demonstrate that the matching WFs and intermediate energy level markedly reduce charge recombination. A power conversion efficiency of 7.17 % is achieved for the WF-tuned all-inorganic perovskite solar cell, in comparison with 6.10 % for the pristine device, and this is further increased to 7.86 % by simultaneously modifying with CQDs. The high efficiency and improved stability make WF-controlled all-inorganic perovskite solar cells promising to develop advanced photovoltaic platforms. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Adsorption of carbon-14 on mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka; Muraoka, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    The sorption experiments of carbon-14 on the mortar grain (grain size: 0.50--1.0 mm) focused on the chemical form of the carbon-14 were carried out by the batch method. Three kinds of carbon-14 chemical form were used for the experiments: sodium carbonate (Na 2 14 CO 3 ) as the inorganic radiocarbon, and sodium acetate (CH 3 14 COONa) and acetaldehyde ( 14 CH 3 14 CHO) as the organic radiocarbons. 0.30 gram samples of mortar were soaked in the solution with carbon-14 at 15 C for periods of up to 160 days. At the end of each run, carbon-14 concentrations in the supernatants were determined before and after centrifugation (3,500 rpm., 1 hr). In the mortar-sodium carbonate system, the retention process of carbon-14 related to reaction on the surface of the mortar was speculated as follows. First, 3CaO-SiO 2 and 2CaO-SiO 2 of the mortar components contact with water and produce Ca(OH) 2 . Ca(OH) 2 produces Ca 2+ and OH - in the solution. Then, calcite forms from Ca 2+ and CO 3 2- in the solution. Thus, the sorption ratio of carbon-14 onto mortar will be high until mortar has been completely carbonated because Ca 2+ is rich in the mortar and the solubility of calcite is low. In the mortar-organic carbon system, the soluble organic carbon-14 is hardly sorbed on the surface of the mortar. Therefore, the cementitious materials may not inhibit the release of organic radiocarbons from the low-level radioactive wastes, contrary to the case of inorganic radiocarbon

  2. Strain-specific responses of Emiliania huxleyi to changing seawater carbonate chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ziveri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of the coccolithophore E. huxleyi (RCC1212, RCC1216, RCC1238, RCC1256 were grown in dilute batch culture at four CO2 levels ranging from ~200 μatm to ~1200 μatm. Growth rate, particulate organic carbon content, and particulate inorganic carbon content were measured, and organic and inorganic carbon production calculated. The four strains did not show a uniform response to carbonate chemistry changes in any of the analysed parameters and none of the four strains displayed a response pattern previously described for this species. We conclude that the sensitivity of different strains of E. huxleyi to acidification differs substantially and that this likely has a genetic basis. We propose that this can explain apparently contradictory results reported in the literature.

  3. Variation in the carbon cycle of the Sevastopol Bay (Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, N. A.; Konovalov, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous increase in CO2 inventory in the ocean results in dramatic changes in marine biogeochemistry, e.g. acidification. That is why temporal and spatial variabilities in atmospheric pCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon, including CO2, pH and alkalinity in water, as well as organic and inorganic carbon in bottom sediments have to be studied together making possible to resolve the key features of the carbon cycle transformation. A 30% increase of pCO2 in the Sevastopol Bay for 2008 - 2016 evidences changes in the DIC components ratios and a significant decrease in the ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 by surface waters. High organic carbon content in the bottom sediments and predominance of organic carbon production in the biological pump at inner parts of the bay reveal ongoing transformation of the carbon cycle. This has negative consequences for recreation, social and economic potentials of the Sevastopol region.

  4. Interactions between uptake of amino acids and inorganic nitrogen in wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gioseffi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne amino acids may constitute a source of nitrogen (N for plants in various terrestrial ecosystems but their importance for total N nutrition is unclear, particularly in nutrient-rich arable soils. One reason for this uncertainty is lack of information on how the absorption of amino acids by plant roots is affected by the simultaneous presence of inorganic N forms. The objective of the present study was to study absorption of glycine (Gly and glutamine (Gln by wheat roots and their interactions with nitrate (NO3 and ammonium (NH4+ during uptake. The underlying hypothesis was that amino acids, when present in nutrient solution together with inorganic N, may lead to down-regulation of the inorganic N uptake, thereby resulting in similar total N uptake rates. Amino acids were enriched with double-labelled 15N and 13C, while NO3 and NH4+ acquisition was determined by their rate of removal from the nutrient solution surrounding the roots. The uptake rates of NO3 and NH4+ did not differ from each other and were generally about twice as high as the uptake rate of organic N when the different N forms were supplied separately in concentrations of 2 mM. Nevertheless, replacement of 50% of the inorganic N with organic N was able to restore the N uptake to the same level as that in the presence of only inorganic N. Co-provision of NO3 did not affect glycine uptake, while the presence of glycine down-regulated NO3 uptake. The ratio between 13C and 15N were lower in shoots than in roots and also lower than the theoretical values, reflecting higher C losses via respiratory processes compared to N losses. It is concluded that organic N can constitute a significant N-source for wheat plants and that there is an interaction

  5. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, phosphate, dissolved oxygen, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using Niksin bottle and other instruments from R/V Sultana in the southwest coast of Puerto Rico from 2009-01-05 to 2016-02-01 (NCEI Accession 0145164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This time series dataset includes weekly and bi-weekly discrete seawater samples of pH and total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, phosphates and profile...

  7. Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.

  8. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Tropical East Atlantic Surface Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, E. de

    1999-01-01

    Variability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) is discussed for tropical East Atlantic surface waters in October–November 1993 and May–June 1994. High precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, river input and equatorial upwelling

  9. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  10. Effects of High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Availability on the Physiology of the Hard Coral Acropora millepora from the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W Meyer

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are facing major global and local threats due to climate change-induced increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and because of land-derived increases in organic and inorganic nutrients. Recent research revealed that high availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC negatively affects scleractinian corals. Studies on the interplay of these factors, however, are lacking, but urgently needed to understand coral reef functioning under present and near future conditions. This experimental study investigated the individual and combined effects of ambient and high DIC (pCO2 403 μatm/ pHTotal 8.2 and 996 μatm/pHTotal 7.8 and DOC (added as Glucose 0 and 294 μmol L-1, background DOC concentration of 83 μmol L-1 availability on the physiology (net and gross photosynthesis, respiration, dark and light calcification, and growth of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834 from the Great Barrier Reef over a 16 day interval. High DIC availability did not affect photosynthesis, respiration and light calcification, but significantly reduced dark calcification and growth by 50 and 23%, respectively. High DOC availability reduced net and gross photosynthesis by 51% and 39%, respectively, but did not affect respiration. DOC addition did not influence calcification, but significantly increased growth by 42%. Combination of high DIC and high DOC availability did not affect photosynthesis, light calcification, respiration or growth, but significantly decreased dark calcification when compared to both controls and DIC treatments. On the ecosystem level, high DIC concentrations may lead to reduced accretion and growth of reefs dominated by Acropora that under elevated DOC concentrations will likely exhibit reduced primary production rates, ultimately leading to loss of hard substrate and reef erosion. It is therefore important to consider the potential impacts of elevated DOC and DIC simultaneously to assess real world

  11. Carbon nanotube-chalcogenide composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Š.; Orava, J.; Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.; Zima, Vítězslav; Hara, T.; Matsui, Y.; Ueda, K.; Pumera, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2010), s. 144-149 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chalcogenide glasses * composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2010

  12. Highly stretchable carbon aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Xiao, Youhua; Fang, Bo; Liu, Yingjun; Gao, Weiwei; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Chao

    2018-02-28

    Carbon aerogels demonstrate wide applications for their ultralow density, rich porosity, and multifunctionalities. Their compressive elasticity has been achieved by different carbons. However, reversibly high stretchability of neat carbon aerogels is still a great challenge owing to their extremely dilute brittle interconnections and poorly ductile cells. Here we report highly stretchable neat carbon aerogels with a retractable 200% elongation through hierarchical synergistic assembly. The hierarchical buckled structures and synergistic reinforcement between graphene and carbon nanotubes enable a temperature-invariable, recoverable stretching elasticity with small energy dissipation (~0.1, 100% strain) and high fatigue resistance more than 10 6 cycles. The ultralight carbon aerogels with both stretchability and compressibility were designed as strain sensors for logic identification of sophisticated shape conversions. Our methodology paves the way to highly stretchable carbon and neat inorganic materials with extensive applications in aerospace, smart robots, and wearable devices.

  13. Competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton for inorganic nutrients induced by variability in estuarine biophysicochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Quigg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Competition for inorganic nutrients between autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions of microbial plankton (0.2-20μm) was investigated at two stations in a sub-tropical estuary, Galveston Bay, Texas. Competition potential between these groups is enhanced because individuals are similar in size, reducing variability among their nutrient uptake efficiencies. Further, in estuaries, allochthonous supplements to autochthonous carbon may satisfy heterotrophic requirements, allowing alternative factors to limit abundance. The relative abundance of autotrophs and heterotrophs stained with SYBR Green I and enumerated on a Beckman Coulter Gallios flow cytometer were evaluated monthly during a year-long study. Shifts in the relative in situ abundance were significantly related to temperature, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorous (Pi), and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations revealing opposing gradients of limitation by different abiotic factors. In corresponding in vitro nutrient enrichment bioassays the relative contribution of autotrophic or heterotrophic microbial plankton to significant enrichment responses varied. Only during macro- (>20μm) phytoplankton blooms do autotrophic microbial plankton respond to nutrient enrichment. Contrastingly, the heterotrophic microbial plankton responded to nutrient enrichment primarily when temperature limitation was alleviated. Therefore, the potential for autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton competition for limiting nutrients is highest when autotrophic microbial plankton are also competing with larger phytoplankton during bloom events. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that the autotrophic microbial fraction has a competitive advantage over the heterotrophs for inorganic nutrients in Galveston Bay. The observed microbial competition during estuarine phytoplankton blooms may have important consequences on biogeochemical processes including carbon and nutrient cycling.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other variables collected from profile and discrete observations using Niskin bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, and Mid-Atlantic Bight from 2015-05-20 to 2015-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0157024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains profile discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and chlorophyll a in Mid-Atlantic Bight and...

  15. Methane Flux and Authigenic Carbonate in Shallow Sediments Overlying Methane Hydrate Bearing Strata in Alaminos Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In June 2007 sediment cores were collected in Alaminos Canyon, Gulf of Mexico across a series of seismic data profiles indicating rapid transitions between the presence of methane hydrates and vertical gas flux. Vertical profiles of dissolved sulfate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in porewaters, headspace methane, and solid phase carbonate concentrations were measured at each core location to investigate the cycling of methane-derived carbon in shallow sediments overlying the hydrate bearing strata. When integrated with stable carbon isotope ratios of DIC, geochemical results suggest a significant fraction of the methane flux at this site is cycled into the inorganic carbon pool. The incorporation of methane-derived carbon into dissolved and solid inorganic carbon phases represents a significant sink in local carbon cycling and plays a role in regulating the flux of methane to the overlying water column at Alaminos Canyon. Targeted, high-resolution geochemical characterization of the biogeochemical cycling of methane-derived carbon in shallow sediments overlying hydrate bearing strata like those in Alaminos Canyon is critical to quantifying methane flux and estimating methane hydrate distributions in gas hydrate bearing marine sediments.

  16. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  18. Simulated Carbon Cycling in a Model Microbial Mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, K. L.; Potter, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    We present here the novel addition of detailed organic carbon cycling to our model of a hypersaline microbial mat ecosystem. This ecosystem model, MBGC (Microbial BioGeoChemistry), simulates carbon fixation through oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, and the release of C and electrons for microbial heterotrophs via cyanobacterial exudates and also via a pool of dead cells. Previously in MBGC, the organic portion of the carbon cycle was simplified into a black-box rate of accumulation of simple and complex organic compounds based on photosynthesis and mortality rates. We will discuss the novel inclusion of fermentation as a source of carbon and electrons for use in methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and the influence of photorespiration on labile carbon exudation rates in cyanobacteria. We will also discuss the modeling of decomposition of dead cells and the ultimate release of inorganic carbon. The detailed modeling of organic carbon cycling is important to the accurate representation of inorganic carbon flux through the mat, as well as to accurate representation of growth models of the heterotrophs under different environmental conditions. Because the model ecosystem is an analog of ancient microbial mats that had huge impacts on the atmosphere of early earth, this MBGC can be useful as a biological component to either early earth models or models of other planets that potentially harbor life.

  19. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A modelling exercise on the importance of ternary alkaline earth carbonate species of uranium(VI) in the inorganic speciation of natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercouter, Thomas; Reiller, Pascal E.; Ansoborlo, Eric; Février, Laureline; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Lomenech, Claire; Philippini, Violaine

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The U(VI) speciation in natural waters has been modelled through a modelling exercise. • The results evidence the importance of alkaline earth U(VI) carbonate complexes. • Possible solubility-controlling phases were reported and discussed. • The differences were related to the choice and reliability of thermodynamic data. • Databases need to be improved for reliable U(VI) speciation calculations. - Abstract: Predictive modelling of uranium speciation in natural waters can be achieved using equilibrium thermodynamic data and adequate speciation software. The reliability of such calculations is highly dependent on the equilibrium reactions that are considered as entry data, and the values chosen for the equilibrium constants. The working group “Speciation” of the CETAMA (Analytical methods establishment committee of the French Atomic Energy commission, CEA) has organized a modelling exercise, including four participants, in order to compare modellers’ selections of data and test thermodynamic data bases regarding the calculation of U(VI) inorganic speciation. Six different compositions of model waters were chosen so that to check the importance of ternary alkaline earth carbonate species of U(VI) on the aqueous speciation, and the possible uranium solid phases as solubility-limiting phases. The comparison of the results from the participants suggests (i) that it would be highly valuable for end-users to review thermodynamic constants of ternary carbonate species of U(VI) in a consistent way and implement them in available speciation data bases, and (ii) stresses the necessary care when using data bases to avoid biases and possible erroneous calculations

  1. Thermal analysis of physical and chemical changes occuring during regeneration of activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Dejan B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature thermal process is a commercial way of regeneration of spent granular activated carbon. The paper presents results of thermal analysis conducted in order to examine high-temperature regeneration of spent activated carbon, produced from coconut shells, previously used in drinking water treatment. Results of performed thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis, enabled a number of hypotheses to be made about different phases of activated carbon regeneration, values of characteristic parameters during particular process phases, as well as catalytic impact of inorganic materials on development of regeneration process. Samples of activated carbon were heated up to 1000°C in thermogravimetric analyser while maintaining adequate oxidizing or reducing conditions. Based on diagrams of thermal analysis for samples of spent activated carbon, temperature intervals of the first intense mass change phase (180-215°C, maximum of exothermic processes (400-450°C, beginning of the second intense mass change phase (635-700°C, and maximum endothermic processes (800-815°C were deter-mined. Analysing and comparing the diagrams of thermal analysis for new, previously regenerated and spent activated carbon, hypothesis about physical and chemical transformations of organic and inorganic adsorbate in spent activated carbon are given. Transformation of an organic adsorbate in the pores of activated carbon, results in loss of mass and an exothermic reaction with oxygen in the vapour phase. The reactions of inorganic adsorbate also result the loss of mass of activated carbon during its heating and endothermic reactions of their degradation at high temperatures.

  2. The Nordic Seas carbon budget: Sources, sinks, and uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Eldevik, Tor; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Lauvset, Siv K.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.; Bellerby, Richard G. J; Johannessen, Truls; Falck, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A carbon budget for the Nordic Seas is derived by combining recent inorganic carbon data from the CARINA database with relevant volume transports. Values of organic carbon in the Nordic Seas' water masses, the amount of carbon input from river runoff, and the removal through sediment burial are taken from the literature. The largest source of carbon to the Nordic Seas is the Atlantic Water that enters the area across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge; this is in particular true for the anthropogen...

  3. Slow-Photon-Effect-Induced Photoelectrical-Conversion Efficiency Enhancement for Carbon-Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Inorganic CsPbBr3 Inverse Opal Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujie; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei

    2017-11-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite is suggested as a promising candidate for perovskite solar cells due to its prominent thermal stability and comparable light absorption ability. Designing textured perovskite films rather than using planar-architectural perovskites can indeed optimize the optical and photoelectrical conversion performance of perovskite photovoltaics. Herein, for the first time, this study demonstrates a rational strategy for fabricating carbon quantum dot (CQD-) sensitized all-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite inverse opal (IO) films via a template-assisted, spin-coating method. CsPbBr 3 IO introduces slow-photon effect from tunable photonic band gaps, displaying novel optical response property visible to naked eyes, while CQD inlaid among the IO frameworks not only broadens the light absorption range but also improves the charge transfer process. Applied in the perovskite solar cells, compared with planar CsPbBr 3 , slow-photon effect of CsPbBr 3 IO greatly enhances the light utilization, while CQD effectively facilitates the electron-hole extraction and injection process, prolongs the carrier lifetime, jointly contributing to a double-boosted power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.29% and an increased incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of up to 76.9%. The present strategy on CsPbBr 3 IO to enhance perovskite PCE can be extended to rationally design other novel optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dissolved organic and inorganic matter in bulk deposition of a coastal urban area: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia S M; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2014-12-01

    Bulk deposition can remove atmospheric organic and inorganic pollutants that may be associated with gaseous, liquid or particulate phases. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been carried out, which simultaneously analyse the presence of organic and inorganic fractions in rainwater. In the present work, the complementarity of organic and inorganic data was assessed, through crossing data of some organic [DOC (dissolved organic carbon), absorbance at 250 nm (UV250nm), integrated fluorescence] and inorganic [H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-), non sea salt sulphate (NSS-SO4(2-))] parameters measured in bulk deposition in the coastal urban area of Aveiro. The organic and inorganic parameters analysed were positively correlated (pCDOM) came from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, the inverse correlations observed for the organic and inorganic parameters with the precipitation amount suggest that organic and inorganic fractions were incorporated into the rainwater partially by below-cloud scavenging of airborne particulate matter. This is in accordance with the high values of DOC and NO3(-) found in samples associated with marine air masses, which were linked in part to the contribution of local emissions from vehicular traffic. DOC of bulk deposition was the predominant constituent when compared with the constituents H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-) and NSS-SO4(2-), and consequently bulk deposition flux was also highest for DOC, highlighting the importance of DOC and of anthropogenic ions being simultaneously removed from the atmosphere by bulk deposition. However, it was verified that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to the DOC of bulk deposition may be different for distinct urban areas. Thus, it is recommended that organic and inorganic fractions of bulk deposition are studied together. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, oxygen, and other variables collected from surface discrete and surface underway observations using flow-through pump from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (ECOA) Cruise from 2015-06-19 to 2015-07-24 (NCEI Accession 0157485)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, oxygen, and other variables collected from surface discrete and surface underway observations during...

  6. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  7. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

    2001-01-01

    This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate

  8. Variations in the patterns of soil organic carbon mineralization and microbial communities in response to exogenous application of rice straw and calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shuzhen; Huang, Yuan; Ge, Yunhui; Su, Yirong; Xu, Xinwen; Wang, Yongdong; He, Xunyang

    2016-01-01

    The addition of exogenous inorganic carbon (CaCO 3 ) and organic carbon has an important influence on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in karst soil, but the microbial mechanisms underlying the SOC priming effect are poorly understood. We conducted a 100-day incubation experiment involving four treatments of the calcareous soil in southwestern China's karst region: control, 14 C-labeled rice straw addition, 14 C-labeled CaCO 3 addition, and a combination of 14 C-labeled rice straw and CaCO 3 . Changes in soil microbial communities were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Both 14 C-rice straw and Ca 14 CO 3 addition stimulated SOC mineralization, suggesting that organic and inorganic C affected SOC stability. Addition of straw alone had no significant effect on bacterial diversity; however, when the straw was added in combination with calcium carbonate, it had an inhibitory effect on bacterial and fungal diversity. At the beginning of the experimental period, exogenous additives increased bacterial abundance, although at the end of the 100-day incubation bacterial community abundance had gradually declined. Incubation time, exogenous input, and their interaction significantly affected SOC mineralization (in terms of priming and the cumulative amount of mineralization), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial community abundance and diversity. Moreover, the key factors influencing SOC mineralization were MBC, bacterial diversity, and soil pH. Overall, these findings support the view that inorganic C is involved in soil C turnover with the participation of soil microbial communities, promoting soil C cycling in the karst region. - Highlights: • Different patterns of 14 C-rice straw and Ca 14 CO 3 addition on positive priming effects of SOC mineralization. • Inorganic C is involved in soil C cycling with the participation of soil microbial

  9. Quantification of Heavy Metals and Other Inorganic Contaminants on the Productivity of Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Napan, Katerine; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian; Quinn, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for renewable fuels has researchers investigating the feasibility of alternative feedstocks, such as microalgae. Inherent advantages include high potential yield, use of non-arable land and integration with waste streams. The nutrient requirements of a large-scale microalgae production system will require the coupling of cultivation systems with industrial waste resources, such as carbon dioxide from flue gas and nutrients from wastewater. Inorganic contaminants present in t...

  10. Bio-based polyurethane composite foams with inorganic fillers studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyema, Hyoe; Tanamachi, Noriko; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Hirose, Shigeo; Hatakeyama, Tatsuko

    2005-01-01

    Bio-based polyurethane (PU) composite foams filled with various inorganic fillers, such as barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) and talc were prepared using polyols, such as diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol (molecular weight ca. 200) containing molasses and lignin. Reactive hydroxyl groups in plant components and above polyols were used as reaction sites. Morphological observation of fracture surface of composites was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal properties of bio-based PU composites were examined by thermogravimetry. It was found that the above composites decompose in two stages reflecting decomposition of organic components. Decomposition temperature increased with increasing filler content, when plant components were homogenously mixed with inorganic fillers. Activation energy calculated by Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method was ca. 150 kJ mol -1 . The durability of composites was predicted using kinetic data. Calculated values indicate that composites with fillers are more durable than that of those without fillers at a moderate temperature region

  11. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: science for enhancement and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred M. Post; James E. Amonette; Richard Birdsey; Charles T. Jr. Garten; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Philip Jardine; Julie Jastrow; Rattan Lal; Gregg. Marland

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can...

  12. Changes in the marine carbonate system of the western Arctic: patterns in a rescued data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Miller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A recently recovered and compiled set of inorganic carbon data collected in the Canadian Arctic since the 1970s has revealed substantial change, as well as variability, in the carbonate system of the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin. Whereas the role of this area as a net atmospheric carbon sink has been confirmed, high pCO2 values in the upper halocline underscore the potential for CO2 outgassing as sea ice retreats and upwelling increases. In addition, increasing total inorganic carbon and decreasing alkalinity are increasing pCO2 and decreasing CaCO3 saturation states, such that undersaturation with respect to aragonite now occurs regularly in both deep waters and the upper halocline.

  13. Method for imparting improved surface properties to carbon fibers and composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, S.; Kamata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a means for solving the problem of poor affinity between the surface of carbon fibers and a synthetic resin in a resin-based composite material reinforced with the carbon fibers. The method comprises subjecting the surface of the carbon fibers in advance to exposure to low temperature plasma in a low pressure atomosphere of an inorganic gas generated by applying an electric voltage between electrodes. It was unexpectedly discovered that the discharge voltage between the electrodes is very critical and satisfactory results can be obtained when the peak-to-peak value of the discharge voltage between electrodes is 4000 volts or higher. The composition of the atmospheric inorganic gas is also important and the gas is preferably oxygen gas or a gaseous mixture containing at least 10% by volume of oxygen

  14. Chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol during foggy and nonfoggy episodes: a relationship between organic and inorganic content of the aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, D. S.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    An extensive field measurement during winter was carried out at a site located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) which gets heavily influenced by the fog during winter almost every year. The chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosols during foggy and nonfoggy episodes and chemical composition of the fogwater are presented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) as a tool for the source apportionment was employed to understand the sources of pollution. Four major sources viz. biomass burning, refractory, secondary and mineral dust were identified. Aerosols properties during foggy episodes were heavily influenced by almost all the sources and they caused considerable loading of almost all the organic and inorganic species during the period. The biomass generated aerosols were removed from the atmosphere by scavenging during foggy episodes. The wet removal of almost all the species by the fog droplets was observed. The K+, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC) and NO3- were most heavily scavenged among the species and their concentrations consequently became lower than the nonfoggy episode concentrations. The production of secondary inorganic aerosol, mainly sulfate and ammonium, during foggy episodes was considerably higher than nitrate which was rather heavily scavenged and removed by the fog droplets. The fogwater analysis showed that dissolved inorganic species play a vital role in processing of organic carbon such as the formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate inside the fog droplets. The formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate in aerosol and the influence of acidity on the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were rather found to be negligible. The study average inorganic component of the aerosol was considerably higher than the carbonaceous component during both foggy and nonfoggy episode. The secondary production of the aerosol changed the microphysical properties of aerosol which was reflected by

  15. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mourabit, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author) [fr

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using Niskin bottle and other instruments from R/V F. G. Walton Smith in the west coast of Florida within Gulf of Mexico from 2015-09-23 to 2015-09-24 (NCEI Accession 0157025)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and nutrients in the west coast of Florida near...

  17. Spatially-resolved isotopic study of carbon trapped in ∼3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, David T.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Summons, Roger E.; Williford, Kenneth H.; Abbey, William; Matys, Emily D.; Ferralis, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    The large isotopic fractionation of carbon associated with enzymatic carbon assimilation allows evidence for life's antiquity, and potentially the early operation of several extant metabolic pathways, to be derived from the stable carbon isotope record of sedimentary rocks. Earth's organic carbon isotope record extends to the Late Eoarchean-Early Paleoarchean: the age of the oldest known sedimentary rocks. However, complementary inorganic carbon reservoirs are poorly represented in the oldest units, and commonly reported bulk organic carbon isotope measurements do not capture the micro-scale isotopic heterogeneities that are increasingly reported from younger rocks. Here, we investigated the isotopic composition of the oldest paired occurrences of sedimentary carbonate and organic matter, which are preserved as dolomite and kerogen within textural biosignatures of the ∼3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation. We targeted least-altered carbonate phases in situ using microsampling techniques guided by non-destructive elemental mapping. Organic carbon isotope values were measured by spatially-resolved bulk analyses, and in situ using secondary ion mass spectrometry to target microscale domains of organic material trapped within inorganic carbon matrixes. Total observed fractionation of 13C ranges from -29 to -45‰. Our data are consistent with studies of younger Archean rocks that host biogenic stromatolites and organic-inorganic carbon pairs showing greater fractionation than expected for Rubisco fixation alone. We conclude that organic matter was fixed and/or remobilized by at least one metabolism in addition to the CBB cycle, possibly by the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or methanogenesis-methanotrophy, in a shallow-water marine environment during the Paleoarchean.

  18. Sources of CO{sub 2} in the Gulf of Trieste (N. Adriatic). Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, N.; Zavadlav, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, D. [Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, NY (United States); Faganeli, J. [Marine Biological Station National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study the influence of freshwater intrusions on the net carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated. Carbonate mineral weathering dominates the inorganic carbon geochemical flux of the N Adriatic rivers and thus the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the gulf seawater. Based on {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values and isotopic mass balance it was estimated that rivers represents about 20% of DIC in spring, while the riverine contribution in autumn is less pronounced probably due to intensive water mixing. The results, therefore, suggest that river inputs play a significant role in the carbon cycling in the Gulf of Trieste due to mixing of higher DIC riverine water with lower seawater DIC. The observed higher summer {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values were due to more pronounced photosynthetic carbon fractionation. (author)

  19. Carbonate control of H2 and CH4 production in serpentinization systems at elevated P-Ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Camille; Rosenbauer, Robert; Goldsmith, Jonas I.; Oze, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Serpentinization of forsteritic olivine results in the inorganic synthesis of molecular hydrogen (H2) in ultramafic hydrothermal systems (e.g., mid-ocean ridge and forearc environments). Inorganic carbon in those hydrothermal systems may react with H2 to produce methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons or react with dissolved metal ions to form carbonate minerals. Here, we report serpentinization experiments at 200°C and 300 bar demonstrating Fe2+ being incorporated into carbonates more rapidly than Fe2+ oxidation (and concomitant H2 formation) leading to diminished yields of H2 and H2-dependent CH4. In addition, carbonate formation is temporally fast in carbonate oversaturated fluids. Our results demonstrate that carbonate chemistry ultimately modulates the abiotic synthesis of both H2 and CH4 in hydrothermal ultramafic systems and that ultramafic systems present great potential for CO2-mineral sequestration.

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship HI'IALAKAI and NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2012-03-02 to 2014-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0131502)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data from samples collected and analyzed for total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). From these constituents,...

  1. Competitive sorption between glyphosphate and inorganic phosphate on clay minerals and low organic matter soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, H.M.; Hill, H.H.Jr.; Washington State Univ., Pullmann, WA; Harsh, J.B.; Washington State Univ., Pullmann, WA

    2001-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate may influence the adsorption of glyphosate to soil surface sites. It has been postulated that glyphosphate sorption is dominated by the phosphoric acid moiety, therefore, inorganic phosphate could compete with glyphosate for surface sorption sites. Sorption of glyphosate is examined in low organic carbon systems where clay minerals dominate the available adsorption sites using 32 P-labeled phosphate and 14 C-labeled glyphosate to track sorption. Glyphosate sorption was found to be strongly dependent on phosphate additions. Isotherms were generally of the L type, which is consistent with a limited number of surface sites. Most sorption on whole soils could be accounted for by sorption observed on model clays of the same mineral type as found in the soils. (author)

  2. Stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of lakes along a trophic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluijver, A.; Schoon, P.L.; Downing, J.A.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope variability of dissolved inorganic and organic C (DIC and DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), glucose and polar-lipid derived fatty acids (PLFAs) was studied in a survey of 22 North American oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. The d13C of different PLFAs were used as

  3. Thorium inorganic gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.; Brandel, V.

    1988-01-01

    The optimum pH and concentration values of thorium salts and oxoacids or oxoacid salts which lead to transparent and stable inorganic gels have been determined. The isotherm drying process of the gel at 50 0 C leads successively to a partly dehydrated gel, then, to the formation of an unusual liquid phase and, finally to a dry amorphous solid phase which is still transparent. This kind of transparent inorganic gels and amorphous phase can be used as matrices for spectroscopic studies [fr

  4. Carbon and phosphorus regulating bacterial metabolism in oligotrophic boreal lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, L. O.; Graneli, W.; Daniel, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on how phosphorus and carbon control pelagic bacteria in lakes over a gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC from 6.7 to 29.5 mg C L(-1)) and phosphorus (P-tot from 5 to 19 mu g L(-1)). Five oligotrophic lakes in southern Sweden were sampled in late autumn. Phosphate...... carbon mineralization in this kind of system during autumn is conditioned by the combined availability of labile carbon and phosphorus, with the assimilated carbon mainly transformed to inorganic carbon in respiration, contributing to CO(2) supersaturation in these systems....

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface and discrete observations using Niskin bottle, flow-through pump and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico (east coast of Florida near the Keys) from 2014-12-03 to 2014-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0154383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and nutrients from a transect off...

  6. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10 000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm-2. The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices.

  7. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  8. Modeling carbon cycle process of soil profile in Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Finke, P.; Guo, Z.; Wu, H.

    2011-12-01

    SoilGen2 is a process-based model, which could reconstruct soil formation under various climate conditions, parent materials, vegetation types, slopes, expositions and time scales. Both organic and inorganic carbon cycle processes could be simulated, while the later process is important in carbon cycle of arid and semi-arid regions but seldom being studied. After calibrating parameters of dust deposition rate and segments depth affecting elements transportation and deposition in the profile, modeling results after 10000 years were confronted with measurements of two soil profiles in loess plateau of China, The simulated trends of organic carbon and CaCO3 in the profile are similar to measured values. Relative sensitivity analysis for carbon cycle process have been done and the results show that the change of organic carbon in long time scale is more sensitive to precipitation, temperature, plant carbon input and decomposition parameters (decomposition rate of humus, ratio of CO2/(BIO+HUM), etc.) in the model. As for the inorganic carbon cycle, precipitation and potential evaporation are important for simulation quality, while the leaching and deposition of CaCO3 are not sensitive to pCO2 and temperature of atmosphere.

  9. Carbonate effects on hexavalent uranium removal from water by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Meng, Xiaoguang; Korfiatis, George P.; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2006-01-01

    A novel nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was used to treat depleted uranium (DU)-contaminated water under neutral and alkaline conditions. The novel material had a total surface area of 329 m 2 /g, total surface site density of 11.0 sites/nm 2 , total pore volume of 0.415 cm 3 /g and crystallite size of 6.0 nm. It was used in batch tests to remove U(VI) from synthetic solutions and contaminated water. However, the capacity of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water decreased in the presence of inorganic carbonate at pH > 6.0. Adsorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface charge measurements were used to investigate the causes of the reduced capacity. The surface charge and the FTIR measurements suggested that the adsorbed U(VI) species was not complexed with carbonate at neutral pH values. The decreased capacity of titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water in the presence of carbonate at neutral to alkaline pH values was attributed to the aqueous complexation of U(VI) by inorganic carbonate. The nanocrystalline titanium dioxide had four times the capacity of commercially available titanium dixoide (Degussa P-25) to adsorb U(VI) from water at pH 6 and total inorganic carbonate concentration of 0.01 M. Consequently, the novel material was used to treat DU-contaminated water at a Department of Defense (DOD) site

  10. Temperature dependence of photodegradation of dissolved organic matter to dissolved inorganic carbon and particulate organic carbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, P. J.; Molot, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2015), e0128884 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/0781; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09721S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic carbon * particulate organic carbon * photodegradation * temperature Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  11. Burial fluxes and source apportionment of carbon in culture areas of Sanggou Bay over the past 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sai; HUANG Jiansheng; YANG Qian; YANG Shu; YANG Guipeng; SUN Yao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the burial fluxes and source appointment of different forms of carbon in core sediments collected from culture areas in the Sanggou Bay, and preliminarily analyzed the reasons for the greater proportion of inorganic carbon burial fluxes (BFTIC). The average content of total carbon (TC) in the Sanggou Bay was 2.14%. Total organic carbon (TOC) accounted for a small proportion in TC, more than 65% of which derived from terrigenous organic carbon (Ct), and while the proportion of marine-derived organic carbon (Ca) increased significantly since the beginning of large-scale aquaculture. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) accounted for 60%–75%of TC, an average of which was 60%, with a maximum up to 90% during flourishing periods (1880–1948) of small natural shellfish derived from seashells inorganic carbon (Shell-IC). The TC burial fluxes ranged from 31 g/(m2·a) to 895 g/(m2·a) with an average of 227 g/(m2·a), which was dominated by TIC (about 70%). Shell-IC was the main source of TIC and even TC. As the main food of natural shellfish, biogenic silica (BSi) negatively correlated with BFTIC through affecting shellfish breeding. BFTIC of Sta. S1, influenced greatly by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, had a certain response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in some specific periods.

  12. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using flow-through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow on the Northeast U.S. Shelf (Gulf of Maine and Mid-Atlantic Bight) from 2013-03-17 to 2013-05-09 (NCEI Accession 0154386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and nutrients in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of...

  14. Possible Roles of Fluoride and Carbonate in Biochemical Carbonated Apatite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meouch, Orysia; Omelon, Sidney

    2016-04-01

    Marine phosphorites are predominantly composed of carbonated fluorapatite (CFA = Ca10-a-b-cNaaMgb(PO4)6-x(CO3)x-y-z(CO3.F)y(SO4)zF2, where x=y+a+2c, and c represents the number of Ca vacancies, with a P2O5 content that ranges from 18-40 %. Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria of the Beggiatoa genus concentration phosphorous as intracellular polyphosphate ((PO3-)n) which is depolymerized into inorganic orthophosphate (Pi). Consequently, an increase in pore water Pi concentration favours carbonated apatite precipitation. The carbonate and fluoride that is characteristic of phosphorite CFA is also located in the vertebrate skeleton. This similarity suggests a biochemical pathway for CFA precipitation. Preliminary Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction results that suggest a role for fluoride, and possibly carbonate, in the biochemical depolymerisation of polyphosphates with alkaline phosphatase will be presented.

  15. Textural and isotopic evidence for Ca-Mg carbonate pedogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Hernandez, J. L.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Delgado, A.; Yepes, J.; Garcia-Casco, A.

    2018-02-01

    Models for evaluating the terrestrial carbon cycle must take into account not only soil organic carbon, represented by a mixture of plant and animal remains, but also soil inorganic carbon, contained in minerals, mainly in calcite and dolomite. Thick soil caliches derived from weathering of mafic and ultramafic rocks must be considered as sinks for carbon storage in soils. The formation of calcite and dolomite from pedogenic alteration of volcanic tephras under an aridic moisture regime is studied in an unusually thick 3-m soil profile on Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The biological activity of the pedogenic environment (soil respiration) releases CO2 incorporated as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in waters. It drives the formation of low-magnesian calcite and calcian dolomite over basaltic substrates, with a δ13C negative signature (-8 to -6‰ vs. V-PDB). Precipitation of authigenic carbonates in the soil is accompanied by the formation of Mg-rich clay minerals and quartz after the weathering of basalts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional, and isotopic variations throughout the soil profile studied indicate that dolomite formed at greater depths and earlier than the calcite. The isotopic signatures of the surficial calcite and deeper dolomite crusts are primary and resulted from the dissolution-precipitation cycles that led to the formation of both types of caliches under different physicochemical conditions. Dolomite formed within a clay-rich matrix through diffusive transport of reactants. It is precipitated from water with more negative δ18O values (-1.5 to -3.5‰ vs. V-SMOW) in the subsoil compared to those of water in equilibrium with surficial calcite. Thus, calcite precipitated after dolomite, and directly from percolating solutions in equilibrium with vadose water enriched in δ18O (-0.5 to +1.5‰) due to the evaporation processes. The accumulation of inorganic carbon reaches 586.1 kg m-2 in the soil studied, which means that the

  16. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  17. New polymer lithium secondary batteries based on ORMOCER (R) electrolytes-inorganic-organic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popall, M.; Buestrich, R.; Semrau, G.

    2001-01-01

    Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil-batteries...... electrolyte, typical for polymer electrolytes. Cycling tests (more than 900 cycles) proved that the unplasticized electrolyte can act as binder in composite cathodes of lithium secondary batteries [2]. Charge/discharge cycles of complete batteries like (Cu/active carbon/ORMOCER(R)/LiCoO2/Al) with an ORMOCER......(R) as separator electrolyte were measured. The voltage drop of these batteries is very similar to cells with standard liquid electrolytes and the efficiency is close to 100%. Cycling the batteries with a current density of 0.25 mA cm(-2) between the voltage limits of 3.1 and 4.1 V results in a charge...

  18. A Review on Recent Patents and Applications of Inorganic Material Binding Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Veeranjaneyulu; Perry, Carole C

    2017-01-01

    Although the popularity of using combinatorial display techniques for recognising unique peptides having high affinity for inorganic (nano) particles has grown rapidly, there are no systematic reviews showcasing current developments or patents on binding peptides specific to these materials. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent progress in patents on material binding peptides specifically exploring inorganic nano surfaces such as metals, metal oxides, minerals, carbonbased materials, polymer based materials, magnetic materials and semiconductors. We consider both the peptide display strategies used and the exploitation of the identified peptides in the generation of advanced nanomaterials. In order to get a clear picture on the number of patents and literature present to date relevant to inorganic material binding biomolecules and their applications, a thorough online search was conducted using national and worldwide databases. The literature search include standard bibliographic databases while patents included EPO Espacenet, WIPO patent scope, USPTO, Google patent search, Patent lens, etc. along with commercial databases such as Derwent and Patbase. Both English and American spellings were included in the searches. The initial number of patents found related to material binders were 981. After reading and excluding irrelevant patents such as organic binding peptides, works published before 2001, repeated patents, documents not in English etc., 51 highly relevant patents published from 2001 onwards were selected and analysed. These patents were further separated into six categories based on their target inorganic material and combinatorial library used. They include relevant patents on metal, metal oxide or combination binding peptides (19), magnetic and semiconductor binding peptides (8), carbon based (3), mineral (5), polymer (8) and other binders (9). Further, how these material specific binders have been used to synthesize simple to complex bio- or

  19. Laboratory Studies of Water Uptake by Biomass Burning Smoke: Role of Fuel Inorganic Content, Combustion Phase and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Bixler, S. L.; Romonosky, D.; Lam, J.; Carrico, C.; Aiken, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol emissions have substantially increased with observed warming and drying in the southwestern US. While wildfires are projected to intensify missing knowledge on the aerosols hampers assessments. Observations demonstrate that enhanced light absorption by coated black carbon and brown carbon can offset the cooling effects of organic aerosols in wildfires. However, if mixing processes that enhance this absorption reduce the aerosol lifetime it would lower their atmospheric burden. In order to elucidate mechanisms regulating this tradeoff we performed laboratory studies of smoke from biomass burning. We focus on aerosol optical properties and their hygroscopic response. Fresh emissions from burning 30 fuels under flaming and smoldering conditions were investigated. We measured aerosol absorption, scattering and extinction at multiple wavelengths, water uptake at 85% relative humidity (fRH85%) with a humidity controlled dual nephelometer, and black carbon mass with a SP2. Trace gases and the ionic content of the fuel and smoke were also measured We find that whereas the optical properties of smoke were strongly dictated by the flaming versus smoldering nature of the burn, the observed hygroscopicity was intimately linked to the chemical composition of the fuel. The mean hygroscopicity ranged from nearly hydrophobic (fRH85% = 1) to very hydrophilic (fRH85% = 2.1) values typical of pure deliquescent salts. The k values varied from 0.004 to 0.18 and correlated well with inorganic content. Inorganic fuel content was the key driver of hygroscopicity with combustion phase playing a secondary but important role ( 20%). Flaming combustion promoted hygroscopicity by generating refractory black carbon and ions. Smoldering combustion suppressed hygroscopicity by producing hydrogenated organic species. Wildfire smoke was hydrophobic since the evergreen species with low inorganic content dominated in these fires. We also quantify the mass absorption cross

  20. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC) on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich W; Schubert, Nadine; Diele, Karen; Teichberg, Mirta; Wild, Christian; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA) and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm) and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose) on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected under future

  1. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W Meyer

    Full Text Available Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and organic carbon (DOC concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected

  2. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  3. Biocompatibility of bio based calcium carbonate nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance ...

  4. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  5. Nongovernmental valorization of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Gene; Viviani, Donn; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Kelley, Stephen; Moens, Luc; Shepherd, Phil; DuBois, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas effect. Most attempts to manage the flow of CO 2 or carbon into our environment involve reducing net emissions or sequestering the gas into long-lived sinks. Using CO 2 as a chemical feedstock has a long history, but using it on scales that might impact the net emissions of CO 2 into the atmosphere has not generally been considered seriously. There is also a growing interest in employing our natural biomes of carbon such as trees, vegetation, and soils as storage media. Some amelioration of the net carbon emissions into the atmosphere could be achieved by concomitant large withdrawals of carbon. This report surveys the potential and limitations in employing carbon as a resource for organic chemicals, fuels, inorganic materials, and in using the biome to manage carbon. The outlook for each of these opportunities is also described

  6. Variations in the patterns of soil organic carbon mineralization and microbial communities in response to exogenous application of rice straw and calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China); Huang, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Ge, Yunhui [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Su, Yirong [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China); Xu, Xinwen; Wang, Yongdong [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); He, Xunyang, E-mail: hbhpjhn@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The addition of exogenous inorganic carbon (CaCO{sub 3}) and organic carbon has an important influence on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in karst soil, but the microbial mechanisms underlying the SOC priming effect are poorly understood. We conducted a 100-day incubation experiment involving four treatments of the calcareous soil in southwestern China's karst region: control, {sup 14}C-labeled rice straw addition, {sup 14}C-labeled CaCO{sub 3} addition, and a combination of {sup 14}C-labeled rice straw and CaCO{sub 3}. Changes in soil microbial communities were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Both {sup 14}C-rice straw and Ca{sup 14}CO{sub 3} addition stimulated SOC mineralization, suggesting that organic and inorganic C affected SOC stability. Addition of straw alone had no significant effect on bacterial diversity; however, when the straw was added in combination with calcium carbonate, it had an inhibitory effect on bacterial and fungal diversity. At the beginning of the experimental period, exogenous additives increased bacterial abundance, although at the end of the 100-day incubation bacterial community abundance had gradually declined. Incubation time, exogenous input, and their interaction significantly affected SOC mineralization (in terms of priming and the cumulative amount of mineralization), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial community abundance and diversity. Moreover, the key factors influencing SOC mineralization were MBC, bacterial diversity, and soil pH. Overall, these findings support the view that inorganic C is involved in soil C turnover with the participation of soil microbial communities, promoting soil C cycling in the karst region. - Highlights: • Different patterns of {sup 14}C-rice straw and Ca{sup 14}CO{sub 3} addition on positive priming effects of SOC mineralization. • Inorganic C is involved in

  7. Characterization of Morphology and Composition of Inorganic Fillers in Dental Alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Danil Guiraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Archimedes’ Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C, Hydrogum 5 (H5, Hydrogum (H, Orthoprint (O, and Jeltrate Plus (JP. The different alginate powders (0.5 mg were fixed on plastic stubs (n=5 and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450°C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si by weight (C—81.59%, H—79.89%, O—78.87%, H5—77.95%, JP—66.88%, wt. The filler fractions in volume (vt were as follows: H5—84.85%, JP—74.76%, H—70.03%, O—68.31%, and C—56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology.

  8. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample...

  10. Quantification of Heavy Metals and Other Inorganic Contaminants on the Productivity of Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian; Quinn, Jason C

    2015-07-10

    Increasing demand for renewable fuels has researchers investigating the feasibility of alternative feedstocks, such as microalgae. Inherent advantages include high potential yield, use of non-arable land and integration with waste streams. The nutrient requirements of a large-scale microalgae production system will require the coupling of cultivation systems with industrial waste resources, such as carbon dioxide from flue gas and nutrients from wastewater. Inorganic contaminants present in these wastes can potentially lead to bioaccumulation in microalgal biomass negatively impact productivity and limiting end use. This study focuses on the experimental evaluation of the impact and the fate of 14 inorganic contaminants (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn) on Nannochloropsis salina growth. Microalgae were cultivated in photobioreactors illuminated at 984 µmol m(-2) sec(-1) and maintained at pH 7 in a growth media polluted with inorganic contaminants at levels expected based on the composition found in commercial coal flue gas systems. Contaminants present in the biomass and the medium at the end of a 7 day growth period were analytically quantified through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry for Hg and through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn. Results show N. salina is a sensitive strain to the multi-metal environment with a statistical decrease in biomass yieldwith the introduction of these contaminants. The techniques presented here are adequate for quantifying algal growth and determining the fate of inorganic contaminants.

  11. Biogrout, ground improvement by microbial induced carbonate precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Paassen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogrout is a new ground improvement method based on microbially induced precipitation of calcium carbonate (MICP). When supplied with suitable substrates, micro-organisms can catalyze biochemical conversions in the subsurface resulting in precipitation of inorganic minerals, which change the

  12. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, Elisa; Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J; Varela, Marta M

    2018-02-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production throughout the water column, however, more prominently in the bathypelagic waters. Microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (MICRO-CARD-FISH) allowed us to identify several microbial groups involved in dark DIC uptake. The contribution of SAR406 (Marinimicrobia), SAR324 (Deltaproteobacteria) and Alteromonas (Gammaproteobacteria) to the dark DIC fixation was significantly higher than that of SAR202 (Chloroflexi) and Thaumarchaeota, in agreement with their contribution to microbial abundance. Q-PCR on the gene encoding for the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) from the putatively high versus low ammonia concentration ecotypes revealed their depth-stratified distribution pattern. Taken together, our results indicate that chemoautotrophy is widespread among microbes in the dark ocean, particularly in bathypelagic waters. This chemolithoautotrophic biomass production in the dark ocean, depleted in bio-available organic matter, might play a substantial role in sustaining the dark ocean's food web. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  15. Reviews and syntheses: Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to total carbon burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, L. H.; Kamenos, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass) to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term timescales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological timescales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Net organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m-2 yr-1 and 900 g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr-1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA) corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr-1. Using this potential carbon storage for coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr-1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 tonnes per year. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  16. Speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xun [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Gannan Teachers College, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Jia Jing [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang Zhenghao [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: zhwang@bnu.edu.cn

    2006-02-23

    A simple procedure was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS), without pre-reduction of As(V). Glassy carbon was selected as cathode material in the flow cell. An optimum catholyte concentration for simultaneous generation of arsine from As(III) and As(V) was 0.06 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Under the optimized conditions, adequate sensitivity and difference in ratio of slopes of the calibration curves for As(III) and As(V) can be achieved at the electrolytic currents of 0.6 and 1 A. The speciation of inorganic arsenic can be performed by controlling the electrolytic currents, and the concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the sample can be calculated according to the equations of absorbance additivity obtained at two selected electrolytic currents. The calibration curves were linear up to 50 ng ml{sup -1} for both As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 and 1 A. The detection limits of the method were 0.2 and 0.5 ng ml{sup -1} for As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 A, respectively. The relative standard deviations were of 2.1% for 20 ng ml{sup -1} As(III) and 2.5% for 20 ng ml{sup -1} As(V). The method was validated by the analysis of human hair certified reference material and successfully applied to speciation of soluble inorganic arsenic in Chinese medicine.

  17. Speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Jia Jing; Wang Zhenghao

    2006-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS), without pre-reduction of As(V). Glassy carbon was selected as cathode material in the flow cell. An optimum catholyte concentration for simultaneous generation of arsine from As(III) and As(V) was 0.06 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 . Under the optimized conditions, adequate sensitivity and difference in ratio of slopes of the calibration curves for As(III) and As(V) can be achieved at the electrolytic currents of 0.6 and 1 A. The speciation of inorganic arsenic can be performed by controlling the electrolytic currents, and the concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the sample can be calculated according to the equations of absorbance additivity obtained at two selected electrolytic currents. The calibration curves were linear up to 50 ng ml -1 for both As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 and 1 A. The detection limits of the method were 0.2 and 0.5 ng ml -1 for As(III) and As(V) at 0.6 A, respectively. The relative standard deviations were of 2.1% for 20 ng ml -1 As(III) and 2.5% for 20 ng ml -1 As(V). The method was validated by the analysis of human hair certified reference material and successfully applied to speciation of soluble inorganic arsenic in Chinese medicine

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface and discrete observations using flow-through pump and other instruments from M/V Equinox in the North Atlantic ocean (east coast of Miami, FL, Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos Islands) from 2015-03-07 to 2015-03-09 (NCEI Accession 0154382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and pH from the east coast of Florida to Puerto Rico....

  19. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO2-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO 2 . Both air-grown cells, that have a CO 2 concentrating system, and 5% CO 2 -grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO 2 -grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO 2 fixation by high CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using flow through pump and other instruments from Explorer of the Seas (ID: 33KF) in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic ocean during the Ocean Acidification Cruise EX1507 from 2015-02-14 to 2015-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0154385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH in the Caribbean Sea. Increasing amounts of...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients, and other variables collected from profile and discrete observations using Niskin bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter on the northeastern U.S. continental shelf, Gulf of Maine, coastal waters of Canada, Greenland and Iceland from 2015-10-13 to 2015-10-24 (NCEI Accession 0157023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains profile discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients in the North...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow...

  3. Influence of solution chemistry on the boron content in inorganic calcite grown in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Joji; Harper, Dustin T.; Penman, Donald E.; Zachos, James C.; Zeebe, Richard E.

    2017-12-01

    The ratio of boron to calcium (B/Ca) in marine biogenic carbonates has been proposed as a proxy for properties of seawater carbonate chemistry. Applying this proxy to planktic foraminifera residing in the surface seawater largely in equilibrium with the atmosphere may provide a valuable handle on past atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, precise controls on B/Ca in planktic foraminifera remain enigmatic because it has been shown to depend on multiple physicochemical seawater properties. To help establish a firm inorganic basis for interpreting the B/Ca records, we examined the effect of a suite of chemical parameters ([Ca2+], pH, [DIC], salinity and [PO43-]) on B/Ca in inorganic calcite precipitated in artificial seawater. These parameters were primarily varied individually while keeping all others constant, but we also tested the influence of pH and [DIC] at a constant calcite precipitation rate (R) by concurrent [Ca2+] adjustments. In the simple [Ca2+], pH and [DIC] experiments, both R and B/Ca increased with these parameters. In the pH-[Ca2+] and [DIC]-[Ca2+] experiments at constant R, on the other hand, B/Ca was invariant at different pH and decreased with [DIC], respectively. These patterns agree with the behavior of solution [BTotal/DIC] ratio such that, at a fixed [BTotal], it is independent of pH but decreases with [DIC]. Based on these results, R and [BTotal/DIC] ratio appear to be the primary controls on B/Ca in inorganic calcite, suggesting that both B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 are possibly involved in B incorporation. Moreover, B/Ca modestly increased with salinity and [PO43-]. Inorganic calcite precipitated at higher R and in the presence of oxyanions such as SO42- and PO43- in growth solutions often undergoes surface roughening due to formation of crystallographic defects, vacancies and, occasionally, amorphous/hydrous CaCO3. These non-lattice sites may provide additional space for B, particularly B(OH)3. Consequently, besides the macroscopic influence of

  4. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  5. Efficient Carbon-Based CsPbBr3 Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells by Using Cu-Phthalocyanine as Hole Transport Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Bo; Liu, Xingyue; Han, Jinghui; Ye, Haibo; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2018-06-01

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted extensive research interest for next-generation solution-processed photovoltaic devices because of their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication cost. Although the world's best PSC successfully achieves a considerable PCE of over 20% within a very limited timeframe after intensive efforts, the stability, high cost, and up-scaling of PSCs still remain issues. Recently, inorganic perovskite material, CsPbBr3, is emerging as a promising photo-sensitizer with excellent durability and thermal stability, but the efficiency is still embarrassing. In this work, we intend to address these issues by exploiting CsPbBr3 as light absorber, accompanied by using Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) as hole transport material (HTM) and carbon as counter electrode. The optimal device acquires a decent PCE of 6.21%, over 60% higher than those of the HTM-free devices. The systematic characterization and analysis reveal a more effective charge transfer process and a suppressed charge recombination in PSCs after introducing CuPc as hole transfer layer. More importantly, our devices exhibit an outstanding durability and a promising thermal stability, making it rather meaningful in future fabrication and application of PSCs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Saxray GmbH, Maria-Reiche-Str. 1, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Krieg, Marcus [TITK, Thüringisches Institut für Textil- und Kunststoff-Forschung e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Mahltig, Boris, E-mail: Boris.Mahltig@hs-niederrhein.de [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  7. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia; Leisegang, Tilmann; Krieg, Marcus; Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas; Mahltig, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  8. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  9. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients collected from profile, discrete sampling, and time series observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Gulf Challenger near a buoy off the coast of New Hampshire, U.S. in the Gulf of Maine from 2011-01-11 to 2015-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0142327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients collected at the buoy off...

  11. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  12. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  13. Advances in Organic and Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymeric Supports for Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pia Salvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the most recent advances (2014–2016 on the synthesis of new polymer-supported catalysts are reported, focusing the attention on the synthetic strategies developed for their preparation. The polymer-supported catalysts examined will be organic-based polymers and organic-inorganic hybrids and will include, among others, polystyrenes, poly-ionic liquids, chiral ionic polymers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, as well as silica and halloysite-based catalysts. Selected examples will show the synthesis and application in the field of organocatalysis and metal-based catalysis both for non-asymmetric and asymmetric transformations.

  14. Assessment of the sea-ice carbon pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimm, R.; Notz, D.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    -induced oceanic CO2 uptake ranges from 2 to 14 Tg C yr−1, which is up to 7% of the simulated net CO2 uptake in polar regions, but far less than 1% of the cur-rent global oceanic CO2 uptake. Hence, while we find that the SICP plays a minor role in the modern global carbon cycle, it is of importance......It has been suggested that geochemical processes related to sea-ice growth and melt might be important for the polar carbon cycle via the so called sea-ice carbon pump (SICP). The SICP affects the air-sea CO2 exchange by influencing the composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total...... for the regional carbon cycle at high latitudes....

  15. The design and realization of synthetic pathways for the fixation of carbon dioxide in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Schwander, Thomas; Erb, Tobias (Dr.)

    2018-01-01

    The fixation of inorganic carbon and the conversion to organic molecules is a prerequisite for life and the foundation of the carbon cycle on Earth. Since the industrial revolution, this carbon cycle has become inbalanced and consequently the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increasing and is a major cause of global warming. On the contrary, atmospheric CO2 can also be considered as an important carbon feedstock o...

  16. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  17. Production of metal fullerene surface layer from various media in the process of steel carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUZEEV Iskander Rustemovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies devoted to production of metal fullerene layer in steels when introducing carbon from organic and inorganic media were performed. Barium carbonate was used as an inorganic medium and petroleum pitch was used as an organic medium. In order to generate the required amount of fullerenes in the process of steel samples carbonization, optimal temperature mode was found. The higher temperature, absorption and cohesive effects become less important and polymeric carbon structures destruction processes become more important. On the bottom the temperature is limited by petroleum pitch softening temperature and its transition to low-viscous state in order to enhance molecular mobility and improve the possibility of their diffusion to metal surface. Identification of fullerenes in the surface modified layer was carried out following the methods of IR-Fourier spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found out that nanocarbon structures, formed during carbonization in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums, possess different morphology. In the process of metal carbonization from carbonates medium, the main role in fullerenes synthesis is belonged to catalytic effect of surface with generation of endohedral derivatives in the surface layer; but in the process of carbonization from pitch medium fullerenes are formed during crystallization of the latter and crystallization centers are of fullerene type. Based on theoretical data and dataof spectral and chromatographic analysis, optimal conditions of metal fullerene layer formation in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums were determined. Low cohesion of layer, modified in barium carbonate medium, with metal basis was discovered. That was caused by limited carbon diffusion in the volume of α-Fe. According to the detected mechanism of fullerenes formation on steel surface in gaseous medium, fullerenes are formed on catalytic centers – ferrum atoms, forming thin metal

  18. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  19. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  1. Carbon-Based CsPbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells: All-Ambient Processes and High Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaowen; Li, Weiping; Zhu, Liqun; Liu, Huicong; Geng, Huifang; Xiang, Sisi; Liu, Jiaming; Chen, Haining

    2016-12-14

    The device instability has been an important issue for hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). This work intends to address this issue by exploiting inorganic perovskite (CsPbBr 3 ) as light absorber, accompanied by replacing organic hole transport materials (HTM) and the metal electrode with a carbon electrode. All the fabrication processes (including those for CsPbBr 3 and the carbon electrode) in the PSCs are conducted in ambient atmosphere. Through a systematical optimization on the fabrication processes of CsPbBr 3 film, carbon-based PSCs (C-PSCs) obtained the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of about 5.0%, a relatively high value for inorganic perovskite-based PSCs. More importantly, after storage for 250 h at 80 °C, only 11.7% loss in PCE is observed for CsPbBr 3 C-PSCs, significantly lower than that for popular CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 C-PSCs (59.0%) and other reported PSCs, which indicated a promising thermal stability of CsPbBr 3 C-PSCs.

  2. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  3. The effects of low-temperature plasma treatment on the capillary properties of inorganic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garifullin, A. R.; Abdullin, I. Sh; Skidchenko, E. A.; Krasina, I. V.; Shaekhov, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Solving the problem of achieving high adhesion between the components in the polymeric composite material (PCM) based on carbon fibers (CF) and basalt fibers (BF) is proposed to use the radio-frequency (RF) plasma under lower pressure by virtue of efficiency, environmental friendliness and rationality of the method. The paper gives the results of studies of the properties of CF and BF after RF capacitive discharge plasma treatment. The plasma modification modes of carbon and basalt fiber were investigated. The efficiency of treatment tool in surface properties modification of carbon and basalt fibers was found, namely capillary properties of CF and BF were researched. The optimal treatment modes were selected. It was found that the method of plasma modification in the radio-frequency capacitive discharge under the lower pressure contributes enhancing the capillary properties of inorganic fibers, in particular carbon and basalt ones. It shows the tendency to increase of the adhesive properties in PCM, and, consequently, the increase of the physical and mechanical properties of the products.

  4. The effects of low-temperature plasma treatment on the capillary properties of inorganic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garifullin, A R; Abdullin, I Sh; Skidchenko, E A; Krasina, I V; Shaekhov, M F

    2016-01-01

    Solving the problem of achieving high adhesion between the components in the polymeric composite material (PCM) based on carbon fibers (CF) and basalt fibers (BF) is proposed to use the radio-frequency (RF) plasma under lower pressure by virtue of efficiency, environmental friendliness and rationality of the method. The paper gives the results of studies of the properties of CF and BF after RF capacitive discharge plasma treatment. The plasma modification modes of carbon and basalt fiber were investigated. The efficiency of treatment tool in surface properties modification of carbon and basalt fibers was found, namely capillary properties of CF and BF were researched. The optimal treatment modes were selected. It was found that the method of plasma modification in the radio-frequency capacitive discharge under the lower pressure contributes enhancing the capillary properties of inorganic fibers, in particular carbon and basalt ones. It shows the tendency to increase of the adhesive properties in PCM, and, consequently, the increase of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. (paper)

  5. Kinetic characteristics and modeling of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation considering the coupled effects of light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hai-Xing; Huang, Yun; Fu, Qian; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and optimizing the microalgae growth process is an essential prerequisite for effective CO2 capture using microalgae in photobioreactors. In this study, the kinetic characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth in response to light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration were investigated. The greatest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xmax) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax) were obtained as 2.303 g L(-1) and 0.078 h(-1), respectively, at a light intensity of 120 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and DIC concentration of 17 mM. Based on the results, mathematical models describing the coupled effects of light intensity and DIC concentration on microalgae growth and CO2 biofixation are proposed. The models are able to predict the temporal evolution of C. vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation rates from lag to stationary phases. Verification experiments confirmed that the model predictions agreed well with the experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube/SiO2and Carbon Nanotube/SiO2/Ag Nanoparticles Hybrids by Using Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on plasma-treated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, SWCNT/SiO2and thiol groups-functionalized SWCNT/SiO2hybrids have been fabricated through a sol–gel process. By means of thiol groups, Ag nanoparticles have been in situ synthesized and bonded onto the SiO2shell of SWCNT/SiO2in the absence of external reducing agent, resulting in the stable carbon nanotube/SiO2/Ag nanoparticles hybrids. This strategy provides a facile, low–cost, and green methodology for the creation of carbon nanotube/inorganic oxides-metal nanoparticles hybrids.

  7. The antisense RNA As1_flv4 in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 prevents premature expression of the flv4-2 operon upon shift in inorganic carbon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Marion; Georg, Jens; Klähn, Stephan; Sakurai, Isamu; Mustila, Henna; Zhang, Pengpeng; Hess, Wolfgang R; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-09-28

    The functional relevance of natural cis-antisense transcripts is mostly unknown. Here we have characterized the association of three antisense RNAs and one intergenically encoded noncoding RNA with an operon that plays a crucial role in photoprotection of photosystem II under low carbon conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cyanobacteria show strong gene expression dynamics in response to a shift of cells from high carbon to low levels of inorganic carbon (C(i)), but the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Among the most up-regulated genes in Synechocystis are flv4, sll0218, and flv2, which are organized in the flv4-2 operon. The flavodiiron proteins encoded by this operon open up an alternative electron transfer route, likely starting from the Q(B) site in photosystem II, under photooxidative stress conditions. Our expression analysis of cells shifted from high carbon to low carbon demonstrated an inversely correlated transcript accumulation of the flv4-2 operon mRNA and one antisense RNA to flv4, designated as As1_flv4. Overexpression of As1_flv4 led to a decrease in flv4-2 mRNA. The promoter activity of as1_flv4 was transiently stimulated by C(i) limitation and negatively regulated by the AbrB-like transcription regulator Sll0822, whereas the flv4-2 operon was positively regulated by the transcription factor NdhR. The results indicate that the tightly regulated antisense RNA As1_flv4 establishes a transient threshold for flv4-2 expression in the early phase after a change in C(i) conditions. Thus, it prevents unfavorable synthesis of the proteins from the flv4-2 operon.

  8. The Antisense RNA As1_flv4 in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Prevents Premature Expression of the flv4-2 Operon upon Shift in Inorganic Carbon Supply*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Marion; Georg, Jens; Klähn, Stephan; Sakurai, Isamu; Mustila, Henna; Zhang, Pengpeng; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    The functional relevance of natural cis-antisense transcripts is mostly unknown. Here we have characterized the association of three antisense RNAs and one intergenically encoded noncoding RNA with an operon that plays a crucial role in photoprotection of photosystem II under low carbon conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cyanobacteria show strong gene expression dynamics in response to a shift of cells from high carbon to low levels of inorganic carbon (Ci), but the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Among the most up-regulated genes in Synechocystis are flv4, sll0218, and flv2, which are organized in the flv4-2 operon. The flavodiiron proteins encoded by this operon open up an alternative electron transfer route, likely starting from the QB site in photosystem II, under photooxidative stress conditions. Our expression analysis of cells shifted from high carbon to low carbon demonstrated an inversely correlated transcript accumulation of the flv4-2 operon mRNA and one antisense RNA to flv4, designated as As1_flv4. Overexpression of As1_flv4 led to a decrease in flv4-2 mRNA. The promoter activity of as1_flv4 was transiently stimulated by Ci limitation and negatively regulated by the AbrB-like transcription regulator Sll0822, whereas the flv4-2 operon was positively regulated by the transcription factor NdhR. The results indicate that the tightly regulated antisense RNA As1_flv4 establishes a transient threshold for flv4-2 expression in the early phase after a change in Ci conditions. Thus, it prevents unfavorable synthesis of the proteins from the flv4-2 operon. PMID:22854963

  9. High resolution carbon isotope of Crassostrea cuttakensis: A proxy for seasonally varying carbon dynamics in a tropical delta-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemany, Arpita

    2017-04-01

    The exponential increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature is becoming a major threat to the existence of the mankind. It has been proposed that the ˜2 ˚ C rise in the average global temperature may lead to a point of no-return where the balance between the climate and the ecosystem collapses. Therefore, detailed understanding of the major carbon reservoirs and their mutual interactions is needed for better future climate prediction. Among all the reservoirs, ocean holds ˜90 % of the exogenic carbon and promotes long term storage in sediments. However, the majority of the sedimentary carbon is of terrestrial origin and transported through rivers, which play an important role in carbon exchange between the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, and oceans. The transportation of organic carbon through river does not follow a simple conveyer belt model. Various organic and inorganic reactions (i.e., organic carbon degradation, inorganic carbon precipitation, primary production, community respiration) modify the state of the carbon to form a major sub-reservoir in the river, i.e., Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC). So, identifying the source/s of the DIC is crucial to understand the carbon dynamics in the river. Stable carbon isotopic composition of the DIC (δ13CDIC) has long been extensively used to reveal the dominant source/s of the DIC. The majority of the large rivers, being situated in the tropical belts, show seasonal fluctuation in the DIC sources. However, seasonal sampling in the remotest reaches of these rivers hindered our thorough understanding of the seasonally varying source/s of DIC in these rivers. Many calcifying organisms precipitate their shell carbonate in equilibrium with water and hence likely to record the δ13CDICof ambient water in their shell. In this study, a living oyster (Crassostrea cuttakensis) was collected from Matla River, which is part of the Ganges Brahmaputra river delta system, and analyzed for its stable

  10. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  11. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  12. Holographic patterning of organic-inorganic photopolymerizable nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Stumpe, J.

    2009-09-01

    We present here novel easily processible organic-inorganic nanocomposites suitable for holographic fabrication of diffraction optical elements (DOE). The nanocomposites are based on photocurable acrylate monomers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP). The compatibility of inorganic NP with monomers was achieved by capping the NP surface with proper organic shells. Surface modification allows to introduce up to 50wt.% of inorganic NP in organic media. Depending on the NP nature (metal oxides, phosphates, semiconductors, noble metals) and their properties, the materials for both efficient DOE and multifunctional elements can be designed. Organic-inorganic composites prepared have been successfully used for the effective inscription of periodic volume refractive index structures using the holographic photopolymerization method. The nanocomposite preparation procedure, their properties and optical performance of holographic gratings are reported. The use of functional NP makes it possible to obtain effective holographic gratings having additional physical properties such as light-emission or NLO. Some examples of such functional polymer-NP structures and their possible application fields are presented. The combination of easy photo-patterning of soft organic compounds with physical properties of inorganic materials in new nanocomposites and the flexibility of the holographic patterning method allow the fabrication of mono- and multifunctional one- and multi-dimensional passive or active optical and photonic elements.

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other variables collected from profile and discrete observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V New Horizon and R/V Robert Gordon Sproul in the U.S. West Coast for calibration and validation of California Current Ecosystem (CCE) Moorings from 2009-12-15 to 2015-04-29 (NCEI Accession 0146024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive accession contains inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other data collected from ships during servicing cruises to the California Current...

  14. Realization of an apparatus for the synthesis and detection of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids and of a data acquisition system for the study of the myocardial methabolism of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fressonnet, G.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the study and the realization of an apparatus to synthesize fatty acids labelled with carbon 11, a radioactive isotope with an half-life of 20.38 minutes. A system of gamma-ray detection with data processing designed for the study of the myocardiac metabolism of radiopharmaceuticals using isolated rat hearts as experimental models. The synthesis of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids required a preliminary study of the manufacture of this isotope at the synchrocyclotron of the I.P.N. (Lyon). The method chosen is the nuclear reaction (d,xn) with naturally occurring boron trioxide as the target. The apparatus was designed so as extract carbon 11 from the target in the form of 11 CO 2 which can then be used in the synthesis of carbon 11 labelled hexadecanoique, heptadecanoic and beta-methyl hexadecanoic acids. The time scale of this synthesis must be compatible with the short half-like of the isotope. In order to study these compounds 'in vivo' on the experimental model of isolated rat hearts, a system of detection, which functions either in a simple gamma mode or in a gamma-gamma coincidence mode, was developed. This apparatus can attain a rate of approximately 50 000 counts/sec. per channel, thus it is possible to obtain information about rapid phases of metabolism with a satisfactory statistical precision. Moreover the spectral analysis of the gamma-ray permits the simultaneous detection of different radioisotopes. Hence it was possible to compare the behaviour of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids with homologous molecules marked with iodine 123. The analysis of the experimental results was achieved witha computer based on an I.B.M. compatible PC-XT. The essential parts of this system are a data-acquisition card for the PC, code for the acquisition and the data processing [fr

  15. Pelagic community production and carbon-nutrient stoichiometry under variable ocean acidification in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silyakova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Net community production (NCP and carbon to nutrient uptake ratios were studied during a large-scale mesocosm experiment on ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, during June–July 2010. Nutrient depleted fjord water with natural plankton assemblages, enclosed in nine mesocosms of ~ 50 m3 in volume, was exposed to pCO2 levels ranging initially from 185 to 1420 μatm. NCP estimations are the cumulative change in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations after accounting for gas exchange and total alkalinity variations. Stoichiometric coupling between inorganic carbon and nutrient net uptake is shown as a ratio of NCP to a cumulative change in inorganic nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by nutrient addition half way through the experiment and three distinct peaks in chlorophyll a concentration were observed during the experiment. Accordingly, the experiment was divided in three phases. Cumulative NCP was similar in all mesocosms over the duration of the experiment. However, in phases I and II, NCP was higher and in phase III lower at elevated pCO2. Due to relatively low inorganic nutrient concentration in phase I, C : N and C : P uptake ratios were calculated only for the period after nutrient addition (phase II and phase III. For the total post-nutrient period (phase II + phase III ratios were close to Redfield, however they were lower in phase II and higher in phase III. Variability of NCP, C : N and C : P uptake ratios in different phases reflects the effect of increasing CO2 on phytoplankton community composition and succession. The phytoplankton community was composed predominantly of haptophytes in phase I, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes in phase II, and haptophytes, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in phase III (Schulz et al., 2013. Increasing ambient inorganic carbon concentrations have also been shown to promote primary production and carbon assimilation. For this study, it is

  16. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  17. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Jun-ichi; Yang, Zhaohui; Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    A new CO 2 semi-permeable dense inorganic membrane consisting of a porous metal phase and molten carbonate was proposed. A simple direct infiltration method was used to synthesize the metal-carbonate dual-phase membrane. Hermetic (gas-tight) dual phase membrane was successfully obtained. Permeation data showed that nitrogen or helium is not permeable through the membrane (only CO 2 , with O 2 can permeate through the membrane based on transport mechanism)

  18. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian Jannik; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late...... Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We interpret these fluctuations with a new carbon cycle model and demonstrate that all of the main features...... of the carbonate and organic carbon isotope record can be explained by the release of methane hydrates from an anoxic dissolved organic carbon-rich ocean into an atmosphere containing oxygen levels considerably less than today....

  19. COLDEX New Data Acquisition Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Grech, Christian

    2015-01-01

    COLDEX (COLD bore EXperiment) is an experiment of the TE-VSC group installed in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) which mimics a LHC type cryogenic vacuum system. In the framework of the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC project), COLDEX has been recommissioned in 2014 in order to validate carbon coatings performances at cryogenic temperature with LHC type beams. To achieve this mission, a data acquisition system is needed to retrieve and store information from the different experiment’s systems (vacuum, cryogenics, controls, safety) and perform specific calculations. This work aimed to completely redesign, implement, test and operate a brand new data acquisition framework based on communication with the experiment’s PLCs for the devices potentially available over network. The communication protocol to the PLCs is based on data retrieval both from CERN middleware infrastructures (CMW, JAPC) and on a novel open source Simatic S7 data exchange package over TCP/IP (libnodave).

  20. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  1. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  2. Elegant Face-Down Liquid-Space-Restricted Deposition of CsPbBr3 Films for Efficient Carbon-Based All-Inorganic Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Pengpeng; Han, Xiaopeng; Li, Jiawei; Xu, Ya; Kang, Lei; Wang, Yangrunqian; Yang, Ying; Yu, Tao

    2018-03-21

    It is a great challenge to obtain the uniform films of bromide-rich perovskites such as CsPbBr 3 in the two-step sequential solution process (two-step method), which was mainly due to the decomposition of the precursor films in solution. Herein, we demonstrated a novel and elegant face-down liquid-space-restricted deposition to inhibit the decomposition and fabricate high-quality CsPbBr 3 perovskite films. This method is highly reproducible, and the surface of the films was smooth and uniform with an average grain size of 860 nm. As a consequence, the planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) without the hole-transport layer based on CsPbBr 3 and carbon electrodes exhibit enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) along with high open circuit voltage ( V OC ). The champion device has achieved a PCE of 5.86% with a V OC of 1.34 V, which to our knowledge is the highest performing CsPbBr 3 PSC in planar structure. Our results suggest an efficient and low-cost route to fabricate the high-quality planar all-inorganic PSCs.

  3. Non-covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures for synthesizing carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Song, Sing I; Song, Ga Young; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNSs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and nanodiamonds provide an important type of substrate for constructing a variety of hybrid nanomaterials. However, their intrinsic chemistry-inert surfaces make it indispensable to pre-functionalize them prior to immobilizing additional components onto their surfaces. Currently developed strategies for functionalizing CNSs include covalent and non-covalent approaches. Conventional covalent treatments often damage the structure integrity of carbon surfaces and adversely affect their physical properties. In contrast, the non-covalent approach offers a non-destructive way to modify CNSs with desired functional surfaces, while reserving their intrinsic properties. Thus far, a number of surface modifiers including aromatic compounds, small-molecular surfactants, amphiphilic polymers, and biomacromolecules have been developed to non-covalently functionalize CNS surfaces. Mediated by these surface modifiers, various functional components such as organic species and inorganic nanoparticles were further decorated onto their surfaces, resulting in versatile carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials with broad applications in chemical engineering and biomedical areas. In this review, the recent advances in the generation of such hybrid nanostructures based on non-covalently functionalized CNSs will be reviewed.

  4. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reassessing carbon sequestration in the North China Plain via addition of nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Wenxu, E-mail: dongwx@sjziam.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Duan, Yongmei, E-mail: 106086193@QQ.com [Geological Survey of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330030 (China); Wang, Yuying, E-mail: wangyy@sjziam.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Hu, Chunsheng, E-mail: cshu@sjziam.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) exerts a strong influence on the carbon (C) sequestered in response to nitrogen (N) additions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but limited information is available on in situ SIC storage and dissolution at the field level. This study determined the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in the soil profile at 0–100 cm depths and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in soil leachate in 4 N application treatments (0, 200, 400, and 600 kg N ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}) for 15 years in the North China Plain. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on total amount of carbon sequestration and the uptake of atmospheric CO{sub 2} in an agricultural system. Results showed that after 15 years of N fertilizer application the SOC contents at depths of 0–100 cm significantly increased, whereas the SIC contents significantly decreased at depths of 0–60 cm. However, the actual measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical maximum values of dissolution via protons from nitrification. Furthermore, the amount of HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and the HCO{sub 3}{sup −} / (Ca{sup 2+} + Mg{sup 2+}) ratio in soil leachate were higher in the N application treatments than no fertilizer input (CK) for the 0–80 cm depth. The result suggested that the dissolution of carbonate was mainly enhanced by soil carbonic acid, a process which can absorb soil or atmosphere CO{sub 2} and less influenced by protons through the nitrification which would release CO{sub 2}. To accurately evaluate soil C sequestration under N input scenarios in semi-arid regions, future studies should include both changes in SIC storage as well as the fractions of dissolution with different sources of acids in soil profiles. - Highlights: • The SOC contents significantly increased after long-term nitrogen application, while SIC decreased. • The measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical values of dissolution from

  6. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajendran, A

    Extensive observations have been made on the carbon dioxide system in the Arabian Sea during three different seasons as part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Programme. Concentrations of total carbon dioxide and partial pressure...

  7. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, Linda; Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to

  8. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Sun, Guoxin; Williams, Paul N.; Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  9. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  10. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  11. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  12. Inorganic synthesis of Fe-Ca-Mg carbonates at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanek, Christopher S.; Jiménez-López, Concepción; Navarro, Alejandro Rodriguez; Sánchez-Román, Monica; Sahai, Nita; Coleman, Max

    2009-01-01

    A set of free-drift experiments was undertaken to synthesize carbonates of mixed cation content (Fe, Ca, Mg) from solution at 25 and 70 °C to better understand the relationship between the mineralogy and composition of these phases and the solutions from which they precipitate. Metastable solid

  13. Carbon budgets for two Portuguese estuaries: implications for the management and conservation of coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    The results presented illustrate that Tagus and Sado estuaries represent an important land/ocean boundary for carbon transformation and emission, and confirm the anthropogenic pressure that these estuaries are subject to. Carbon budgets vary markedly within and between these two estuaries reflecting the human pressure. Anthropogenic inputs, autochthonous carbon production and primary production are indicated as the main responsible for the carbon production within the estuaries. Both estuaries export carbon to the ocean and to the atmosphere. The inorganic carbon faction has a major role in the carbon budget, enriching the ocean in carbon dioxide, contributing this for the greenhouse effect. Our understanding of organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in Tagus and Sado estuaries is vital for an efficient protection and preservation of such ecosystems being helpful in limit human-caused damage and in restoring damaged estuarine/coastal ecosystems. In addition, the economic impact of the carbon fluxes to the atmosphere, estimated as €375,000 per year, creates the appropriate incentives to reduce emissions and shift them to higher-value uses. Suggesting, therefore, a coastal management re-oriented towards a more adaptive approach through the use of carbon market-based policies. This study is a contribution to the integration of coastal and global carbon cycles. However, additional efforts are required to fully merge other components subsystems, such as salt marshes, with these budgets. Moreover, a fully comprehension of the community metabolism in these estuaries will greatly improve this integration.

  14. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia.

  15. Effects of inorganic substances on water splitting in ion-exchange membranes; II. Optimal contents of inorganic substances in preparing bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon-Sung; Choi, Yong-Jin; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-05-15

    An approach to enhancing the water-splitting performance of bipolar membranes (BPMs) is introducing an inorganic substance at the bipolar (BP) junction. In this study, the immobilization of inorganic matters (i.e., iron hydroxides and silicon compounds) at the BP junction and the optimum concentration have been investigated. To immobilize these inorganic matters, novel methods (i.e., electrodeposition of the iron hydroxide and processing of the sol-gel to introduce silicon groups at the BP junction) were suggested. At optimal concentrations, the immobilized inorganic matters significantly enhanced the water-splitting fluxes, indicating that they provide alternative paths for water dissociation, but on the other hand possibly reduce the polarization of water molecules between the sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium groups at high contents. Consequently, the amount of inorganic substances introduced should be optimized to obtain the maximum water splitting in the BPM.

  16. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andalaft, E; Vega, R; Correa, M; Araya, R; Loyola, P [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-02-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andalaft, E.; Vega, R.; Correa, M.; Araya, R.; Loyola, P.

    1997-01-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Evolution of photorespiration from cyanobacteria to land plants, considering protein phylogenies and acquisition of carbon concentrating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Kern, Ramona; Maurino, Veronica G; Hanson, David T; Weber, Andreas P M; Sage, Rowan F; Bauwe, Hermann

    2016-05-01

    Photorespiration and oxygenic photosynthesis are intimately linked processes. It has been shown that under the present day atmospheric conditions cyanobacteria and all eukaryotic phototrophs need functional photorespiration to grow autotrophically. The question arises as to when this essential partnership evolved, i.e. can we assume a coevolution of both processes from the beginning or did photorespiration evolve later to compensate for the generation of 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG) due to Rubisco's oxygenase reaction? This question is mainly discussed here using phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the 2PG metabolism and the acquisition of different carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). The phylogenies revealed that the enzymes involved in the photorespiration of vascular plants have diverse origins, with some proteins acquired from cyanobacteria as ancestors of the chloroplasts and others from heterotrophic bacteria as ancestors of mitochondria in the plant cell. Only phosphoglycolate phosphatase was found to originate from Archaea. Notably glaucophyte algae, the earliest branching lineage of Archaeplastida, contain more photorespiratory enzymes of cyanobacterial origin than other algal lineages or land plants indicating a larger initial contribution of cyanobacterial-derived proteins to eukaryotic photorespiration. The acquisition of CCMs is discussed as a proxy for assessing the timing of periods when photorespiratory activity may have been enhanced. The existence of CCMs also had marked influence on the structure and function of photorespiration. Here, we discuss evidence for an early and continuous coevolution of photorespiration, CCMs and photosynthesis starting from cyanobacteria via algae, to land plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  20. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  1. USE OF CARBON CATALYSTS FOR OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Stavitskaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility of using the catalytic action of the carbonaceous adsorbents modified by different ways for the purification of various solutions, natural and wastewaters. It has been found that the oxidative destruction of organic (phenols, dyes, pesticides, etc. and inorganic (H2S contaminants in water solutions is considerably intensified in the presence of both ordinary activated carbons and especially, carbons with specially introduced catalytic additives. It is shown that the sewage treatment level is strongly affected by the amount and nature of a modifying agent introduced on the carbon surface.

  2. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  3. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the submerged aquatic angiosperm Scirpus subterminalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S; Wetzel, R G

    1981-01-01

    Scirpus subterminalis Torr., a submerged angiosperm abundant in many hardwater lakes of the Great Lakes region, was investigated for various photosynthetic carbon fixation properties in relation to available inorganic carbon and levels of carbon fixing enzymes. Photosynthetic experiments were CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ were supplied at various concentrations showed that Scirpus was able to utilize HCO/sub 3//sup -/ at those concentrations close to natural conditions. However, when CO/sub 2/ concentrations were increased above ambient, photosynthetic rates increased markedly. It was concluded that the photosynthetic potential of this plant in many natural situations may be limited by inorganic carbon uptake in the light. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase)/ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (ruBPcase) ratios of the leaves varied between 0.5 and 0.9 depending on substrate concentration during assay. The significance of PEP-mediated carbon fixation of Scirpus (basically a C/sub 3/ plant) in the dark was investigated. Malate accumulated in the leaves during the dark period of a 24-h cycle and malate levels decreased significantly during the following light period. The accumulation was not due to transport of malate from the roots. Carbon uptake rates in the dark by the leaves of Scirpus were lower than malate accumulation rates. Therefore, part of the malate was likely derived from respired CO/sub 2/. Carbon uptake rates in the light were much higher than malate turnover rates. It was estimated that carbon fixation via malate could contribute up to 12% to net photosynthetic rates. The ecological significance of this type of metabolism in submerged aquatics is discussed.

  4. The depressed central carbon and energy metabolisms is associated to the acquisition of levofloxacin resistance in Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Xue; Yang, Man-Jun; Peng, Bo; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Lin, Xiang-Min; Li, Hui

    2018-06-15

    The overuse and misuse of antibiotics lead to bacterial antibiotic resistance, challenging human health and intensive cultivation. It is especially required to understand for the mechanism of antibiotic resistance to control antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The present study characterized the differential proteome of levofloxacin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus with the most advanced iTRAQ quantitative proteomics technology. A total of 160 proteins of differential abundance were identified, where 70 were decreased and 90 were increased. Further analysis demonstrated that crucial metabolic pathways like TCA cycle were significantly down-regulated. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated the decreased gene expression of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the TCA cycle, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, Na(+)-NQR complex gene expression, membrane potential and the adenylate energy charge ratio were decreased, indicating that the decreased central carbon metabolism is associated to the acquisition of levofloxacin resistance. Therefore, the reduced central carbon and energy metabolisms form a characteristic feature as fitness costs of V. alginolyticus in resistance to levofloxacin. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics lead to bacterial antibiotic resistance, challenging human health and intensive cultivation. Understanding for the antibiotic resistance mechanisms is especially required to control these antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The present study characterized the differential proteome of levofloxacin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus using the most advanced iTRAQ quantitative proteomics technology. A total of 160 differential abundance of proteins were identified with 70 decreases and 90 increases by liquid chromatography matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Most interestingly, crucial metabolic pathways such as the TCA cycle sharply fluctuated. This is the first report that the reduced central carbon and energy metabolisms form a characteristic feature

  5. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  6. Carbon-14 measurements and characterization of dissolved organic carbon in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon-14 was measured in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in ground water and compared with 14 C analyses of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Two field sites were used for this study; the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and the Milk River Aquifer in southern Alberta, Canada. The Stripa mine consists of a Precambrian granite dominated by fracture flow, while the Milk River Aquifer is a Cretaceous sandstone aquifer characterized by porous flow. At both field sites, 14 C analyses of the DOC provide additional information on the ground-water age. Carbon-14 was measured on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic organic fractions of the DOC. The organic compounds in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were also characterized. The DOC may originate from kerogen in the aquifer matrix, from soil organic matter in the recharge zone, of from a combination of these two sources. Carbon-14 analyses, along with characterization of the organics, were used to determine this origin. Carbon-14 analyses of the hydrophobic fraction in the Milk River Aquifer suggest a soil origin, while 14 C analyses of the hydrophilic fraction suggest an origin within the Cretaceous sediments (kerogen) or from the shale in contact with the aquifer

  7. Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid material as a precursor to produce carbon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Bagheri, Narjes; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this work, a new organic-clay nanohybrid material, in which the organic moiety is intercalated between the inorganic layers, was synthesized using stearate anion as a guest and zinc hydroxide nitrate as an inorganic layered host by ion-exchange technique. Carbon nanoparticles were obtained by heat treating of the nanohybrid material, zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide. The proposed method is very simple, the chemicals used in the synthesis are cheap and the manner is economic and suitable for a large scale production of nano-sized carbon nanoparticles. - Abstract: Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid was prepared using stearate anion as an organic guest, and zinc layered hydroxide nitrate, as a layered inorganic host by the ion-exchange method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared results indicated that the stearate anion was actually intercalated into the interlayer of zinc layered hydroxide nitrate and confirmed the formation of the host-guest nanohybrid material. Also, surface properties data showed that the intercalation process has changed the porosity for the as-prepared nanohybrid material in comparison with that of the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate. The nanohybrid material was heat-treated at 600 deg. C under argon atmosphere. Stearate anion was chosen as a carbonaceous reservoir in the nanohybrid to produce carbon nanoparticles after heat-treating of the nanohybrid and subsequently acid washing process.

  8. Crystalline Microporous Organosilicates with Reversed Functionalities of Organic and Inorganic Components for Room-Temperature Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Barbara; Bonoldi, Lucia; Guidi, Vincenzo; Cruciani, Giuseppe; Casotti, Davide; Malagù, Cesare; Bellussi, Giuseppe; Millini, Roberto; Montanari, Luciano; Carati, Angela; Rizzo, Caterina; Montanari, Erica; Zanardi, Stefano

    2017-07-26

    A deepened investigation on an innovative organic-inorganic hybrid material, referred to as ECS-14 (where ECS = Eni carbon silicates), revealed the possibility to use them as gas sensors. Indeed, among ECS phases, the crystalline state and the hexagonal microplateletlike morphology characteristic of ECS-14 seemed favorable properties to obtain continuous and uniform films. ECS-14 phase was used as functional material in screen-printable compositions and was thus deposited by drop coating for morphological, structural, thermal, and electrical characterizations. Possible operation at room temperature was investigated as technological progress, offering intrinsic safety in sensors working in harsh or industrial environments and avoiding high power consumption of most common sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors. Electrical characterization of the sensors based on ECS-14 versus concentrations of gaseous analytes gave significant results at room temperature in the presence of humidity, thereby demonstrating fundamental properties for a good quality sensor (speed, reversibility, and selectivity) that make them competitive with respect to systems currently in use. Remarkably, we observed functionality reversal of the organic and inorganic components; that is, in contrast to other hybrids, for ECS-14 the functional site has been ascribed to the inorganic phase while the organic component provided structural stability to the material. The sensing mechanism for humidity was also investigated.

  9. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  11. New features on the environmental regulation of metabolism revealed by modeling the cellular proteomic adaptations induced by light, carbon and inorganic nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Gérin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle and protein metabolism. The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview

  12. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA; Tillotson, Thomas M [Tracy, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA

    2008-08-12

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  13. Optimized inorganic carbon regime for enhanced growth and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Egan J; Gardner, Robert D; Pedersen, Todd; Peyton, Brent M; Cooksey, Keith E; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale algal biofuel production has been limited, among other factors, by the availability of inorganic carbon in the culture medium at concentrations higher than achievable with atmospheric CO2. Life cycle analyses have concluded that costs associated with supplying CO2 to algal cultures are significant contributors to the overall energy consumption. A two-phase optimal growth and lipid accumulation scenario is presented, which (1) enhances the growth rate and (2) the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation rate in the oleaginous Chlorophyte Chlorella vulgaris strain UTEX 395, by growing the organism in the presence of low concentrations of NaHCO3 (5 mM) and controlling the pH of the system with a periodic gas sparge of 5 % CO2 (v/v). Once cultures reached the desired cell densities, which can be "fine-tuned" based on initial nutrient concentrations, cultures were switched to a lipid accumulation metabolism through the addition of 50 mM NaHCO3. This two-phase approach increased the specific growth rate of C. vulgaris by 69 % compared to cultures sparged continuously with 5 % CO2 (v/v); further, biomass productivity (g L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 27 %. Total biodiesel potential [assessed as total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced] was increased from 53.3 to 61 % (FAME biomass(-1)) under the optimized conditions; biodiesel productivity (g FAME L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 7.7 %. A bicarbonate salt screen revealed that American Chemical Society (ACS) and industrial grade NaHCO3 induced the highest TAG accumulation (% w/w), whereas Na2CO3 did not induce significant TAG accumulation. NH4HCO3 had a negative effect on cell health presumably due to ammonia toxicity. The raw, unrefined form of trona, NaHCO3∙Na2CO3 (sodium sesquicarbonate) induced TAG accumulation, albeit to a slightly lower extent than the more refined forms of sodium bicarbonate. The strategic addition of sodium bicarbonate was found to enhance growth and lipid accumulation rates in

  14. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  15. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  16. Distribution of inorganic elements in single cells of Chara corallina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zijie; Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang; Yu Ming; Zhou Yunlong

    2005-01-01

    There are actually 20 chemical elements necessary or beneficial for plant growth. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are supplied by air and water. The six macronutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium., calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are required by plants in large amounts. The rest of the elements are required in trace amounts (micronutrients). Essential trace elements include boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, molybdenum, and nickel. Beneficial mineral elements include silicon and cobalt. The functions of the inorganic elements closely related to their destinations in plant cells. Plant cells have unique structures, including a central vacuole, plastids, and a thick cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane. Generally, it is very difficult to determine concentrations of inorganic elements in a single plant cell. Chara corallina is a freshwater plant that inhabits temperate zone ponds and lakes. It consists of alternating nodes and internodes. Each internodal segment is a single large cell, up to 10 cm in length, and 1 mm in diameter. With this species it was possible to isolate subcellular fractions with surgical methods with minimal risk of cross contamination. In this study, concentrations of magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum in the cell wall, cytoplasm, and vacuole of single cells of Chara corallina were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution characteristics of these elements in the cell components were discussed.

  17. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  18. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L{sup −1} and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L{sup −1} of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic.

  19. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L −1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L −1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic

  20. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  1. Studies of Catalytic Properties of Inorganic Rock Matrices in Redox Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Dobrynkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic catalytic properties of mineral matrices of various kinds (basalts, clays, sandstones were studied, which are of interest for in-situ heavy oil upgrading (i.e., underground to create advanced technologies for enhanced oil recovery. The elemental, surface and phase composition and matrix particle morphology, surface and acidic properties were studied using elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, adsorption and desorption of nitrogen and ammonia. The data on the catalytic activity of inorganic matrices in ammonium nitrate decomposition (reaction with a large gassing, oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and hydrocracking of asphaltenes into maltenes (the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into more valuable light hydrocarbons were discussed. In order to check their applicability for the asphaltenes hydrocracking catalytic systems development, basalt and clay matrices were used as supports for iron/basalt, nickel/basalt and iron/clay catalysts. The catalytic activity of the matrices in the reactions of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and hydrocracking of asphaltens was observed for the first time.

  2. Depositional models of the shallow marine carbonates in the geochemical cycle. Busshitsu junkan ni okeru asaumi tansan'engan no taiseki model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Geology and Paleontology

    1993-06-15

    This paper summarizes depositional models of carbonates related to carbon circulation on the earth surface. The paper lists the following examples of modelling the Recent coral reefs: A model that divides coral reefs into several boxes corresponding to geographies, and estimates organic and inorganic carbon production in each box; and a model that discusses seawater flows to estimate fluxes of organic and inorganic carbons between the boxes and between the reefs and open seas. Carbon circulation in a time scale of the Quaternary may be described appropriately by the box model corresponding to the condition of deposition and dissolution of the carbonate rocks. Several examples of modelling oceans and coral reefs are described briefly. The paper lists a model by Berner et al. that notes migration of carbon, Ca, and Mg among five boxes of Ca-Mg silicate, ocean, atmosphere, calcite, and dolomite regarding the geochemical cycle during about 600 million years in the Phanerozoic era. It also explains a model developed from the former model. 39 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  4. Sample distillation/graphitization system for carbon pool analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlman, J.W.; Knies, D.L.; Grabowski, K.S.; DeTurck, T.M.; Treacy, D.J.; Coffin, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    A facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC, has been developed to extract, trap, cryogenically distill and graphitize carbon from a suite of organic and inorganic carbon pools for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The system was developed to investigate carbon pools associated with the formation and stability of methane hydrates. However, since the carbon compounds found in hydrate fields are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, this apparatus is applicable to a number of oceanographic and environmental sample types. Targeted pools are dissolved methane, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), solid organic matrices (e.g., seston, tissue and sediments), biomarkers and short chained (C 1 -C 5 ) hydrocarbons from methane hydrates. In most instances, the extraction, distillation and graphitization events are continuous within the system, thus, minimizing the possibility of fractionation or contamination during sample processing. A variety of methods are employed to extract carbon compounds and convert them to CO 2 for graphitization. Dissolved methane and DIC from the same sample are sparged and cryogenically separated before the methane is oxidized in a high temperature oxygen stream. DOC is oxidized to CO 2 by 1200 W ultraviolet photo-oxidation lamp, and solids oxidized in sealed, evacuated tubes. Hydrocarbons liberated from the disassociation of gas hydrates are cryogenically separated with a cryogenic temperature control unit, and biomarkers separated and concentrated by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC). With this system, up to 20 samples, standards or blanks can be processed per day

  5. Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials Recent Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of inorganic and metallic nanotubular materials. It cover a wide variety of nanotubular materials excluding carbon nanotubes, ranging from metal oxides, sulfides and nitrides such as titanium oxide, tungsten sulfide, and boron nitride, as well as platinum and other noble-metals to unique nanotubes consisting of water, graphene or fullerene. Based on their structural and compositional characteristics, these nanotubular materials are of importance for their potential applications in electronic devices, photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanothermometers, electrodes for fuel cells and batteries, sensors, and reinforcing fillers for plastics, among others. Such materials are also having a great impact on future developments, including renewable-energy sources as well as highly efficient energy-conversion and energy-saving technologies. This book will be of particular interest to experts in the fields of nanotechnology, material science ...

  6. Geochemistry of carbon stable isotopes in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes geochemical process which affect the distribution in the sea of the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of total inorganic dissolved CO 2 ; synthesis of the biomass and respiratory phenomena; oxidation of organic matter; dissolution of carbonates; run off waters; exchange of CO 2 between sea and atmosphere. Some applications to the paleoclimatology are presented. (author) [fr

  7. Industrial inorganic chemistry. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, W.; Schliebs, R.; Winter, G.; Buechel, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is a branch of considerable economic and technical importance. Apart from supplying the market with metals, fertilizers, building materials, pigments and glass it is one of the major suppliers of process materials to the organic chemical industry. Many modern products of other industrial sectors (video tapes, optical fibers or silicon chips) could not have been developed and manufactured without the achievements of industrial inorganic chemistry. The publication is the first of its kind to give a compact description of the inorganic chemistry sector. A clearly arranged survey facilitates access to production processes, economic aspects, ecological implications, energy consumption and raw material consumption as well as to many other data and facts. Due to its clear arrangement and the combination of technical and economic facts the book is a valuable source of information. (orig./EF) [de

  8. Inorganic nanocomposite films with polymer nanofillers made by the concurrent multi-beam multi-target pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Mele, Paolo; Saini, Shrikant; Moore, Shaelynn; Bastian, Tyler; Dorlus, Wydglif; Zhang, Xiaodong; Koplitz, Brent

    2017-08-01

    We report on the new class of inorganic nanocomposite films with the inorganic phase hosting the polymer nanofillers made by the concurrent multi-beam multi-target pulsed laser deposition of the inorganic target material and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of the polymer (MBMT-PLD/MAPLE). We used the exemplary nanocomposite thermoelectric films of aluminum-doped ZnO known as AZO with the nanofillers made of poly(methyl methacrylate) known as PMMA on various substrates such as SrTiO3, sapphire, fused silica, and polyimide. The AZO target was ablated with the second harmonic (532 nm) of the Nd:YAG Q-switched laser while PMMA was evaporated from its solution in chlorobenzene frozen in liquid nitrogen with the fundamental harmonic (1064 nm) of the same laser (50 Hz pulse repetition rate). The introduction of the polymer nanofillers increased the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite films (possibly due to the carbonization of PMMA and the creation of additional channels of electric current) three times and reduced the thermal conductivity by 1.25 times as compared to the pure AZO films. Accordingly, the increase of the thermoelectric figure-of merit ZT would be 4 times. The best performance was observed for the sapphire substrates where the films were the most uniform. The results point to a huge potential of the optimization of a broad variety of optical, opto-electronic, and solar-power nanocomposite inorganic films by the controllable introduction of the polymer nanofillers using the MBMT-PLD/MAPLE method.

  9. Carbon dot-Au(i)Ag(0) assembly for the construction of an artificial light harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Jayasmita; Aditya, Teresa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2018-03-06

    Artificial light harvesting systems (LHS) with inorganic counterparts are considered to be robust as well as mechanistically simple, where the system follows the donor-acceptor principle with an unchanged structural pattern. Plasmonic gold or silver nanoparticles are mostly chosen as inorganic counterparts to design artificial LHS. To capitalize on its electron accepting capability, Au(i) has been considered in this work for the synergistic stabilization of a system with intriguingly fluorescing silver(0) clusters produced in situ. Thus a stable fluorescent Au(i)Ag(0) assembly is generated with electron accepting capabilities. On the other hand, carbon dots have evolved as new fluorescent probes due to their unique physicochemical properties. Utilizing the simple electronic behavior of carbon dots, an electronic interaction between the fluorescent Au(i)Ag(0) and a carbon dot has been investigated for the construction of a new artificial light harvesting system. This coinage metal assembly allows surface energy transfer where it acts as an acceptor, while the carbon dot behaves as a good donor. The energy transfer efficiency has been calculated experimentally to be significant (81.3%) and the Au(i)Ag(0)-carbon dot assembly paves the way for efficient artificial LHS.

  10. A novel approach to Ca-Sr separation in the determination of 90Sr using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Pavia Univ.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for 90 Sr determination in calcium rich samples is presented. It is based on the precipitation of calcium oxalate in homogeneous solution and under controlled conditions to minimize the comprecipitation of strontium. The latter is subsequently separated as carbonate and radiochemical purification is completed by ion exchange chromatography on two inorganic exchangers: PRTD (partially reduced tin dioxide) and CUCR (copper chromate). The procedure was applied to environmental samples such as ashed sediment, fish and vegetable and results are reported. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Inorganic and organic radiation chemistry: state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyazin, E.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inorganic and organic chemistry is presented on the basis of the general scheme and classification of radiolysis products and elementary processes, by which evolution of radiation-affected substances up to the final radiolysis products takes place. The evolution is traced for the representatives of inorganic and organic compounds. The contribution of radiation inorganic and organic chemistry to radiation technology, radiation materials technology, radiation ecology and medicine, is shown. Tendencies in the development of radiation chemistry and prediction of its certain directions are considered

  12. Attenuation of landfill leachate by UK Triassic sandstone aquifer materials. 1. Fate of inorganic pollutants in laboratory columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Tellam, John H.; Lerner, David N.

    2000-05-01

    The attenuation of inorganic contaminants in acetogenic and methanogenic landfill leachate by calcareous and carbonate-deficient, oxide-rich Triassic sandstone aquifer materials from the English Midlands was examined in laboratory columns. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modelling, simple transport modelling and chemical mass balance approaches are used to evaluate the key processes and aquifer geochemical properties controlling contaminant fate. The results indicate that leachate-rock interactions are dominated by ion-exchange processes, acid-base and redox reactions and sorption/precipitation of metal species. Leachate NH 4 is attenuated by cation exchange with the aquifer sediments; however, NH 4 migration could be described with a simple model using retardation factors. Organic acids in the acetogenic leachate buffered the system pH at low levels during flushing of the calcareous aquifer material. In contrast, equilibrium with Al oxyhydroxide phases initially buffered pH (˜4.5) during flushing of the carbonate-deficient sandstone with methanogenic leachate. This led to the mobilisation of sorbed and oxide-bound heavy metals from the aquifer sediment which migrated as a concentrated pulse at the leachate front. Abiotic reductive dissolution of Mn oxyhydroxides on each aquifer material by leachate Fe 2+ maintains high concentrations of dissolved Mn and buffers the leachate inorganic redox system. This feature is analogous to the Mn-reducing zones found in leachate plumes and in the experiments provides a sink for the leachate Fe load and other heavy metals. The availability of reactive solid phase Mn oxyhydroxides limits the duration of redox buffering and Fe attenuation by these aquifer sediments. Aquifer pH and redox buffering capacity exert a fundamental influence on leachate inorganic contaminant fate in these systems. The implications for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability at landfills are discussed and simple measurements of aquifer properties which

  13. Synthetic Strategies in the Preparation of Polymer/Inorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Matthew A.; Mari, Margherita; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances and challenges in the preparation of polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. We mainly focus on synthetic strategies, basing our classification on whether the inorganic and the polymer components have been formed in situ or ex situ, of the hybrid material. Accordingly, four types of strategies are identified and described, referring to recent examples: (i) ex situ formation of the components and subsequent attachment or integration, either by covalent or noncovalent bonding; (ii) in situ polymerization in the presence of ex situ formed inorganic nanoparticles; (iii) in situ precipitation of the inorganic components on or in polymer structures; and (iv) strategies in which both polymer and inorganic component are simultaneously formed in situ. PMID:28788665

  14. Inorganic oxides as alternative in the separation of non fissioned residual uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and SnO 2 as well as vegetable carbon have been studied for its possible use as sorbent in the concentration and separation of non fissioned residual uranium of some fission products such as: 141 Ce, 134 Cs, 125 Sb, 103 Ru, 95 Zr, 95 Nb of alkaline aqueous systems. The separation efficiency has been evaluated using natural uranium and radionuclides in static and dynamic processes, through liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry. Therefore Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 and carbon were pre-treated thermic and chemically and characterized through the technique of Nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. By means of the p H determination and the aqueous system potential the present hydrolysis products were determined. The inorganic oxides show structural and surface changes due to the treatment. The adsorption process is realized by different mechanism depending of the sorbent. The results show that the retention capacity is a dependence of the oxides pre-treatment and of the hydrolysis products in the aqueous system, as well as of the experimental conditions. Not in this way for carbon in which the results show the treatment and the experimental conditions significantly have not influence in its adsorption capacity. (Author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  16. Carbon dioxide, climate and the deep ocean circulation: Carbon chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menawat, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of oceanic carbon chemistry in modulating the atmospheric levels of CO 2 . It is well known that the oceans are the primary sink of the excess carbon pumped into the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial period. The suspended particulate and the dissolved organic matters in the deep ocean play important roles as carriers of carbon and other elements critical to the fate of CO 2 . In addition, the suspended particulate matter provides sites for oxidation-reduction reactions and microbial activities. The problem is of an intricate system with complex chemical, physical and biological processes. This report describes a methodology to describe the interconversions of different forms of the organic and inorganic nutrients, that may be incorporated in the ocean circulation models. Our approach includes the driving force behind the transfers in addition to balancing the elements. Such thermodynamic considerations of describing the imbalance in the chemical potentials is a new and unique feature of our approach

  17. Geochemical Impacts to Groundwater from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Controls on pH and Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Reaction Path and Kinetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground...

  18. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  19. Influence of atmospheric dry deposition of inorganic nutrients on phytoplankton biomass in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yadav, K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Rao, D.B.; DileepKumar, M.

    mixing due to weak stratification and wind driven mixing supplies significant amount of nutrients to the surface (Prasanna Kumar and Prasad, 1996; de Sousa et al., 1996). Though strong stratification hinders the vertical supply of nutrients during....C; Mahowald ,N., Lima. I; Feely, R.A., Mackenzie, F.T., et al., 2007.Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification and the inorganic carbon system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:14580–85. Duce, R. A., et al. 2008...

  20. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  1. An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2006-06-27

    Many photosynthetic microorganisms acclimate to CO(2) limited environments by induction and operation of CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Despite their central role in CCM function, inorganic carbon (Ci) transport systems never have been identified in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a mutant, pmp1, was described in 1983 with deficiencies in Ci transport, and a Pmp1 protein-associated Ci uptake system has been proposed to be responsible for Ci uptake in low CO(2) (air level)-acclimated cells. However, even though pmp1 represents the only clear genetic link to Ci transport in microalgae and is one of only a very few mutants directly affecting the CCM itself, the identity of Pmp1 has remained unknown. Physiological analyses indicate that C. reinhardtii possesses multiple Ci transport systems responsible for acclimation to different levels of limiting CO(2) and that the Pmp1-associated transport system is required specifically for low (air level) CO(2) acclimation. In the current study, we identified and characterized a pmp1 allelic mutant, air dier 1 (ad1) that, like pmp1, cannot grow in low CO(2) (350 ppm) but can grow either in high CO(2) (5% CO(2)) or in very low CO(2) (<200 ppm). Molecular analyses revealed that the Ad1/Pmp1 protein is encoded by LciB, a gene previously identified as a CO(2)-responsive gene. LciB and three related genes in C. reinhardtii compose a unique gene family that encode four closely related, apparently soluble plastid proteins with no clearly identifiable conserved motifs.

  2. A highly reproducible solenoid micropump system for the analysis of total inorganic carbon and ammonium using gas-diffusion with conductimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Camelia; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple, economic, and miniaturized flow-based analyzer based on solenoid micropumps is presented. It was applied to determine two parameters of high environmental interest: ammonium and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in natural waters. The method is based on gas diffusion (GD) of CO₂ and NH3 through a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane from an acidic or alkaline donor stream, respectively. The analytes are trapped in an acceptor solution, being slightly alkaline for CO₂ and slightly acidic for NH₃. The analytes are quantified using a homemade stainless steel conductimetric cell. The proposed system required five solenoid micro-pumps, one for each reagent and sample. Two especially made air bubble traps were placed down-stream of the solendoid pumps, which provided the acceptor solutions, by this increasing the method's reproducibility. Values of RSD lower than 1% were obtained. Achieved limits of detection were 0.27 µmol L⁻¹ for NH₄⁺ and 50 µmol L⁻¹ for TIC. Add-recovery tests were used to prove the trueness of the method and recoveries of 99.5 ± 7.5% were obtained for both analytes. The proposed system proved to be adequate for monitoring purpose of TIC and NH₄⁺ due to its high sample throughput and repeatability. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, D C.E.; De Baar, H J.W.; De Jong, E; Koning, F A [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ, Den Burg Texel (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is emitted by anthropogenic activities. The oceans presumably serve as a net sink for 17 to 39% of these emissions. The objective of this project is to quantify more accurately the locality, seasonality and magnitude of the net air-sea flux of CO2 with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of the fugacity of CO2 in surface water and marine air, of total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and of air-sea exchange of CO2 have been made at four Atlantic crossings, in the Southern Ocean, in a Norwegian fjord and in the Dutch coastal zone. Skin temperature was detected during several of the cruises. The data collected in the course of the project support and refine previous findings. Variability of dissolved CO2 in surface water is related in a complex way to biological and physical factors. The carbonate equilibria cause dissolved gaseous CO2 to react in an intricate manner to disturbances. Dissolved gaseous CO2 hardly ever attains equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 content by means of air-sea exchange, before a new disturbance occurs. Surface water fCO2 changes could be separated in those caused by seasonal warming and those by biological uptake in a Southern Ocean spring. Incorporation of a thermal skin effect and a change of the wind speed interval strongly increased the small net oceanic uptake for the area. The Atlantic crossings point to a relationship between water mass history and surface water CO2 characteristics. In particular, current flow and related heat fluxes leave their imprint on the concentration dissolved gaseous CO2 and on air-sea exchange. In the Dutch coastal zone hydrography and inorganic carbon characteristics of the water were heterogeneous, which yielded variable air-sea exchange of CO2. figs., tabs., refs.

  4. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  5. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation and fluxes on Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsova, K.; Volk, M.; Webb, C.; Hunt, E.; Tfaily, M. M.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Sengupta, A.; Chorover, J.; Troch, P.; Ruiz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon accumulation on the landscapes in organic and inorganic forms is an important sink of CO2 from the atmosphere. Formation and preservation of organic compounds is accompanied by N fixation from the atmosphere and cycling in the soil. Model slopes of Landscape Evolution Observatory present unique opportunity to examine carbon and nitrogen buildup on the landscapes during soil formation processes, such as weathering of primary minerals and microbial activity, due to low original levels of C and N, tight control over environmental conditions, and high spatial and temporal density of measurements. This presents results of inorganic and organic C and N measurements in the cores collected in LEO slopes after several years of exposure to the rainfall, as well as soil solution measurements collected through 496 samplers on each of three model slopes and in seepage. We observed significant spatially distributed accumulation of both C (organic and inorganic) and N in soil profiles. We also observed differences in the composition of organic compounds in the solid and solution phases depending on location on the slope indicating formation of heterogeneity as soils develop. This works indicates potential of physical models to help understand accumulation and fluxes of C and N on natural landscapes.

  7. Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organic and Inorganic Speciation of Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-02-16

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing acidification of the oceans. This results in changes to the concentrations of key chemical species such as hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate ions. These changes will affect the distribution of different forms of trace metals. Using IPCC data for pCO2 and pH under four future emissions scenarios (to the year 2100) we use a chemical speciation model to predict changes in the distribution of organic and inorganic forms of trace metals. Under a scenario where emissions peak after the year 2100, predicted free ion Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb concentrations increase by factors of up to approximately 21, 2.4, 1.5, and 2.0 respectively. Concentrations of organically complexed metal typically have a lower sensitivity to ocean acidification induced changes. Concentrations of organically complexed Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cd fall by up to 10%, while those of organically complexed Fe, Co, and Ni rise by up to 14%. Although modest, these changes may have significance for the biological availability of metals given the close adaptation of marine microorganisms to their environment.

  8. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO 2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO 2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO 2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO 2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth and carbon fixation rate of calcareous algae cricosphaera carterae. Sekkaiso cricosphaera carterae no zoshoku to tanso kotei sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M; Furusaki, S [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shigematsu, K [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Shigeta, K [Kanagawa Prefectural Office, Yokohama (Japan)

    1993-09-10

    Notice has been given on a calcareous alga among micro marine algae that play an important role in carbon circulation, and the representative alga, Cricosphaera carterae was cultured to discuss growth and carbon fixation rate experimentally. It was found that nutrient salt is taken in more actively in the bright period during which no fission occurs, and less actively during the growth stage in the dark period. Dependence of nitrate concentration on specific growth rate was measured with semi-continuous culture and two formulas were formulated. The specific growth rate was 0.53/d at an average nitrogen concentration on the ocean surface of 15 mg/m[sup 3]. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.9/d, and the fixing ratio of inorganic carbon to organic carbon was roughly 0.1. Further, the alga was cultured with CO2 concentration doubled (to 715 ppm), where no large difference was discovered in the growth and the inorganic carbon fixation. From these findings, the carbon fixation amount due to algae on the entire earth was calculated to roughly 4 billion tons per year. 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The alkyl amines effect on the optical properties of inorganic perovskite quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Zhu; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-08-01

    Perovskite quantum dots (P-QDs) is a new kind of optoelectronic materials in recent years. Compared with organic perovskite QDs (MAPbX3), inorganic perovskite QDs (CsPbX3) have a better stability. Inorganic P-QDs can be prepared at low temperature. Those novel QDs can be applied in solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), display, and biolables. Typical synthesis process to prepare CsPbX3 QDs is used oleic acid (OA) and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) to form Cs-oleate complex first. Moreover, the oleylamine (OLA) and octadecene (ODE) are used as capping agents. Cs-oleate complex then reacts with PbX2 to form CsPbX3 QDs (reacts for 5 s). As we know that the CsPbBr3 QDs emits green light, and its emission wavelength can be tuned by adding Cland Iions to replace Brion. However, the reaction rate of CsPbX3 QDs is fast, and it is not easy to control the emission wavelength by particle size. In this study, we use the saturated alkyl amines with difference of carbon chain length such as dodecylamine (DDA), hexadecylamine (HDA), and octadecylamine (ODA) to prepare CsPbBr3 QDs. The result shows that the emission spectra for all samples range from 489 (ODA) to 514 nm (DDA), the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is between 23 to 28 nm, the surface morphologies of all samples are nearly spherical, and the quantum yields (QYs) are higher up to 130 % (compared with R6G and the excitation wavelength is 450 nm). Based on emission spectra we can find that the emission peaks are fixed even under different excitation wavelength, imply that the particle size distribution of QDs is uniform. Moreover, the emission wavelength blue shifts with increasing carbon chain length of amines. The stability of alkyl amine-capped CsPbBr3 QDs is good, especially for DDA-capped sample. We also find that a small emission peak around 462 nm can be only observed for DDA-capped sample. Furthermore, this small peak also can be observed even prolong the reaction time to 10 min. The emission wavelengths of Cs

  11. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo, E-mail: jacklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  12. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  13. The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts: carbon nanotubes as energy landscape filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Clare L; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts are investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. Inorganic nanotubular structures, whose morphologies can be rationalized in terms of the folding, or the removal of sections from, planes of square nets are found to form. The formation mechanisms are found to follow a 'chain-by-chain' motif in which the structures build systematically from charge neutral M-X-M-Xc chains. The formation mechanisms are rationalized in terms of the ion-ion interactions (intra-chain and inter-chain terms). In addition, the mechanisms of filling are discussed in terms of a 'hopping' between basins on the underlying energy landscape. The role of the carbon nanotube as an energy landscape filter is discussed.

  14. Characterizing the effect of carbon steel exposure in sulfide containing solutions to microbially induced corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherar, B.W.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Power, I.M. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Keech, P.G.; Mitlin, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Southam, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: Compares inorganic sulfide and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) on steel corrosion. Mackinawite was the dominant iron sulfide phase. SRBs can form nanowires, presumably grown to acquire energy. - Abstract: This article compares the electrochemical effects induced by inorganic sulfide and sulfate reducing bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel - a subject of concern for pipelines. Biological microcosms, containing varying concentrations of bioorganic content, were studied to investigate changes to the morphology of biofilms and corrosion product deposits. Raman analysis indicated mackinawite (FeS{sub 1-x}) was the dominant iron sulfide phase grown both abiotically and biotically. A fascinating feature of biological media, void of an organic electron donor, was the formation of putative nanowires that may be grown to acquire energy from carbon steel by promoting the measured cathodic reaction.

  15. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  16. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  17. [Mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice in wheat-rice rotation system under combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ren; Li, Xiang; Yu, Jie; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the nitrogen uptake by rice and the nitrogen supply by soil in a wheat-rice rotation system, and approach the mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice under the combined fertilization from the viewpoint of microbiology. Comparing with applying inorganic fertilizers, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and soil mineral nitrogen contents before tillering stage, but increased them significantly from heading to filling stage. Under the combined fertilization, the dynamics of soil nitrogen supply matched best the dynamics of rice nitrogen uptake and utilization, which promoted the nitrogen accumulation in rice plant and the increase of rice yield and biomass, and increased the fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice significantly. Combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers also promoted the propagation of soil microbes, and consequently, more mineral nitrogen in soil was immobilized by the microbes at rice early growth stage, and the immobilized nitrogen was gradually released at the mid and late growth stages of rice, being able to better satisfy the nitrogen demand of rice in its various growth and development stages.

  18. Entrapment of Enzymes and Carbon Nanotubes in Biologically Synthesized Silica: Glucose Oxidase-catalyzed Direct Electron Transfer, Preprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Invitski, Dmitri; Artyuskova, Kateryna; Rincon, Rosalba A; Atanassov, Plamen; Luckarift, Heather R; Johnson, Glenn R

    2007-01-01

    This work demonstrates a new approach for building bio-inorganic interfaces by integrating biomimetically-derived silica with single-walled carbon nanotubes to create a conductive matrix for immobilization of enzymes...

  19. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  20. Inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is closely related to salivary components. Saliva consists of water, inorganic and organic materials. Fasting changes one???s meal and drinking time that in turn can affect the environment in oral cavity, including inorganic componenet of saliva. The purpose of this study is to determine the inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break.

  1. Graphene templated Directional Growth of an Inorganic Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    14,23–25 have only formed randomly oriented or poorly aligned inorganic nanostructures. Here, we show that inorganic nanowires of gold(I) cyanide can... complex . TEM image simulation from the crystal structure The TEM image simulations are performed using MacTempas and CrystalKit. The imaging

  2. A review of organic and inorganic biomaterials for neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Pouria; Yang, Guang; Kim, Gloria; Abidian, Mohammad Reza

    2014-03-26

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have generated wide interest in applying nanomaterials for neural prostheses. An ideal neural interface should create seamless integration into the nervous system and performs reliably for long periods of time. As a result, many nanoscale materials not originally developed for neural interfaces become attractive candidates to detect neural signals and stimulate neurons. In this comprehensive review, an overview of state-of-the-art microelectrode technologies provided fi rst, with focus on the material properties of these microdevices. The advancements in electro active nanomaterials are then reviewed, including conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, silicon nanowires, and hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials, for neural recording, stimulation, and growth. Finally, technical and scientific challenges are discussed regarding biocompatibility, mechanical mismatch, and electrical properties faced by these nanomaterials for the development of long-lasting functional neural interfaces.

  3. Ocean Fertilization for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    The ocean is a major sink for both preindustrial and anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Both physically and biogeochemically driven pumps, termed the solubility and biological pump, respectively Fig.5.1) are responsible for the majority of carbon sequestration in the ocean's interior [1]. The solubility pump relies on ocean circulation - specifically the impact of cooling of the upper ocean at high latitudes both enhances the solubility of carbon dioxide and the density of the waters which sink to great depth (the so-called deepwater formation) and thereby sequester carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (Fig.5.1). The biological pump is driven by the availability of preformed plant macronutrients such as nitrate or phosphate which are taken up by phytoplankton during photosynthetic carbon fixation. A small but significant proportion of this fixed carbon sinks into the ocean's interior in the form of settling particles, and in order to maintain equilibrium carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred across the air-sea interface into the ocean (the so-called carbon drawdown) thereby decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Fig.5.1).Fig.5.1

  4. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties

  5. Independent colimitation for carbon dioxide and inorganic phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Spijkerman

    Full Text Available Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO(2 and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO(2 and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation. In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation.We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO(2 and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants.

  6. Independent Colimitation for Carbon Dioxide and Inorganic Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Elly; de Castro, Francisco; Gaedke, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO2 and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO2 and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation) and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation). In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation. We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO2 and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants. PMID:22145031

  7. Independent colimitation for carbon dioxide and inorganic phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Elly; de Castro, Francisco; Gaedke, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO(2) and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO(2) and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation) and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation). In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation.We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO(2) and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants.

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic...... was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, were in the range of 0.58 to 5.0 mgkg−1 and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg−1, respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100 %. Consumption of the recommended...... dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day−1. Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4 % of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw−1 kg−1...

  9. Macronutrient and carbon supply, uptake and cycling across the Antarctic Peninsula shelf during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Sian F; Jones, Elizabeth M; Venables, Hugh J; Meredith, Michael P; Firing, Yvonne L; Dittrich, Ribanna; Heiser, Sabrina; Stefels, Jacqueline; Dougans, Julie

    2018-06-28

    The West Antarctic Peninsula shelf is a region of high seasonal primary production which supports a large and productive food web, where macronutrients and inorganic carbon are sourced primarily from intrusions of warm saline Circumpolar Deep Water. We examined the cross-shelf modification of this water mass during mid-summer 2015 to understand the supply of nutrients and carbon to the productive surface ocean, and their subsequent uptake and cycling. We show that nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid and inorganic carbon are progressively enriched in subsurface waters across the shelf, contrary to cross-shelf reductions in heat, salinity and density. We use nutrient stoichiometric and isotopic approaches to invoke remineralization of organic matter, including nitrification below the euphotic surface layer, and dissolution of biogenic silica in deeper waters and potentially shelf sediment porewaters, as the primary drivers of cross-shelf enrichments. Regenerated nitrate and phosphate account for a significant proportion of the total pools of these nutrients in the upper ocean, with implications for the seasonal carbon sink. Understanding nutrient and carbon dynamics in this region now will inform predictions of future biogeochemical changes in the context of substantial variability and ongoing changes in the physical environment.This article is part of the theme issue 'The marine system of the West Antarctic Peninsula: status and strategy for progress in a region of rapid change'. © 2018 The Authors.

  10. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics.

  11. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  12. Radiocarbon in particulate matter from the eastern sub-arctic Pacific Ocean: evidence of source of terrestrial carbon to the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druffel, E.R.M.; Honjo, S.; Griffin, S.; Wong, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios were measured in organic and inorganic carbon of settling particulate matter collected with a sediment trap at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska from March to October, 1983. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface sea water collected during two different seasons in 1984 were analyzed using large gas proportional counters and revealed a minimum seasonal Δ 14 C variation of 14 per thousand. Results show that the Δ 14 C of calcium carbonate sedimenting to the deep sea is the same as that measured in surface water DIC. In contrast, particulate organic carbon (POC) had significantly higher Δ 14 C values (by 25-70 per thousand) than that in surface water DIC. Also, the Δ 13 C of the POC was markedly lower than previously reported values from other trap stations and marine particulate matter in general. Results from this study suggest that a significant amount of the POC settling to the deep sea at this pelagic station is of terrestrial origin, not strictly of marine origin as had previously been believed

  13. Artificial inorganic Biohybrids: the functional combination of microorganisms and cells with inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeister, Ib; Schamel, Martha; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe; Vorndran, Elke

    2018-04-23

    Biohybrids can be defined as the functional combination of proteins, viable cells or microorganisms with non-biological materials. This article reviews recent findings on the encapsulation of microorganisms and eukaryotic cells in inorganic matrices such as silica gels or cements. The entrapment of biological entities into a support material is of great benefit for processing since the encapsulation matrix protects sensitive cells from shear forces, unfavourable pH changes, or cytotoxic solvents, avoids culture-washout, and simplifies the separation of formed products. After reflecting general aspects of such an immobilization as well as the chemistry of the inorganic matrices, we focused on manufacturing aspects and the application of such biohybrids in biotechnology, medicine as well as in environmental science and for civil engineering purpose. The encapsulation of living cells and microorganisms became an intensively studied and rapidly expanding research field with manifold applications in medicine, bio- and environmental technology, or civil engineering. Here, the use of silica or cements as encapsulation matrices have the advantage of a higher chemical and mechanical resistance towards harsh environmental conditions during processing compared to their polymeric counterparts. In this perspective, the article gives an overview about the inorganic material systems used for cell encapsulation, followed by reviewing the most important applications. The future may lay in a combination of the currently achieved biohybrid systems with additive manufacturing techniques. In a longer perspective, this would enable the direct printing of cell loaded bioreactor components. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Production of activated carbons from almond shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabais, Joao M. Valente; Laginhas, Carlos Eduardo C.; Carrott, P.J.M.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L. [Evora Univ. (Portugal). Centro de Quimica de Evora

    2011-02-15

    The production of activated carbons from almond shell, using physical activation by CO{sub 2} is reported in this work. The used method has produced activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas and micropore volume as high as 1138 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.49 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The activated carbons produced have essentially primary micropores and only a small volume of wider micropores. By FTIR analysis it was possible to identify, in the surface of the activated carbons, several functional groups, namely hydroxyls (free and phenol), ethers, esters, lactones, pyrones and Si-H bonds. By the analysis of the XRD patterns it was possible to calculate the microcrystallites dimensions with height between 1.178 and 1.881 nm and width between 3.106 and 5.917 nm. From the XRD it was also possible to identify the presence of traces of inorganic heteroatoms such as Si, Pb, K, Fe and P. All activated carbons showed basic characteristics with point of zero charge between 9.42 and 10.43. (author)

  16. Emissions of Black Carbon, Organic, and Inorganic Aerosols From Biomass Burning in North America and Asia in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Matsui, H.; Moteki, N.; Sahu, L.; Takegawa, N.; Kajino, M.; Zhao, Y.; Cubison, M. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Vay, S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Reliable assessment of the impact of aerosols emitted from boreal forest fires on the Arctic climate necessitates improved understanding of emissions and the microphysical properties of carbonaceous (black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA)) and inorganic aerosols. The size distributions of BC were measured by an SP2 based on the laser-induced incandescence technique on board the DC-8 aircraft during the NASA ARCTAS campaign. Aircraft sampling was made in fresh plumes strongly impacted by wildfires in North America (Canada and California) in summer 2008 and in those transported from Asia (Siberia in Russia and Kazakhstan) in spring 2008. We extracted biomass burning plumes using particle and tracer (CO, CH3CN, and CH2Cl2) data. OA constituted the dominant fraction of aerosols mass in the submicron range. The large majority of the emitted particles did not contain BC. We related the combustion phase of the fire as represented by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) to the emission ratios between BC and other species. In particular, we derived the average emission ratios of BC/CO = 2.3 +/- 2.2 and 8.5 +/- 5.4 ng/cu m/ppbv for BB in North America and Asia, respectively. The difference in the BC/CO emission ratios is likely due to the difference in MCE. The count median diameters and geometric standard deviations of the lognormal size distribution of BC in the BB plumes were 136-141 nm and 1.32-1.36, respectively, and depended little on MCE. These BC particles were thickly coated, with shell/core ratios of 1.3-1.6. These parameters can be used directly for improving model estimates of the impact of BB in the Arctic.

  17. Microbial metabolic potential for carbon degradation and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) acquisition in an ombrotrophic peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueju; Tfaily, Malak M; Green, Stefan J; Steinweg, J Megan; Chanton, Patrick; Imvittaya, Aopeau; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Cooper, William; Schadt, Christopher; Kostka, Joel E

    2014-06-01

    This study integrated metagenomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic approaches to investigate microbial metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition in soils of an ombrotrophic peatland in the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), Minnesota, USA. This analysis revealed vertical stratification in key enzymatic pathways and taxa containing these pathways. Metagenomic analyses revealed that genes encoding laccases and dioxygenases, involved in aromatic compound degradation, declined in relative abundance with depth, while the relative abundance of genes encoding metabolism of amino sugars and all four saccharide groups increased with depth in parallel with a 50% reduction in carbohydrate content. Most Cu-oxidases were closely related to genes from Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria, and type 4 laccase-like Cu-oxidase genes were >8 times more abundant than type 3 genes, suggesting an important and overlooked role for type 4 Cu-oxidase in phenolic compound degradation. Genes associated with sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were the most abundant anaerobic respiration genes in these systems, with low levels of detection observed for genes of denitrification and Fe(III) reduction. Fermentation genes increased in relative abundance with depth and were largely affiliated with Syntrophobacter. Methylocystaceae-like small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes, pmoA, and mmoX genes were more abundant among methanotrophs. Genes encoding N2 fixation, P uptake, and P regulons were significantly enriched in the surface peat and in comparison to other ecosystems, indicating N and P limitation. Persistence of inorganic orthophosphate throughout the peat profile in this P-limiting environment indicates that P may be bound to recalcitrant organic compounds, thus limiting P bioavailability in the subsurface. Comparative metagenomic analysis revealed a high metabolic potential for P transport and starvation, N2 fixation, and

  18. Effect of inorganic inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in the LiBr + ethylene glycol + H2O mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiento-Bustos, E.; Rodriguez, J.G. Gonzalez; Uruchurtu, J.; Dominguez-Patino, G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of inorganic inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in the mixture LiBr (55%) + ethylene glycol + H 2 O at room temperature has been evaluated. Used inhibitors included LiNO 3 (Lithium Nitrate), Li 2 MoO 4 (Lithium Molybdate) and Li 2 CrO 4 (Lithium Chromate) at concentrations of 5, 20 and 50 ppm. Electrochemical techniques included potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical noise resistance (EN) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Additionally, adsorption isotherms were calculated. The results obtained showed that both, the corrosion rate and the passive current density decreased with inhibitors, and, in general terms, inhibitors efficiency increased with inhibitor concentration, except in the case of Li 2 CrO 4, where the highest efficiency was obtained with 20 ppm of inhibitor. Pitting potential with 5 ppm of inhibitor, regardless its chemical composition, was more active than in absence of inhibitor, increased at 20 ppm, especially with Li 2 CrO 4 , and remained unaltered with 50 ppm. EN measurements showed that at 5 ppm of inhibitor, the number of film rupture/repassivation events was higher than that obtained at 20 or 50 ppm. Adsorption isotherms suggested a different adsorption mechanism for each inhibitor, whereas EIS results suggested that the corrosion process when nitrates were added was under charge transfer control, but in the case of molybdates or chromates was under diffusion control

  19. Carbon-cycle effects of differences in soil moisture and soil extracellular enzyme activity at sites representing different land-use histories in high-elevation Ecuadorian páramo landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecuadorian páramo grasslands are important regional soil carbon sinks. In the páramo of the Mazar Wildlife Reserve, differences in soil carbon content among different types of land use may reflect changes in soil carbon-acquisition related microbial enzyme activity after land cover and soil moisture are altered; however, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly for Ecuadorian páramos. This study used a fluorescence enzyme assay to assess the activities of four different extracellular enzymes representing carbon acquisition: α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-D-cellulobiohydrolase, and β-xylosidase in Andean páramo soils. Acquisition activities were also measured for nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase) and phosphorus (phosphatase) to assess stoichiometric differences between land-uses, which can affect soil microbial activity related to carbon acquisition. Soils were analyzed from four land uses: native forest, grass páramo, recently burned grass páramo, and non-native pine plantation. Carbon acquisition activity was highest at the pine site (678 nmol h-1 g-1) and lowest at the recently burned páramo site (252 nmol h-1 g-1), indicating the lowest and highest available soil carbon, respectively. Carbon-acquisition EE activity was significantly higher at the grass páramo site (595 nmol h-1 g-1) than at the recently burned páramo and native forest sites. At the grass páramo site, a history of burning as a management strategy and high carbon-acquisition EE activity could indicate the presence of pyrogenic soil organic matter, which is more resistant to microbial decomposition. Soils at the native forest and both grassland sites were phosphorus limited, and soil at the pine site had higher nitrogen-acquisition activity, indicative of a shift to nitrogen-limited soil stoichiometric conditions. To our knowledge these are the first data reported for soil extracellular enzyme activities for Ecuadorian páramos.

  20. Noble gas separation with the use of inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.; Christian, J.D.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A noble gas separation process is proposed for application to airborne nuclear fuel reprocessing plant effluents. The process involves the use of inorganic adsorbents for the removal of contaminant gases and noble gas separation through selective adsorption. Water and carbon dioxide are removed with selected zeolites that do not appreciably adsorb the noble gases. Xenon is essentially quantitatively removed with a specially developed adsorbent using conventional adsorption-desorption techniques. Oxygen is removed to low ppM levels by the use of a rapid cycle adsorption technique on a special adsorbent leaving a krypton-nitrogen mixture. Krypton is separated from nitrogen with a special adsorbent operated at about -80 0 C. Because the separation process does not require high pressures and oxygen is readily removed to sufficiently limit ozone formation to insignificant levels, appreciable capital and operating cost savings with this process are possible compared with other proposed processes. In addition, the proposed process is safer to operate

  1. Carbon Concentration and Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio Influence Submerged-Culture Conidiation by the Potential Bioherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark A.; Bothast, Rodney J.

    1990-01-01

    We assessed the influence of various carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios on Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737 conidium formation in submerged cultures grown in a basal salts medium containing various amounts of glucose and Casamino Acids. Under the nutritional conditions tested, the highest conidium concentrations were produced in media with carbon concentrations of 4.0 to 15.3 g/liter. High carbon concentrations (20.4 to 40.8 g/liter) inhibited sporulation and enhanced the formation of microsclerotiumlike hyphal masses. At all the carbon concentrations tested, a culture grown in a medium with a C:N ratio of 15:1 produced more conidia than cultures grown in media with C:N ratios of 40:1 or 5:1. While glucose exhaustion was often coincident with conidium formation, cultures containing residual glucose sporulated and those with high carbon concentrations (>25 g/liter) exhausted glucose without sporulation. Nitrogen source studies showed that the levels of C. truncatum NRRL 13737 conidiation were similar for all protein hydrolysates tested. Reduced conidiation occurred when amino acid and inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Of the nine carbon sources evaluated, acetate as the sole carbon source resulted in the lowest level of sporulation. Images PMID:16348348

  2. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  3. Hydrophobic Calcium Carbonate for Cement Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a novel way to generate a highly effective hydrophobic cement surface via a carbonation route using sodium stearate. Carbonation reaction was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the hydrophobicity and morphology of the calcium carbonate formed with this process. With increasing temperatures, the particles changed from irregular shapes to more uniform rod-like structures and then aggregated to form a plate-like formation. The contact angle against water was found to increase with increasing temperature; after 90 °C there was no further increase. The maximum contact angle of 129° was obtained at the temperature of 60 °C. It was also found that carbonation increased the micro hardness of the cement material. The micro hardness was found to be dependent on the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The rod like structures which caused increased mineral filler produced a material with enhanced strength. The 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra gave plausible explanation of the interaction of organic-inorganic moieties.

  4. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  5. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  6. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  7. Isotopic and chemical composition (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N, C:N, SUVA254nm, % HPOA) of aquatic carbon and field conditions (water temperature, pH, discharge) in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, October 2014 – February 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This dataset contains stable isotope (δ13C) and radioisotope (Δ14C) compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon,...

  8. Contemporary reliance on bicarbonate acquisition predicts increased growth of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in a high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Owen W; Connell, Sean D; Irving, Andrew D; Watling, Jennifer R; Russell, Bayden D

    2014-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is increasing the availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean relative to HCO3 (-). Currently, many marine primary producers use HCO3 (-) for photosynthesis, but this is energetically costly. Increasing passive CO2 uptake relative to HCO3 (-) pathways could provide energy savings, leading to increased productivity and growth of marine plants. Inorganic carbon-uptake mechanisms in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica were determined using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) and the buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS). Amphibolis antarctica seedlings were also maintained in current and forecasted CO2 concentrations to measure their physiology and growth. Photosynthesis of A. antarctica was significantly reduced by AZ and TRIS, indicating utilization of HCO3 (-)-uptake mechanisms. When acclimated plants were switched between CO2 treatments, the photosynthetic rate was dependent on measurement conditions but not growth conditions, indicating a dynamic response to changes in dissolved CO2 concentration, rather than lasting effects of acclimation. At forecast CO2 concentrations, seedlings had a greater maximum electron transport rate (1.4-fold), photosynthesis (2.1-fold), below-ground biomass (1.7-fold) and increase in leaf number (2-fold) relative to plants in the current CO2 concentration. The greater increase in photosynthesis (measured as O2 production) compared with the electron transport rate at forecasted CO2 concentration suggests that photosynthetic efficiency increased, possibly due to a decrease in photorespiration. Thus, it appears that the photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses reliant on energetically costly HCO3 (-) acquisition, such as A. antarctica, might increase at forecasted CO2 concentrations. Greater growth might enhance the future prosperity and rehabilitation of these important habitat-forming plants, which have experienced declines of global significance.

  9. CO2 supersaturation and net heterotrophy in a tropical estuary (Cochin, India): Influence of anthropogenic effect - Carbon dynamics in tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Madeswaran, P.; Nair, S.

    of pCO sub(2) (up to 6000 mu atm) and CO sub(2) effluxes (up to 274 mmolC m sup(-2) d sup(-1)) especially during monsoon. A first-order estimate of the carbon mass balance shows that net production of dissolved inorganic carbon is an order of magnitude...

  10. Effect of organic solvents on dissolution process of mechano-chemically activated molybdenum by inorganic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, I.Ya.; Chernyak, A.S.; Khal'zov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The process of chemical dissolution of mechanochemically activated