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Sample records for inorganic antioxidant impacting

  1. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  2. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Nurul Shahreda Jaies

    2014-01-01

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  3. Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Li, Wei; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifang; Li, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure intra-gastrically. Our results showed that acute NaAsO2 treatment resulted in decreased total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and increased maleic dialdehyde production in the nervous system. We also detected rapidly elevation of NRF2 protein levels by enhancement of Nrf2 transcription, especially at 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure group. In the meantime, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 encoding antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were consistently elevated time- and dose-dependently both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, the presence study demonstrated the activation of NRF2 pathway, an early antioxidant defensive response, in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus upon inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in vivo. A better knowledge on the roles of NRF2 pathway in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis would be helpful for the strategies on improvement of neurotoxicity related to this metalloid.

  4. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  5. Impact of inorganic contaminants on microalgae productivity and bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eric M; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian T; Guy, Tessa; Quinn, Jason C

    2017-05-01

    As underdeveloped nations continue to industrialize and world population continues to increase, the need for energy, natural resources, and goods will lead to ever increasing inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals, in various waste streams that can have damaging effects on plant life, wildlife, and human health. This work is focused on the evaluation of the potential of Nannochloropsis salina to be integrated with contaminated water sources for the concurrent production of a biofuel feedstock while providing an environmental service through bioremediation. Individual contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn) at various concentrations ranging from a low concentration (1X) to higher concentrations (10X, and 40X) found in contaminated systems (mine tailings, wastewater treatment plants, produced water) were introduced into growth media. Biological growth experimentation was performed in triplicate at the various contaminant concentrations and at 3 different light intensities. Results show that baseline concentrations of each contaminant slightly decreased biomass growth to between 89% and 99% of the control with the exception of Ni which dramatically reduced growth. Increased contaminant concentrations resulted in progressively lower growth rates for all contaminants tested. Lipid analysis shows most baseline contaminant concentrations slightly decrease or have minimal effects on lipid content at all light levels. Trace contaminant analysis on the biomass showed Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn were sorbed by the microalgae with minimal contaminants remaining in the growth media illustrating the effectiveness of microalgae to bioremediate these contaminants when levels are sufficiently low to not detrimentally impact productivity. The microalgae biomass was less efficient at sorption of As, Cr, Ni, and Se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Rev can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  8. Impact of nanocrystal spray deposition on inorganic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Troy K; Yoon, Woojun; Foos, Edward E; Tischler, Joseph G

    2014-05-28

    Solution-synthesized inorganic cadmium telluride nanocrystals (∼4 nm; 1.45 eV band gap) are attractive elements for the fabrication of thin-film-based low-cost photovoltaic (PV) devices. Their encapsulating organic ligand shell enables them to be easily dissolved in organic solvents, and the resulting solutions can be spray-cast onto indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass under ambient conditions to produce photoactive thin films of CdTe. Following annealing at 380 °C in the presence of CdCl2(s) and evaporation of metal electrode contacts (glass/ITO/CdTe/Ca/Al), Schottky-junction PV devices were tested under simulated 1 sun conditions. An improved PV performance was found to be directly tied to control over the film morphology obtained by the adjustment of spray parameters such as the solution concentration, delivery pressure, substrate distance, and surface temperature. Higher spray pressures produced thinner layers (spray-cast Schottky devices rivaled those prepared by conventional spin-coating, showing Jsc = 14.6 ± 2.7 mA cm(-2), Voc = 428 ± 11 mV, FF = 42.8 ± 1.4%, and Eff. = 2.7 ± 0.5% under 1 sun illumination. This optimized condition of CdTe spray deposition was then applied to heterojunction devices (ITO/CdTe/ZnO/Al) to reach 3.0% efficiency after light soaking under forward bias. The film thickness, surface morphology, and light absorption were examined with scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Spices and Their Impact on Human Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Xia, Xiaoyan; Nemzer, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidants are substances that prevent oxidation of other compounds or neutralize free radicals. Spices and herbs are rich sources of antioxidants. They have been used in food and beverages to enhance flavor, aroma and color. Due to their excellent antioxidant activity, spices and herbs have also been used to treat some diseases. In this review article, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of spices and culinary herbs are presented. The content of flavonoids and total polyphenols in different spices and herbs are summarized. The applications of spices and their impacts on human health are briefly described. The extraction and analytical methods for determination of antioxidant capacity are concisely reviewed. PMID:28914764

  10. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2011-04-08

    There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 μM) inorganic arsenite (iAs³(+)) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs³(+) exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs³(+) exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together our studies suggest that prolonged low-level iAs³(+) exposure activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response, which impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling that is involved in ISGU, and thus causes insulin resistance in adipocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Review: Impacts of permafrost degradation on inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Salerno, Franco; Gruber, Stephan; Freppaz, Michele; Williams, Mark; Fratianni, Simona; Giardino, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is impacting the inorganic chemical characteristics of surface fresh water in permafrost areas and affecting aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of major ions (e.g., Ca2 +, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-) can increase following permafrost degradation with associated deepening of flow pathways and increased contributions of deep groundwater. In addition, thickening of the active layer and melting of near-surface ground ice can influence inorganic chemical fluxes from permafrost into surface water. Permafrost degradation has also the capability to modify trace element (e.g., Ni, Mn, Al, Hg, Pb) contents in surface water. Although several local and regional modifications of inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water have been attributed to permafrost degradation, a comprehensive review of the observed changes is lacking. The goal of this paper is to distil insight gained across differing permafrost settings through the identification of common patterns in previous studies, at global scale. In this review we focus on three typical permafrost configurations (pervasive permafrost degradation, thermokarst, and thawing rock glaciers) as examples and distinguish impacts on (i) major ions and (ii) trace elements. Consequences of warming climate have caused spatially-distributed progressive increases of major ion and trace element delivery to surface fresh water in both polar and mountain areas following pervasive permafrost degradation. Moreover, localised releases of major ions and trace elements to surface water due to the liberation of soluble materials sequestered in permafrost and ground ice have been found in ice-rich terrains both at high latitude (thermokarst features) and high elevation (rock glaciers). Further release of solutes and related transport to surface fresh water can be expected under warming climatic conditions. However, complex interactions among several factors able to influence the timing and magnitude of the impacts

  12. Impact of salicylic acid on antioxidants, biomass and osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Key words: Antioxidants, growth, salicylic acid, water stress. INTRODUCTION ... All abiotic stresses such as water deficit and salt stress cause increased ..... Shakirova F (2001). The role of hormonal changes in protective.

  13. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs 3+ decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. → iAs 3+ attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. → iAs 3+ activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. → iAs 3+ impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. → iAs 3+ decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 μM) inorganic arsenite (iAs 3+ ) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs 3+ exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs 3+ exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in

  14. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  15. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla D. Di Mattia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  16. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattia, Carla D; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  17. The impact of antioxidant supplementation on clinical outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the English literature was performed to determine the effect of antioxidant micronutrient supplementation on clinically important outcomes in the critically ill. Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct electronic databases were searched for papers published ...

  18. Impact of Dietary Antioxidants on Sport Performance: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-07-01

    Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance. Acute intake of vitamin E is worthy of further consideration, if plasma levels can be elevated sufficiently. Quercetin has a small beneficial effect for exercise of longer duration (>100 min), but it is unclear whether this benefits athletes. Resveratrol benefits trained rodents; more research is needed in athletes. Meta-analysis of beetroot juice studies has revealed that the nitrate component of beetroot juice had a substantial but unclear effect on performance when averaged across athletes, non-athletes and modes of exercise (single dose 1.4 ± 2.0%, double dose 0.5 ± 1.9%). The effect of addition of polyphenols and other components to beetroot juice was trivial but unclear (single dose 0.4 ± 3.2%, double dose -0.5 ± 3.3%). Other food-derived polyphenols indicate a range of performance outcomes from a large improvement to moderate impairment. Limited evidence suggests spirulina enhances endurance performance. Intravenous NAC improved endurance cycling performance and reduced muscle fatigue. On the basis of vitamin E and NAC studies, acute intake of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial. However, chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on performance.

  19. Impact of Tile Drainage on the Distribution of Concentration and Age of Inorganic Soil Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive network of tile drainage network across the Midwestern United States, northern Europe and other regions of the world have enhanced agricultural productivity. Because of its impact on sub-surface flow patterns and moisture and temperature dynamics, it controls the nitrogen cycle in agricultural systems, and its influence on nitrogen dynamics plays a key role in determining the short- and long-term evolution of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration and age. The spatial mapping of nitrogen concentration and age under tile-drained fields has, therefore, the potential to open up novel solution to the vexing challenge of reducing environmental impacts while at the same time maintaining agricultural productivity. The objective of this study is to explore the impacts of tile drains on the age dynamics of nitrate, immobile ammonium, mobile ammonia/um, and non-reactive tracer (such as chloride) by implementing two mobile interacting pore domains to capture matrix and preferential flow paths in a coupled ecohydrology and biogeochemistry model, Dhara. We applied this model to an agricultural farm supporting a corn-soybean rotation in the Midwestern United States. It should be expected that the installation of tile drains decrease the age of soil nutrient due to nutrient losses through tile drainage. However, an increase in the age of mobile ammonia/um is observed in contrast to the cases for nitrate, immobile ammonium, and non-reactive tracer. These results arise because the depletion of mobile ammonia/um due to tile drainage causes a high mobility flux from immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um, which also carries a considerable amount of relatively old age of immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um. In addition, the ages of nitrate and mobile ammonia/um in tile drainage range from 1 to 3 years, and less than a year, respectively, implying that not considering age transformations between nitrogen species would result in substantial underestimation of nitrogen ages

  20. Alkyl caffeates as antioxidants in O/W emulsions: Impact of emulsifier type and endogenous tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , the aim was to evaluate the impact of emulsifiers (Citrem and Tween80) and presence of endogenous tocopherols on the efficacies of caffeic acid and caffeates (C1–C20) as antioxidants in emulsions. Lipid oxidation was evaluated during storage and partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was estimated...... by measuring their concentrations in the aqueous phase. Partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was influenced by emulsifier type and the presence of endogenous tocopherols. Caffeic acid was the most efficient antioxidant in Citrem and Tween stabilized emulsions in the presence of endogenous tocopherol....... In contrast, for Tween stabilized emulsions, caffeic acid acted as a prooxidant and the evaluated caffeates acted as strong antioxidants in the absence of endogenous tocopherol. Thus, when endogenous tocopherol was present lipophilization of caffeic acid did not increase its efficacy as an antioxidant...

  1. Inorganic Nitrogen Deposition and Its Impacts on N:P-Ratios and Lake Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag O. Hessen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pronounced increase in the cycling and deposition of biologically reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN over large areas globally not only cause increased concentrations of DIN in surface waters, but it will also affect nutrient ratios in rivers, lakes and coastal areas. This review addresses the flux and fate of DIN, focusing NO3 in lakes of boreal and alpine catchments. Not only DIN-deposition, but also catchment properties strongly affect the concentrations of NO3 in lakes, as well as NO3:total P (TP ratios. This ratio displays an extreme variability, and does also serve as an indicator of shift between N and P-limitation of aquatic autotrophs. A high share of forests and bogs in the catchment generally decreases NO3:total P ratios, while alpine and subalpine catchments with sparse vegetation cover may have high NO3:total P ratios, especially in regions with high DIN-deposition. Several empirical and experimental studies indicate a shift from an initial N to P-limitation, but for N-limited lakes, an increased growth of phytoplankton, periphytes and macrophytes may be accredited to elevated inputs of DIN. An intensified P-limitation may also be a consequence of elevated DIN-deposition. This P-limitation may again yield higher C:P-ratios in autotrophs with negative impacts on grazers and higher trophic levels.

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidants: exposure and impact on female fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Goldman, Marlene B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive failure is a significant public health concern. Although relatively little is known about factors affecting fertility and early pregnancy loss, a growing body of literature suggests that environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. There is sufficient evidence to hypothesize that diet, particularly its constituent antioxidants, and oxidative stress (OS) may influence the timing and maintenance of a viable pregnancy. We hypothesize that conditions leading to OS in the female affect time-to-pregnancy and early pregnancy loss. Methods We review the epidemiology of female infertility related to antioxidant defenses and oxidation and examine potential sources of OS from the ovarian germ cell through the stages of human pregnancy and pregnancy complications related to infertility. Articles were identified through a search of the PubMed database. Results Female OS is a likely mediator of conception and threshold levels for OS exist, dependent on anatomic location and stage of preconception. Conclusions Prospective pregnancy studies with dietary assessment and collection of biological samples prior to conception with endpoints of time-to-pregnancy and early pregnancy loss are needed. PMID:18535004

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant impact of ginger-based kombucha on the murine breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salafzoon, Samaneh; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Halabian, Raheleh

    2017-10-21

    Background Abnormal metabolism is a common event in cancerous cells. For example, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, particularly due to aerobic respiration during invasive stage, results in cancer progression. Herein, the impact of kombucha tea prepared from ginger on the alteration of antioxidant agents was assessed in the breast cancer animal model. Methods Two types of kombucha tea with or without ginger were administered to BALB/c mice before and after tumor challenge. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in tumor, liver and kidney. Results Administration of kombucha ginger tea significantly decreased catalase activity as well as GSH and MDA level in tumor homogenate (pkombucha ginger tea (pkombucha prepared from ginger could exert minor antioxidant impacts by balancing multi antioxidant factors in different tissues in the breast cancer models.

  4. IMPACT OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress due to enhanced free - radical generation and/or a decrease in antioxidant defense mechanisms has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. This study was conducted to study the impact of glycemic control on oxidative stress and antioxidant balance in diab etic neuropathy. METHOD S : fifty patients with diabetic neuropathy and fifty age matched healthy controls were included in the study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c was estimated to assess the severity of diabetes and the glycemic control. Serum malondiaal dehyde (MDA levels were assessed as a marker of lipid peroxidation and hence oxidative stress. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD levels were assessed for antioxidant status. RESULTS: Significant positive correlation was found between serum MDA levels and hba1c ( r = 0.276, p < 0.0001 in patients with diabetic neuropathy. There was statistically significant reduction in the Glutathione peroxidase levels. Further, SOD levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (r= - 0.603, p<0.0001 levels. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY: oxidative stress is greatly increased in patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy and is inversely related to glycemic control. This may be due to depressed antioxidant enzyme levels and may also be responsible for further depletion of antioxidant enzym e GPx. This worsens the oxidative stress and creates a vicious cycle of imbalance of free radical generation and deficit of antioxidant status in these patients which may lead to nervous system damage causing diabetic neuropathy. A good glycemic control is essential for prevention of diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Impact of uncertainties in inorganic chemical rate constants on tropospheric composition and ozone radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Newsome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical rate constants determine the composition of the atmosphere and how this composition has changed over time. They are central to our understanding of climate change and air quality degradation. Atmospheric chemistry models, whether online or offline, box, regional or global, use these rate constants. Expert panels evaluate laboratory measurements, making recommendations for the rate constants that should be used. This results in very similar or identical rate constants being used by all models. The inherent uncertainties in these recommendations are, in general, therefore ignored. We explore the impact of these uncertainties on the composition of the troposphere using the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. Based on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC evaluations we assess the influence of 50 mainly inorganic rate constants and 10 photolysis rates on tropospheric composition through the use of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We assess the impact on four standard metrics: annual mean tropospheric ozone burden, surface ozone and tropospheric OH concentrations, and tropospheric methane lifetime. Uncertainty in the rate constants for NO2 + OH →M  HNO3 and O3 + NO  →  NO2 + O2 are the two largest sources of uncertainty in these metrics. The absolute magnitude of the change in the metrics is similar if rate constants are increased or decreased by their σ values. We investigate two methods of assessing these uncertainties, addition in quadrature and a Monte Carlo approach, and conclude they give similar outcomes. Combining the uncertainties across the 60 reactions gives overall uncertainties on the annual mean tropospheric ozone burden, surface ozone and tropospheric OH concentrations, and tropospheric methane lifetime of 10, 11, 16 and 16 %, respectively. These are larger than the spread between models in recent model intercomparisons. Remote

  6. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Home food preparation techniques impacted the availability of natural antioxidants and bioactivities in kale and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Gao, Boyan; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Thomas T Y; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2018-01-24

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding and chopping with/without microwaving on the health-beneficial components, and antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation capacities of commercial kale and broccoli samples. The availability of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic contents, the scavenging activities against DPPH, oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS cation radicals, and cell-based antioxidant activities were determined for the antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that chopping released the least nutraceutical components and antioxidant compounds. Microwaving had no effect on the I3C release from kale, but resulted in an elevated (more than 2-fold) release of I3C from broccoli. In addition, the choice of a blender affected the availability of the anti-proliferative compounds from the vegetables, while it had no effect on the availability of their anti-inflammatory compounds. In summary, different food preparation methods could strongly impact the availability of bioactive factors in the selected vegetables. These findings suggest that choosing an appropriate food processing method for each vegetable might be critical to obtain desirable health-beneficial effects.

  8. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  9. Impact of organic and inorganic nanomaterials in the soil microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Veronica; Lopes, Isabel [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, Teresa [ISEIT/Viseu, Instituto Piaget, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Galifonge, 3515-776 Lordosa, Viseu (Portugal); Santos, Ana L. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rasteiro, Graca M.; Antunes, Filipe [CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Polo II, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Newton N.C.M., E-mail: gomesncm@ua.pt [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    In this study the effect of organic and inorganic nanomaterials (NMs) on the structural diversity of the soil microbial community was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, after amplification with universal primers for the bacterial region V6-V8 of 16S rDNA. The polymers of carboxylmethyl-cellulose (CMC), of hydrophobically modified CMC (HM-CMC), and hydrophobically modified polyethylglycol (HM-PEG); the vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (SDS/DDAB) and of monoolein/sodium oleate (Mo/NaO); titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO{sub 4}), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, gold nanorods, and Fe/Co magnetic fluid were the NMs tested. Soil samples were incubated, for a period of 30 days, after being spiked with NM suspensions previously characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or by an ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) of DGGE profiles showed that gold nanorods, TiO{sub 2}, CMC, HM-CMC, HM-PEG, and SDS/DDAB have significantly affected the structural diversity of the soil bacterial community. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic and inorganic nanomaterials on soil microbial community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural diversity was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the organic nanomaterials, TiO{sub 2} and gold nanorods significantly affected the structural diversity.

  10. Impact of organic and inorganic nanomaterials in the soil microbial community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Verónica; Lopes, Isabel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Santos, Ana L.; Rasteiro, Graça M.; Antunes, Filipe; Gonçalves, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton N.C.M.; Pereira, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of organic and inorganic nanomaterials (NMs) on the structural diversity of the soil microbial community was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, after amplification with universal primers for the bacterial region V6–V8 of 16S rDNA. The polymers of carboxylmethyl-cellulose (CMC), of hydrophobically modified CMC (HM-CMC), and hydrophobically modified polyethylglycol (HM-PEG); the vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (SDS/DDAB) and of monoolein/sodium oleate (Mo/NaO); titanium oxide (TiO 2 ), titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO 4 ), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, gold nanorods, and Fe/Co magnetic fluid were the NMs tested. Soil samples were incubated, for a period of 30 days, after being spiked with NM suspensions previously characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or by an ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) of DGGE profiles showed that gold nanorods, TiO 2 , CMC, HM-CMC, HM-PEG, and SDS/DDAB have significantly affected the structural diversity of the soil bacterial community. - Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic nanomaterials on soil microbial community. ► Structural diversity was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. ► All the organic nanomaterials, TiO 2 and gold nanorods significantly affected the structural diversity.

  11. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters

  12. Impact of extraction techniques on antioxidant capacities and phytochemical composition of polyphenol-rich extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-López, Cecilia; Ventura-Sobrevilla, Janeth M; González-Hernández, María D; Rojas, Romeo; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Martínez-Ávila, Guillermo C G

    2017-12-15

    In this work, impact of extraction methods (maceration, decoction, MAE, and UAE) on TPC, antioxidant activity, and the mass fraction of phenolics in several plant extracts (Punica granatum, Juglans regia, Moringa oleifera, and Cassia fistula) was investigated. The results showed that, despite the nature of matrix, the highest values of TPC in all samples were obtained by MAE as follows: PP (18.92±0.11), ML (15.19±0.11), HL (12.69±0.16), and WS (12.80±0.11) mg GAEg -1 respectively, and exhibited potent antioxidant activity (from 0.28±0.01 to 5.34±0.02mgGAEg -1 ), representing sources of powerful antioxidants. The LC-MS 2 analysis revealed a wide range of phenolics, highlighting their content in phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignans. The presence of different phenol molecules demonstrated that the extraction method had influence on phytochemical profile. Finally, due to its high extraction efficiency, MAE was the more effective extraction technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental impact of hazardous inorganic materials. Pollution and remediation of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hakuta, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Barrington, S.; Wasay, S. [McGill University, (Canada)

    1998-02-10

    Recently, soil pollution has become a grave social problem. This paper reviews history, laws and regulations, current status and measures related to soil pollution, centered by those of Japan. Soil pollution problems in Japan date back to around 1880, when pollution of the Watarase River basin started by waste water exhausted from Asio Mine. Various grave problems have been recorded since then, including the Itai-itai and Minamata Diseases caused by Cd and methyl mercury, respectively, which started in 1945 and 1956, with the result that the government has amended laws/regulations related to treatment and cleaning of industrial wastes. Later, the related laws/regulations have been frequently amended, and the environmental standards related to soil pollution was established in 1991. Treatment for remediation of polluted soils has been effected with the aid of inorganic acids, organic solvents, chelating agents, natural organic acids (such as acetic and formic acids) and biological surface active agents. They must be carefully planned to take into consideration various aspects, such as pH level and other conditions, cost and environmental safety, before being actually used. One of the recommended measures is on-the-site treatment in an enclosed space while regenerating and recycling the agent. 66 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Lagrangian mass-flow investigations of inorganic contaminants in wastewater-impacted streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Flynn, J.L.; Keefe, S.H.; Kolpin, D.W.; Roth, D.A.; Schnoebelen, D.J.; Taylor, Howard E.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential effects of increased reliance on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to meet municipal, agricultural, and environmental flow requires an understanding of the complex chemical loading characteristics of the WWTPs and the assimilative capacity of receiving waters. Stream ecosystem effects are linked to proportions of WWTP effluent under low-flow conditions as well as the nature of the effluent chemical mixtures. This study quantifies the loading of 58 inorganic constituents (nutrients to rare earth elements) from WWTP discharges relative to upstream landscape-based sources. Stream assimilation capacity was evaluated by Lagrangian sampling, using flow velocities determined from tracer experiments to track the same parcel of water as it moved downstream. Boulder Creek, Colorado and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, representing two different geologic and hydrologic landscapes, were sampled under low-flow conditions in the summer and spring. One-half of the constituents had greater loads from the WWTP effluents than the upstream drainages, and once introduced into the streams, dilution was the predominant assimilation mechanism. Only ammonium and bismuth had significant decreases in mass load downstream from the WWTPs during all samplings. The link between hydrology and water chemistry inherent in Lagrangian sampling allows quantitative assessment of chemical fate across different landscapes. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Biomonitoring of airborne inorganic and organic pollutants by means of pine tree barks. II. Deposition types and impact levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Schulz, U.; Huhn, G.; Schuermann, G.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 273 pine bark samples collected from various pine stands in Central and East Germany, South Norway, Poland, and Russia was analyzed with respect to 20 inorganic and organic substances (sulphate, nitrate, ammonia, calcium, 3 PAHs, 5 heavy metals, 9 other elements). Multivariate statistics were applied to characterize the multiple exposure of airborne pollutants in terms of major sources, deposition types and impact levels. The former was studied with factor analysis, whilst the latter two were addressed by applying cluster and discrimination analysis. Factor analysis of the concentration values suggest separation into three factors with the following characteristics: Factor 1 shows higher contributions from sulphate and calcium, factor 2 from fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene as well as from pyrene, and factor 3 from nitrate and ammonia, respectively. According to results from the cluster analysis, three major deposition types can be identified: 'Industry and House heating', 'Motor traffic', and 'Agriculture'. The first deposition type is characterized by high contents of sulphate and calcium. The other two deposition types contain specific composition profiles for nitrogen-containing components and PAHs. Impact levels are separately classified with the characteristic variables of main deposition types. Finally, discriminant analysis is used to allocate new bark samples to the classified deposition types and impact levels. The results demonstrate the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques to characterize and evaluate multiple exposure patterns of airborne pollutants in forest ecosystems. (author)

  16. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    PM10 from a suburban site in the northwest of Spain was assessed using data from chemical determinations, meteorological parameters, aerosol maps and five-day back trajectories of air masses. Temporal variations in the chemical composition of PM10 were subsequently related to stationary/mobile local sources and long-range transport stemming from Europe and North Africa. The presence of secondary inorganic species (sulphates, nitrates and ammonium) in airborne particulate matter constituted one of the main focuses of this study. These chemical species formed 16.5% of PM10 on average, in line with other suburban background sites in Europe. However, a maximum of 47.8% of PM10 were recorded after several days under the influence of European air masses. Furthermore, the highest values of these three chemical species coincided with episodes of poor air circulation and influxes of air masses from Europe. The relationship between SO 4 2- and NH 4 + (R 2  = 0.57, p-valueforest fires. On isolated days, combustion was estimated to contribute up to 21.0 μg PM/m 3 (50.8% of PM10). The contribution from industrial processes to this source is also worth highlighting given the presence of Ni and Co in its profile. Furthermore, African dust outbreaks at the sampling site, characterised by an arc through the Atlantic Ocean, were usually associated with a higher concentration of Al 2 O 3 in PM10. Results evidenced the relevance of stationary (i.e., steelworks and thermal power station) and mobile sources in the air quality at the suburban site under study, with important apportionments of particulate matter coming from road traffic and as consequence of releasing precursor gases of secondary particles to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of match-play tennis in a hot environment on indirect markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Wade L; Périard, JP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status in response to playing tennis in HOT (∼36°C and 35% relative humidity (RH)) and COOL (∼22°C and 70% RH) conditions. Methods 10 male tennis players undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ie, ball in play) of 20 min, corresponding to ∼122 and ∼107 min of total play in HOT and COOL conditions, respectively. Core body temperature, body mass and indirect markers of oxidative stress (diacrons reactive oxygen metabolic test) and antioxidant status (biological antioxidant potential test) were assessed immediately prematch, midmatch and postmatch, and 24 and 48 h into recovery. Results Regardless of the condition, oxidative stress remained similar throughout play and into recovery. Likewise, match-play tennis in the COOL had no impact on antioxidant status. However, antioxidants status increased significantly in the HOT compared with COOL environment (pantioxidant status. These data suggest that the heat stress observed in the HOT environment may provide a necessary signal for the upregulation of antioxidant defence, dampening cellular damage. PMID:24668382

  18. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  19. Shallow surface etching of organic and inorganic compounds by electrospray droplet impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Yuji; Iijima, Yoshitoki; Asakawa, Daiki; Mori, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    The electrospray droplet impact (EDI) was applied to bradykinin, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), SiO 2 /Si, and indium phosphide (InP). It was found that bradykinin deposited on the stainless steel substrate was ionized/desorbed without the accumulation of radiation products. The film thickness desorbed by a single collisional event was found to be less than 10 monolayers. In the EDI mass spectra for PET, several fragment ions were observed but the XPS spectra did not change with prolonged cluster irradiation. The etching rate for SiO 2 by EDI was measured to be ∼0.2 nm/min. The surface roughness of InP etched by EDI was found to be one order of magnitude smaller than that etched by 3 keV Ar + for about the same etching depths. EDI is capable of shallow surface etching with little damage left on the etched surface.

  20. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  1. Lipid oxidation in base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion: Impact of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; Rao, Jiajia; Ding, Yangping; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The impact of natural hydrophilic antioxidants, metal chelators, and hydrophilic antioxidant/metal chelator mixture on the oxidative stability of base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion was investigated. The results showed that green tea extract and ascorbic acid had greatest protective effect against algae oil oxidation and generated four day lag phase, whereas rosmarinic acid, grape seed extract, grape seed extract polymer, deferoxamine (DFO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had no significant protective effect. Besides, there was no synergistic effect observed between natural antioxidants and ascorbic acid. The emulsifiers are critical to the physicochemical stability of water-in-algae oil emulsions. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) promoted the oxidation of emulsion. Conversely, the protective effect on algae oil oxidation was appreciated when defatted soybean lecithin (PC 75) or defatted lyso-lecithin (Lyso-PC) was added. The role of hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsion was similar to that in algae oil except EDTA which demonstrated strong antioxidative effect in emulsion. The results could provide information to build up stable food products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Static Magnetic Field on the Antioxidant Defence System of Mice Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Glinka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research assessing the biological impact of static magnetic fields are controversial. So far, they have not provided a clear answer to their influence on cell functioning. Since the use of permanent magnets both in everyday life and in industry becomes more and more widespread, the investigations are continued in order to explain these controversies and to evaluate positive applications. The goal of current work was to assess the impact of static magnetic field of different intensities on redox homeostasis in cultures of fibroblasts. The use of permanent magnets allowed avoiding the thermal effects which are present in electromagnets. During the research we used 6 chambers, designed exclusively by us, with different values of field flux density (varying from 0.1 to 0.7 T. We have noted the decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. The static magnetic fields did not modify the energy state of fibroblasts— adenosine triphosphate (ATP concentration was stable, as well as the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA—which is a marker of oxidative stress. Results of research suggest that static magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets do not cause oxidative stress in investigated fibroblasts and that they may show slight antioxidizing activity.

  3. Anthropogenic impact of urban settlements on inorganic anions content in selected watercourses in the Subcarpathian Region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolebuk, Tomasz; Madej, Daniel; Pieniążek, Rafał; Bilek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Legislation for environmentally protecting surface waters in Poland and the EU is considered a priority because of the large human impact on this environmental feature in both highly industrialised countries as well as those that are agriculturally well developed. The biggest threats are regarded as being sewage arising from economic, industrial and agricultural pollution along with rain water run-off from fields treated with fertilizers. One of the most characteristic indicators of pollution exposure in surface waters are inorganic anions which form the principal components of town sew- age and fertilizers. The estimate the effect that six selected sites of human settlement have on variously sized watercourses running through. The human environmental impact was based on determination of chlorides, nitrates and sulphates concentrations in such waters. Water samples were obtained from the following rivers and towns, respectively; the Nil in Kolbuszowa, the Mleczka in Przeworsk, the San in Jaroslaw, the Wislok in Rzeszow, the Bystrzyca in Olimpow and an unnamed watercourse in Niwiska. Sampling sites were chosen at 4-6 points along each watercourse for a given locality. Analyte levels were measured by ion chromatography using the Dionex ICS 1000 instrument. Mean chlorides concentrations were found to vary from 8.52 (±0.17, n=3) mg/L to 78.41 (±0.19, n=3) mg/L, mean nitrates were 6.76 (±0.00, n=3) mg/L to 23.97 (±1.50, n=3) mg/L and mean sulphates from 29.89 (±1.57, n=3) mg/L to 62.48 (±2.99, n=3) mg/L. The clearest environmental effect of settlements on watercourses were observed for the small to medium sized towns of Kolbuszowa, Przeworsk and Jaroslaw in the form of frequently elevated chlorides levels from sewage. By designating various sampling locations, along the watercourses for measuring the human environmental impact of nearby settlements, it is possible to identify sources of river pollution and thus take appropriate remedial action, as and when

  4. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  5. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-11-19

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail.

  6. Alkyl chain length impacts the antioxidative effect of lipophilized ferulic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Lyneborg, Karina Sieron; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilization of phenolics by esterification with fatty alcohols may alter their localization in an emulsion and thereby their antioxidant efficacy. In this study, synthesized unbranched alkyl ferulates were evaluated as antioxidants in fish oil enriched milk. Lipid oxidation was determined...... by peroxide values and concentration of volatile oxidation products. A cut-off effect in the antioxidant efficacy in relation to the alkyl chain length was observed. The most efficient alkyl ferulate was methyl ferulate followed by ferulic acid and butyl ferulate, whereas octyl ferulate was prooxidative...

  7. Pretreatment of flaxseed protein isolate by high hydrostatic pressure: Impacts on protein structure, enzymatic hydrolysis and final hydrolysate antioxidant capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Véronique; Hénaux, Loïc; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-04-15

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on flaxseed protein structure and peptide profiles, obtained after protein hydrolysis, was investigated. Isolated flaxseed protein (1%, m/v) was subjected to HHP (600MPa, 5min or 20min at 20°C) prior to hydrolysis with trypsin only and trypsin-pronase. The results demonstrated that HHP treatment induced dissociation of flaxseed proteins and generated higher molecular weight aggregates as a function of processing duration. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HHP treatment, as well as processing duration, had an impact on flaxseed protein structure since exposition of hydrophobic amino acid tyrosine was modified. Except for some specific peptides, the concentrations of which were modified, similar peptide profiles were obtained after hydrolysis of pressure-treated proteins using trypsin. Finally, hydrolysates obtained using trypsin-pronase had a greater antioxidant capacity (ORAC) than control samples; these results confirmed that HHP enhanced the generation of antioxidant peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  9. Impact of reactive oxygen species on antioxidant capacity of male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zahed; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, M Usman Qamar; Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Shah, Sm Ali; Munir, Naveed; El-Ghorab, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the mutual interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and basal cells antioxidant capacity in the male reproductive system and to further establish the association between selected heavy metals and stress markers. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) of serum and seminal plasma were determined by automated photometric methods. The concentrations of Selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The TOS was increased significantly (P male infertility. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. aqueous extract and its impact on systemic antioxidant potential in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Thomas; Netzel, Gabriele; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Kler, Adolf; Kriesl, Erwin; Bitsch, Irmgard; Bitsch, Roland; Netzel, Michael

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate health benefits attributed to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was undertaken to compare the impact of an aqueous H. sabdariffa L. extract (HSE) on the systemic antioxidant potential (AOP; assayed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) with a reference treatment (water) in eight healthy volunteers. The biokinetic variables were the areas under the curve (AUC) of plasma FRAP, ascorbic acid and urate that are above the pre-dose concentration, and the amounts excreted into urine within 24 h (Ae(0-24) ) of antioxidants as assayed by FRAP, ascorbic acid, uric acid, malondialdehyde (biomarker for oxidative stress), and hippuric acid (metabolite and potential biomarker for total polyphenol intake). HSE caused significantly higher plasma AUC of FRAP, an increase in Ae(0-24) of FRAP, ascorbic acid and hippuric acid, whereas malondialdehyde excretion was reduced. Furthermore, the main hibiscus anthocyanins as well as one glucuronide conjugate could be quantified in the volunteers' urine (0.02% of the administered dose). The aqueous HSE investigated in this study enhanced the systemic AOP and reduced the oxidative stress in humans. Furthermore, the increased urinary hippuric acid excretion after HSE consumption indicates a high biotransformation of the ingested HSE polyphenols, most likely caused by the colonic microbiota. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Abou Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, and liver-pyruvate kinase (L-PK levels were assessed. Furthermore, the weight and histomorphological changes of the pancreas were studied in the different experimental groups. The herbal preparations significantly reduced the mean plasma glucose and MDA levels and significantly increased the mean plasma insulin, L-PK, and TAC levels in the treated diabetic groups compared to the diabetic control group. An obvious increase in the weight of the pancreas and the size of the islets of Langerhans and improvement in the histoarchitecture were evident in the treated groups compared to untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional use of these extracts as antidiabetic and antioxidant agents in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khalil, Nasser S; Abou-Elhamd, Alaa S; Wasfy, Salwa I A; El Mileegy, Ibtisam M H; Hamed, Mohamed Y; Ageely, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and liver-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) levels were assessed. Furthermore, the weight and histomorphological changes of the pancreas were studied in the different experimental groups. The herbal preparations significantly reduced the mean plasma glucose and MDA levels and significantly increased the mean plasma insulin, L-PK, and TAC levels in the treated diabetic groups compared to the diabetic control group. An obvious increase in the weight of the pancreas and the size of the islets of Langerhans and improvement in the histoarchitecture were evident in the treated groups compared to untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional use of these extracts as antidiabetic and antioxidant agents in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Oxidative Stress and COPD: The Impact of Oral Antioxidants on Skeletal Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Groot, H. Jonathan; Van Reese; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Oxidative stress may contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study sought to determine the effect of an acute oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC: vitamins C, E, and alpha-lipoic acid) on skeletal muscle function during dynamic quadriceps exercise in COPD. METHODS Ten patients with COPD performed knee extensor exercise to exhaustion and isotime trials following either the AOC or placebo (PL). Pre- to post-exercise changes in quadriceps maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and potentiated twitch forces (Qtw,pot) quantified quadriceps fatigue. RESULTS Under PL conditions, the plasma electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy signal was inversely correlated with the forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), an index of lung dysfunction (r=−0.61, p=0.02), and MVC force (r=−0.56, p=0.04). AOC consumption increased plasma ascorbate levels (10.1±2.2 to 24.1±3.8 ug/ml, p<0.05) and attenuated the area under the curve of the EPR spectroscopy free radical signal (11.6±3.7 to 4.8±2.2 AU, p<0.05), but did not alter endurance time or quadriceps fatigue. The ability of the AOC to decrease the EPR spectroscopy signal, however, was prominent in those with high basal free radicals (n=5, PL: 19.7±5.8 to AOC: 5.8±4.5 AU, p<0.05) with minimal effects in those with low levels (n=5, PL: 1.6±0.5 to AOC: 3.4±1.1 AU). DISCUSSION These data document a relationship between directly measured free radicals and lung dysfunction, and the ability of the AOC to decrease oxidative stress in COPD. Acute amelioration of free radicals, however, does not appear to impact dynamic quadriceps exercise performance. PMID:23299763

  14. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  15. Reduced dietary intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties negatively impacts muscle health in aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Van Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Hartog, Anita; Norren, Van Klaske; Verlaan, Sjors; Helvoort, Van Ardy; Jaspers, Richard T.; Luiking, Yvette

    2018-01-01

    Background. Inadequate intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties is common among older adults and has been associated with higher risk of frailty, adverse functional outcome, and impaired muscle health. However, a causal relationship is less well known. The aim was to determine in old

  16. Reduced dietary intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties negatively impacts muscle health in aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Hartog, Anita; van Norren, Klaske; Verlaan, Sjors; van Helvoort, Ardy; Jaspers, Richard T.; Luiking, Yvette

    2018-01-01

    Background: Inadequate intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties is common among older adults and has been associated with higher risk of frailty, adverse functional outcome, and impaired muscle health. However, a causal relationship is less well known. The aim was to determine in old

  17. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  18. Bioavailability of Fe(III) in Natural Soils and the Impact on Mobility of Inorganic Contaminants (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosson, David S. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Cowan, Robert M. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science; Young, Lily Y. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Center for Agriculture and the Environment; Hatcherl, Eric L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Scala, David J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2005-08-02

    Inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides, can adhere to insoluble Fe(III) minerals resulting in decreased mobility of these contaminants through subsurface environments. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB), by reducing insoluble Fe(III) to soluble Fe(II), may enhance contaminant mobility. The Savannah River Site, South Carolina (SRS), has been subjected to both heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the release of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are bound to solid phase soil Fe complexes and to elucidate the mechanisms for mobilization of these contaminants that can be associated with microbial Fe(III) reduction. This is being accomplished by (i) using uncontaminated and contaminated soils from SRS as prototype systems, (ii) evaluating the diversity of DIRBs within the samples and isolating cultures for further study, (iii) using batch microcosms to evaluate the bioavailability of Fe(III) from pure minerals and SRS soils, (iv) developing kinetic and mass transfer models that reflect the system dynamics, and (v) carrying out soil column studies to elucidate the dynamics and interactions amongst Fe(III) reduction, remineralization and contaminant mobility.

  19. Sonodegradation of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside: degradation kinetic analysis and its impact on antioxidant capacity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Li, Xinghua; Lin, Xinyu; Mei, Zhouxiong; Li, Yitao; Ding, Lijun; Bai, Weibin

    2017-03-01

    As an alternative preservation method for thermal treatment, ultrasound comprises a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, the recent literature indicates that anthocyanin degradation occurs when ultrasound is applied in juice at high amplitude parameters. Such work has mainly focussed on the effect of ultrasound on stability, the antioxidant capacity of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (Cy-3-glc-rut) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and ·OH generation in a simulated system. The spectral intensities of Cy-3-glc-rut at 518 and 282 nm decreased with increasing ultrasound power and treatment time. The degradation of Cy-3-glc-rut was consistent with first-order reaction kinetics (r 2  > 0.9000) and there was a good linear correlation between anthocyanin degradation and hydroxyl radical formation induced by ultrasound (r 2  = 0.9258). Moreover, a decrease in the antioxidant activity of Cy-3-glc-rut after ultrasound evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods was observed. Overall, the results of the present study show that ultrasound will accelerate the degradation of Cy-3-glc-rut with the growth of power over time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Impact of scorpion stings on electrocardiographic changes and relationship with body oxidant and antioxidant status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behcet, A.; Zengin, S.; Yildirim, C.; Ercan, S.; Davutoglu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate electrocardiogram changes due to scorpion stings and association between oxidative stress index, body oxidant/antioxidant system and the electrocardiogram changes. Methods: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between May 2009 and October 2010. It comprised 44 patients admitted to the emergency department for scorpion sting, and a control group of matched age and gender of 20 persons. Electrocardiograms were taken promptly in the most painful phases of the patients. Cardiac parameters were measured. Erythrocyte packages were prepared to detect toxin/antioxidant levels. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 44 patients, 22 (50%) were male. Overall average age of the patients was 45.22+-17.99 years. None of the patients required intensive care and none of them had limb losses. Cardiac parameters of the patients in electrocardiogram were higher (p 0.05). Conclusion: Scorpion stings associated with electrocardiogram changes. The mechanism of this relationship is not related with the status of body oxidative stress index and body oxidant and antioxidant capacity. Some parameters warrant further study in terms of potential serious arrhythmias in scorpionism. (author)

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant in Seminal Plasma and Their Impact on Male Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eid Hammadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa generate reactive oxygen species (ROS in physiological amounts, which play arole in sperm functions during sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR, and oocyte fusion. Inaddition, damaged sperm are likely to be the source of ROS. The most important ROS producedby human sperm are hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Besides, humanseminal plasma and sperm possess an antioxidant system to scavenge ROS and prevent ROS relatedcellular damage. Under normal circumstances, there is an appropriate balance between oxidants andantioxidants. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen can induce oxidative stress(OS on spermatozoa.Male infertility is associated with increased ROS and decreased total antioxidant activity in theseminal plasma. ROS induce nuclear DNA strand breaks. Besides, due to a high polyunsaturatedfatty acid content human sperm plasma membranes are highly sensitive to ROS induced lipidperoxidation thus decreasing membrane fluidity. This will result in increased lipid peroxidation(LPO, decreased sperm motility, viability, function and ultimately lead to infertility. The protectiveaction of antioxidants against the deleterious effect of ROS on cellular lipids, proteins and DNA hasbeen supported by several scientific studies.The purpose of the present review is to address the possible relationship between ROS andantioxidants production in seminal plasma, and the role they may play in influencing the outcomeof assisted reproductive technology (ART.

  2. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  3. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mattia, Carla D.; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction product...

  4. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  5. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  6. [Impact of Rocky Desertification Treatment on Underground Water Chemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Isotope in Karst Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Xiong, Kang-ning; Lan, Jia-cheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Five springs representing different land-use types and different karst rocky desertification treatment models were chosen at the Huajiang Karst Rocky Desertification Treatment Demonstration Site in Guanling-Zhenfeng Counties in Guizhou, to analyze the features of underground water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes (δ13C(DIC)) and reveal the effect of rocky desertification treatment on karstification and water quality. It was found that, the underground water type of the research area was HCO3-Ca; the water quality of the springs which were relatively less affected by human activities including Shuijingwan Spring (SJW) , Gebei Spring (GB), and Maojiawan Spring (MJW) was better than those relatively more affected by human activities including Diaojing Spring (DJ) and Tanjiazhai Spring (TJZ) , the main ion concentrations and electrical conductivity of which were higher; pH, SIc and pCO2 were sensitive to land-use types and rocky desertification treatment, which could be shown by the higher pH and SIc and lower pCO2 in MJW than those in the other four springs; (Ca(2+) + Mg2+)/HCO(3-) of SJW, MJW and GB were nearly 1:1, dominated by carbonate rock weathering by carbon acid, while the (Ca(2+) + Mg2+) of DJ and TJZ was much higher than HCO3-, suggesting that sulfate and nitrate might also dissolve carbonate rock because of the agricultural activities; δ13C(DIC) was lighter in wet season because of the higher biological activities; the average δ13C(DIC) was in the order of DJ (-12.79 per thousand) desertification and lighter after the rocky desertification are treated and controlled.

  7. Application and optimisation of air-steam cooking on selected vegetables: impact on physical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Pugliese, Alessandro; Chiavaro, Emma

    2018-04-01

    Several studies investigated the impact of different cooking techniques on the quality of vegetables. However, the use of the combined air-steam cooking is still scarcely debated, despite the advantages informally referred by professional catering workers. In this study, its optimisation was studied on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin cubes to obtain the best physical (texture, colour) and antioxidant (FRAP, total phenols) response, in comparison to a conventional steaming treatment. Increasing the strength of the air-steam treatment, Brussels sprouts resulted to be softer, less green (higher a* value), richer in phenols and exhibited lower FRAP values than the steamed ones. The air-steamed pumpkin cubes exhibited an equivalent softening degree to that of steamed ones and, under the strongest cooking conditions, a higher antioxidant quality and a yellow darkening (lower b* value). Varying the cooking time and/or temperature, a linear change of force/compression hardness and a* (negative a*: greenness) for Brussels sprouts, b* (yellowness) and total phenol content for pumpkin cubes was observed. A predictive model for these variables was obtained by response surface methodology. The best process conditions to achieve the optimal desirability were also identified. The application of air-steam cooking under suitable time/temperature conditions could be proposed as an alternative method to a traditional steam cooking on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin cubes, being able to preserve or improve their quality. The best air-steam cooking conditions were 25 min at 90 °C for Brussels sprouts and 10 min at 110 °C for pumpkin. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential impact of inorganic nanoparticles on macronutrient digestion: titanium dioxide nanoparticles slightly reduce lipid digestion under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; DeLoid, Glen; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip; Zhang, Ruojie; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles are used in some food products to alter their optical properties, such as whiteness or brightness. These additives typically contain a population of TiO 2 nanoparticles (d digestion through two physicochemical mechanisms: (i) a fraction of the lipase adsorbs to TiO 2 particle surfaces, thereby reducing the amount available to hydrolyze lipid droplets; (ii) some TiO 2 particles adsorb to the surfaces of lipid droplets, thereby reducing the lipid surface area exposed to lipase. The importance of these mechanisms was tested by passing protein-coated lipid droplets (2%, w/w) through the simulated GIT in the absence and presence of TiO 2 (0.5%, w/w) nanoparticles (18 nm) and fine particles (167 nm). Changes in particle characteristics (size, organization, and charge) and lipid digestion were then measured. Both TiO 2 nanoparticles and fine particles had little impact on the aggregation state and charge of the lipid droplets in the different GIT regions, as well as on the rate and extent of lipid digestion. This suggests that the theoretically predicted impact of particle size on lipid digestion was not seen in practice.

  10. Drought impact on wood formation and antioxidant protection of Scots pine cambial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Sudachkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought on the 8-9-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was simulated in the field by isolating trees from precipitation. The biochemical changes typical of water stress wеre compared with the structural changes of the annual rings of wood. The samples of the current and last year needles, cambium and adjoining layers of xylem and phloem of stems and roots were analyzed. In the needles, the content of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids were determined. The contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA, the activity of enzymes, realizing antioxidant protection: superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and content of sugars and starch were determined in tissues of xylem, phloem and cambium. It was shown that drought reduces the weight of the needles, the chlorophyll content and the width of the annual wood rings. In moderate drought in the cambial zone oxidative stress was developed and also protection system against free radicals was activated, which resulted in a high SOD activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide due to the activity of peroxidase reduction. As a result, the division processes in cambial zone and cells extension growth were inhibited and the width of annual wood rings decreased due to reduction in the number and size of tracheids. It was found that decrease in growth was not due to deficit of carbohydrates for the process xylogenesis. Water deficit increases the concentration of low molecular weight carbohydrates in the tissues, which, due to the inhibition of division and extension cambial derivatives are only partially used for thickening tracheid cell walls. As a result, abnormal tracheides with reduced size of cells and lumens and thickened cell walls were formed. Abundance of soluble carbohydrates was deposited as a reserve pool in the root phloem in the form of starch. The stock function of root phloem was increased under water deficit conditions.

  11. Placental dysfunction in Suramin-treated rats: impact of maternal diabetes and effects of antioxidative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Peppi; Olovsson, Matts; Eriksson, Ulf J

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a rat model of placental dysfunction/preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes. A second objective was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E treatment in this model. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats of two different strains (U and H) were given intraperitoneal (IP) injections of the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin (Sigma Chemical Co, St Louis, MO) or saline in early pregnancy, and fed standard or vitamin E-enriched food. The outcome of pregnancy was evaluated on gestational day 20. In both rat strains Suramin caused fetal growth retardation, decreased placental blood flow, and increased placental concentration of the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF(2alpha). In the U rats Suramin also caused increased fetal resorption rate, increased maternal blood pressure, decreased renal blood flow, and diminished maternal growth. Diabetes caused severe maternal and fetal growth retardation, increased resorption rate, and increased placental 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) concentration independent of Suramin administration. The maternal and fetal effects of Suramin and diabetes were more pronounced in the U strain than in the H strain. Vitamin E treatment improved the status of Suramin-injected diabetic rats: in U rats the blood pressure increase was normalized; and in both U and H rats the decreased placental blood flow was marginally enhanced, and the increase in placental 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) was partly normalized by vitamin E. Suramin injections to pregnant rats cause a state of placental insufficiency, which in U rats resembles human preeclampsia. The induction of this condition is at least partly mediated by oxidative stress, and antagonized by antioxidative treatment. Maternal diabetes involves increased oxidative stress, and causes both maternal and fetal morbidity, which are only marginally affected by additional Suramin treatment.

  12. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  13. Beneficial reuse of FGD material in the construction of low permeability liners: Impacts on inorganic water quality constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.M.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, we examine the water quality impacts associated with the reuse of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for agricultural applications. A 0.457-m-thick layer of fixated FGD material from a coal-fired power plant was utilized to create a 708 m{sup 2} swine manure pond at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Western Branch in South Charleston, Ohio. To assess the effects of the fixated FGD material liner, water quality samples were collected over a period of 5 years from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio nontoxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous constituents (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention of As, B, Cr, Cu, Zn, and ammonia was likely due to sorption to mineral components of the FGD liner, while Ca, Fe, and P retention were a result of both sorption and precipitation of Fe- and Ca-containing phosphate solids.

  14. Impact of osmotic stress on seedling growth observations, membrane characteristics and antioxidant defense system of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out a straightforward technique for screening the tolerance of ten wheat genotypes to two levels of osmotic stress at early seedling stage. Data revealed that polyethylene glycol-induced drought had general negative effect on seedling morphological characters indicated by plumule and radicle length, number of adventitious roots as well as seedling biomass and water content. Water deficit could also suppress membrane integrity by stimulating lipid peroxidation with marked increase in membrane leakage and subsequent decrease in its stability index. For all the addressed germination parameters and seedling membrane features, the impact of severe drought was more pronounced than that of moderate drought. Simultaneously, moderate stress could activate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbic peroxidase of the studied genotypes; but these enzymes were inhibited by severe stress. The activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was conversely retarded by drought whether at moderate or severe level. More interestingly, a novel function “Stress Impact Index; SII” was introduced to rank the estimated morpho-physiological traits (SIItrait as well as the considered genotypes (SIIgenotype according to their sensitivity to stress. Values of SIItrait implied that germination parameters were generally affected by drought more intensively than membrane characteristics and finally came the antioxidant enzymes with the least degree of suppression when applying stress. Based on the magnitudes of SIIgenotype, Sids 13 seemed to be the most drought-tolerant wheat cultivar while Shandawel 1 could be the most sensitive one at their juvenile growth stage.

  15. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia.

  16. Aging impacts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on furfural production residue-derived biochars: Porosity, functional properties, and inorganic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhixiang; Zheng, Hao; Dai, Yanhui; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-12-31

    The aging of biochar by low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), which are typical root-derived exudates, is not well understood. Three LMWOAs (ethanoic, malic, and citric acids) were employed to investigate their aging impacts on the biochars from furfural production residues at 300-600°C (BC300-600). The LMWOAs created abundant macropores in BC300, whereas they significantly increased the mesoporosity and surface area of BC600 by 13.5-27.0% and 44.6-61.5%, respectively. After LMWOA aging, the content of C and H of the biochars increased from 51.3-60.2% and 1.87-3.45% to 56.8-69.9% and 2.06-4.45%, respectively, but the O content decreased from 13.8-24.8% to 7.82-19.4% (except BC300). For carbon fraction in the biochars, the LMWOAs barely altered the bulk and surface functional properties during short-term aging. The LMWOAs facilitated the dissolution of minerals (e.g., K 2 Mg(PO 3 ) 4 , AlPO 4 , and Pb 2 P 2 O 7 ) and correspondingly promoted the release of not only plant nutrients (K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , PO 4 3- , and SO 4 2- ) but also toxic metals (Al 3+ and Pb 2+ ). This research provided systematic insights on the responses of biochar properties to LMWOAs and presented direct evidence for acid activation of inorganic minerals in the biochars by LMWOAs, which could enhance the understanding of environmental behaviors of biochars in rhizosphere soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant properties of caroot juices and their impact on intestinal and probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in non-dairy probiotic products. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of juice prepared from 15 various cultivars of carrot on the growth of representatives of human intestinal microbiota (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Escherichia coli and probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactobacillus casei 01. Carrot juice was added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 5.0% and their impact on the bacteria number was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24 h of culture. The number of cells was expressed as % of positive control (medium without juice addition. Juices prepared from all tested cultivars of carrot inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for juices obtained from the 'Kongo F1' cultivar (3.40 ±2.85% of positive control, 'Rumba F1'(4.17 ±2.27% and 'Broker F1' (5.35 ±2.14%. The majority of tested juices also inhibited the growth of E. coli, but those prepared from the 'Niland F1', 'Napa F1', 'Afro F1'and 'Samba F1' cultivars stimulated the growth of this bacterium. The probiotic strains were less sensitive to carrot juice impact than intestinal species, however both stimulation and inhibition could be observed. Juices made from the cultivars 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' acted negatively on the growth of both probiotic strains, while juice from 'Bangor F1' cultivar inhibited L. casei 01 growth, but stimulated the growth of LA-5. The obtained results suggest that 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' cultivars are not suitable as an additive or raw material for the production of probiotic products, because of their inhibitory properties against probiotic strains. Concluding, carrots can be used as raw material for the production of probiotic beverages, however both the cultivar of carrot and the strains of probiotic bacteria used for the production should be selected carefully. The most suitable for production of

  18. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  19. Impacts of dissolved organic matter on aqueous behavior of nano/micron-titanium nitride and their induced enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidant activities in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Wang, De-Gao

    2017-01-02

    Freshwater dispersion stability and ecotoxicological effects of titanium nitride (TiN) with particle size of 20 nm, 50 nm, and 2-10 μm in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at various concentrations were studied. The TiN particles that had a more negative zeta potential and smaller hydrodynamic size showed more stable dispersion in an aqueous medium when DOM was present than when DOM was absent. Biochemical assays indicated that relative to the control, the TiN particles in the presence of DOM alleviated to some extent the antioxidative stress enzyme activity in Scenedesmus obliquus. In addition, it was found that the TiN with a primary size of 50 nm at a high concentration presented a significant impact on non-enzymatic antioxidant defense in algal cells.

  20. Evolution of availability of curcumin inside poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: impact on antioxidant and antinitrosant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betbeder, Didier; Lipka, Emmanuelle; Howsam, Mike; Carpentier, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin. Method We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4°C vs 25°C vs 37°C). Results In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching experiments. Moreover, we demonstrated a direct antinitrosant activity of curcumin, enhanced by PLGA encapsulation, which was increased by light exposure. Conclusion These results suggest that the antioxidant and antinitrosant activities of encapsulated curcumin are light sensitive and that nanoparticle modifications over time and with temperature may facilitate curcumin contact with reactive oxygen species. These results highlight the importance of understanding effects of nanoparticle maturation on an encapsulated drug’s activity. PMID

  1. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameena Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic constituents in Piper betle are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate present in dried Piper betle’s extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract’s antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.9046 and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions.

  2. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ameena; Chong, Chien Hwa; Mah, Siau Hui; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Choong, Thomas Shean Yaw; Chua, Bee Lin

    2018-02-23

    The phenolic constituents in Piper betle are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate) present in dried Piper betle 's extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C) and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di- tert -butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract's antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients ( R ² = 0.9046) and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions).

  3. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids Gallic Acid Rutin Quercetin And Mannitol On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and Its prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MICMBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Bacillus subtilis Klebsiella pneumonae Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin rutin and gallic acid mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore Its gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

  4. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  5. Impact of haloperidol and quetiapine on the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut; Heiser, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Antipsychotics are known to alter antioxidant activities in vivo. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line the impact of a typical (haloperidol) and an atypical (quetiapine) antipsychotic on the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes of the antioxidant metabolism (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase; Mn superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase; catalase) and enzymes of the glutathione metabolism (gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione reductase). The cells were incubated for 24h with 0.3, 3, 30 and 300microM haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively; mRNA levels were measured by polymerase chain reaction. In the present study, we observed mostly significant decreases of mRNA contents. With respect to the key pathways, we detected mainly effects on the mRNA levels of the hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzymes. Among the enzymes of the glutathione metabolism, glutathione-S-transferase- and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-mRNA levels showed the most prominent effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate a significantly reduced expression of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes after treatment with the antipsychotics, haloperidol and quetiapine.

  6. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  7. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  8. Cryopreservation of ram semen with antioxidant supplemented soybean lecithin-based extenders and impacts on incubation resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, M Berk; Alcay, Selim; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this study was investigation the affects of various antioxidants on 1% soybean lecithin-based semen extenders for ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates, collected via electrically stimulated ejaculation, that have a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. The pooled samples were split into four equal aliquots as 5 mM Methionine, 5 mM Cysteamine, 1 mM Cysteine and a sample of antioxidant-free control group. Each sample group was diluted to a ratio of 1/5 (semen/extender, v/v) as final concentration and two step dilution method was used for cryopreservation. Extender groups were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Semen samples also incubated for 6 h in humidified air with 5% CO2 at 39 °C to evaluate post-thaw incubation resilience of semen characteristics. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures had negative effects on motility (P < 0.05), plasma membrane integrity (P < 0.05) and acrosomal integrity (P < 0.05). After 6 h of incubation time, the Cysteine supplemented extender group yielded significantly higher results than other extender groups in terms of spermatological parameters. Furthermore MDA levels in the antioxidant groups were lower than control group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among antioxidant groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  10. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  11. Thorium inorganic gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.; Brandel, V.

    1988-01-01

    The optimum pH and concentration values of thorium salts and oxoacids or oxoacid salts which lead to transparent and stable inorganic gels have been determined. The isotherm drying process of the gel at 50 0 C leads successively to a partly dehydrated gel, then, to the formation of an unusual liquid phase and, finally to a dry amorphous solid phase which is still transparent. This kind of transparent inorganic gels and amorphous phase can be used as matrices for spectroscopic studies [fr

  12. The antioxidant properties of functional food ingredients used in the production of bakery and dairy products, their impact on quality and storageability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Potoroko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of antioxidant activity (AOA food ingredients (FI containing fucoidan used as dressers bakery and dairy products, and evaluate their impact on the quality and persistence of the products. The use of FI possessing AOA in food production will ensure their functionality from the point of view of increasing the resistance of the body to noninfectious diseases. Objects of research were fucoidan from different manufacturers, as well as experimental samples of bread wheat and yoghurt-based products restored dry milk. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of FI based on fucoidan showed that the total concentration of antioxidants varies in significant range from (43,32 ± 0,2 to (69,17 ± 0,2 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g was Also determined the effect of any FI on the organoleptic and physico-chemical quality parameters of bread and yogurt product in storage. The use of FI in the technology of bread contributes to the prolongation of periods of storage. Thus the deviation values increased humidity decreases by 1.3%, porosity – by 1.4%. In addition, we studied the temperature stability of fucoidan after baking bread. The residual content of his made up 0,196 ± 0.0015 mg/g when introducing 0.2 g. study of the effect of FI with fucoidan on the inhibition of the processes of molding bread confirmed the strong bactericidal properties of fucoidans, due to the high AOA. During storage of yoghurt for 120 hours was observed decrease in the activity of capacity operated of acidity that may be due to the action of FI.

  13. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  14. Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zothansiama; Zosangzuali, Mary; Lalramdinpuii, Miriam; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p base stations, showed significantly (p base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.

  15. Modulation of adverse impact of chilling in Vicia faba L. by methyl jasmonate involves changes in antioxidant metabolism and metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Rashed, S.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted experiments to assess the effect of chilling (10 degree C) stress on growth, nitrogen and antioxidant components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and the role of methyl jasmonate (MJ 25 meu M) in growth regulation and amelioration of chilling stress. Chilling temperature significantly reduced growth and pigment synthesis which was however significantly improved by application of MJ. Nodule growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen content were negatively affected by chilling and MJ application caused significant improvement in these attributes. Application of MJ significantly enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes resulting in reduced oxidative damage. Chilling stressed plants exhibited higher lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide. Ascorbic acid and phenol contents were observed to increase by 8.4% and 7.9% due to MJ providing strength to plants against chilling stress. In addition application of MJ was observed to maintain optimal levels of abscissic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) resulting in coordinated regulation of defence mechanisms against chilling stress. (author)

  16. Impact of boiling on free and bound phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of commercial gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Lucini, Luigi; Chiodelli, Giulia; Giuberti, Gianluca; Montesano, Domenico; Masoero, Francesco; Trevisan, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Cooking by boiling dry pasta could have varying degrees of influence on nutritional and functional components. In the present study, its effect on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, as well as on the comprehensive profile of free and bound phenolics, was investigated in six commercial gluten-free (GF) pasta products. Overall, the heat treatment caused a significant reduction (Pphenolic content as well as FRAP reducing power and ORAC radical scavenging, with significant differences among the pasta samples considered. The highest values were recorded in free phenolic fraction remaining in black rice (41mggallic acid equivalents100g -1 and 25mmolTrolox Equivalents100g -1 ) and quinoa (24mggallic acid equivalents100g -1 and 14mmolTrolox Equivalents100g -1 ) cooked GF pasta. Significant correlations (Pphenolics and both the antioxidant capacity assays performed. UHPLC-ESI/QTOF-MS mass profiling allowed confirming the spectrophotometric results, while identifying the amount of free and bound fractions. Among phenolic classes, lignans exhibited the highest decrease during the cooking process, followed by stilbenes and flavonoids. However, phenolic acids and other phenolics showed the highest stability. Furthermore, cooking by boiling strongly lowered the bound-to-free ratio of phenolic compounds, by an averaged factor ranging from 14-folds for flavonoids to 5-folds for other classes of phenolics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; Herken, Emine Nur; Yıldız, Aysun Yurdunuseven

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55°C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of convective drying on the color, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel MIRELES-ARRIAGA

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of thin-layer drying temperature on color, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of noni slices was investigated. Noni slices were air-dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C under natural convection conditions. Drying curves were fitted to thin-layer drying models in order to evaluate the drying characteristics of the product. In addition, an unsteady-state diffusion equation was numerically solved considering both product shrinkage and a variable mass Biot number in boundary condition to accurately estimate water diffusivity in a process with external resistance to mass transfer. Results revealed that the Aghbashlo model accurately reproduced the experimental behavior. As expected, water diffusivities, corrected for shrinkage, increased with the use of higher drying temperatures, with values in the range of 1.80-3.19 to ×10-9 m2/s. On the other hand, while drying caused a reduction in product lightness (24-31% and total phenolic content (20-28%, the antioxidant capacity of dried noni was high (82-93% DPPH inhibition, which is advantageous for the further storage or processing of this fruit.

  19. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of Rhizopus oryzae cultivation on rice bran: Gamma-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarolo, Kelly Cristina; Denardi de Souza, Taiana; Collazzo, Carolina Carvalho; Badiale Furlong, Eliana; Souza Soares, Leonor Almeida de

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solid state cultivation (SSC) time of rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae on γ-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties. Gamma-oryzanol was extracted with organic solvents and its extracts were characterized by GC-FID and HPLC-UV. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS + assays, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and reduction of oxidation in lipid system. The biomass showed the γ-oryzanol recovery increased by 51.5% (20.52mg/g), and 5.7% in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The γ-oryzanol major components changing in their profile. The γ-oryzanol extract from biomass (72h) showed the greatest DPPH inhibition (59.0%), while 90.5% inhibition of oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and 30% reduction of the indicators of oxidation in olive oil was observed in the one cultivated at 96h, these behaviors were confirmed by PCA analyses. SSC provides an increase in the γ-oryzanol recovery followed by improving of the functional properties of rice bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  2. Impact of supplementation of semen extender with antioxidants on the quality of chilled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, AbdelRaouf M; Shahat, Abdallah M; Fadl, Aya M; Ayoub, Mohamed M; Moawad, Adel R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of semen extender with various non-enzymatic antioxidants on the quality of cooled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. Semen collected from four pure Arabian stallions was centrifuged at 600g for 15 min. Spermatozoa were then diluted in INRA-82 extender supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) or trehalose (0, 75, 100 and 150 mM) or zinc sulphate (0, 100, 150 and 200 μM). The diluted semen was then either cooled at 5 °C or cryopreserved in 0.5-ml plastic straws. After cooling or thawing, sperm motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, viability index, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The results showed that supplementation of semen extender with 150 mM trehalose or with 200 μM zinc sulphate significantly (P < 0.05) improved motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome status in Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing compared with controls (non-supplemented media) or with those supplemented with other concentrations of trehalose or zinc sulphate. Supplementation of semen extender with BSA did not improve sperm motility or cryosurvival of Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing. In conclusion, supplementation of semen extender with non-enzymatic antioxidants (trehalose or zinc sulphate) improved the quality of chilled and frozen/thawed Arabian stallion spermatozoa. The most beneficial effects occur when semen diluent was supplemented with 150 mM trehalose or 200 μM zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Risks of Nano Zerovalent Iron for Arsenate Remediation: Impacts on Cytosolic Levels of Inorganic Phosphate and MgATP2- in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Lo, Irene M C; Hu, Liming; Voon, Chia Pao; Lim, Boon Leong; Versaw, Wayne K

    2018-04-03

    The use of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) for arsenate (As(V)) remediation has proven effective, but full-scale injection of nZVI into the subsurface has aroused serious concerns for associated environmental risks. This study evaluated the efficacy of nZVI treatment for arsenate remediation and its potential hazards to plants using Arabidopsis thaliana grown in a hydroponic system. Biosensors for inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgATP 2- were used to monitor in vivo Pi and MgATP 2- levels in plant cells. The results showed that nZVI could remove As(V) from growth media, decrease As uptake by plants, and mitigate As(V) toxicity to plants. However, excess nZVI could cause Pi starvation in plants leading to detrimental effects on plant growth. Due to the competitive adsorption of As(V) and Pi on nZVI, removing As(V) via nZVI treatment at an upstream site could relieve downstream plants from As(V) toxicity and Pi deprivation, in which case 100 mg/L of nZVI was the optimal dosage for remediation of As(V) at a concentration around 16.13 mg/L.

  4. Bulk soil and maize rhizosphere resistance genes, mobile genetic elements and microbial communities are differently impacted by organic and inorganic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolters, Birgit; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Organic soil fertilizers, such as livestock manure and biogas digestate, frequently contain bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) to antimicrobial substances and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The effects of different fertilizers (inorganic, manure, digestate) on RG and MGE abundance...... and microbial community composition were investigated in a field plot experiment. The relative abundances of RGs [sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), qacEΔ1/qacE] and MGEs [intI1, intI2, IncP-1, IncP-1ε and LowGC plasmids] in total community (TC)-DNA from organic fertilizers, bulk soil and maize......, integrons and few genera affiliated to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in bulk soil, while digestate increased sul2, tet(W) and intI2. At harvest, treatment effects vanished in bulk soil. However, organic fertilizer effects were still detectable in the rhizosphere for RGs [manure: intI1, sul1; digestate: tet...

  5. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.; Darwish, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  6. Optimal germination condition impacts on the antioxidant activity and phenolic acids profile in pigmented desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Arispuro, D M; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Milán-Carrillo, J; León-López, L; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2018-02-01

    Legume sprouts are considered natural, healthy products that provide a source of bioactive compounds to fight against chronic diseases. This study aims to identify the optimal germination temperature (GT) and germination time (Gt) to maximize total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC, FC), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) of desi chickpea. Response surface methodology was used as an optimization tool. An experimental design with two factors (GT and Gt) and five levels was used (13 treatments). The sprouts from each treatment were lyophilized, tempered, and milled to obtain germinated chickpea flours (GCF). To predict the phytochemicals composition and AoxA in GCF, regression models were developed. Maximum TPC, FC, and AoxA were attained during germination 33.7 °C for 171 h. Optimized germinated chickpea flour produced applying the optimal germination conditions resulted in an increase of protein and total dietary fibre content, TPC, FC, phenolic acids profile, and AoxA. Germination at optimal conditions also increased the level of coumaric, ferulic, synapic, ellagic, and syringic acids. This study demonstrated that germination carried out under optimal conditions enhanced the nutraceutical value of desi chickpea seeds.

  7. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    Ripening of cheddar cheese is a time taking process, duration of the ripening may be as long as one year. Long ripening time is a big hindrance in the popularity of cheese in developing countries. Further, energy resources in these countries are either insufficient or very expensive. Therefore, those methods of cheese ripening should be discovered which can significantly reduce the ripening time without compromising the quality characteristics of cheddar cheese. In accelerated ripening, cheese is usually ripened at higher temperature than traditional ripening temperatures. Ripening of cheddar cheese at high temperature with the addition of vitamin E and selenium is not previously studied. This investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity of selenium and vitamin E in accelerated ripening using cheddar cheese as an oxidation substrate. The ripening of cheddar cheese was performed at 18 °C and to prevent lipid oxidation, vitamin E and selenium were used alone and in combination. The treatments were as: cheddar cheese without any addition of vitamin E and selenium (T1), cheddar cheese added with 100 mg/kg vitamin E (T 2 ), 200 mg/kg vitamin E (T 3 ), 800 μg/kg selenium (T 4 ), 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 5 ), vitamin E 100 mg/kg + 800 μg/kg selenium (T 6 ) and vitamin E 200 mg/kg + 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 7 ). Traditional cheddar cheese ripne ripened at 4-6 °C for 9 months was used as positive control. Cheese samples were ripened at 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of storage. All these treatments were compared with a cheddar cheese without vitamin E, selenium and ripened at 4 °C or 12 weeks. Vacuum packaged cheddar cheese was ripened 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of storage period. Addition of Vitamin E and selenium did not have any effect on moisture, fat and

  9. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K

    2014-01-01

    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pH(x)) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pH(x) measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2*] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and stem temperature (T(stem)), complemented with pH(x) measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pH(x) to calculate [CO2*] based on T(stem) and the corresponding measured [CO2]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2*] calculated with instantaneous pH(x) and daily average pH(x). However, using an average pH(x) value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2] and T(stem) to estimate [CO2*] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2*] data. Measured pH(x) did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pH(x) (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2*] will negatively affect pH(x). Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2*] due to the interaction between [CO2] and pH(x) on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pH(x) across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2*] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more

  10. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  11. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-16

    Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 14. No. 9. 1975 Karl 0. Christ¢ (21) L. J. Basile . P. LaBonvillk. J. R. Ferraro, and J. M. Williams. J. Claim. (38) K. 0. Chriae. E... basils of a nonplanar structure of symmetry CI, are revised for six fundamental frequencies. Imalredetle either the 1:2 adduct N 2F4.2SbF5 or the 1:3...8217 in mT are 7 2.1 for B, facility. We aba thank L. K. White and R. L. Belford 111.0 for C, 55.0 for N, and 17100 for F, and the atomic aniso- trop’c

  12. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  13. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  14. Impacts of NOx reducing antioxidant additive on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palash, S.M.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Arbab, M.I.; Masum, B.M.; Sanjid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental benefits of JB blends were found but adverse impact on NO x . • Addition of 0.15% (m) DPPD in JB20, average reduction in NO up to 16.54%. • In some cases, engine power is reduced with DPPD additive. • Emissions of HC and CO for JB blends with DPPD were lower compared to diesel. • Addition of DPPD in JB blends reduction of EGT was found. - Abstract: Energy requirements are increasing rapidly due to fast industrialization and the increased number of vehicles on the road. The use of biodiesel in diesel engines instead of diesel results in the proven reduction of harmful exhaust emissions. However, most researchers have reported that they produce higher NO x emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the expansion of the market for these fuels. Several proposed pathways try to account for NO x formation during the combustion process. Among them, the Fenimore mechanism explains that fuel radicals formed during the combustion process react with nitrogen from the air to form NO x . It could be proposed that if these radical reactions could be terminated, the NO x formation rate for biodiesel combustion would decrease. An experimental study was conducted on a four-cylinder diesel engine to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel blends (JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20) with and without the addition of N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) antioxidant. For each tested fuel, the engine performance and emissions were measured at engine speeds 1000–4000 rpm at an interval of 500 rpm under the full throttle condition. The results showed that this antioxidant additive could reduce NO x emissions significantly with a slight penalty in terms of engine power and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) as well as CO and HC emissions. However, when compared to diesel combustion, the emissions of HC and CO with the addition of the DPPD additive were found to be nearly the same or lower. By the

  15. Influence of separate and combined impact both of radiation and chemical factors on state of lipid peroxide oxidation system and antioxidant protection at pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Kolb, V.G.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of low dozed ionizing irradiation and chemical toxicant was studied both under separate and combined action in the process of pregnancy. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) indices and antioxidant protection (AOP) parameters of females rats were studied. The result received proved that irradiation during pregnancy induced activation both of lipids free radical oxidation and of antioxidant protection in female rats. Chemical toxicants introduction resulted in shifts on the LPO-AOP system the hydrogen peroxide blood level increasing and the antioxidants ones reducing. Combined action of both factors led to development of a new level of LPO-AOP

  16. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  17. Impacts of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nitrification in a cold climate soil are linked to the bacterial ammonia oxidizer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fenliang; Yang, Qianbao; Li, Zhaojun; Wei, Dan; Cui, Xi'an; Liang, Yongchao

    2011-11-01

    The microbiology underpinning soil nitrogen cycling in northeast China remains poorly understood. These agricultural systems are typified by widely contrasting temperature, ranging from -40 to 38°C. In a long-term site in this region, the impacts of mineral and organic fertilizer amendments on potential nitrification rate (PNR) were determined. PNR was found to be suppressed by long-term mineral fertilizer treatment but enhanced by manure treatment. The abundance and structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques. The abundance of AOA was reduced by all fertilizer treatments, while the opposite response was measured for AOB, leading to a six- to 60-fold reduction in AOA/AOB ratio. The community structure of AOA exhibited little variation across fertilization treatments, whereas the structure of the AOB community was highly responsive. PNR was correlated with community structure of AOB rather than that of AOA. Variation in the community structure of AOB was linked to soil pH, total carbon, and nitrogen contents induced by different long-term fertilization regimes. The results suggest that manure amendment establishes conditions which select for an AOB community type which recovers mineral fertilizer-suppressed soil nitrification.

  18. Aqueous-Processed Inorganic Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on CdSe(x)Te(1-x) Nanocrystals: The Impact of Composition on Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingsen; Chen, Zhaolai; Zhao, Yue; Du, Xiaohang; Liu, Fangyuan; Jin, Gan; Dong, Fengxia; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2015-10-21

    Aqueous processed nanocrystal (NC) solar cells are attractive due to their environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness. Controlling the bandgap of absorbing layers is critical for achieving high efficiency for single and multijunction solar cells. Herein, we tune the bandgap of CdTe through the incorporation of Se via aqueous process. The photovoltaic performance of aqueous CdSexTe1-x NCs is systematically investigated, and the impacts of charge generation, transport, and injection on device performance for different compositions are deeply discussed. We discover that the performance degrades with the increasing Se content from CdTe to CdSe. This is mainly ascribed to the lower conduction band (CB) of CdSexTe1-x with higher Se content, which reduces the driving force for electron injection into TiO2. Finally, the performance is improved by mixing CdSexTe1-x NCs with conjugated polymer poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.35% is achieved based on ternary NCs. This work may provide some information to further optimize the aqueous-processed NC and hybrid solar cells.

  19. Impact of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on Beta vulgaris L.: Pigments, metabolites, antioxidants, growth and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Tiwari, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess morphological, biochemical and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. cv Allgreen) to ambient and elevated levels of CO 2 and O 3 , alone and in combination. As compared to the plants grown in charcoal filtered air (ACO 2 ), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated CO 2 (ECO 2 ) and decreased under combination of ECO 2 with elevated O 3 (ECO 2 + EO 3 ), ambient O 3 (ACO 2 + AO 3 ) and elevated O 3 (EO 3 ). Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, catalase and glutathione reductase activities enhanced under all treatments and were highest in EO 3. Foliar starch and organic carbon contents increased under ECO 2 and ECO 2 + EO 3 and reduced under EO 3 and ACO 2 + AO 3. Foliar N content declined in all treatments compared to ACO 2 resulting in alteration of C/N ratio. This study concludes that ambient level of CO 2 is not enough to counteract O 3 impact, but elevated CO 2 has potential to counteract the negative effects of future O 3 level. -- Highlights: ► Elevated CO 2 enhanced the growth and yield of palak. ► Ambient and elevated ozone reduced the growth and yield of the test plant. ► Elevated CO 2 reduced negative effects of elevated O 3 by reducing oxidative stress. ► Higher amelioration was recorded at elevated CO 2 + O 3 compared to ambient CO 2 + O 3 . -- Predicted levels of CO 2 have greater ameliorative potential against negative effects of elevated ozone compared to present day CO 2 against ambient ozone

  20. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  1. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  2. The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Beatty, Stephen; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Stringham, Jim; Kelly, David; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Nolan, John M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration. In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61). Visual function was assessed using best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, retinal straylight, photostress recovery time, reading performance, and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. Macular pigment was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. There was a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measure (letter CS at 6 cycles per degree [6 cpd]) over time (P = 0.013), and this observed improvement was statistically comparable between interventions (P = 0.881). Statistically significant improvements in several secondary outcome visual function measures (letter CS at 1.2 and 2.4 cpd; mesopic and photopic CS at all spatial frequencies; mesopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, and 6 cpd; photopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 cpd; photostress recovery time; retinal straylight; mean and maximum reading speed) were also observed over time (P 0.05, for all). Statistically significant increases in macular pigment at all eccentricities were observed over time (P 0.05). Antioxidant supplementation in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration results in significant increases in macular pigment and improvements in CS and other measures of visual function. (Clinical trial, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13894787).

  3. Comparison of Antioxidant Evaluation Assays for Investigating Antioxidative Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Alkyl Esters in Different Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonsatta, Natthaporn; Deetae, Pawinee; Luangpituksa, Pairoj; Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Le Comte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Decker, Eric A; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Panya, Atikorn

    2017-08-30

    The addition of antioxidants is one of the strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation, a major cause of lipid deterioration in foods leading to rancidity development and nutritional losses. However, several studies have been reported that conventional antioxidant assays, e.g., TPC, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC could not predict antioxidant performance in several foods. This study aimed to investigate the performance of two recently developed assays, e.g., the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) and the apolar radical-initiated conjugated autoxidizable triene (ApoCAT) assays to predict the antioxidant effectiveness of gallic acid and its esters in selected food models in comparison with the conventional antioxidant assays. The results indicated that the polarities of the antioxidants have a strong impact on antioxidant activities. In addition, different oxidant locations demonstrated by the CAT and ApoCAT assays influenced the overall antioxidant performances of the antioxidants with different polarities. To validate the predictability of the assays, the antioxidative performance of gallic acid and its alkyl esters was investigated in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, bulk soybean oils, and roasted peanuts as the lipid food models. The results showed that only the ApoCAT assay could be able to predict the antioxidative performances in O/W emulsions regardless of the antioxidant polarities. This study demonstrated that the relevance of antioxidant assays to food models was strongly dependent on physical similarities between the tested assays and the food structure matrices.

  4. Identification of Water Diffusivity of Inorganic Porous Materials Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, J.; Maděra, J.; Jerman, M.; Keppert, M.; Svora, Petr; Černý, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2016), s. 51-66 ISSN 0169-3913 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Evolutionary algorithms * Water transport * Inorganic porous materials * Inverse analysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.205, year: 2016

  5. Evolution of availability of curcumin inside poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: impact on antioxidant and antinitrosant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betbeder D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Didier Betbeder,1–4 Emmanuelle Lipka,1,2,5 Mike Howsam,6 Rodolphe Carpentier1–3 1U995-LIRIC, Inserm (Institut National de la Recherche Médicale, Lille, France; 2U995-LIRIC, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France; 3U995-LIRIC, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lille, Lille, France; 4Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université d’Artois, Arras, France; 5Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Lille, Lille, France; 6Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Lille, Centre Universitaire de Mesures et d’Analyses, Lille, France Purpose: Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin.Method: We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4°C vs 25°C vs 37°C.Results: In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching

  6. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  7. Polymeric and Inorganic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This series presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics and materials science. It is addressed to all scientists at universities and in industry who wish to keep abreast of advances in the topics covered. Impact Factor Ranking: Always number one in Polymer Science. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: www.springerlink.

  8. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  9. The impact of high pressure processing on the phenolic profile, hydrophilic antioxidant and reducing capacity of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeż, Maja; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Zielińska, Danuta; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Błaszczak, Wioletta

    2018-09-30

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (450-550-650 MPa/5-10-15 min) on polyphenols profile of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties (Maliniak, Cerise, Black Prince and Lima) was investigated. Individual polyphenols, total phenolic index (TPI) were quantified using a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). Photochemiluminescence (PCLACW), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract. The results demonstrated that at certain processing conditions, HHP may enhance or decrease the nutritional quality of tomato purée. However, the tomato variety was a key factor influencing the polyphenols profile and the antioxidant capacity. A significant positive correlation was found among TPI, FRAP or CV parameters and the concentration of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and p-coumaric acids, and epicatechin. On the other hand, significant positive correlation was observed among antioxidant capacity (PCLACW), TPC, rutin and naringenin concentration as well as chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of Conditions for Extraction of Polyphenols and the Determination of the Impact of Cooking on Total Polyphenolic, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Imen; Barkat, Malika

    2018-01-01

    In this work we optimized the cooking and extraction conditions for obtaining high yields of total polyphenols from potato and studied the effect of three domestic methods of cooking on total phenols, antioxidant activity, and anticholinesterase activities. The optimization of the experiment was carried out by the experimental designs. The extraction of the polyphenols was carried out by maceration and ultrasonication. Determination of the polyphenols was performed by using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and CUPRAC(Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), the anticholinesterase activity was evaluated by the method of Elmann. The optimum of total phenolic obtained was: 4.668 × 104, 1.406 × 104, 3357.009, 16,208.99 µg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g of dry extract for crude potato, steamed potatoes, in boiling water, and by microwave, respectively. The three modes of cooking cause a decrease in the total polyphenol contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. PMID:29522482

  11. Effects of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles S; Luo, Chao

    2007-01-01

     We perform a sensitivity study with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to understand the impact of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry and air-sea CO2 exchange. Simulations involved examining the response to three different atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition scenarios namely, Pre-industrial (22 Tg N/year), 1990s (39 Tg N/year), and an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prediction for 2100, IPCC-A1FI (69 Tg N/year). Glob...

  12. Comparative antioxidative properties of selected seed oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číž, Milan; Gorinstein, S.; Lojek, Antonín; Martin-Belloso, A.; Leontowich, H.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, Suppl. 1 (2002), s. 64-65 ISSN 1071-5762. [European Research on Functional Effects of Dietary Antioxidants: Benefits and Risks. Cambridge, 25.09.02-28.09.02] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB6004204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : antioxidants * polyphenols * seed oils Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2002

  13. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  14. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    KEYWORDS. Inorganic chemistry, gold, atomic theory, history of chemistry. .... Figure 2 (a) shows Moir's model for the C atom, where the black circles represent the ..... Na filled the hole in the F atom, both becoming ions even in the crystal state ...

  16. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  18. Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies.

  19. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  20. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  1. [The impact of ascorbic acid on the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins in the plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing first-line chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Maciej; Godala, Małgorzata; Mejer, Anna; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-09-01

    One of the main after-effects of chemotherapy used in cancer treatment is an augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In turn ROS become a source of unwanted side effects of chemotherapy, often forcing the discontinuation of the therapy. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), being an antioxidant, can strengthen the antioxidative barrier of an organism. The aim of the study was an assessment of the concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy supplemented with vitamin C. 25 first-line chemotherapy patients with inoperable NSCLC, including 19 men and 6 women aged between 37-73 years (average age 60.1 +/- 8.8 years) have undergone the examination. Their chemotherapy has been supplemented with ascorbic acid (vitamin C dose of 600 mg per 24 hours). Control group consisted of 24 healthy individuals, including 18 men and 6 women aged between 49-71 years (average age 59.5 +/- 6.6 years). In cancer patients the concentration of A, C and E vitamins was assessed by spectrophotometry using T60V spectrophotometer (PG Instruments) before and after first-line chemotherapy which was supplemented with vitamin C. In control group the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins was assessed only once. In comparison to the control group the concentrations of the A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients was significantly lower (p vitamin C a significant rise of concentrations (p vitamins tested for was observed. The biggest rise was noted for vitamin C (99.8%). The supplementation of the chemotherapy of NSCLC patients with C vitamin leads to rise of the low concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma. This suggests strengthening of the antioxidative barrier in patients.

  2. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  3. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  4. The impact of packaging materials on the antioxidant phytochemical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Welt, Bruce A; Talcott, Stephen T

    2011-05-11

    Ready to drink (RTD) teas are a growing segment in the beverage category, brought about by improvements in the flavor of these products and healthy market trends driven by consumers. The presented results evaluated the antioxidant phytochemical stability of RTD teas from aqueous infusions of traditional green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) as influenced by packaging materials during cold storage. Two common packaging materials for RTD products are glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and have been compared to a retortable pouch (RP), an emerging packaging material for various types of food since it is durable, inexpensive, lightweight, and easy to sterilize. Storage stability was then evaluated for each aqueous infusion prepared at 10 g/L at 90 °C for 10 min and evaluated at 3 °C in the absence of light over 12 weeks. Analyses included quantification and characterization of individual polyphenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry as well as changes in total antioxidant capacity. For green tea, concentrations of the three major flavan-3-ols, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin gallate were better retained in glass bottles as compared to other packages over 12 weeks. In yaupon holly, chlorogenic acid and its isomers that were the predominant compounds were generally stable in each packaging material, and a 20.6-fold higher amount of saponin was found as compared to green tea, which caused higher stability of flavonol glycosides present in yaupon holly during storage. The antioxidant capacity of green tea was better retained in glass and PET versus RP, whereas no differences were again observed for yaupon holly. Results highlight the superiority of oxygen-impervious glass packaging, but viable alternatives may be utilizable for RTD teas with variable phytochemical compositions.

  5. Impact of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in biological systems upon the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Triplaris gardneriana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Almeida, Thiago Silva; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Moreira, Thaís Borges; Maia, Ana Isabel Vitorino; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-04-01

    The most studied bioactive potential of phenolic compounds corresponds to antioxidant activity, which in turn, is associated with a reduction in the incidence of various human diseases. However, the total quantity of these bioactive substances in foods and medicinal preparations does not reflect the amount absorbed and metabolized by the body. The present study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of Triplaris gardneriana seeds ethanolic extract (EETg) by determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant activities before and after in vitro digestion as well as to estimate its bioavailability by chemical analysis of plasma and urine in animal models after oral administration. The bioaccessibility indexes of phenolic compounds in EETg were 48.65 and 69.28% in the presence and absence of enzymes, respectively. Among the identified phenolics classes, flavonoids, represented by galloylated procyanidins type B, proved to be more bioaccessible, 81.48 and 96.29% in the post-intestinal phase with and without enzymes, respectively. The oral administration in Wistar rats resulted in a significant decrease in plasma of the total antioxidant capacity, TAC, by FRAP assay 4h after beginning the experiment. For urine samples, an increase in TAC by DPPH and FRAP was observed from 1 and 4h after administration, respectively. UPLC-QTOF analysis of urine detected 2 metabolites originated from the degradation of phenolic compounds, i.e. hippuric acid and phenylacetil glycine. These results suggest that phenolic compounds in T. gardneriana are unstable under gastrointestinal conditions, being flavonoids the components with higher bioaccessibility; besides that, they showed limited bioavailability due to their rapid biotransformation and urinary elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of lead tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth, physiology, antioxidant activities, yield and lead content in sunflower in lead contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (LTPGPR) on growth, physiology, yield, antioxidant activities and lead uptake in sunflower in soil contaminated with lead under pot conditions. Three pre-characterized LTPGP strains (S2 (Pseudomonas gessardii strain BLP141), S5 (Pseudomonas fluorescens A506) and S10 (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 2189)) were used to inoculate sunflower growing in soil contaminated with different levels (300, 600 and 900 mg kg -1 ) of lead by using lead nitrate salt as source of lead. Treatments were arranged according to completely randomized design with factorial arrangements. At harvesting, data regarding growth attributes (root shoot length, root shoot fresh and dry weights), yield per plant, physiological attributes (Chlorophyll 'a', 'b' and carotenoids content), antioxidant activities (Ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase), proline and malanodialdehyde content, and lead content in root, shoot and achenes of sunflower were recorded. Data were analysed by standard statistical procedures. Results showed that lead contamination reduced the plants growth, physiology and yield at all levels of lead stress. But application of LTPGPR in soil contaminated with lead improved plant growth, physiology, yield, and antioxidant activities, proline, and reduced the malanodialdehyde content (that is reduced by the application of different strains in lead contamination) of sunflower as compared to plants grown in soil without inoculation. Inoculation also promoted the uptake of lead in root, shoots and reduced the uptake of lead in achenes of plants as compared to plants in lead contamination without inoculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Consumption of Chicory Leaf Extract in Adjunct with Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum Antioxidant and Lipid Status in Patients with Periodontal Disease: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zare-Javid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence. There are few studies about the role of diet in prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of Chicory leaf extract in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal therapies on serum antioxidant and lipid status. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 40 patients in Sina Hospital of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Iran in 2014. The intervention (n=20 and control groups (n=20 were allocated using blocked randomization. The intervention group received 2 capsules (2 g of Chicory leaf extract daily for 8 weeks. All subjects underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy during the intervention period. Anthropometric indices, 24-hour diet records, total antioxidant capacity, malate di-aldehyde (MDA, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG and HDL-c was measured before and after intervention. Results: The mean level of total antioxidant capacity (1.89 ± 0.49; 1.20 ± 0.25, respectively; P<0.001 and uric acid (7.15±1.98; 4.48±1.34, respectively; P<0.001 increased in the intervention group compared with the control group post intervention. The mean level of MDA decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group post-intervention (3.01±1.15; 3.97±1.19, respectively; P.d<0.001. Cholesterol difference was not significant pre- and post-intervention between the two groups (P=0.35. The mean level of serum triglyceride (TG was significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group post intervention (149.50±97.88; 109.35±58.00, respectively; P.d<0.001. The mean level of HDL-c was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group post treatment (42.25±8.47; 39.80±8.94, respectively; P.d<0.001. Conclusions: It seems that consumption of Chicory

  8. Glucosinolate profiles by HPLC-DAD, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris: Impact of plant part and origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bouacida, Saoussen; Koubaier, Hayet Ben Haj; Snoussi, Ahmed; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2016-01-01

    The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS-GLSs) were isolated and quantified by lipid chromatography- DAD. Similarity between profiles was obtained. Total DS-GLS content, expressed as sinigrin equivalents (SE) revealed a certain variabilily ranging between (76.07-45.61), (27.01-13.53), (4.52 -18.01), (9.39-3.37) and (1.16-13.99) µmol /g...

  9. Characterization of antioxidant compounds in Jaffa sweeties and white grapefruits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Cvikrová, Milena; Macháčková, Ivana; Haruenkit, R.; Park, Y. S.; Jung, S. T.; Yamamoto, K.; Ayala, A. L. M.; Katrich, E.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 4 (2004), s. 503-510 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA63819; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : citrus fruits * antioxidant compounds * antioxidative activities Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.535, year: 2004

  10. Adipokinetic hormone-induced antioxidant response in Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Josef; Krishnan, N.; Mithöfer, A.; Vogel, H.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 2 (2012), s. 389-395 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant response * antioxidant enzymes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2012

  11. [Efficacy of disinfection treatments using essential oils and ultrasound on tomato fruits inoculated with Escherichia coli and impact on antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Guevara, María L; Luna Guevara, Juan J; Ruiz Espinosa, Héctor; Leyva Abascal, Lucero; Díaz González, Carolina B

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce often harbors a great number of microorganisms; hence, its growing demand may constitute a risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several disinfection procedures against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) inoculated on tomato fruits and the conservation of the antioxidant properties of these disinfected fruits. Fruits were immersed for 5 or 10min in oregano or thyme essential oil dispersions (5, 10ppm), with or without ultrasound treatment. Antioxidant activity of disinfected fruits was determined as the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and was reported as percentage of inhibition (%I). The most efficient disinfectant treatments showing significant differences (p≤.05) between the reductions log10 CFU/g (S) of ETEC were those using 10ppm oregano for 10min, with S=3.05 in individual treatments and S=4.03 in mixed treatments. The highest %I was obtained with individual sonication treatments (69.52 and 72.48), while in combined treatments the %I values increased with thyme oil 5ppm and ultrasound for 5min (51.27%) and 10min (53.31%). Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20 mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactions of inorganic free radicals with liver protecting drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, I.; Foeldiak, G.; Blazovics, A.; Feher, J.

    1990-01-01

    Liver protecting drugs, silibinin, a flavonolignane, and the dihydroquinoline derivatives, CH 402 and MTDQ-DA, were shown to inhibit processes in which enzymatically or non-enzymatically generated free radicals were involved. Inorganic free radicals (N 3 , (SCN) 2 - , OH, Trp, CO 2 - , O 2 - ) produced by pulse radiolysis readily react with the compounds, which transform into exceptionally long-lived, unreactive transients. Time evolution of the UV and visible spectra indicate that oxidising radicals form a phenoxyl type radical from silibinin, while OH forms an adduct by attacking, simultaneously, at various sites of the molecule. Superoxide radicals reduce silibinin and oxidise CH 402 and MTDQ-DA. It is concluded that the drugs might exhibit antioxidant behavior in living systems. (author)

  14. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  15. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  16. The antioxidant paradox: what are antioxidants and how should they be used in a therapeutic context for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L

    2014-01-01

    So-called antioxidants have yet to make a clinical impact on the treatment of human cancer. The reasons for this failure are several. First, many agents that are called antioxidants are truly antioxidants at a given dose, but this dose may not have been given in clinical trials. Second, many agents are not antioxidants at all. Third, not all tumors use reactive oxygen as a signaling mechanism. Finally, reactive oxygen inhibition is often insufficient to kill or regress a tumor cell by itself, but requires sequential introduction of a therapeutic agent for maximal effect. We hope to provide a framework for the logical use of these agents in cancer.

  17. Fundamentals of EUV resist-inorganic hardmask interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Glodde, Martin; De Silva, Anuja; Sheshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Lionti, Krystelle; Magbitang, Teddie

    2017-03-01

    High resolution Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) patterning is currently limited by EUV resist thickness and pattern collapse, thus impacting the faithful image transfer into the underlying stack. Such limitation requires the investigation of improved hardmasks (HMs) as etch transfer layers for EUV patterning. Ultrathin (<5nm) inorganic HMs can provide higher etch selectivity, lower post-etch LWR, decreased defectivity and wet strippability compared to spin-on hybrid HMs (e.g., SiARC), however such novel layers can induce resist adhesion failure and resist residue. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of EUV resist-inorganic HM interactions is needed in order to optimize the EUV resist interfacial behavior. In this paper, novel materials and processing techniques are introduced to characterize and improve the EUV resist-inorganic HM interface. HM surface interactions with specific EUV resist components are evaluated for open-source experimental resist formulations dissected into its individual additives using EUV contrast curves as an effective characterization method to determine post-development residue formation. Separately, an alternative adhesion promoter platform specifically tailored for a selected ultrathin inorganic HM based on amorphous silicon (aSi) is presented and the mitigation of resist delamination is exemplified for the cases of positive-tone and negative-tone development (PTD, NTD). Additionally, original wafer priming hardware for the deposition of such novel adhesion promoters is unveiled. The lessons learned in this work can be directly applied to the engineering of EUV resist materials and processes specifically designed to work on such novel HMs.

  18. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  19. Characterization of inorganic wastes from metal working industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Viguri, J.R.; Andres, A.; Irabien, A.; Guise, L.; Magalhaes, J.; Castro, F.

    1999-01-01

    The paper present the results obtained in the characterisation of metalworking wastes, with the sampling of wastes and characterisation data interpretation subjects as the main studied steps. The results of this work allow to establish the environmental impact assessment of the inorganic wastes from a wide range of metalworking processes in order to determine the optimum options to their management (treatment and/or reuses)

  20. A strategy to improve nitrogen utilization, reduce environmental impact, and increase performance and antioxidant capacity of fattening lambs using pomegranate peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, M; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2017-01-01

    Dietary natural plant secondary metabolites (PSM) extracted from a pomegranate peel (PP) byproduct have the potential to improve milk yield and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. This experiment was performed to assess the influence of different dietary levels of PP extract (PPE) on feedlot performance, ruminal status, nutrient utilization, and antioxidant status in fattening Moghani lambs. Thirty-two lambs (initial BW of 22 ± 1.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with a 72-d period and 4 treatments: PPE0 (no extract), PPE15 (15 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), PPE30 (30 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), and PPE45 (45 mL PPE/kg of diet DM). Feed intake, lamb growth, diet digestibility, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS), N retention, rumen parameters, and blood metabolites were determined. The addition of PPE to the diet of lambs had no effect on DMI (linear [L], = 0.96; quadratic [Q], = 0.65). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, and Ash-free NDF were not affected (L, ≥ 0.28; Q, ≥ 0.26) by different levels of PPE, but it increased ADG (L, = 0.045; Q, = 0.19) and G:F (L, = 0.046; Q, = 0.20). Rumen pH, VFA concentrations, and acetate-to-propionate ratio were not affected (L, ≥ 0.14; Q, ≥ 0.23) by PPE supplementation. Dietary inclusion of PPE decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia N (L, = 0.014; Q, = 0.67), total protozoa enumeration (L, concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, or albumin-to-globulin ratio. Blood urea N (L, = 0.021; Q, = 0.32) decreased with dietary addition of PPE, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the rumen fluid (L, = 0.032; Q, = 0.64) and TAC in the blood (L, = 0.041; Q, = 0.51) increased. Overall, dietary inclusion of PPE, up to 45 mL/kg of diet DM, linearly improved animal growth, N retention, and antioxidant capacities of the blood and rumen fluid. The PPE is a safe natural additive for use in sheep diets that can help to reduce environmental pollution by reducing

  1. The effect of dietary bacterial organic selenium on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and Selenoproteins gene expression in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalia, A M; Loh, T C; Sazili, A Q; Jahromi, M F; Samsudin, A A

    2017-08-18

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral in broilers, which has several important roles in biological processes. Organic forms of Se are more efficient than inorganic forms and can be produced biologically via Se microbial reduction. Hence, the possibility of using Se-enriched bacteria as feed supplement may provide an interesting source of organic Se, and benefit broiler antioxidant system and other biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine the impacts of inorganic Se and different bacterial organic Se sources on the performance, serum and tissues Se status, antioxidant capacity, and liver mRNA expression of selenoproteins in broilers. Results indicated that different Se sources did not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affect broiler growth performance. However, bacterial organic Se of T5 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS18 Se), T4 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS2 Se), and T3 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS1 Se) exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest Se concentration in serum, liver, and kidney respectively. Dietary inorganic Se and bacterial organic Se were observed to significantly affect broiler serum ALT, AST, LDH activities and serum creatinine level. ADS18 supplemented Se of (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) bacterial strain showed the highest GSH-Px activity with the lowest MDA content in serum, and the highest GSH-Px and catalase activity in the kidney, while bacterial Se of ADS2 (Klebsiella pneumoniae) resulted in a higher level of GSH-Px1 and catalase in liver. Moreover, our study showed that in comparison with sodium selenite, only ADS18 bacterial Se showed a significantly higher mRNA level in GSH-Px1, GSH-Px4, DIO1, and TXNDR1, while both ADS18 and ADS2 showed high level of mRNA of DIO2 compared to sodium selenite. The supplementation of bacterial organic Se in broiler chicken, improved tissue Se deposition, antioxidant status, and selenoproteins gene expression, and can be considered as an effective alternative source of

  2. Exposure to Inorganic Mercury Causes Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Functional Deficits in the Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Francisco B; de Oliveira, Ana C A; Leão, Luana K R; Fagundes, Nathália C F; Fernandes, Rafael M; Fernandes, Luanna M P; da Silva, Márcia C F; Amado, Lilian L; Sagica, Fernanda E S; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Crespo-Lopez, Maria E; Maia, Cristiane S F; Lima, Rafael R

    2018-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal that can be found in the environment in three different forms - elemental, organic and inorganic. Inorganic mercury has a lower liposolubility, which results in a lower organism absorption and reduced passage through the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, exposure models that use inorganic mercury in rats in order to evaluate its effects on the central nervous system are rare, especially in adult subjects. This study investigated if a chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2), an inorganic form of mercury, is capable of promoting motor alterations and neurodegenerative in the motor cortex of adult rats. Forty animals were exposed to a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day, for 45 days. They were then submitted to motor evaluation and euthanized to collect the motor cortex. Measurement of mercury deposited in the brain parenchyma, evaluation of oxidative balance, quantification of cellular cytotoxicity and apoptosis and density of mature neurons and astrocytes of the motor cortex were performed. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury caused a decrease in balance and fine motor coordination, formation of mercury deposits and oxidative stress verified by the increase of lipoperoxidation and nitrite concentration and a decrease of the total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we found that this model of exposure to inorganic mercury caused cell death by cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis with a decreased number of neurons and astrocytes in the motor cortex. Our results provide evidence that exposure to inorganic mercury in low doses, even in spite of its poor ability to cross biological barriers, is still capable of inducing motor deficits, cell death by cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and oxidative stress in the motor cortex of adult rats.

  3. Exposure to Inorganic Mercury Causes Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Functional Deficits in the Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B. Teixeira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic metal that can be found in the environment in three different forms – elemental, organic and inorganic. Inorganic mercury has a lower liposolubility, which results in a lower organism absorption and reduced passage through the blood–brain barrier. For this reason, exposure models that use inorganic mercury in rats in order to evaluate its effects on the central nervous system are rare, especially in adult subjects. This study investigated if a chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2, an inorganic form of mercury, is capable of promoting motor alterations and neurodegenerative in the motor cortex of adult rats. Forty animals were exposed to a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day, for 45 days. They were then submitted to motor evaluation and euthanized to collect the motor cortex. Measurement of mercury deposited in the brain parenchyma, evaluation of oxidative balance, quantification of cellular cytotoxicity and apoptosis and density of mature neurons and astrocytes of the motor cortex were performed. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury caused a decrease in balance and fine motor coordination, formation of mercury deposits and oxidative stress verified by the increase of lipoperoxidation and nitrite concentration and a decrease of the total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we found that this model of exposure to inorganic mercury caused cell death by cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis with a decreased number of neurons and astrocytes in the motor cortex. Our results provide evidence that exposure to inorganic mercury in low doses, even in spite of its poor ability to cross biological barriers, is still capable of inducing motor deficits, cell death by cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and oxidative stress in the motor cortex of adult rats.

  4. Glucosinolate profiles by HPLC-DAD, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris: Impact of plant part and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Bouacida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS-GLSs were isolated and quantified by lipid chromatography- DAD. Similarity between profiles was obtained. Total DS-GLS content, expressed as sinigrin equivalents (SE revealed a certain variabilily ranging between (76.07-45.61, (27.01-13.53, (4.52 -18.01, (9.39-3.37 and (1.16-13.99 µmol /g DW for seeds, flowers, leaves, roots and stems, respectively. Results showed that seeds are rich in phenolics as they contain highest amounts of phenolics ranging from 27.6±0.5 to 33.47±0.5 mg GAE/g extract as compared to all other parts. Leaves and flowers had a significantly higher total phenolic content than stems and roots in all samples (p < 0.05. According to statistical analysis, the investigated seed extracts with values between (16.20±0.10-18.50±0.10 mg QE/g exhibited the highest total flavonoids content, followed by leaves (13.00±0.40-15.80±0.30mg QE/g, flowers (10.40±0.40-12.90±0.90 mg QE/g and stems (7.80±0.20- 9.80±0.70 mg QE/g. Antioxidant activity tested by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, was higher for seeds, leaves and flowers than the other studied organs. These organs were characterized by a significantly high content in glucoerucin, nasturtin and epiprogroitrin, respectively.

  5. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  6. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  7. Natural antioxidants in chemoprevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragsted, L.O. [Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soeberg (Denmark). Inst. of Toxicology

    1998-12-31

    It is well documented that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of most common cancers, and that some food items from this class may be protective against heart disease. Several explanations have been offered, one of which relates to the natural presence of potent antioxidants in plant products. Destructive oxidation of lipids, proteins, DNA, and other important biomolecules, often involving radical chain reactions, affect vital cellular structures and their normal functions. Such processes are involved in the development of cancer as well as heart disease, and it seems logical to assume that antioxidants might be preventive. Large human trials with natural antioxidants have not provided a uniform support, however, for the hypothesis that antioxidation per se may prevent cancer or coronary heart disease (CHD). One reason is that other effects, unrelated to antioxidation, may compromise their preventive effects. Another reason may be that many potent antioxidants can also act as pro-oxidants under certain conditions. The interpretation of animal trials is likewise often compromised by the fact that most antioxidants have other physiological effects which might very well explain their protective action or lead to toxic side-effects. (orig.)

  8. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of flavonoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Boušová, I.; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2011), s. 513-523 ISSN 0367-326X Grant - others:GA ČR GP524/09/P121 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phenoxyl radical * Antioxidants * Prooxidants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.848, year: 2011

  9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Vašíček, Ondřej; Blazheva, D.; Nedelcheva, P.; Vojtek, L.; Hyršl, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2014), s. 359-367 ISSN 0001-527X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : herbs * polyphenols * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.153, year: 2014

  10. Antioxidative properties of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowedes, T.C.F.; Luttikhold, J.; Stijn, van M.F.M.; Visser, M.; Norren, van K.; Vermeulen, M.A.R.; Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence accumulates that a family of plant compounds, known as flavonoids, can prevent or slow down the progression of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids are considered beneficial, this is often attributed to their powerful antioxidant

  11. Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Volume I reviews current understanding of autoxidation, largely on the basis of the reactions of oxygen with characterised chemicals. From this flows the modern mechanism of antioxidant actions and their application in stabilisation technology.

  12. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  13. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  14. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  15. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Antioxidants in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to lead the reader an understanding of what free radicals are and how they can form during lipid oxidation. Also, it provides some information out natural antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols flavonoids, polyphenols, tannines, melanoidihes, carotenoids, ascorbates and the echanisms of their protection from radical damage. The sources of natural antioxidants are: oil seeds, teas, vegetables, fruits, spices and herbs.

  17. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G.; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  18. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  19. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  1. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new seasonal, global-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding sub-annual patterns of catchment dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export is critical for predicting and mitigating impacts of coastal eutrophication, such as algal blooms and hypoxic areas, which are often seasonal phenomena. We developed the first calibrated glob...

  2. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Nanoscale zero-valent iron assisted phytoremediation of Pb in sediment: Impacts on metal accumulation and antioxidative system of Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danlian; Qin, Xiang; Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Yunguo; Gong, Xiaomin; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Chao; Cheng, Min; Xue, Wenjing; Wang, Xi; Hu, Zhengxun

    2018-05-30

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant, and could result in toxic effects on living organisms. The effects of 0, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of nZVI on plant growth, Pb accumulation and antioxidative responses of Lolium perenne were investigated. Results showed that the total Pb contents in L. perenne with the treatment of low concentrations of nZVI (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) were higher than those in the non-nZVI treatments, and the highest Pb accumulation capacity of 1175.40 μg per pot was observed in L. perenne with the treatment of 100 mg/kg nZVI. However, the total Pb contents in L. perenne decreased at high concentrations of nZVI (1000 and 2000 mg/kg). This might be resulted from the decrease of photosynthetic chlorophyll content and the aggravated oxidative stress induced by the high concentration of nZVI, which caused the decrease of plant biomass and metal accumulation capacity in plant. Moreover, the sequential extraction experiments results showed that the lowest acid soluble fraction of Pb in the sediments was found in the treatment with 100 mg/kg of nZVI, indicating that 100 mg/kg was the optimum concentration for nZVI to assist the phytoremediation of Pb-polluted sediment. To conclude, these findings provide a promising method to remediate Pb-polluted sediment by nZVI assisted phytoremediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Fabian, P. E.; Stewart, M. W.; Grandlienard, S. D.; Kano, K. S.

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass

  5. Inorganic Nitrogen Application Affects Both Taxonomical and Predicted Functional Structure of Wheat Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. Kavamura

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer regime on bulk soil microbial communities have been well studied, but this is not the case for the rhizosphere microbiome. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of fertilization regime on wheat rhizosphere microbiome assembly and 16S rRNA gene-predicted functions with soil from the long term Broadbalk experiment at Rothamsted Research. Soil from four N fertilization regimes (organic N, zero N, medium inorganic N and high inorganic N was sown with seeds of Triticum aestivum cv. Cadenza. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed with the Illumina platform on bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of 4-week-old and flowering plants (10 weeks. Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene-predicted functional analyses were performed. Fertilization regime affected the structure and composition of wheat rhizosphere bacterial communities. Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes were significantly depleted in treatments receiving inorganic N, whereas the addition of high levels of inorganic N enriched members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, especially after 10 weeks. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased with inorganic nitrogen inputs and was highest after organic treatment (FYM. In general, high levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers negatively affect bacterial richness and diversity, leading to a less stable bacterial community structure over time, whereas, more stable bacterial communities are provided by organic amendments. 16S rRNA gene-predicted functional structure was more affected by growth stage than by fertilizer treatment, although, some functions related to energy metabolism and metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides were enriched in samples not receiving any inorganic N, whereas inorganic N addition enriched predicted functions related to metabolism of other amino acids and carbohydrates. Understanding the impact of different fertilizers on the structure and dynamics of the rhizosphere microbiome is an important step

  6. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  7. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  8. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  9. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  10. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  11. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  12. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  13. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  14. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  15. From Radiation to Antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cells. Antioxidants (AO) can decrease these damage. In addition to radiation, ROS is normally generated by metabolic processes in our bodies. Alteration of ROS and AO levels is related to several diseases and pathologic conditions e.g. cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer, AIDS, and aging. In addition, emotion such as stress can change ROS and AO levels. Antioxidants from nutrient and happy mind will make us healthy, decrease radiation-induced damage, reduce the medical cost, and consequently assist in the development of our economy

  16. Dissolved organic carbon biodegradability from thawing permafrost stimulated by sunlight rather than inorganic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, L.; Zhang, B.; Wang, G.; Qin, S.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost thaw could result in a large portion of frozen carbon being laterally transferred to aquatic ecosystems as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). During this delivery process, the size of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) determines the proportion of DOC mineralized by microorganisms and associated carbon loss to the atmosphere, which may further trigger positive carbon-climate feedback. Thermokarst is an abrupt permafrost thaw process that can enhance DOC export and also impact DOC processing through increased inorganic nitrogen (N) and sunlight exposure. However, it remains unclear how thermokarst-impacted BDOC responds to inorganic N addition and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Here we explored the responses of DOC concentration, composition and its biodegradability to inorganic N and UV light in a typical thermokarst on the Tibetan Plateau, by combining field observation and laboratory incubation with spectra analyses (UV-visible absorption and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra) and parallel factor analyses. Our results showed that BDOC in thermokarst feature outflows was significantly higher than in reference water. Furthermore, inorganic N addition had no influence on thermokarst-impacted BDOC, whereas exposure to UV light significantly increased BDOC by as much as 2.3 times higher than the dark-control. Moreover, N addition and UV irradiation did not generate additive effects on BDOC. These results imply that sunlight rather than inorganic N can increase thermokarst-derived BDOC, potentially strengthening the positive permafrost carbon-climate feedback.

  17. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  18. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  19. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  20. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  1. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  2. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  3. Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, R; Valgimigli, L

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the importance of antioxidants in the protection of both natural and man-made materials, a large variety of testing methods have been proposed and applied. These include methods based on inhibited autoxidation studies, which are better followed by monitoring the kinetics of oxygen consumption or of the formation of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. Analytical determination of secondary oxidation products (e.g. carbonyl compounds) has also been used. The majority of testing methods, however, do not involve substrate autoxidation. They are based on the competitive bleaching of a probe (e.g. ORAC assay, β-carotene, crocin bleaching assays, and luminol assay), on reaction with a different probe (e.g. spin-trapping and TOSC assay), or they are indirect methods based on the reduction of persistent radicals (e.g. galvinoxyl, DPPH and TEAC assays), or of inorganic oxidizing species (e.g. FRAP, CUPRAC and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). Yet other methods are specific for preventive antioxidants. The relevance, advantages, and limitations of these methods are critically discussed, with respect to their chemistry and the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. A variety of cell-based assays have also been proposed, to investigate the biological activity of antioxidants. Their importance and critical aspects are discussed, along with arguments for the selection of the appropriate testing methods according to the different needs.

  4. Getting the chemicals right: Gaps and opportunities in addressing inorganics in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Kirchhübel, Nienke

    2017-01-01

    and certain cationic metals is included in existing characterization models within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, a variety of additional inorganic substances used e.g. in the textile, personal care, and building and construction industry are included neither in current life cycle inventory...... databases, nor current LCIA methods. Without the integration of the various economically relevant and potentially human toxic and/or ecotoxic inorganic substances such as inorganic salts, acids, bases and elements, however, no satisfying conclusions regarding the environmental sustainability of any......Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to compare products and product systems in terms of their environmental sustainability and for that LCA needs to include all potential impacts on humans and the environment. Currently, quantifying the toxicity potential of several thousand organic substances...

  5. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  6. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Fraunberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  8. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of ultraviolet radiation treatments on the physicochemical properties, antioxidants, enzyme activity and microbial load in freshly prepared hand pressed strawberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Stamminger, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    Freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberry fruit juice was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 1 ℃) for 15, 30 and 60 min with 0 min serving as control. Results revealed decrease in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity, while colour parameters (L*, a* and b* values) and clarity of juice (% transmittance) increased significantly. All the results corresponded to exposure time to ultraviolet radiation. Bioactive compounds (total phenolics, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins) decreased along with a recorded reduction in polyphenol oxidase enzyme and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities, which were again dependent on exposure time. Results on the microbial studies showed significant reduction by 2-log cycles in aerobic plate count as well as in total yeast and mould counts. Though negative results were observed for certain parameters, this is the first time it was endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of ultraviolet radiation radiation on freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberries juice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The role of antioxidant-protein interactions in biological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Singh, Rachna; Melton, Laurence D.; Worcester, David L.; Gilbert, Elliot P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Oxidative damage of cellular membranes has been linked to a variety of disease pathologies, including cardiac disease, Alzheimer's and complications due to diabetes. The oxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid chains found in cellular membranes leads to significant alteration in membrane physical properties, including lipid orientation and membrane permeability, which ultimately affect biological function. Polyphenols are naturally occurring phytochemicals present in a number of fruit and vegetables that are of interest for their anti-oxidative powers. These polyphenols inhibit lipid oxidation in cellular membrane surfaces, although the mechanism of this inhibition is not entirely clear. Moreover, the polyphenols have significant binding affinity for proteins, which can lead to the formation of soluble and insoluble protein-polyphenol complexes Significantly, in the presence of casein proteins the oxidation inhibition the polyphenols in the membrane is significantly enhanced (as assessed by Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Capacity assays). Thus the antioxidant pathway appears to involve these protein/polyphenol complexes, as well as direct antioxidant action by the polyphenol. Here we discuss neutron and x-ray scattering results from phospholipid membranes, looking at the positioning of two examples of polyphenolic antioxidants in phospholipid membranes, quercetin and phloretin, the antioxidants' impact on the membrane organisation, and the interaction between antioxidant and extra-membranous protein. This information sheds light on the mechanism of antioxidant protection in these systems, which may be used to understand biological responses to oxidative stress.

  11. Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles: Ab ovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous remarkable studies related to the self-organization of polymers, coordination compounds, microscale particles, biomolecules, macroscale particles, surfactants, and reactive molecules on surfaces. The focus of this paper is on the self-organization of nanoscale inorganic particles or simply nanoparticles (NPs). Although there are fascinating and profound discoveries made with other self-assembling structures, the ones involving NPs deserve particular attention because they (a) are omnipresent in Nature; (b) have relevance to numerous disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, Earth sciences, and others); (c) embrace most of the features, geometries, and intricacies observed for the self-organization of other chemical species; (d) offer new tools for studies of self-organization phenomena; and (e) have a large economic impact, extending from energy and construction industries, to optoelectronics, biomedical technologies, and food safety. Despite the overall success of the field it is necessary to step back from its multiple ongoing research venues and consider two questions: What is self-assembly of nanoparticles? and Why do we need to study it? The reason to bring them up is to achieve greater scientific depth in the understanding of these omnipresent phenomena and, perhaps, deepen their multifaceted impact. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  12. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  13. Industrial inorganic chemistry. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, W.; Schliebs, R.; Winter, G.; Buechel, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is a branch of considerable economic and technical importance. Apart from supplying the market with metals, fertilizers, building materials, pigments and glass it is one of the major suppliers of process materials to the organic chemical industry. Many modern products of other industrial sectors (video tapes, optical fibers or silicon chips) could not have been developed and manufactured without the achievements of industrial inorganic chemistry. The publication is the first of its kind to give a compact description of the inorganic chemistry sector. A clearly arranged survey facilitates access to production processes, economic aspects, ecological implications, energy consumption and raw material consumption as well as to many other data and facts. Due to its clear arrangement and the combination of technical and economic facts the book is a valuable source of information. (orig./EF) [de

  14. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  16. Preparation of novel, nanocomposite stannoxane-based organic-inorganic epoxy polymers containing ionic bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Ribot, F.; Matějka, Libor; Whelan, P.; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pleštil, Josef; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav; Hromádková, Jiřina; Kovářová, Jana; Špírková, Milena; Strachota, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2012), s. 221-237 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701; GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stannoxane * organic-inorganic hybrid * epoxy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  17. Speciation without chromatography using selective hydride generation: Inorganic arsenic in rice and samples of marine origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Pétursdóttir, A. H.; Raab, A.; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H.; Krupp, E.; Feldmann, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 993-999 ISSN 0003-2700 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311271 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : inorganic arsenic * hydride generation * inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2014

  18. Inorganic Pollutants in Wet Atmospheric Deposition and the Trajectories of Their Possible Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vach, Marek; Skřivan, Petr; Rohovec, Jan; Fišák, Jaroslav; Kubínová, P.; Burian, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 196, 1-4 (2009), s. 369-383 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : trajectory analysis * source apportionment * precipitation episodes * inorganic pollutants Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009

  19. The Mechanisms of Calcification in Coccolithophores - The molecular basis of calcium and inorganic carbon transport in Emiliania huxleyi

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are calcifying marine phytoplankton that through the fixation of inorganic carbon into calcite and particulate organic carbon play a fundamental role in global carbon cycles. As the CO2 concentration of the surface ocean increases through the anthropogenic release of CO2 by burning fossil fuels both a decrease in pH (ocean acidification) and a increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (ocean carbonation) are taking place. To understand the impact of these ocean changes on coccol...

  20. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  1. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  2. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  3. Chronic inorganic mercury induced peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.-C.; Huang, C.-C.; Ryu, S.-J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Dept. of Neurology, Tapei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, T.-N. [Executive Yuan, Dept. of Health, Surveillance and Quarantine Service, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-01

    We report the clinical features, electrophysiological studies, and morphometric analysis of sural nerve pathology in a patient with polyneuropathy due to inorganic mercury intoxication. He developed slowly progressive generalized paralysis of all limbs after 3 months ingestion of herb drugs which contained mercuric sulfate. Electrophysiologic studies revealed axonal polyneuropathy involving both motor and sensory fibers. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated axonal degeneration with demyelination and a predominant loss of large myelinated fibers. His muscle strength showed only mild improvement after 2 years` follow-up. We concluded that inorganic mercury exposure may induce severe axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in humans and that neurological deficits may persist in severe cases. (au) 21 refs.

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  5. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  6. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Worldwide sales of inorganic drugs are growing rapidly. Although about 26 elements in the periodic table are considered essential for mammalian life, both ... Lithium like alcohol can influence mood. Lithium drugs such as lithium carbonate Li2C03. , are used for the treatment of manic-depressive disorders, most likely ...

  7. Corrosion performance of inorganic coatings in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.; Westing, E. van; Kowalski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic coatings are widely used to protect carbon steel hydraulic cylinder rods from wear and corrosion in aggressive offshore environment. Different types of lay-ers such as Ni/Cr, Al2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, and Inconel 625 layers were applied to the carbon steels by plasma, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

  8. Inorganic mass spectrometry of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Vertes, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this review some recent developments in the field of inorganic mass spectrometry of solids are described with special emphasis on the actual state of understanding of the ionization processes. It concentrates on the common characteristics of methods such as spark source-, laser-, secondary ion-, inductively coupled plasma- and glow discharge mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  9. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962). For over a century w...

  10. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  11. Studies on inorganic exchanger: zirconium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The inorganic exchanger zirconium antimonate has been prepared and its characteristics evaluated. A method has been developed for the separation of 90 Sr and 144 Ce from fission products solution using this exchanger. (author). 23 refs., 18 f igs., 9 tabs

  12. Phytochemical, inorganic and proximate composition-guided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterols, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all samples. The inorganic composition result showed relatively high concentration of potassium (very high for seed), calcium (for bark and leaf), magnesium and sulphur in Avocado samples. The Avocado seed contained relatively high content of moisture, carbohydrate ...

  13. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  14. Getting the chemicals right: addressing inorganics in sustainability assessments of technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; Fantke, Peter

    sustainability assessments, the toxicity potential of several thousand organic chemicals is included in characterization models within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, many economic production processes involve the use of inorganic chemicals to a large extent, while the related pressure on human...... and environmental health of environmental emissions of these substances is not yet fully understood and not included in any existing LCIA method. In th is presentation, we provide an overview of the relevance of inorganic chemicals and outline possible ways towards incorporating inorganic chemicals in LCIA toxicity......A main goal of sustainability research is to enable a technological development in industry and elsewhere that ensures that what is produced and how it is produced today does not harm the quality of human or environmental health for present and future generations. As part of current environmental...

  15. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  16. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of Kale ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... fertilizer gave leaf yields comparable to those applied with exclusively inorganic sources of fertilizer.

  17. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  18. Review of progress in soil inorganic carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. G.; Jiao, Y.; Yang, W. Z.; Gu, P.; Yang, J.; Liu, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is one of the main carbon banks in the near-surface environment, and is the main form of soil carbon library in arid and semi-arid regions, which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. This paper mainly focuses on the inorganic dynamic process of soil inorganic carbon in soil environment in arid and semi-arid regions, and summarized the composition and source of soil inorganic carbon, influence factors and soil carbon sequestration.

  19. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  20. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  1. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  2. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  3. Mean age distribution of inorganic soil-nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed landscapes causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a model to characterize the "age" of inorganic soil-nitrogen (nitrate, and ammonia/ammonium). We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the time elapsed since inorganic nitrogen has been introduced into the soil system. We analyze a corn-corn-soybean rotation, common in the Midwest United States, as an example application. We observe two counter-intuitive results: (1) the mean nitrogen age in the topsoil layer is relatively high; and (2) mean nitrogen age is lower under soybean cultivation compared to corn although no fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation. The first result can be explained by cation-exchange of ammonium that retards the leaching of nitrogen, resulting in an increase in the mean nitrogen age near the soil surface. The second result arises because the soybean utilizes the nitrogen fertilizer left from the previous year, thereby removing the older nitrogen and reducing mean nitrogen age. Estimating the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as an important tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing a nuanced characterization of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes.

  4. Inorganic photovoltaic devices fabricated using nanocrystal spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Lumb, Matthew P; Tischler, Joseph G; Townsend, Troy K

    2013-09-25

    Soluble inorganic nanocrystals offer a potential route to the fabrication of all-inorganic devices using solution deposition techniques. Spray processing offers several advantages over the more common spin- and dip-coating procedures, including reduced material loss during fabrication, higher sample throughput, and deposition over a larger area. The primary difference observed, however, is an overall increase in the film roughness. In an attempt to quantify the impact of this morphology change on the devices, we compare the overall performance of spray-deposited versus spin-coated CdTe-based Schottky junction solar cells and model their dark current-voltage characteristics. Spray deposition of the active layer results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.3 ± 0.3% with a fill factor of 45.7 ± 3.4%, Voc of 0.39 ± 0.06 V, and Jsc of 13.3 ± 3.0 mA/cm(2) under one sun illumination.

  5. Inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is closely related to salivary components. Saliva consists of water, inorganic and organic materials. Fasting changes one???s meal and drinking time that in turn can affect the environment in oral cavity, including inorganic componenet of saliva. The purpose of this study is to determine the inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break.

  6. Neurological effects of inorganic arsenic exposure: altered cysteine/glutamate transport, NMDA expression and spatial memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio A Ramos-Chávez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Chronic exposure to iAs has been associated with lower IQ and learning disabilities as well as memory impairment. iAs is methylated in tissues such as the brain generating mono and dimethylated species. iAs methylation requires cellular glutathione (GSH, which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system. In humans, As species cross the placenta and are found in cord blood. A CD1 mouse model was used to investigate effects of gestational iAs exposure which can lead to oxidative damage, disrupted cysteine/glutamate transport and its putative impact in learning and memory. On postnatal days (PNDs 1, 15 and 90, the expression of membrane transporters related to GSH synthesis and glutamate transport and toxicity, such as xCT, EAAC1, GLAST and GLT1, as well as LAT1, were analyzed. Also, the expression of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR subunits NR2A and B as well as the presence of As species in cortex and hippocampus were investigated. On PND 90, an object location task was performed to associate exposure with memory impairment. Gestational exposure to iAs affected the expression of cysteine/glutamate transporters in cortex and hippocampus and induced a negative modulation of NMDAR NR2B subunit in the hippocampus. Behavioral tasks showed significant spatial memory impairment in males while the effect was marginal in females.

  7. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  8. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  9. Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L., apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE2 synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF- and IL-1 levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.

  10. Dietary antioxidants for the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Mustafa; Lappalainen, Jani; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-06-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress and tissue damage. Although a basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required to drive redox signaling and numerous physiologic processes, excess ROS during exercise may have adverse implications on health and performance. Antioxidant nutrients may be helpful in that regard. Caution should be exercised against excess antioxidant supplements, however. This article presents a digest for sports practitioners. The following three recommendations are made: 1) it is important to determine the individual antioxidant need of each athlete performing a specific sport; 2) multinutrient preparations, as opposed to megadoses of any single form of nutrient, seem to be a more prudent path to choose; and 3) for outcomes of antioxidant supplementation, performance should not be the only criteria. Overall well being of the athlete, faster recovery, and minimization of injury time could all be affected by antioxidant therapy.

  11. Structural Correlation of Some Heterocyclic Chalcone Analogues and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of six novel heterocyclic chalcone analogues 4(a–f has been synthesized by condensing 2-acetyl-5-chlorothiophene with benzaldehyde derivatives in methanol at room temperature using a catalytic amount of sodium hydroxide. The newly synthesized compounds are characterized by IR, mass spectra, elemental analysis and melting point. Subsequently; the structures of these compounds were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant potential by employing various in vitro models such as DPPH free radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity. Results reflect the structural impact on the antioxidant ability of the compounds. The IC50 values illustrate the mild to good antioxidant activities of the reported compounds. Among them, 4f with a p-methoxy substituent was found to be more potent as antioxidant agent.

  12. Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Faruk; Shafie, Suhaidi; Lim, Hong Ngee; Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi

    2018-06-14

    Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

  13. Radwaste issues belong in the inorganic classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The safe isolation of high level radioactive wastes is a matter of significant importance. This material is derived primarily from spent nuclear fuel and defense weapon production. Every element on the periodic chart is represented. The majority are metallic elements. Over the thousands of years that they are to be isolated the primary chemistry will be oxidation. The mobility and fate of particular inner and outer transition element ions become very important. For that, one must understand their hydrolytic nature, their complexing tendencies and the solubilities of various compounds. This topic could easily serve as a centerpiece for an inorganic chemistry course. At the very least, it demands the attention of every teacher of inorganic chemistry and consideration by those whose research is directed to tangible problems. The discussion includes notes on the abundance and lifetimes of particular radioisotopes. The positive student responses to this approach are also shared

  14. The quest for the ideal inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Klintenberg, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The past half century has witnessed the discovery of many new inorganic scintillator materials and numerous advances in our understanding of the basic physical processes governing the transformation of ionizing radiation into scintillation light. Whereas scintillators are available with a good combination of physical properties, none provides the desired combination of stopping power, light output, and decay time. A review of the numerous scintillation mechanisms of known inorganic scintillators reveals why none of them is both bright and fast. The mechanisms of radiative recombination in wide-bandgap direct semiconductors, however, remain relatively unexploited for scintillators. We describe how suitably doped semiconductor scintillators could provide a combination of high light output, short decay time, and linearity of response that approach fundamental limits

  15. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  16. Inorganic Materials Division annual report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, A.; Hornady, B.

    1976-01-01

    This compilation lists abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1975 at national and international meetings by members of the Geoscience and Engineering Section, Inorganic Materials Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Titles of talks at university and local meetings are also listed when available. The subjects range from the in situ retorting of coal to the temperature profile of the moon. A subject classification is included

  17. Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials Recent Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of inorganic and metallic nanotubular materials. It cover a wide variety of nanotubular materials excluding carbon nanotubes, ranging from metal oxides, sulfides and nitrides such as titanium oxide, tungsten sulfide, and boron nitride, as well as platinum and other noble-metals to unique nanotubes consisting of water, graphene or fullerene. Based on their structural and compositional characteristics, these nanotubular materials are of importance for their potential applications in electronic devices, photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanothermometers, electrodes for fuel cells and batteries, sensors, and reinforcing fillers for plastics, among others. Such materials are also having a great impact on future developments, including renewable-energy sources as well as highly efficient energy-conversion and energy-saving technologies. This book will be of particular interest to experts in the fields of nanotechnology, material science ...

  18. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  19. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  20. Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... should work together to assess and address the weight issue and the antioxidant ... impact is felt more in poor socio-economic settings prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa ..... Am J Public Health 2001;91:436-40. 6. Cedergren MI.

  1. Chrysin-piperazine conjugates as antioxidant and anticancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patel, Rahul V.; Mistry, B.M.; Syed, R.; Rathi, A.K.; Lee, Y. J.; Sung, J.S.; Shinf, H.S.; Keum, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, JUN 10 (2016), s. 166-177 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chrysin * Antioxidant * Piperazines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2016

  2. Effect of Heat on Antioxidant Activity of Some Tropical Leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    species (ROS) has been implicated in the ... It has been established that ROS can be both harmful ... structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins ... contain which impacts health beyond ordinary nutrition ... leafy portions were removed from the thick stalks and ..... content of some plant foods and their antioxidant.

  3. Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant potential of Pelargonium sidoides callus cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, V.; Moyo, M.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, DEC 23 (2015), s. 402-408 ISSN 0926-6690 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidants * Hydroxybenzoic acids * Hydroxycinnamic acids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  4. In vitro antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of Ethiopian medicinal plant extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tauchen, J.; Doskočil, I.; Caffi, C.; Lulekal, E.; Maršík, Petr; Havlík, J.; Van Damme, P.; Kokoška, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 74, NOV 15 (2015), s. 671-679 ISSN 0926-6690 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidant * Anticarcinogenic * Plant extract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Teucrium arduini L. (Lamiaceae) flower and leaf infusions (Teucrium arduini L. antioxidant capacity)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Grúz, Jiří; Strnad, Miroslav; Kremer, D.; Kosalec, I.; Grubešić, R. J.; Karlović, K.; Lucic, A.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 113-119 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Teucrium arduini L * Antioxidant activity * Antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2010

  6. Chemical sensors of benzene and toluene based on inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers elaborated by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Munoz, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    As mono-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH) are a matter of concern in terms of pollution, and are to be monitored due to new regulations regarding air quality control, this research thesis first aims at explaining why these compounds are to be monitored, at recalling their sources, at outlining what we know about their negative impact on health and how this impact is determined, which are the means implemented to monitor these compounds and which are their drawbacks, and at recalling which requirements are defined by European directives. The author then reports a literature survey of the current technology regarding chemical sensors, and identifies the required characteristics of an ideal sensor. The author proposes a review of studied performed on sol-gel process and of inorganic polymer synthesis methods based on sol-gel process. He reports the synthesis and characterization of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic host matrices, monolithic or in thin layers, used to produce MAH sensors. A matrix pore local polarity study is reported. Benzene and toluene trapping is studied with respect to the polarity and thickness of the host matrix. Pollutant trapping is directly monitored by their absorption in the near-UV and visible range. The author finally reports the study of interactions between fluorescent probe molecules and pollutants, as well as the effect of an interfering gas (oxygen) on the fluorescence of probe molecules [fr

  7. Negative impact of inorganic pollutants transport from landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Cazorla, Lazaro; Olivares Rieumnot, Susana; De La Rosa Medero, Daniel; Santana, Jorge Luis; Garcia, Damarys; Melchor, Kenia; Garcia, Mercedes; Aguilera, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals concentrations are evaluated in four sampling stations located in the Almendares river to estimate the influence of the leachate from 100 street landfill. The studied metals were Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn and the determinations were carried out in waters and sediments in March 2004. In the case of the waters the contents of dissolved metals were low, in most of the cases less than the levels recommended in the drinking water guidelines for Cuba. The high organic matter content and pH values of the water (higher to 7) are factors that may contribute to the precipitation of metals. The contents of metals in the river Almendares sediments were high in most of the cases. The highest metals levels were found in the sampling station located near the landfill. A decrease of the metals content was verified in the sediments when the distance of the evaluated polluting source was increased. Taken into account the enrichment factors for Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu y Zn the total content surpass the level for a lithogenous material. Furthermore, it shows the importance of the anthropogenic metals inputs. Using the method of sequential extractions we found that the organic matter in the sediment fulfils an important role in the immobilization of the metals. The results obtained in the investigation indicate that 100 street leachate could constitute an important source of contamination of the river related to heavy metals. That's why it is necessary to implement a solution for the treatment of the leachate or for to avoid the disposition in the river

  8. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akanbi W B

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... TC and control (non-fertilized plant) on the growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene contents of .... and gaps of 1 m separated all the sub and main plots. ..... Solanum macrocarpon to plant spacing and maize stover compost.

  9. Inorganic Contaminants in Recycled Packaging: Potential Impact for Consumer Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. J. Parry; D. S. J. Aston

    2000-01-01

    The effect on human health of using food packaging made from recycled materials will depend on whether the elements will migrate into the food itself and at which levels that would be of concern. There is no EU directive for paper and board packaging, but guidelines on paper and board intended to come into contact with food are being developed in another forum. These do not propose limits for paper intended to come into contact with dry foods. However, for other foodstuffs, restriction limits in paper of 0.002 mg/dm 2 (Cd), 0.003 mg/dm 2 (Pb), and 0.002 mg/dm 2 (Hg) have been proposed. This paper describes a radiotracer method that has been applied to the determination of migration of trace elements from paper and board into real food samples

  10. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit yield obtained with Ogbomoso local was 45 and 56% higher than what was obtained for Roma VF and Califonia wonder, respectively. In terms of vitamin C content, Roma VF fertilized with 50% NPK + 50% TC gave the highest value which is 23 to 67% higher than values obtained from the other treatment combinations.

  11. Perspective: Toward "synthesis by design": Exploring atomic correlations during inorganic materials synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderholm, L.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Synthesis of inorganic extended solids is a critical starting point from which real-world functional materials and their consequent technologies originate. However, unlike the rich mechanistic foundation of organic synthesis, with its underlying rules of assembly (e.g., functional groups and their reactivities), the synthesis of inorganic materials lacks an underpinning of such robust organizing principles. In the latter case, any such rules must account for the diversity of chemical species and bonding motifs inherent to inorganic materials and the potential impact of mass transport on kinetics, among other considerations. Without such assembly rules, there is less understanding, less predictive power, and ultimately less control of properties. Despite such hurdles, developing a mechanistic understanding for synthesis of inorganic extended solids would dramatically impact the range of new material discoveries and resulting new functionalities, warranting a broad call to explore what is possible. Here we discuss our recent approaches toward a mechanistic framework for the synthesis of bulk inorganic extended solids, in which either embryonic atomic correlations or fully developed phases in solutions or melts can be identified and tracked during product selection and crystallization. The approach hinges on the application of high-energy x-rays, with their penetrating power and large Q-range, to explore reaction pathways in situ. We illustrate this process using two examples: directed assembly of Zr clusters in aqueous solution and total phase awareness during crystallization from K-Cu-S melts. These examples provide a glimpse of what we see as a larger vision, in which large scale simulations, data-driven science, and in situ studies of atomic correlations combine to accelerate materials discovery and synthesis, based on the assembly of well-defined, prenucleated atomic correlations.

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  13. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  14. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Ananthakrishnan, M.; Ramani, K.S.; Varma, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO 3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO 3 +6M HNO 3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  15. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  16. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  17. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  18. Inorganic nitrogen in precipitation and atmospheric sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, D H

    1951-01-01

    In an investigation covering 18 months, daily determinations were made of the inorganic nitrogen contained in precipitation and atmospheric sediments collected at Hamilton, Ont. The nitrogen fall for the whole period averaged 5.8 lb. N per acre per year. Sixty-one per cent of the total nitrogen was collected on 25% of the days when precipitation occurred. The balance, occurring on days without precipitation, is attributable solely to the sedimentation of dust. Ammonia nitrogen averaged 56% of the total, but the proportion for individual days varied widely.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) conducted a review of the scientific basis supporting the human health cancer hazard and dose-response assessment of inorganic arsenic that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA revised the assessment and is now returning the assessment to the SAB and releasing the document to the public for a focused review of EPA's responses to the SAB recommendations. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses only cancer human health effects that may result from chronic exposure to this chemical.

  20. Determination of Inorganic Elements in White Rice by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Chung, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food and provides an important information of mineral supplement as well as a large portion of calorie for Korean. As scientists have focused their researches on health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiency and hazardous elements, public concerns about mineral intake by dietary food is rising. The objectives of this study were to determine inorganic elemental contents in white rice by neutron activation analysis(NAA) and to assist the evaluation of nutritional and harmful status for Korean people

  1. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials: Layered Zinc Hydroxide Salts with Intercalated Porphyrin Sensitizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Kubát, Pavel; Jirka, Ivan; Kovář, P.; Pospíšil, M.; Lang, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 39 (2010), s. 16321-16328 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : molecular-dynamics simulations * photophysical properties * meso-tetratolylporphyrins Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.520, year: 2010

  2. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  3. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel hydrazones – antioxidant potential and stabilization via polysaccharide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova-Avakumova, N; Hadjimitova, V; Nikolova-Mladenova, B; Yoncheva, K

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to: i) determine the impact of three new isonicotinoyl hydrazones derivatives in in vitro systems used to investigate free radical processes - radical scavenging approach (ABTS and DPPH) and iron induced peroxidation in lipid containing model systems and ii) evaluate the potential of polysaccharide-based particles to act as protective carriers preserving the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the tested compounds. The tested compounds revealed excellent antioxidant effectiveness in the ABTS system. In the DPPH radical scavenging assay the compounds exhibited very weak or absence of AOA. The data from the iron induced peroxidation methods disclosed better antioxidant properties of the derivatives in the system containing egg yolk homogenate which is more plausible compared to the lecithin containing one. The incorporation of a bromine atom on 5 th position in salicylaldehyde moiety is associated with diminishment of the radical scavenging activity in the systems containing stable free radicals but its AOA reduction after encapsulation during the storage was only 9.17%. The obtained data indicate that compounds have proven themselves as promising candidates for further evaluation as antioxidant agents. Their encapsulation in chitosan-alginate particles could be a useful approach for improving the stability of their antioxidant properties. (paper)

  5. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  6. Antioxidant migration resistance of SiOx layer in SiOx/PLA coated film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongxing; Zhao, Yuan; Su, Hongxia; Bei, Ronghua

    2018-02-01

    As novel materials for food contact packaging, inorganic silicon oxide (SiO x ) films are high barrier property materials that have been developed rapidly and have attracted the attention of many manufacturers. For the safe use of SiO x films for food packaging it is vital to study the interaction between SiO x layers and food contaminants, as well as the function of a SiO x barrier layer in antioxidant migration resistance. In this study, we deposited a SiO x layer on polylactic acid (PLA)-based films to prepare SiO x /PLA coated films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Additionally, we compared PLA-based films and SiO x /PLA coated films in terms of the migration of different antioxidants (e.g. t-butylhydroquinone [TBHQ], butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]) via specific migration experiments and then investigated the effects of a SiO x layer on antioxidant migration under different conditions. The results indicate that antioxidant migration from SiO x /PLA coated films is similar to that for PLA-based films: with increase of temperature, decrease of food simulant polarity, and increase of single-sided contact time, the antioxidant migration rate and amount in SiO x /PLA coated films increase. The SiO x barrier layer significantly reduced the amount of migration of antioxidants with small and similar molecular weights and similar physical and chemical properties, while the degree of migration blocking was not significantly different among the studied antioxidants. However, the migration was affected by temperature and food simulant. Depending on the food simulants considered, the migration amount in SiO x /PLA coated films was reduced compared with that in PLA-based films by 42-46%, 44-47%, and 44-46% for TBHQ, BHA, and BHT, respectively.

  7. Bio-Based Approaches to Inorganic Material Synthesis (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slocik, Joseph M; Stone, Morley O; Naik, Rajesh R

    2007-01-01

    .... Marine sponges create silica spicules also using proteins, termed silicateins. In recent years, our group and others have used biomolecules as templates for the deposition of inorganic materials...

  8. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  9. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  10. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  11. The role of organic modification of layered nanosilicates on mechanical and surface properties of organic–inorganic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Duchek, P.; Strachota, Adam; Poreba, Rafal; Kotek, Jiří; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 311-328 ISSN 1547-0091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic–inorganic nanocomposite * coating * sol–gel process Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.121, year: 2011

  12. Hydride generation ICP-MS as a simple method for determination of inorganic arsenic in rice for routine biomonitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pétursdóttir, Á. H.; Friedrich, N.; Musil, Stanislav; Raab, A.; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H.; Krupp, E. M.; Feldmann, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 14 (2014), s. 5392-5396 ISSN 1759-9660 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311271 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : inorganic arsenic * hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry * rice samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2014

  13. Thermochromic Fluorescence from B18H20(NC5H5)(2): An Inorganic-Organic Composite Luminescent Compound with an Unusual Molecular Geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Londesborough, Michael Geoffrey Stephen; Dolanský, Jiří; Cerdán, L.; Lang, Kamil; Jelínek, Tomáš; Oliva, J. M.; Hnyk, Drahomír; Roca-Sanjuan, D.; Frances-Monerris, A.; Martinčík, Jiří; Nikl, Martin; Kennedy, John David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2017), č. článku UNSP 1600694. ISSN 2195-1071 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : boranes * energy transfer * fluorescence * solar concentrators * thermochromicity Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry ; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry ; Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 6.875, year: 2016

  14. Postsynthetic modification of a zirconium metal-organic framework at the inorganic secondary building unit with diphenylphosphinic acid for increased photosensitizing properties and stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, Jan; Ondrušová, Soňa; Bůžek, Daniel; Kovář, P.; Rathouský, Jiří; Demel, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 61 (2017), s. 8557-8560 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02098S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : assisted ligand incorporation * photodynamic therapy * functional-groups * adsorption Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry ; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry ; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016

  15. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  16. Total oxidant/antioxidant status in jaundiced newborns before and after phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of phototherapy on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in hyperbilirubinemic full-term newborns. Thirty-four full-term infants from 3 to 10 days of age exposed to phototherapy were studied. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, uric acid, albumin, thiol contents and total bilirubin. The oxidant status was assessed by determining the total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and individual oxidant components: malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Vitamin C, uric acid, total bilirubin and MDA concentration were significantly lower, whereas serum TOS, lipid hydroperoxide and OSI levels were significantly higher after phototherapy (p total bilirubin and MDA (r = 0.434, p = 0.001). Although the MDA level was reduced after phototherapy, phototherapy has a negative impact on numerous parts of the oxidant/antioxidant defense system in jaundiced full-term newborns, exposing them to potential oxidative stress.

  17. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Alsayadi M.S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%. And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57% increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

  18. The proper time for antioxidant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-04-10

    Consuming food rich in antioxidants may help organisms to increase their antioxidant defences and avoid oxidative damage. Under the hypothesis that organisms actively consume food for its antioxidant properties, they would need to do so in view of other physiological requirements, such as energy requirements. Here, we observed that Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) consumed most seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day, while their consumption of staple seeds more profitable in energy intake (and poor in antioxidants) was maximal in the morning and the evening. This consumption of seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day may be explicable (1) because birds took advantage of a time window associated with relaxed energy requirements to ingest antioxidant resources, or (2) because birds consumed antioxidant resources as a response to the highest antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. If the latter hypothesis holds true, having the possibility to ingest antioxidants should be most beneficial in terms of oxidative balance in the middle of the day. Even though feeding on seeds rich in antioxidants improved Gouldian finches' overall antioxidant capacity, we did not detect any diurnal effect of antioxidant intake on plasma oxidative markers (as measured by the d-ROM and the OXY-adsorbent tests). This indicates that the diurnal pattern of antioxidant intake that we observed was most likely constrained by the high consumption of staple food to replenish or build up body reserves in the morning and in the evening, and not primarily determined by elevated antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. Consequently, animals appear to have the possibility to increase antioxidant defences by selecting food rich in antioxidants, only when energetic constraints are relaxed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Lyophilized Mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus PQMZ91109

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus PQMZ91109 mycelium was determined based on inorganic and organic nitrogen sources in the culture medium. The presence of ammonium sulfate resulted in a greater accumulation of bioactive compounds compared with the organic ones. This finding was also confirmed by the low values of the ascertained EC50 and minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs. Among the organic sources, peptone followed by corn extract, led to a more important radical-scavenging activity. The extracts selectively inhibited the tested strains, mainly the two of the genus Candida, at an MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by the inhibition capacity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, β-carotene-linoleic acid, which is the reducing power. In addition, the quantity of the compounds with antioxidant effects confirmed the data obtained, they being present in the extracts.

  20. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  1. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Sady, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran) and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP - anti radical power) methods. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxidant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration) of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  2. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus During Torpor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Tessier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF, and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2 but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others. Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  3. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  4. Engineering properties of inorganic polymer concretes (IPCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofi, M.; Deventer, J.S.J. van; Mendis, P.A.; Lukey, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering properties of inorganic polymer concretes (IPCs) with a compressive strength of 50 MPa. The study includes a determination of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, compressive strength, and the splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of IPCs, formulated using three different sources of Class-F fly ash. Six IPC mix designs were adopted to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of coarse aggregates and granulated blast furnace slag into the mixes. A total of 90 cylindrical and 24 small beam specimens were investigated, and all tests were carried out pursuant to the relevant Australian Standards. Although some variability between the mixes was observed, the results show that, in most cases, the engineering properties of IPCs compare favorably to those predicted by the relevant Australian Standards for concrete mixtures

  5. Scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, L M

    1999-01-01

    A method to evaluate the scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators to different heavy ionizing particles is suggested. A function describing the rate of the energy consumed as fluorescence emission is derived, i.e., the differential response with respect to time. This function is then integrated for each ion and scintillator (anthracene, stilbene and CsI(Tl)) to determine scintillation response. The resulting scintillation responses are compared to the previously reported measured responses. Agreement to within 2.5% is observed when these data are normalized to each other. In addition, conclusions regarding the quenching parameter kB dependence on the type of the particle and the computed values of kB for certain ions are included. (author)

  6. Neutron Diffraction and Inorganic Materials Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosseinsky, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of complex inorganic materials is an important academic and technological challenge because of the opportunities these systems offer for observation of new phenomena, and the questions they pose for fundamental understanding. This presentation will illustrate the key role of neutron powder diffraction in enabling the discovery of new classes of materials, and in evaluating their properties and the conditions under which they need to be processed to optimise their behaviour in devices for applications. New chemistry is illustrated by the transition metal oxide hydrides, where both structure and ionic mobility required neutron scattering characterisation. The relationship between chemistry, structure and properties will be addressed by considering the difficulties in inducing superconductivity in analogues of magnesium diboride. The role of both neutron and X-ray diffraction in evaluating the processing of microwave dielectric ceramics will be highlighted, with the discovery of new phases shown to be a useful bonus in this type of in-situ study. (author)

  7. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  8. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  9. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  10. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  11. Solubility and stability of inorganic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of inorganic carbonates is reviewed, with emphasis on solubility and hydrolytic stability, in order to identify candidate waste forms for immobilization and disposal of 14 C. At present, CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 are the two most widely favoured wasted forms, primarily because they are the products of proven CO 2 -scrubbing technology. However, they have relatively high solubilities in non-alkaline solutions, necessitating care in selecting and assessing an appropriate disposal environment. Three compounds with better solubility characteristics in near-neutral waters are identified: bismutite, (BiO) 2 CO 3 ; hydrocerussite, Pb 3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ; and rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Some of the limitations of each of these alternative waste forms are discussed

  12. Mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    The purpose of this series is to provide a continuing critical review of the literature concerned with mechanistic aspects of inorganic and organo­ metallic reactions in solution, with coverage being complete in each volume. The papers discussed are selected on the basis of relevance to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and many include results of a nonkinetic nature when useful mechanistic information can be deduced. The period of literature covered by this volume is July 1982 through December 1983, and in some instances papers not available for inclusion in the previous volume are also included. Numerical results are usually reported in the units used by the original authors, except where data from different papers are com­ pared and conversion to common units is necessary. As in previous volumes material included covers the major areas of redox processes, reactions of the nonmetallic elements, reaction of inert and labile metal complexes and the reactions of organometallic compounds. While m...

  13. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterisation of the inorganic chemistry of surface waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to determine a simple inorganic chemistry index that can be used for all surface waters in South Africa, in order to characterise the inorganic chemistry of surface waters. Water quality data collected up until 1999 from all sample monitoring stations (2 068 monitoring stations, 364 659 ...

  15. Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer on the Microbial degradation of Diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Inorganic Fertilizer (IF) on the microbial degradation of diesel polluted soil in Abeokuta was assessed by collecting Top soil (0 – 15 cm depth) from diesel polluted site of Information and Communication Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Inorganic fertilizer was added to the polluted soil ...

  16. Graphene templated Directional Growth of an Inorganic Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    14,23–25 have only formed randomly oriented or poorly aligned inorganic nanostructures. Here, we show that inorganic nanowires of gold(I) cyanide can... complex . TEM image simulation from the crystal structure The TEM image simulations are performed using MacTempas and CrystalKit. The imaging

  17. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  18. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  19. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Kappert, Emiel; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal

  20. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S

    2010-01-01

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  1. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  2. Contamination of Kallar Kahar Lake by Inorganic Elements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to find out the contamination of Kallar Kahar Lake by inorganic elements and heavy metals and the temporal variation of these chemicals in the lake water. Water samples were collected on monthly basis during December 2001 to November 2002. Concentration of 10 inorganic elements ...

  3. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  4. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of. Southern Sonora ... plant extracts. Phenolic compounds determination was carried out by high ... Determination of antioxidant capacity ..... In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities ...

  5. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The cytotoxicity ... The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of the extracts increased with increase ... supplements are concoctions of plants and/or plant .... In vitro antioxidant assay.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic micro organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans). The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. In addition, varying ...

  7. Antioxidant food supplements in human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Packer, Lester; Hiramatsu, Midori; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    1999-01-01

    ... of many of nature's antioxidant substances; grapes: starting source for red wine production; rich in antioxidants; onions: rich source of the bioflavonoid quercetin. This book is printed on acid-...

  8. Antioxidant properties of catechins: Comparison with other antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Michalina; Naparło, Katarzyna; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2018-02-15

    Antioxidant properties of five catechins and five other flavonoids were compared with several other natural and synthetic compounds and related to glutathione and ascorbate as key endogenous antioxidants in several in vitro tests and assays involving erythrocytes. Catechins showed the highest ABTS-scavenging capacity, the highest stoichiometry of Fe 3+ reduction in the FRAP assay and belonged to the most efficient compounds in protection against SIN-1 induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123, AAPH-induced fluorescein bleaching and hypochlorite-induced fluorescein bleaching. Glutathione and ascorbate were less effective. (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the most effective compounds in protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis while (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin protected at lowest concentrations against hypochlorite-induced hemolysis. Catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate)] were most efficient in the inhibition of AAPH-induced oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorodihydroflurescein contained inside erythrocytes. Excellent antioxidant properties of catechins and other flavonoids make them ideal candidates for nanoformulations to be used in antioxidant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on low level radioactive wastewater treatment by inorganic membrane permeation combined with complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Wang Jianlong; Bai Qinzhong

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic membranes exhibit greater mechanical durability in some operations than polymeric membranes. They do not suffer from the performance degradation that was resulted from compaction of the membrane structure under pressure or ageing. Membrane permeation combined with complexation was tested for radioactive wastes processing purpose. Sodium poly-acrylic acid was selected as the complexing agent, the efficiency of inorganic membrane with cut-off 1kD, 3kD, 8kD assisted by sodium poly-acrylic acid of different molecular weight were compared. The removal efficiencies of nuclides such as strontium, cesium and cobalt by were compared. The flux and retention factors of different membrane system were compared. The impacts of complexation agent concentration on permeate flux retention factors were studied. The long term behaviours of the membrane system were also studied. Diatomite filter was selected as the pretreatment method, and the efficiency of diatomite filter for pretreatment was investigated also. (author)

  10. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  11. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OROIAN, MIRCEA; Escriche Roberto, Mª Isabel

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Recently many review papers regarding antioxidants fromdifferent sources and different extraction and quantification procedures have been published. However none of them has all the information regarding antioxidants (chemistry, sources, extraction and quantification). This article tries to take a different perspective on antioxidants for the new researcher involved in this field. Antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and beverages play an important role in human health, fo...

  12. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  13. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andalaft, E; Vega, R; Correa, M; Araya, R; Loyola, P [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-02-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. Artificial inorganic Biohybrids: the functional combination of microorganisms and cells with inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeister, Ib; Schamel, Martha; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe; Vorndran, Elke

    2018-04-23

    Biohybrids can be defined as the functional combination of proteins, viable cells or microorganisms with non-biological materials. This article reviews recent findings on the encapsulation of microorganisms and eukaryotic cells in inorganic matrices such as silica gels or cements. The entrapment of biological entities into a support material is of great benefit for processing since the encapsulation matrix protects sensitive cells from shear forces, unfavourable pH changes, or cytotoxic solvents, avoids culture-washout, and simplifies the separation of formed products. After reflecting general aspects of such an immobilization as well as the chemistry of the inorganic matrices, we focused on manufacturing aspects and the application of such biohybrids in biotechnology, medicine as well as in environmental science and for civil engineering purpose. The encapsulation of living cells and microorganisms became an intensively studied and rapidly expanding research field with manifold applications in medicine, bio- and environmental technology, or civil engineering. Here, the use of silica or cements as encapsulation matrices have the advantage of a higher chemical and mechanical resistance towards harsh environmental conditions during processing compared to their polymeric counterparts. In this perspective, the article gives an overview about the inorganic material systems used for cell encapsulation, followed by reviewing the most important applications. The future may lay in a combination of the currently achieved biohybrid systems with additive manufacturing techniques. In a longer perspective, this would enable the direct printing of cell loaded bioreactor components. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andalaft, E.; Vega, R.; Correa, M.; Araya, R.; Loyola, P.

    1997-01-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    ), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...... in antioxidative enzymes may contribute to the range of susceptibility of smokers have to COPD....

  17. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  18. Antioxidants in bakery products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanditha, B; Prabhasankar, P

    2009-01-01

    Fats impart taste and texture to the product but it is susceptible to oxidation leading to the development of rancidity and off-flavor. Since ancient times it has been in practice to use antioxidants in foods. Discovery of synthetic antioxidants has revolutionized the use of antioxidants in food. The effect of these antioxidants in bakery products were reviewed and found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life. Animal experimental studies have shown that some of the synthetic antioxidants had toxigenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects. Hence there is an increasing demand for the use of natural antioxidants in foods, especially in bakery products. Some of the natural antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid were already used in bakery products. These natural antioxidants are found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life of bakery products but not to the extent of synthetic antioxidants. Baking processing steps may lower the antioxidative activity but techniques such as encapsulation of antioxidants can retain their activity. Antioxidative activity of the plant extracts such as garcinia, curcumin, vanillins, and mint were reviewed but studies on their role in bakery products were limited or very few. Hence there is a wide scope for study under this direction in depth.

  19. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenfeng; Luo Jian; Yao Side; Lian Zhirui; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1992-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. And green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants

  20. Analysis of Two Methods to Evaluate Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Florencia; Carabio, Claudio; Celano, Laura; Thomson, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    This exercise is intended to introduce undergraduate biochemistry students to the analysis of antioxidants as a biotechnological tool. In addition, some statistical resources will also be used and discussed. Antioxidants play an important metabolic role, preventing oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. Knowing the antioxidant content…

  1. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.F.; Luo, J.; Yao, S.D.; Lian, Z.R.; Zhang, J.S.; Lin, N.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. Green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants. (author)

  2. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  3. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina and Ilex paraguariensis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Cytotoxic ...

  4. Quantification of Heavy Metals and Other Inorganic Contaminants on the Productivity of Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian; Quinn, Jason C

    2015-07-10

    Increasing demand for renewable fuels has researchers investigating the feasibility of alternative feedstocks, such as microalgae. Inherent advantages include high potential yield, use of non-arable land and integration with waste streams. The nutrient requirements of a large-scale microalgae production system will require the coupling of cultivation systems with industrial waste resources, such as carbon dioxide from flue gas and nutrients from wastewater. Inorganic contaminants present in these wastes can potentially lead to bioaccumulation in microalgal biomass negatively impact productivity and limiting end use. This study focuses on the experimental evaluation of the impact and the fate of 14 inorganic contaminants (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn) on Nannochloropsis salina growth. Microalgae were cultivated in photobioreactors illuminated at 984 µmol m(-2) sec(-1) and maintained at pH 7 in a growth media polluted with inorganic contaminants at levels expected based on the composition found in commercial coal flue gas systems. Contaminants present in the biomass and the medium at the end of a 7 day growth period were analytically quantified through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry for Hg and through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn. Results show N. salina is a sensitive strain to the multi-metal environment with a statistical decrease in biomass yieldwith the introduction of these contaminants. The techniques presented here are adequate for quantifying algal growth and determining the fate of inorganic contaminants.

  5. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  6. Study on preparation of new antioxidants for radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex product. Antioxidant from keratin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Hien; Nguyen Van Toan; Vo Tan Thien; Le Hai

    2000-01-01

    The thermo-oxidative aging resistance of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) products should be adequately by using suitable antioxidants or new kind of effective antioxidant. This work presents the results of preparation of natural antioxidant from hair keratin. Characteristics and effectiveness of resultant antioxidant are also presented. The results obtained indicates that antioxidant made from hair keratin is safe and effective for rubber products from RVNRL. (author)

  7. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  8. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraja Vrushabaiah Kanakapura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy are the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy are microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant status is reduced in DM-induced retinopathy and nephropathy. Present study is undertaken to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy patients. The aim of the study is to study on oxidative stress as measured by lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde and antienzyme status in type II DM patients with neuropathy and compared them with a controlled nondiabetic group. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 100 subjects from Sapthagiri Medical College, Bangalore, from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, of age group 50 to 70 yrs. out of which 50 patients were non-insulin-dependent DM with neuropathy and rest 50 age and sex matched apparently healthy individuals (control group. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, Catalase and Reduced Glutathione (GSH. RESULTS It showed a significant increase p<0.001 in FBS, PPBS, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, CAT, MDA, while HDL, GSH, GPX, GR and SOD were found to be decreased significantly (p 0.001. CONCLUSION MDA was significantly elevated in diabetic group, whereas antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione were significantly decreased, which might be helpful in risk assessment of various complications of DM. The data suggests that alteration in antioxidant status and MDA may help to predict the risk of diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  10. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resver...

  11. Antioxidant activities of Parquetina nigrescens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid. 1990 ... lifespan of animals (Cutlar, 1991; Rikans and Hornbook,. 1997). Sources of natural antioxidants are generally plant phenols. ... Mitochondria pellet equivalent to 1 g (wet weight) of liver ... flavonoid extract of P. nigrescens, dissolved in corn oil for 9 days. Group D ...

  12. Antioxidative activity of Geranium macrorrhizum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.

    2004-01-01

    The composition of radical-scavenging compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum leaves was analyzed and the antioxidative activities of various extracts was determined. Seven compounds, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, 4-galloyl quinic acid, the flavonoid quercetin and three of its glycosides,

  13. Antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular structures of the radical scavenging compounds present in extracts of Potentilla fruticosa blossoms were elucidated and the antioxidant activities of various extracts were determined. The activities of the different fractions were monitored by off-line and on-line RP-HPLC DPPH. and

  14. Antioxidant therapy in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Majzoub

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Additional randomized controlled studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of antioxidant supplementation in the medical treatment of idiopathic male infertility as well as the dosage required to improve semen parameters, fertilization rates, and pregnancy outcomes in iOAT.

  15. Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sue-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Yuan-Man; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-06-01

    Physalis peruviana (PP) is a widely used medicinal herb for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. In this study, the hot water extract (HWEPP) and extracts prepared from different concentrations of ethanol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 95% EtOH) from the whole plant were evaluated for antioxidant activities. Results displayed that at 100 mug/ml, the extract prepared from 95% EtOH exhibited the most potent inhibition rate (82.3%) on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. At concentrations 10-100 microg/ml, this extract also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging and inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activities. In general, the ethanol extracts revealed a stronger antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol and HWEPP. Compared to alpha-tocopherol, the IC50 value of 95% EtOH PP extract was lower in thiobarbituric acid test (IC50=23.74 microg/ml vs. 26.71 microg/ml), in cytochrome c test (IC50=10.40 microg/ml vs. 13.39 microg/ml) and in xanthine oxidase inhibition test (IC50=8.97 microg/ml vs. 20.68 microg/ml). The present study concludes that ethanol extracts of PP possess good antioxidant activities, and the highest antioxidant properties were obtained from the 95% EtOH PP.

  16. Assessment of process parameters influencing the enhanced production of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens and evaluation of its antimicrobial, antioxidant and dyeing potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulani, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Prodigiosin is a bright red pigment produced by certain strains of Serratia marcescens, characterized by a common pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. This pigment is found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative activity. The present study aimed at designing process parameters for the enhanced production of this pigment.Methodology and Results: Peptone glycerol broth was selected as the best synthetic medium. The effects of various media components and process parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH, incubation period and other supplements were investigated. Maximal amount of prodigiosin was produced at temperature 25 °C, pH 7.0 andincubation period of 48 h. Supplementation of media with maltose and peptone yielded maximal amount of prodigiosin. Incorporation of minimal amount of supplements like silica gel, iron salts, inorganic phosphate also showed promising results. Chromatographic separations suggested that prodigiosin is made up of three different fractions (purple, orange and red. Further investigation of antimicrobial properties of prodigiosin revealed that it is a potent inhibitor against gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and fungal pathogens like Candida albicans, C.parapsilosis and Cryptococcus sp. This antimicrobial potency remained stable under a wide range of temperature and pH. The antioxidant capacity of prodigiosin was found to be 22.05 Bg ascorbic acid equivalents/ml of extract. When applied to textiles, prodigiosin resisted the action of acid, alkali and detergent. Conclusion, Significance and Impact of study: Besides combating gram positive bacterial pathogens and some pathogenic yeasts, prodigiosin with strong dyeing and antioxidant activity may find broad applications in textile and therapeutic industries.

  17. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol): Friend or foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel-Daim; Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk; Raffaella Reggi; Nagendra Sastry Yarla; Maura Palmery; Ilaria Peluso

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of...

  18. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  19. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2011-01-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  20. Green remediation of tailings from the mine using inorganic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došić Aleksandar D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of residues and waste materials coming from industrial activities in different processes have become an increasingly urgent problem for the future. The paper presents the problem of mine tailings generated in mine “Sase” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina with high metal content (Pb, Cu and Zn. Dumpsite of this tailing represents potential risk for water bodies in the vicinity of this location. Chosen treatment process was stabilization/solidification (S/S. Inorganic agents used in this study were fly ash and red mud that represent secondary industrial waste generated on locations relatively near the mine. Therefore, their application can be used as an example of a sustainable solution of regional environmental problem. Further investigations are related to the impact of various factors on metals leaching from mine tailings solidified/stabilized material using the above mentioned immobilization agents. The performance of the immobilizing procedures was examined using several leaching tests: ANS 16.1, TCLP, DIN, MWLP. The results indicated that all S/S samples can be considered as non-hazardous waste, as all leached metal concentrations met the set criteria. These results will further enable the modelling of metals behaviour during long-term leaching from treated mine tailing. The data are invaluable in terms of economically and environmentally sound management of mine tailing.

  1. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf. PMID:26785074

  2. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Sun, Guoxin; Williams, Paul N.; Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  3. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  5. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  6. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  7. Interfacial and transport properties of nanoconstrained inorganic and organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherlakota, Lakshmi Suhasini

    Nanoscale constraints impact the material properties of both organic and inorganic systems. The systems specifically studied here are (i) nanoconstrained polymeric systems, poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) relevant to gas separation membranes (ii) Zwitterionic polymers poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)(pSBMA), poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate) (PEGMA) brushes critical for reducing bio-fouling (iii) Surface properties of N-layer graphene sheets. Interfacial constraints in ultrathin poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) membranes yielded gas permeabilities and CO2/helium selectivities that exceed bulk PTMSP membrane transport properties by up to three-fold for membranes of submicrometer thickness. Indicative of a free volume increase, a molecular energetic mobility analysis (involving intrinsic friction analysis) revealed enhanced methyl side group mobilities in thin PTMSP membranes with maximum permeation, compared to bulk films. Aging studies conducted over the timescales relevant to the conducted experiments signify that the free volume states in the thin film membranes are highly unstable in the presence of sorbing gases such as CO2. To maintain this high free volume configuration of polymer while improving the temporal stability an "inverse" architecture to conventional polymer nanocomposites was investigated, in which the polymer phase of PTMSP and PEO were interfacially and dimensionally constrained in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. While with this architecture the benefits of nanocomposite and ultrathin film membranes of PTMSP could be reproduced and improved upon, also the temporal stability could be enhanced substantially. The PEO-AAO nanocomposite membranes also revealed improved gas selectivity properties of CO2 over helium. In the thermal transition studies of zwitterionic pSBMA brushes a reversible critical transition temperature of 60

  8. Mobility of engineered inorganic nanoparticles in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, George; Heidmann, Ilona; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-04-01

    Besides the excellent properties and great potential for various industrial, medical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and life science applications, engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) can show also disadvantages concerning increasing risk potential with increasing application, if they are released in the environmental systems. EINP can influence microbial activity and can show toxic effects (Fabrega et al., 2009). Similar to the inorganic natural colloids, EINP can be transported in soil and groundwater systems (Metreveli et al., 2005). Furthermore, due to the large surface area and high sorption and complex formation capacity, EINP can facilitate transport of different contaminants. In this study the mobility behaviour of EINP and their effect on the transport of different metal(loid) species in water saturated porous media was investigated. For these experiments laboratory column system was used. The column was filled with quartz sand. The interactions between EINP and metal(loid)s were characterised by coupling of asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). As EINP laponite (synthetic three layer clay mineral), and as metal(loid)s Cu, Pb, Zn, Pt and As were used. In AF4 experiments sorption of metal(loid)s on the surface of EINP could be observed. The extent of interactions was influenced by pH value and was different for different metal(loid)s. Laboratory column experiments showed high mobility of EINP, which facilitated transport of most of metal(loid)s in water saturated porous media. Furthermore the migration of synthetic silver nanoparticles in natural soil columns was determined in leaching experiments. Acknowledgement Financial support by German Research Council (DFG) and Max-Buchner-Research Foundation (MBFSt) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) for the opportunity to perform the column and AF4 experiments. References: Fabrega, J., Fawcett, S. R

  9. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    .37). Thus, the effect sizes suggesting less muscle soreness with antioxidant supplementation were very unlikely to equate to meaningful or important differences in practice. Neither of our subgroup analyses to examine for differences in effect according to type of DOMS-inducing exercise (mechanical versus whole body aerobic) or according to funding source confirmed subgroup differences. Sensitivity analyses excluding cross-over trials showed that their inclusion had no important impact on results.None of the 50 included trials measured subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms).There is very little evidence regarding the potential adverse effects of taking antioxidant supplements as this outcome was reported in only nine trials (216 participants). From the studies that did report adverse effects, two of the nine trials found adverse effects. All six participants in the antioxidant group of one trial had diarrhoea and four of these also had mild indigestion; these are well-known side effects of the particular antioxidant used in this trial. One of 26 participants in a second trial had mild gastrointestinal distress. There is moderate to low-quality evidence that high dose antioxidant supplementation does not result in a clinically relevant reduction of muscle soreness after exercise at up to 6 hours or at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise. There is no evidence available on subjective recovery and only limited evidence on the adverse effects of taking antioxidant supplements. The findings of, and messages from, this review provide an opportunity for researchers and other stakeholders to come together and consider what are the priorities, and underlying justifications, for future research in this area.

  10. Natural Antioxidants: Fascinating or Mythical Biomolecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use, properties, characteristics and sources of antioxidants especially phenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, synthetic chemicals and some micronutrients began in the late 18th century. Since then antioxidant research has received considerable attention and over a hundred thousand papers have been published on the subject. This has led to a rampant use of antioxidants in order to try to obtain and preserve optimal health. A number of nutraceuticals and food supplements are frequently fortified with synthetic or natural antioxidants. However, some research outcomes have led to the belief that antioxidants exist as mythical biomolecules. This review provides a critical evaluation of some common in vitro antioxidant capacity methods, and a discussion on the role and controversies surrounding non-enzymatic biomolecules, in particular phenolic compounds and non-phenolic compounds, in oxidative processes in an attempt of stemming the tidal wave that is threatening to swamp the concept of natural antioxidants.

  11. Antioxidative and antiradical properties of plant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The plant phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids appeared to be strong antiradical and antioxidant compounds. The number of hydroxy groups and the presence of a 2,3-double bond and orthodiphenolic structure enhance antiradical and antioxidative activity of flavonoids. The glycosylation, blocking the 3-OH group in C-ring, lack of a hydroxy group or the presence of only a methoxy group in B-ring have a decreasing effect on antiradical or antioxidative activity of these compounds. Tannins show strong antioxidative properties. Some tannins in red wine or gallate esters were proved to have antioxidative effect in vivo. The number of hydroxy groups connected with the aromatic ring, in ortho or para position relative to each other, enhance antioxidative and antiradical activity of phenolic acids. The substitution of a methoxy group in ortho position to the OH in monophenols seems to favour the antioxidative activity of the former.

  12. Sensitive voltammetric method for the fast analysis of the antioxidant pyrogallol using a boron-doped diamond electrode in biofuels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chýlková, J.; Tomášková, M.; Janíková, L.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chudobová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2017), s. 1047-1054 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : antioxidant * voltammetry * pyrogallol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  13. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics.

  14. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  15. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  16. Inorganic and organic radiation chemistry: state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyazin, E.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inorganic and organic chemistry is presented on the basis of the general scheme and classification of radiolysis products and elementary processes, by which evolution of radiation-affected substances up to the final radiolysis products takes place. The evolution is traced for the representatives of inorganic and organic compounds. The contribution of radiation inorganic and organic chemistry to radiation technology, radiation materials technology, radiation ecology and medicine, is shown. Tendencies in the development of radiation chemistry and prediction of its certain directions are considered

  17. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...... improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigated the effect of band offset between inorganic HTM/absorber layers. The solar cell simulation program adopted in this work is named wxAMPS, an updated version of the AMPS tool (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure)....

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium supplementation (organic, inorganic of high pregnant ewes on the production traits of lambs, the concentration of selenium in the blood of ewes and their lambs, indicators of antioxidant status in the blood of ewes and their lambs, the metabolic profile of ewes and their lambs and concentrations of thyroid hormones. Ewes were in the last third of pregnancy, the average age of four years, healthy and in good condition, divided into three groups of 10 animals. The research lasted 4 months respectively, 2 months with ewes during high pregnancy, 2 months with ewes during lactation and on their lambs during suckling period. Ewes ration from control group one was composed from 300 g/day/animal feed mixture without addition of selenium and 150 g/day/animal barley and alfalfa hay that they had ad libitum. Feed mixture from second group of ewes was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg organic form of selenium (Sel-Plex®, and feed mixture from third group with the same amount inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenite. Selenium supplementation of ewes feed mixture did not significantly influence on the production traits of their lambs postpartum. Selenium supplementation of ewes and their lambs had influence on a significant (P<0.01; P<0.05 increase in the concentration of selenium, GSH-Px and SOD in whole blood compared to control group of ewes. Organic selenium supplement had a more significant impact on the increase in concentration of selenium and GSH-Px in the blood. In the ewes and lambs blood was determined decrease of MDA with increasing concentrations of selenium in the blood. Generally, the selenium supplementation led to an increase (P<0.05 in the number of WBC and lymphocytes in the blood of ewes and lambs. Also, the increase in the number of RBC, HGB content and MCV in lambs and MCH as well as MCHC in ewes that had a selenium supplement in feed mixture were determined

  19. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd 3 (Al, Ga) 5 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6 LiCaAlF 6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3 He. (author)

  20. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  1. Protonation of inorganic 5-Fluorocytosine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Matheus S.; da Silva, Cecília C. P.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Diniz, Luan F.; Andrade, Marcelo B.; Ellena, Javier

    2018-06-01

    5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been widely used for the treatment of fungal infections and recently was found to exert an extraordinary antineoplastic activity in gene directed prodrug therapy. However, despite of its intense use, 5-FC exhibits tabletability issues due its physical instability in humid environments, leading to transition from the anhydrous to monohydrate phase. By considering that salt formation is an interesting strategy to overcome this problem, in this paper crystal engineering approach was applied to the supramolecular synthesis of new 5-FC salts with sulfuric, hydrobromic and methanesulfonic inorganic acids. A total of four structures were obtained, namely 5-FC sulfate monohydrate (1:1:1), 5-FC hydrogen sulfate (1:1), 5-FC mesylate (1:1) and 5-FC hydrobromide (1:1), the last one being a polymorphic form of a structure already reported in the literature. These novel salts were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and its supramolecular organization were analyses by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The vibrational behavior was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and it was found to be consistent with the crystal structures.

  2. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  3. Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

  4. Applications of inorganic Ion-conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-03-01

    Physical properties and application of solid electrolyte, particularly of inorganic solid electrolyte, are described. Ion conductors have been widely used not only for electric power application but also for sensors, gas separators, display elements, Coulomb meters, storage elements, etc. The most extensively used pacemakers now employ Li/I{sub 2}(PVP) primary batteries. Thin film lithium secondary battery has a feature of providing comparatively large electric current, with 2.5 V charging, 1.8 V discharging, and 3 mA.cm{sup {minus}2} short circuit current. The capacity of about 4 mAh per 1 cm{sup 2} electrode has been achieved. The most widely used solid electrolyte for the oxygen sensor is the stabilized ZrO{sub 2}. The relation of air/fuel mix proportion with the change in electromotive force is shown. Although solid electrolyte fuel cell is not yet put to practical use, a result of an experiment is introduced. Brief explanations are made on the oxygen pump, electrochromic display elements, Coulomb meter and voltage storage element. 18 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Efficiency and yield spectra of inorganic scintillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodnyi, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of energy loss in inorganic scintillators are reviewed. The main parameters, which control the fundamental limit of the scintillator energy efficiency, are determined. It is shown that together with simple cascade processes one should take into account the production of plasmons to estimate the energy efficiency of scintillators or other phosphors excited by an ionizing radiation. Core-to-valence luminescence related to 5pCs→3pCl transitions is investigated in some chlorides: CsCl, KCl, RbCl, NaCl, KCaCl 3 , RbCaCl 3 . The yield spectra of the crystals in the VUV and X-ray regions are also studied. It is shown that the 4pRb-core states are involved in the process of creation of holes in the 5pCs-core band in Rb-based crystals. The formation of holes in the potassium core band acts as a competing process and suppresses the radiative core-to-valence transitions

  7. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  8. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  10. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

  11. Deposition of inorganic particulate aerosols to vegetation - a new method of estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecien, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new, direct method was developed for quantifying inorganic particulate aerosols trapped by the forest canopy, and for determining the resulting input of elements to a forest ecosystem. The method is based on direct measurements of only six parameters. Using this method, it is possible to determine the load of aerosols trapped by the forest canopy and deposited to leaves, as well as the load of aerosols falling to the forest floor by impaction on plants. It is also possible to estimate the aerosol input of soluble and insoluble elements to an ecosystem. With this new method it was found that the load of aerosols trapped by the canopy of a mixed forest locate din the Rybnik Coal Basin averaged 189.0 kg x ha -1 x growing season or 39.3% of the total inorganic particles reaching the ecosystem. The trapped aerosols provided 13.4 kg x ha -1 of soluble nitrogen and 0.91 kg x ha -1 of insoluble nitrogen over the growing season. At the same time, the input of soluble nitrogen from the atmosphere with rainfall to an open area averaged 13.9 kg x ha -1 , and the input of insoluble nitrogen with inorganic dusts averaged 1.4. kg x ha -1

  12. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornero, Elisa; Belluso, Elena; Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata

    2009-01-01

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure

  13. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  14. Use of Gallic Acid to Enhance the Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Active Fish Gelatin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Machado, Ana Vera; Costa, Helena S

    2014-01-01

    The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to its unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimise food loss and minimise contaminants from industrial production and reutilisation by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed.

  16. Antioxidant potential of lichen species and their secondary metabolites. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar; Crespo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological interest of lichens lies in their capacity to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, being most of them phenolic compounds with reactive hydroxyl groups that confer antioxidant potential through various mechanisms. Increasing incidence and impact of oxidative stress-related diseases (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders) has encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Lichens appear to be a promising source of phenolic compounds in the discovery of natural products exerting antioxidant activity. The present review thoroughly discusses the available knowledge on antioxidant properties of lichens, including both in vitro and in vivo studies and the parameters assessed so far on lichen constituents. Literature survey was performed by using as main databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Recent Literature on Lichens. We reviewed 98 highlighted research articles without date restriction. Current report collects data related to antioxidant activities of more than 75 lichen species (from 18 botanical families) and 65 isolated metabolites. Much information comes from in vitro investigations, such as chemical assays evaluating radical scavenging properties, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power of lichen species and compounds; similarly, research on cellular substrates and animal models generally measures antioxidant enzymes levels and other antioxidant markers, such as glutathione levels or tissue peroxidation. Since consistent evidence demonstrated the contribution of oxidative stress on the development and progression of several human diseases, reviewed data suggest that some lichen compounds are worthy of further investigation and better understanding of their antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials.

  17. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut-Salud, Nuria; Álvarez, Pablo Juan; Garrido, Jose Manuel; Carrasco, Esther; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous) or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous). In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency. PMID:26682013

  18. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Mut-Salud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous. In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency.

  19. Chicken fat and inorganic nitrogen source for lipase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MA41) from Atlantic Forest, using chicken fat and association of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation to seek economically attractive bioprocess. A 2-level, 4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and response ...

  20. Sol-gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    chemistry and photocatalysis, provides an opportunity to teach valuable laboratory skills and to introduce students to the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of inorganic materials. This laboratory activity is adaptable to a range of educational levels and to various instrumental techniques....

  1. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  2. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  3. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  4. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  5. Metal oxalate complexes as novel inorganic dopants: Studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    UV-visible and IR spectral features not only confirmed the polyaniline doping by complex anions but also substantiated ... MoS3 dopant. Although inorganic metal complexes bear- ... distilled water and then with methanol and acetone until.

  6. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with atmospheric ... molecular weight carboxylic acids in aerosol samples collected from a rural ... include biomass burning, agriculture, livestock and soil dust. Tropical ...

  7. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  8. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for food packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available packaging application. Numerous hybrid inorganic-organic materials have been developed using low temperature sol-gel chemistry, which enables the tailoring of the nanostructure and the resulting material is often multifunctional, offering a wide range...

  9. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  10. Antioxidant neolignans from Cordia americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lucía R; Cirigliano, Adriana; Fabani, María P; Lima, Beatriz; Alberti, Sebastián; Kramer, Fernando; Tapia, Alejandro A; Cabrera, Gabriela; Palermo, Jorge A; Sánchez, Marianela

    2013-12-01

    Five new neolignans with a bicyclo[2.2.2]octene framework were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the bark of Cordia americana. The structures and relative configurations of the compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activities in the DPPH radical scavenging (0.5-100 µg/mL) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 1-100 µg/mL) assays. One of the compounds displayed mild fungistatic activity at 0.1 µmol/spot against Fusarium virguliforme while, at the same time, all compounds were inactive against several strains of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria at all assayed concentrations (10-1,000 µg/mL). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J. [Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: alberto@cqf.co.cu

    2005-07-15

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  12. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J.

    2005-01-01

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  13. A new inorganic-organic nanohybrid based on a copper(II) semicarbazone complex and the PMo.sub.12./sub.O.sup.3-./sup..sub.40./sub. polyanion: synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and photocatalytic activity for degradation of cationic dyes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhadi, S.; Mahmoudi, F.; Dušek, Michal; Eigner, Václav; Kučeráková, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, Jan (2017), s. 247-256 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inorganic-organic hybrid * semicarbazone complex * nanohybrid * photodegradation * cationic dyes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  14. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  15. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  17. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  18. Biomarkers of Exposure: A Case Study with Inorganic Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental contaminant inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Most mammals metabolize iAs by reducing it to trivalency, followed by oxidative methylation to pentavalency. iAs and its methylated metabolites are primarily excreted in urine within 4–5 days by most species and have a relatively low rate of bioaccumulation. Intra- and interindividual differences in the methylation of iAs may affect the adverse health effects of arsenic. Both inorganic and organic trival...

  19. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  20. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  1. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of N-acetylcysteine in human platelets: prerequisite for bioconversion to glutathione for antioxidant and antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kyle R; Neilson, Ilene L; Barrett, Fiona; Winterburn, Tim J; Sharma, Sushma; MacRury, Sandra M; Megson, Ian L

    2009-10-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a frequently used "antioxidant" in vitro, but the concentrations applied rarely correlate with those encountered with oral dosing in vivo. Here, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antiplatelet properties of NAC at concentrations (10-100 microM) that are achievable in plasma with tolerable oral dosing. The impact of NAC pretreatment (2 hours) on aggregation of platelets from healthy volunteers in response to thrombin and adenosine diphosphate and on platelet-derived nitric oxide (NO) was examined. NAC was found to be a weak reducing agent and a poor antioxidant compared with glutathione (reduced form) (GSH). However, platelets treated with NAC showed enhanced antioxidant activity and depression of reactive oxygen species generation associated with increases in intraplatelet GSH levels. An approximately 2-fold increase in NO synthase-derived nitrite was observed with 10 microM NAC treatment, but the effect was not concentration dependent. Finally, NAC significantly reduced both thrombin-induced and adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation. NAC should be considered a weak antioxidant that requires prior conversion to GSH to convey antioxidant and antithrombotic benefit at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Our results suggest that NAC might be an effective antiplatelet agent in conditions where increased oxidative stress contributes to heightened risk of thrombosis but only if the intraplatelet machinery to convert it to GSH is functional.

  2. Durability of an inorganic polymer concrete coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Kenneth

    The objective of the research program reported in this thesis is to evaluate the durability of an inorganic polymer composite coating exposed to freeze/thaw cycling and wet-dry cycling. Freeze/thaw cycling is performed following ASTM D6944-09 Standard Practice for Resistance of Cured Coatings to Thermal Cycling and wet/dry cycling is performed following guidelines set forth in a thesis written by Ronald Garon at Rutgers University. For both sets of experiments, four coating mixture proportions were evaluated. The variables were: silica/alumina ratio, mixing protocol using high shear and normal shear mixing, curing temperatures of 70 and 120 degrees Fahrenheit and use of nano size constituent materials. The mix with highest silica/alumina ratio was designated as Mix 1 and mixes with lower ratios were designated as Mix 2 and Mix 3. Mix 4 had nano silica particles. Four prisms were used for each variable including control that had no coating. The performance of the coating was evaluated using adhesion strength measured using: ASTM D7234 Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coatings on Concrete Using Portable Adhesion Testers. Tests were performed after every five consecutive cycles of thermal conditioning and six consecutive cycles of wet-dry exposure. Results from the thermal cycling and wet-dry testing demonstrate that all coating formulations are durable. The minimum adhesion strength was 300 psi even though a relatively weak base concrete surface was chosen for the study. The weak surface was chosen to simulate aged concrete surfaces present in actual field conditions. Due to the inherent nature of the test procedure the variation in test results is high. However, based on the test results, high shear mixer and high temperature curing are not recommended. As expected nano size constituent materials provide better performance.

  3. Synthesis of polymer/inorganic nanocomposite films using highly porous inorganic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanjun; Popp, Matthias; Hartwig, Andreas; Mädler, Lutz

    2012-04-07

    Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO(2) films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO(2) surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO(2) nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO(2) primary particles as the polymerization proceeds. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Holographic patterning of organic-inorganic photopolymerizable nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Stumpe, J.

    2009-09-01

    We present here novel easily processible organic-inorganic nanocomposites suitable for holographic fabrication of diffraction optical elements (DOE). The nanocomposites are based on photocurable acrylate monomers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP). The compatibility of inorganic NP with monomers was achieved by capping the NP surface with proper organic shells. Surface modification allows to introduce up to 50wt.% of inorganic NP in organic media. Depending on the NP nature (metal oxides, phosphates, semiconductors, noble metals) and their properties, the materials for both efficient DOE and multifunctional elements can be designed. Organic-inorganic composites prepared have been successfully used for the effective inscription of periodic volume refractive index structures using the holographic photopolymerization method. The nanocomposite preparation procedure, their properties and optical performance of holographic gratings are reported. The use of functional NP makes it possible to obtain effective holographic gratings having additional physical properties such as light-emission or NLO. Some examples of such functional polymer-NP structures and their possible application fields are presented. The combination of easy photo-patterning of soft organic compounds with physical properties of inorganic materials in new nanocomposites and the flexibility of the holographic patterning method allow the fabrication of mono- and multifunctional one- and multi-dimensional passive or active optical and photonic elements.

  5. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As III and As V were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST Ω), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As V . Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST Ω compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As III and As V can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  6. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  7. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health. PMID:24348176

  8. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfă, Pompei Florin; Leroux, Caroline; Pintea, Adela; Andrei, Sanda; Cătoi, Cornel; Taulescu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Spînu, Marina

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) infection on the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium of horses. Blood samples from 96 Romanian horses aged 1-25 years, were divided into different groups according to their EIAV-infection status, age, and time post-seroconversion. The effect of infection on oxidative stress was estimated by measuring enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and carotenoids), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]). Infection modified the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the horses, influencing GPx and uric acid levels (P5 years old, represented the most vulnerable category in terms of oxidative stress, followed by recently infected animals <5 years old. The results of this study are novel in implicating EIAV infection in the development of oxidative stress in horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of supplementation with antioxidants on the quality of bovine milk and meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-11-21

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  10. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  11. Research on an antioxidant capacity of honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hołderna-Kędzia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human organism is exposed to harmful action of free radicals which are produced as well endogenically as egzogenically. The oxidation activity of free radicals can lead to the conversion of systemic biomolecules. As a consequence, there is a threat of, many severe diseases. Antioxidative agents which occur in natural products (also in honey raise a possibility of protection against the harmful action of above mentioned radicals. Polyphenolic compounds - flavonoids, phenolic acids and ascorbic acid - are the most important antioxidative agents. The research of many authors proves that honey, given orally, shows an antioxidative activity. The level of antioxidative agents in serum after the consumption of honey is high and surpasses the antioxidative activity of tea. Dark honeys (honeydew and heather have considerably higher antioxidative activity in comparison to light ones (acacia, lime, polyfloral.

  12. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Recently many review papers regarding antioxidants from different sources and different extraction and quantification procedures have been published. However none of them has all the information regarding antioxidants (chemistry, sources, extraction and quantification). This article tries to take a different perspective on antioxidants for the new researcher involved in this field. Antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and beverages play an important role in human health, for example preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and lowering the incidence of different diseases. In this paper the main classes of antioxidants are presented: vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenols. Recently, many analytical methodologies involving diverse instrumental techniques have been developed for the extraction, separation, identification and quantification of these compounds. Antioxidants have been quantified by different researchers using one or more of these methods: in vivo, in vitro, electrochemical, chemiluminescent, electron spin resonance, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance, near infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  14. Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants for food application - The specific case of coffee antioxidants - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Aguiar; Berta Nogueiro Estevinho; Lúcia Silveira Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Functional foods fortified with antioxidants are gaining more popularity since consumption alone of foods naturally rich in antioxidants is insufficient to reduce oxidative stress associated with various diseases. Despite their beneficial effects, natural antioxidants present in coffee are sensitive to heat, light and oxygen, limiting their application in the food industry. Although microencapsulation is able to protect the antioxidant from degradation, mask its taste and control ...

  15. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  16. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  17. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  18. Antioxidant Protection in Blood against Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Meszaros, G.; Koteles, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The quantities of the antioxidants in the human blood are important indicators of health status. The routine determinations of activities/capacities of antioxidant compounds would be of great importance in assessing individual sensitivities against oxidative effects. We have investigated the sensitivities of those antioxidant elements against various doses of ionising radiation tested by the RANDOX assays. Our results show dose-dependent decreases of antioxidant activities caused by the different doses. The total antioxidant status value linearly decreased up to 1 Gy, but further increase of dose (2 Gy) did not influence the respective values although the test system still indicated their presence. It means that the human blood retains 60-70% of its total antioxidant capacity. Radiation induced alterations of the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase have been also investigated. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased linearly upon the effects of various doses of ionising radiation till 1 Gy. Between 1 and 2 Gy only further mild decreases could be detected. In this case the human blood retained 40-60% of these two antioxidant enzymes. These observations suggest either the limited response of antioxidant system against ionising radiation, or the existence of protection system of various reactabilities. (author)

  19. Disposition of inorganic mercury in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Pereira, Maria E.; Bridges, Christy C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as methylmercury have been shown to negatively impact fetal health. Despite the prevalence of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in the environment and the ability of methylmercury to biotransform into Hg2+, little is known about the ability of Hg2+ to cross the placenta into fetal tissues. Therefore, it is important to understand the handing and disposition of Hg2+ in the reproductive system. The purpose of the current study was to assess the disposition and transport of Hg2+ in placental and fetal tissues, and to test the hypothesis that acute renal injury in dams can alter the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal tissues. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intravenously with 0.5 or 2.5 μmol kg−1 HgCl2 for 6 or 48 h and the disposition of Hg2+ was measured. Accumulation of Hg2+ in the placenta was rapid and dose-dependent. Very little Hg2+ was eliminated during the initial 48 h after exposure. When dams were exposed to the low dose of HgCl2, fetal accumulation of Hg2+ increased between 6 h and 48 h, while at the higher dose, accumulation was similar at each time point. Within fetal organs, the greatest concentration of Hg2+ (nmol/g) was localized in the kidneys, followed by the liver and brain. A dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal organs was observed, suggesting that continued maternal exposure may lead to increased fetal exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that Hg2+ is capable of crossing the placenta and gaining access to fetal organs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26196528

  20. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  1. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  2. Addition of milk to tea infusions: Helpful or harmful? Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Everett, David W

    2017-10-13

    Tea consumption is practised as a tradition, and has shown potential to improve human health. Maximal uptake of tea antioxidants and milk proteins without a negative impact on tea flavor is highly desired by consumers. There is a conflicting evidence of the effect of milk addition to tea on antioxidant activity. Differences in the type of tea, the composition, type and amount of milk, preparation method of tea-milk infusions, the assays used to measure antioxidant activity, and sampling size likely account for different findings. Interactions between tea polyphenols and milk proteins, especially between catechins and caseins, could account for a decrease in antioxidant activity, although other mechanisms are also possible, given the similar effects between soy and bovine milk. The role of milk fat globules and the milk fat globule membrane surface is also important when considering interactions and loss of polyphenolic antioxidant activity, which has not been addressed in the literature.

  3. Influence of solution chemistry on the boron content in inorganic calcite grown in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Joji; Harper, Dustin T.; Penman, Donald E.; Zachos, James C.; Zeebe, Richard E.

    2017-12-01

    R and bulk solution chemistry, molecular-scale processes associated with calcite nucleation can be an important consideration for B incorporation, especially in complex ionic solutions. Lastly, the covariance of B/Ca with [DIC] and salinity observed here qualitatively agrees with those in planktic foraminifers. It follows that their impact on foraminiferal B/Ca is partly inorganically driven, which may explain why the effect is evident across different species.

  4. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  5. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  6. The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Eiko; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes was investigated by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR). When erythrocytes stored for 5 weeks were incubated at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, in medium containing 2 mM adenine and 10 mM inosine, with or without 5 mM glucose, a substance of around 4 ppm, as assessed by 31 P NMR chemical shift, was detected in the mixture. However, this substance disappeared by the addition of inorganic phosphate. When erythrocytes stored for 4 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution were incubated with 2 mM adenine, 10 mM inosine, 5 mM glucose, 50 mM inorganic phosphate and 10 mM pyruvate at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, the 2,3-DPG level increased gradually, whereas the ATP level initially increased and then decreased. Intracellular inorganic phosphate appeared to be used for the synthesis of ATP and 2,3-DPG during the first 30 min. of the reaction. These results suggests that the inorganic phosphate accelerates glycolysis by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes rather than its direct involvement in synthesizing organic phosphorus compounds in stored erythrocytes. The results also suggests that the reserve energy from ATP synthesis is not sufficient for the synthesis of 2,3-DPG. (author)

  7. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Joon Eun; Ki Rok Kwon; Tae Jin Rhim; Yun-Kyung Song; Hyung-Ho Lim

    2007-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Total antioxidant response (TAR), Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and total antioxidant response(TAR) against potent free r...

  8. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  9. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Soluble antioxidant compounds regenerate the antioxidants bound to insoluble parts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal.

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Diospyros Preussi (Ebenaceae Gurke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2007-02-24

    Feb 24, 2007 ... Purpose: To evaluate the lipid peroxidation inhibiting and glutathione-sparing activities. (i.e., antioxidant effect) of Diospyros preussi seed oil in male Wistar albino rats. Methods: The n-hexane extract of the seed (seed oil) of Diospyros preussi (DP) was tested for its antioxidant properties against hydrogen ...

  12. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina ... Both plant infusions inhibited viability and cell growth of SW480 and SW620 cells. .... 100 g of dry extract, from a gallic acid calibration curve [9]. ..... antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of colon.

  13. Phytochemical and antioxidant evaluation of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera, a plant with a wide range of medicinal, nutritional and economic benefits was examined for phytochemicals and evaluated for antioxidant activities. Phytochemical tests, total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined using standard procedures. Antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts and ...

  14. EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH | Waling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diets consumed contain antioxidants and phytochemicals that block the oxidative processes that could otherwise lead to diseases like heart disease and cancer. Consumption of a balanced diet containing antioxidants-rich fruits and vegetables and whole grains, protects the body against degenerative chronic diseases.

  15. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  16. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  17. Antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jovica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.

  18. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  19. The study of antioxidants in grapevine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Tomášková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine seeds contain a large amount of antioxidant components, and are therefore recommended in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. For this research, we studied the antioxidant properties of grapevine seeds from the Marlen variety, as evidence suggests that these types have higher resistance against fungal diseases. Through high-performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection, a total of 10 antioxidant components were selected for further investigation, specifically: catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, caftaric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid. The antioxidant activity was determinated spectrophotometrically through the adoption of three fundamentally different methods (the DPPH assay, the ABTS method, and the FRAP method. Using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, it was possible to determine the content of all the polyphenolic compounds. The results of the assessment antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenolic compounds were recalculated to gallic acid equivalents (GAE. The values of the antioxidant activity as determinated by the DPPH test were 6643 (±154 mg of GAE; 1984 (±88 mg of GAE when using the FRAP method; and 812 (±31 mg of GAE when the ABTS method was utilised. The content of the total polyphenolic compounds came to 6982 (±221 mg of GAE. The most abundant antioxidant was catechin, with a content of 115 mg.L-1, whilst the least represented compound was ferulic acid (0.139 mg.L-1. Overall, this study showed a high antioxidant potential of grapevine seeds. 

  20. Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological Changes Induced By Nicotine In A Gender Based Study In Adult Rats. ... Antioxidant status was assessed in liver by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and ...

  1. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarchonanthus camphoratus (camphor bush) has been widely used for numerous medicinal purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities of the crude dichloromethane leaf extract of T. camphoratus. The antioxidant activities were ...

  2. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Astragalus squarrosus, antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ... Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are widely distri- buted plant constituents. ..... Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents.

  3. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Zande, Arend M. van der; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Kim, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS 2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS 2 /WSe 2 /graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors

  4. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  5. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF 2 nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications

  6. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  7. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  9. Mechanical Designs for Inorganic Stretchable Circuits in Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuodao; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical concepts and designs in inorganic circuits for different levels of stretchability are reviewed in this paper, through discussions of the underlying mechanics and material theories, fabrication procedures for the constituent microscale/nanoscale devices, and experimental characterization. All of the designs reported here adopt heterogeneous structures of rigid and brittle inorganic materials on soft and elastic elastomeric substrates, with mechanical design layouts that isolate large deformations to the elastomer, thereby avoiding potentially destructive plastic strains in the brittle materials. The overall stiffnesses of the electronics, their stretchability, and curvilinear shapes can be designed to match the mechanical properties of biological tissues. The result is a class of soft stretchable electronic systems that are compatible with traditional high-performance inorganic semiconductor technologies. These systems afford promising options for applications in portable biomedical and health-monitoring devices. Mechanics theories and modeling play a key role in understanding the underlining physics and optimization of these systems.

  10. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  11. Phytotoxicity of pesticides mancozeb and chlorpyrifos: correlation with the antioxidative defence system in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Firdos; Verma, Sonam; Kamal, Aisha; Srivastava, Alka

    2018-02-01

    Pesticides are a group of chemical substances which are widely used to improve agricultural production. However, these substances could be persistent in soil and water, accumulative in sediment or bio-accumulative in biota depending on their solubility, leading to different types of environmental pollution. The present study was done to assess the impact of pesticides-mancozeb and chlorpyrifos, via morphological and physiological parameters using Allium cepa test system. Phytotoxic effects of pesticides were examined via germination percentage, survival percentage, root and shoot length, root shoot length ratio, seedling vigor index, percentage of phytotoxicity and tolerance index. Oxidative stress on Allium seedlings caused by pesticides was also assessed by investigating the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Correlation was worked out between morphological parameters and antioxidative enzymes to bring out the alliance between them. Mancozeb and chlorpyrifos concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the activity of antioxidative enzymes and negatively correlated with morphological parameters. Significant positive correlation between various morphological parameters showed their interdependency. However, negative correlation was obtained between activity of antioxidative enzymes and morphological parameters. The enzymes however, showed positive correlation with each other. Based on our result we can conclude that all morphological parameters were adversely affected by the two pesticides as reflected by phytotoxicity in Allium . Their negative correlation with activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates that upregulation of antioxidative enzymes is not sufficient to overcome the toxic effect, thereby signifying the threat being caused by the regular use of these pesticides.

  12. Application of a macrocyclic compound, bambus[6]uril, in tailor-made liquid membranes for highly selective electromembrane extractions of inorganic anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Šindelář, V.; Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 950, JAN (2017), s. 49-56 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bambus[6]uril * electromembrane extraction selectivity * inorganic anions Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  13. Molecular crystals of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole with inorganic oxyacids – crystal engineering, phase transformations and NLO properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, Irena; Cihelka, J.; Pojarová, Michaela; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal; Císařová, I.; Vaněk, Přemysl; Kroupa, Jan; Němec, P.; Tesařová, N.; Němec, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2014), s. 1763-1776 ISSN 1466-8033 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : molecular crystals * inorganic salts * structure determination * second harmonic generation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.034, year: 2014

  14. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise. Partitioning of antioxidants between different phases was determined after separation of mayonnaise...... acid and catechin) to 83% (Trolox). Accordingly, proportions of 6% (Trolox) to 80% (gallic acid and catechin) were found in the aqueous phase. Similar trends were observed after dialysis. After ultracentrifugation, large proportions of polar antioxidants were found in the "emulsion phase...... by either (a) centrifugation + ultracentrifugation or (b) centrifugation + dialysis. Antioxidants partitioned in accordance with their chemical structure and polarity: Tocopherols were concentrated in the oil phase (93-96%), while the proportion of polar antioxidants in the oil phase ranged from 0% (gallic...

  15. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2% from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking.

  16. Antioxidants, mechanisms, and recovery by membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-03-04

    Antioxidants molecules have a great interest for bio-food and nutraceutical industries since they play a vital role for their capacity to reduce oxidative processes. Consequently, these molecules, generally present in complex matrices, have to be fractionated and purified to characterize them and to test their antioxidant activity. However, as natural or synthetics antioxidant molecules differ in terms of structural composition and physico-chemical properties, appropriate separation technologies must be selected. Different fractionation technologies are available but the most commonly used are filtration processes. Indeed, these technologies allow fractionation according to molecular size (pressure-driven processes), charge, or both size and charge (electrically driven processes). In this context, and after summarizing the reaction mechanisms of the different classes and nature of antioxidants as well as membrane fractionation technologies, this manuscript presents the specific applications of these membranes processes for the recovery of antioxidant molecules.

  17. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, G.; Liao, X.; Olajide, T.M.; Liu, J.; Jiang, X.; Weng, X.

    2017-01-01

    A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA) was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2%) from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (1) by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking. [es

  18. Antioxidant activity potential of gamma irradiated carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans were investigated using the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing concentration and dose. The type of carrageenan had also an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar. The antioxidant properties of these carrageenan oligomers were lower than that of ascorbic acid and galactose sugar. - Highlights: • The antioxidant capacity of gamma irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans increased with increasing concentration and dose. • The type of carrageenan had an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. • Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar

  19. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  20. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  1. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60 Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  2. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  3. Inorganic electret with enhanced charge stability for energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We report a new surface treatment of inorganic electret materials which enhances the charge stability. Coating the surfaces with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) makes the electret surface more hydrophobic which improves the surface charge stability under high humidity condit...... conditions. Thermal tests show that the thermal stability of charge in the inorganic electrets is also much better than that of polymer materials such as CYTOP. A demonstrator device with SiO2 electrets shows promising results for energy harvesting applications....

  4. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  5. Organic and inorganic osmolytes at lipid membrane interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, P.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interactions of organic osmolytes and membranous interfaces, and the effects of these interactions on the properties of the membrane. It also includes a treatment of inorganic ions at the membrane interface since osmolyte effects involve a balance between organic...... and inorganic components. Before turning to the physicochemical discussion of interfacial interactions, the chapter outlines some central parts of the biology and biotechnology of organic osmolytes. It reviews the central relationships in preferential interaction theory, which we use in subsequent paragraphs...

  6. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  7. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  8. Sol-gel additive for systems with inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstinat, M.; Antenen, D.; Suter, W.

    1996-01-01

    A sol-gel additive for inorganic binder systems and sol-gel process for producing air-placed concrete and mortar by using such sol-gel additives are disclosed. Sol-gel additives for gel-derived inorganic binder systems (for example plaster, cement, lime, special slags, etc.) marked improve the consistency of such binder systems during processing or allow their consistency to be regulated. In addition, these sol-gel additives regulate setting times and substantially improve durability (chemical resistance, reduced permeability) and the mechanical properties of the set binder system. (author)

  9. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Daim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity. Results from the murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity showed amelioration of liver damage with nutraceuticals coadministration, as well as reductions in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, both increased and decreased APAP plasma levels have been reported, depending on the nutraceutical type and route of administration. For example, studies showed that repeated administration of flavonoids causes down-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes and up-regulation of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT. Moreover, nutraceuticals can alter the levels of APAP metabolites, such as mercapturate glucuronide, sulfate and cysteine conjugates. Overall, the reviewed in vivo studies indicate that interactions between APAP and nutraceuticals or plant foods exist. However, the majority of data come from animal models with doses of phytochemicals far from dietary ones. Human studies should investigate gene-diet interactions, as well as ethnic variability in order to clarify the pros and cons of co-administering antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Antioxidants, Food-drug interaction, Nutraceuticals, Paracetamol

  10. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-04-05

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model.

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest bacterial growth inhibitory effect had direct antibacterial activity and strongly reduced the development of canker disease and bacterial population of lime plants.

  12. A Metadata Analysis of Oxidative Stress Etiology in Preclinical Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Benefits of Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, induced by an imbalance of free radicals, incites neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. In fact, a mutation in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 accounts for 20% of familial ALS cases. However, the variance among individual studies examining ALS oxidative stress clouds corresponding conclusions. Therefore, we construct a comprehensive, temporal view of oxidative stress and corresponding antioxidant therapy in preclinical ALS by mining published quantitative experimental data and performing metadata analysis of 41 studies. In vitro aggregate analysis of innate oxidative stress inducers, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide, revealed 70–90% of cell death coincides to inducer exposure equivalent to 30–50% peak concentration (p < 0.05. A correlative plateau in cell death suggests oxidative stress impact is greatest in early-stage neurodegeneration. In vivo SOD1-G93A transgenic ALS mouse aggregate analysis of heat shock proteins (HSPs revealed HSP levels are 30% lower in muscle than spine (p < 0.1. Overall spine HSP levels, including HSP70, are mildly upregulated in SOD1-G93A mice compared to wild type, but not significantly (p > 0.05. Thus, innate HSP compensatory responses to oxidative stress are simply insufficient, a result supportive of homeostatic system instability as central to ALS etiology. In vivo aggregate analysis of antioxidant therapy finds SOD1-G93A ALS mouse survival duration significantly increases by 11.2% (p << 0.001 but insignificantly decreases onset age by 2%. Thus, the aggregate antioxidant treatment effect on survival in preclinical ALS is not sufficient to overcome clinical heterogeneity, which explains the literature disparity between preclinical and clinical antioxidant survival benefit. The aggregate effect sizes on preclinical ALS survival and onset illustrate that present antioxidants, alone, are not sufficient to halt ALS, which underscores its multi-factorial nature

  13. Antioxidant plants and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing rapidly and it is expected to increase by 2030. Other than currently available therapeutic options, there are a lot of herbal medicines, which have been recommended for its treatment. Herbal medicines have long been used for the treatment of DM because of the advantage usually having no or less side-effects. Most of these plants have antioxidant activities and hence, prevent or treat hard curable diseases, other than having the property of combating the toxicity of toxic or other drugs. In this review other than presenting new findings of DM, the plants, which are used and have been evaluated scientifically for the treatment of DM are introduced.

  14. Preservation strategies for inorganic arsenic species in high iron, low-Ehgroundwater from West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gault, Andrew G.; Polya, David A. [University of Manchester, Department of Earth Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jana, Joydeb; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Mukherjee, Partha; Sarkar, Mitali; Nath, Bibash; Chatterjee, Debashis [University of Kalyani, Department of Chemistry, Kalyani, (India)

    2005-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurately determining inorganic arsenic speciation in natural waters to predicting bioavailability and environmental and health impacts, there remains considerable debate about the most appropriate species preservation strategies to adopt. In particular, the high-iron, low-Eh(redox potential) shallow groundwaters in West Bengal, Bangladesh and SE Asia, the use of which for drinking and irrigation purposes has led to massive international concerns for human health, are particularly prone to changes in arsenic speciation after sampling. The effectiveness of HCl and EDTA preservation strategies has been compared and used on variably arsenic-rich West Bengali groundwater samples, analysed by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Immediate filtration and acidification with HCl followed by refrigerated storage was found to be the most effective strategy for minimizing the oxidation of inorganic As(III) during storage. The use of a PRP-X100 (Hamilton) column with a 20 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} as mobile phase enabled the separation of Cl{sup -} from As(III), monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and As(V), thereby eliminating any isobaric interference between {sup 40}Ar{sup 35}Cl{sup +} and {sup 75}As{sup +}. The use of EDTA as a preservative, whose action is impaired by the high calcium concentrations typical of these types of groundwater, resulted in marked oxidation during storage. The use of HCl is therefore indicated for analytical methods in which chloride-rich matrices are not problematical. The groundwaters analysed by IC-ICP-MS were found to contain between 5 and 770 ng As mL{sup -1} exclusively as inorganic arsenic species. As(III)/total-As varied between 0 and 0.94. (orig.)

  15. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  16. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. flower, leaf and stem infusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Končić, M. Z.; Kremer, D.; Grúz, Jiří; Strnad, Miroslav; Biševac, G.; Kosalec, I.; Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Karlović, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2010), s. 1537-1542 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Moltkia petraea * Antioxidant activity * Antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2010

  18. Synthesis of steryl ferulates with various sterol structures and comparison of their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steryl ferulates extracted from corn and rice differ in the structures of the phytosterol head groups, which had a significant impact on their activity as antioxidants in soybean oil used for frying. An improved method was used to synthesize steryl ferulates from commercial sterols to better underst...

  19. Different methods for control and comparison of the antioxidant properties of vegetables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číž, Milan; Čížová, Hana; Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; Slavov, A.; Lojek, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2010), s. 518-523 ISSN 0956-7135 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : antioxidant activity * polyphenols * vegetables Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.812, year: 2010

  20. Cytokinin-induced activity of antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco during plant ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Semorádová, Šárka; Schnablová, Renáta; Witters, E.; Hušák, M.; Valcke, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2006), s. 31-41 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061; GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * antioxidant enzymes * ontogenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006