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Sample records for inoculation arousal regulation

  1. Psychological skills for enhancing performance: arousal regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D; Udry, E

    1994-04-01

    This review summarizes and integrates current empirical and theoretical research on arousal regulation strategies for enhancing athletic performance. The need to view arousal as a multifaceted construct made up of both cognitive and physiological components was emphasized, as well as the importance of understanding arousal-performance relationship theories that go beyond a simple inverted-U notion. Categories of arousal regulation strategies were discussed and included: arousal energizing techniques, biofeedback techniques, relaxation response strategies, cognitive behavioral interventions, and mental preparation routines. It was concluded that these techniques can be effective in influencing arousal and facilitating performance. However, additional research (especially evaluation research) using more rigorous methods, determining how and why interventions work, using case study methodologies, identifying personality and situational factors influencing arousal regulation effectiveness, and identifying the most effective means of teaching arousal regulation is needed.

  2. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  3. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, predicts self-regulation of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholy, Maxwell; Prause, Nicole; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; S Rahman, Ardeshir; Fong, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A person's ability to control their own sexual arousal is important both to reduce the risks associated with some sexual behaviours and to respond sexually with intimate partners. A lack of control over sexual urges is a proposed feature of "hypersexual disorder", though some evidence suggests that sexual desire predicts the self-regulation of sexual arousal better than hypersexuality. In the current study, a sample (N = 116) of men and women recruited from community ads viewed a series of 20-second neutral and sexual films. Before each sexual film, participants were instructed to increase their sexual arousal, decrease their sexual arousal or respond as usual. Higher levels of desire for sex with a partner consistently predicted failures to downregulate sexual arousal. Hypersexuality was unrelated. These findings replicate Winters et al.'s study and extend their findings by including upregulation, women, a new measure of hypersexuality and a higher-trial design.

  4. EEG-arousal regulation as predictor of treatment response in patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Anna-Lena; Stengler, Katarina; Jahn, Ina; Olbrich, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Aim of this study was to analyze whether electroencephalogram (EEG)-based CNS-arousal markers differ for patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that either respond or do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or their combination. Further the study aimed to identify specific response-predictors for the different therapy approaches. CNS-arousal from 51 unmedicated patients during fifteen-minute resting state was assessed using VIGALL (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig). Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores were used to assess response or non-response after three to six months following therapy (CBT, n=18; SSRI, n=11 or combination, n=22). Differences between Responders (R) and Non-Responders (NR) were identified using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) models. MANCOVA revealed that Responders spent significant less time at the highest CNS-arousal stage 0. Further, low amounts of the highest CNS-arousal stages were specifically predictive for a response to a combined treatment approach. The fact that CNS-arousal markers allowed discrimination between Responders and Non-Responders and also between Responders of different treatment arms underlines a possible clinical value of EEG-based markers. These results encourage further research on EEG-arousal regulation for determining pathophysiological subgroups for treatment response. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain arousal regulation as response predictor for antidepressant therapy in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank M.; Sander, Christian; Dietz, Marie-Elisa; Nowak, Claudia; Schröder, Thomas; Mergl, Roland; Schönknecht, Peter; Himmerich, Hubertus; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    A tonically high level of brain arousal and its hyperstable regulation is supposed to be a pathogenic factor in major depression. Preclinical studies indicate that most antidepressants may counteract this dysregulation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that responders to antidepressants show a) a high level of EEG-vigilance (an indicator of brain arousal) and b) a more stable EEG-vigilance regulation than non-responders. In 65 unmedicated depressed patients 15-min resting-state EEGs were recorded off medication (baseline). In 57 patients an additional EEG was recorded 14 ± 1 days following onset of antidepressant treatment (T1). Response was defined as a ≥50% HAMD-17-improvement after 28 ± 1 days of treatment (T2), resulting in 29 responders and 36 non-responders. Brain arousal was assessed using the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig (VIGALL 2.1). At baseline responders and non-responders differed in distribution of overall EEG-vigilance stages (F2,133 = 4.780, p = 0.009), with responders showing significantly more high vigilance stage A and less low vigilance stage B. The 15-minutes Time-course of EEG-vigilance did not differ significantly between groups. Exploratory analyses revealed that responders showed a stronger decline in EEG-vigilance levels from baseline to T1 than non-responders (F2,130 = 4.978, p = 0.005). Higher brain arousal level in responders to antidepressants supports the concept that dysregulation of brain arousal is a possible predictor of treatment response in affective disorders. PMID:28345662

  6. Regulation of zebrafish sleep and arousal states: current and prospective approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy N Chiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we shift among various states of sleep and arousal to meet the many demands of our bodies and environment. A central puzzle in neurobiology is how the brain controls these behavioral states, which are essential to an animal’s well-being and survival. Mammalian models have predominated sleep and arousal research, although in the past decade, invertebrate models have made significant contributions to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of behavioral states. More recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a promising model system for sleep and arousal research. Here we review experimental evidence that the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, exhibits fundamental behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of mammalian sleep and arousal. We also propose how specific advantages of the zebrafish can be harnessed to advance the field. These include tractable genetics to identify and manipulate molecular and cellular regulators of behavioral states, optical transparency to facilitate in vivo observation of neural structure and function, and amenability to high-throughput drug screens to discover novel therapies for neurological disorders.

  7. The Role of Arousal in the Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Healthy Aging: An fMRI Investigation

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    Sanda eDolcos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing

  8. The role of arousal in the spontaneous regulation of emotions in healthy aging: a fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Sanda; Katsumi, Yuta; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing negative emotions.

  9. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation for support of forebrain arousal regulation in the minimally conscious state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT/DBS) to support arousal regulation mechanisms in the minimally conscious state (MCS). CT/DBS for selected patients in a MCS is first placed in the historical context of prior efforts to use thalamic electrical brain stimulation to treat the unconscious clinical conditions of coma and vegetative state. These previous studies and a proof of concept result from a single-subject study of a patient in a MCS are reviewed against the background of new population data providing benchmarks of the natural history of vegetative and MCSs. The conceptual foundations for CT/DBS in selected patients in a MCS are then presented with consideration of both circuit and cellular mechanisms underlying recovery of consciousness identified from empirical studies. Directions for developing future generalizable criteria for CT/DBS that focus on the integrity of necessary brain systems and behavioral profiles in patients in a MCS that may optimally response to support of arousal regulation mechanisms are proposed.

  10. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism.

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    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    and appeared to induce rapid oxygen consumption in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and to rapidly produce deoxyhemoglobin to regulate physiological arousal. Thus, eyelid opening with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation may activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex via the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus and locus coeruleus.

  11. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Matsuo

    innervated sweat glands and appeared to induce rapid oxygen consumption in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and to rapidly produce deoxyhemoglobin to regulate physiological arousal. Thus, eyelid opening with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation may activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex via the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus and locus coeruleus.

  12. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  13. Stay calm! Regulating emotional responses by implementation intentions: Assessing the impact on physiological and subjective arousal.

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    Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; van Reekum, Carien M

    2016-09-01

    Implementation intention (IMP) has recently been highlighted as an effective emotion regulatory strategy. Most studies examining the effectiveness of IMPs to regulate emotion have relied on self-report measures of emotional change. In two studies we employed electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) in addition to arousal ratings (AR) to assess the impact of an IMP on emotional responses. In Study 1, 60 participants viewed neutral and two types of negative pictures (weapon vs. non-weapon) under the IMP "If I see a weapon, then I will stay calm and relaxed!" or no self-regulatory instructions (Control). In Study 2, additionally to the Control and IMP conditions, participants completed the picture rating task either under goal intention (GI) to stay calm and relaxed or warning instructions highlighting that some pictures contain weapons. In both studies, participants showed lower EDA, reduced HR deceleration and lower AR to the weapon pictures compared to the non-weapon pictures. In Study 2, the IMP was associated with lower EDA compared to the GI condition for the weapon pictures, but not compared to the weapon pictures in the Warning condition. ARs were lower for IMP compared to GI and Warning conditions for the weapon pictures.

  14. Endocannabinoid signaling in hypothalamic circuits regulates arousal from general anesthesia in mice

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    Zhong, Haixing; Tong, Li; Gu, Ning; Gao, Fang; Lu, Yacheng; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Xin; Bergeron, Richard; Pomeranz, Lisa E.; Wang, Feng; Luo, Chun-Xia; Ren, Yan; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Xie, Zhongcong; Xu, Lin; Li, Jinlian; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize

    2017-01-01

    Consciousness can be defined by two major attributes: awareness of environment and self, and arousal, which reflects the level of awareness. The return of arousal after general anesthesia presents an experimental tool for probing the neural mechanisms that control consciousness. Here we have identified that systemic or intracerebral injection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM281 into the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) — but not the adjacent perifornical area (Pef) or the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus (VLPO) — accelerates arousal in mice recovering from general anesthesia. Anesthetics selectively activated endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling at DMH glutamatergic but not GABAergic synapses, leading to suppression of both glutamatergic DMH-Pef and GABAergic DMH-VLPO projections. Deletion of CB1R from widespread cerebral cortical or prefrontal cortical (PFC) glutamatergic neurons, including those innervating the DMH, mimicked the arousal-accelerating effects of AM281. In contrast, CB1R deletion from brain GABAergic neurons or hypothalamic glutamatergic neurons did not affect recovery time from anesthesia. Inactivation of PFC-DMH, DMH-VLPO, or DMH-Pef projections blocked AM281-accelerated arousal, whereas activation of these projections mimicked the effects of AM281. We propose that decreased eCB signaling at glutamatergic terminals of the PFC-DMH projection accelerates arousal from general anesthesia through enhancement of the excitatory DMH-Pef projection, the inhibitory DMH-VLPO projection, or both. PMID:28463228

  15. Anger regulation style, anger arousal and acute pain sensitivity: evidence for an endogenous opioid "triggering" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Bruehl, Stephen; Chont, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Findings suggest that greater tendency to express anger is associated with greater sensitivity to acute pain via endogenous opioid system dysfunction, but past studies have not addressed the role of anger arousal. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with Drug Condition (placebo or opioid blockade with naltrexone) crossed with Task Order (anger-induction/pain-induction or pain-induction/anger-induction), and with continuous Anger-out Subscale scores. Drug × Task Order × Anger-out Subscale interactions were tested for pain intensity during a 4-min ischemic pain task performed by 146 healthy people. A significant Drug × Task Order × Anger-out Subscale interaction was dissected to reveal different patterns of pain intensity changes during the pain task for high anger-out participants who underwent pain-induction prior to anger-induction compared to those high in anger-out in the opposite order. Namely, when angered prior to pain, high anger-out participants appeared to exhibit low pain intensity under placebo that was not shown by high anger-out participants who received naltrexone. Results hint that people with a pronounced tendency to express anger may suffer from inadequate opioid function under simple pain-induction, but may experience analgesic benefit to some extent from the opioid triggering properties of strong anger arousal.

  16. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

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    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions.

  17. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys

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    Alex G. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3 in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [11C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET. DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  18. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot–human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a “baby” robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a “caregiver” to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two “idealized” robot profiles—a “needy” and an “independent” robot—in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the “stress” (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness—“responsive” and “non-responsive”—to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the “needy” and “independent” axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  19. Arousal Regulation and Affective Adaptation to Human Responsiveness by a Robot that Explores and Learns a Novel Environment

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    Antoine eHiolle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a ``baby'' robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a ``caregiver'' to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a the differences between two ``idealized'' robot profiles -- a ``needy'' and an ``independent'' robot -- in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the ``stress'' (arousal produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness -- ``responsive'' and ``non-responsive'' -- to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (bbring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to textit{adapt/} its regulatory behavior along the ``needy'' and ``independent'' axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  20. The role of nucleus accumbens core/shell in sleep-wake regulation and their involvement in modafinil-induced arousal.

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    Mei-Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that modafinil promotes wakefulness via dopamine receptor D(1 and D(2 receptors; however, the locus where dopamine acts has not been identified. We proposed that the nucleus accumbens (NAc that receives the ventral tegmental area dopamine inputs play an important role not only in reward and addiction but also in sleep-wake cycle and in mediating modafinil-induced arousal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we further explored the role of NAc in sleep-wake cycle and sleep homeostasis by ablating the NAc core and shell, respectively, and examined arousal response following modafinil administration. We found that discrete NAc core and shell lesions produced 26.5% and 17.4% increase in total wakefulness per day, respectively, with sleep fragmentation and a reduced sleep rebound after a 6-hr sleep deprivation compared to control. Finally, NAc core but not shell lesions eliminated arousal effects of modafinil. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the NAc regulates sleep-wake behavior and mediates arousal effects of the midbrain dopamine system and stimulant modafinil.

  1. Regulation of plasma membrane aquaporins by inoculation with a Bacillus megaterium strain in maize (Zea mays L.) plants under unstressed and salt-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulanda, Adriana; Azcón, Rosario; Chaumont, François; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    It is documented that some plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant salt tolerance. However, as to how PGPR may influence two crucial components of plant salt tolerance such as, root hydraulic characteristics and aquaporin regulation has been almost unexplored. Here, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were inoculated with a Bacillus megaterium strain previously isolated from a degraded soil and characterized as PGPR. Inoculated plants were found to exhibit higher root hydraulic conductance (L) values under both unstressed and salt-stressed conditions. These higher L values in inoculated plants correlated with higher plasma membrane type two (PIP2) aquaporin amount in their roots under salt-stressed conditions. Also, ZmPIP1;1 protein amount under salt-stressed conditions was higher in inoculated leaves than in non-inoculated ones. Hence, the different regulation of PIP aquaporin expression and abundance by the inoculation with the B. megaterium strain could be one of the causes of the different salt response in terms of root growth, necrotic leaf area, leaf relative water content and L by the inoculation treatment.

  2. Anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation in everyday life among patients with chronic low back pain: Relationships to patient pain and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Gerhart, James I; Bruehl, Stephen; Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which patient anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation (expression, inhibition) occurring in the course of daily life was related to patient pain and function as rated by patients and their spouses. Married couples (N = 105) (one spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. Patients completed items on their own state anger, behavioral anger expression and inhibition, and pain-related factors. Spouses completed items on their observations of patient pain-related factors. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test concurrent and lagged relationships. Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to their reports of concurrent increases in pain and pain interference and to spouse reports of patient pain and pain behavior. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger expression were related to lagged increases in pain intensity and interference and decreases in function. Most of these relationships remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger inhibition were related to concurrent increases in pain interference and decreases in function, which also remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to lagged increases in spouse reports of patient pain intensity and pain behaviors. Results indicate that in patients with chronic pain, anger arousal and behavioral anger expression and inhibition in everyday life are related to elevated pain intensity and decreased function as reported by patients. Spouse ratings show some degree of concordance with patient reports. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  4. Can sustained arousal explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

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    Eriksen Hege R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present an integrative model of disease mechanisms in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, unifying empirical findings from different research traditions. Based upon the Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS, we argue that new data on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory regulation indicate a state of permanent arousal responses – sustained arousal – in this condition. We suggest that sustained arousal can originate from different precipitating factors (infections, psychosocial challenges interacting with predisposing factors (genetic traits, personality and learned expectancies (classical and operant conditioning. Furthermore, sustained arousal may explain documented alterations by establishing vicious circles within immunology (Th2 (humoral vs Th1 (cellular predominance, endocrinology (attenuated HPA axis, skeletal muscle function (attenuated cortical activation, increased oxidative stress and cognition (impaired memory and information processing. Finally, we propose a causal link between sustained arousal and the experience of fatigue. The model of sustained arousal embraces all main findings concerning CFS disease mechanisms within one theoretical framework.

  5. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

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    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  6. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

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    Christin eKosse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioural state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise. An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behaviour, and bases for disease.

  7. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  8. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  9. Dissociable effects of valence and arousal in adaptive executive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Kuhbandner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on introspectionist, semantic, and psychophysiological experimental frameworks, it has long been assumed that all affective states derive from two independent basic dimensions, valence and arousal. However, until now, no study has investigated whether valence and arousal are also dissociable at the level of affect-related changes in cognitive processing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined how changes in both valence (negative vs. positive and arousal (low vs. high influence performance in tasks requiring executive control because recent research indicates that two dissociable cognitive components are involved in the regulation of task performance: amount of current control (i.e., strength of filtering goal-irrelevant signals and control adaptation (i.e., strength of maintaining current goals over time. Using a visual pop-out distractor task, we found that control is exclusively modulated by arousal because interference by goal-irrelevant signals was largest in high arousal states, independently of valence. By contrast, control adaptation is exclusively modulated by valence because the increase in control after trials in which goal-irrelevant signals were present was largest in negative states, independent of arousal. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that differential effects of two experimental factors on control and control adaptation can be dissociated if there is no correlation between empirical interference and conflict-driven modulation of interference, which was the case in the present data. Consequently, the observed effects of valence and arousal on adaptive executive control are indeed dissociable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that affective influences on cognitive processes can be driven by independent effects of variations in valence and arousal, which may resolve several heterogeneous findings observed in previous studies on affect-cognition interactions.

  10. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  11. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  12. Optogenetic Investigation of Arousal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Susan M; de Lecea, Luis

    2017-08-15

    Modulation between sleep and wake states is controlled by a number of heterogeneous neuron populations. Due to the topological proximity and genetic co-localization of the neurons underlying sleep-wake state modulation optogenetic methods offer a significant improvement in the ability to benefit from both the precision of genetic targeting and millisecond temporal control. Beginning with an overview of the neuron populations mediating arousal, this review outlines the progress that has been made in the investigation of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application of optogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This overview is followed by a discussion of the future progress that can be made by incorporating more recent technological developments into the research of neural circuits.

  13. Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Frank, Darya; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Fardo, Francesca; Winston, Joel S; Hauser, Tobias U; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. Across measures of perceptual bias, uncertainty, and physiological arousal we found that arousing disgust cues modulated the encoding of sensory noise. Furthermore, the degree to which trial-by-trial pupil fluctuations encoded this nonlinear interaction correlated with trial level confidence. Our results suggest that unexpected arousal regulates perceptual precision, such that subjective confidence reflects the integration of both external sensory and internal, embodied states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18103.001 PMID:27776633

  14. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  15. Arousing Students' Interest Through Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新清

    2013-01-01

    As is well known,interest is the best teacher and it can cause motivation. "Motivation is what moves the students from boredom to interest, It's something like engine and steering wheel of an automobile . "(Spolsky. B. 1989 ) So I decided to adopt some different kinds of games in my lessons to arouse the learners' interest and motivate them , and help them keep up their English learning.

  16. Emotional arousal predicts intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Johnson, Eli; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it. Here the authors use an objective measure of arousal-pupil dilation-to investigate if emotional arousal mediates the influence of delayed reward concreteness on choice. They recorded pupil dilation responses while participants made choices between immediate and delayed rewards. They manipulated concreteness through time interval framing: delayed rewards were presented either with the date on which they would be received (e.g., "$30, May 3"; DATE condition, more concrete) or in terms of delay to receipt (e.g., "$30, 7 days; DAYS condition, less concrete). Contrary to prior work, participants were not overall more patient in the DATE condition. However, there was individual variability in response to time framing, and this variability was predicted by differences in pupil dilation between conditions. Emotional arousal increased as the subjective value of delayed rewards increased, and predicted choice of the delayed reward on each trial. This study advances our understanding of the role of emotion in temporal discounting. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  18. Relaxation training assisted by heart rate variability biofeedback: Implication for a military predeployment stress inoculation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gregory F; Hourani, Laurel; Tueller, Stephen; Kizakevich, Paul; Bryant, Stephanie; Weimer, Belinda; Strange, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, but PTSD's effects on the autonomic stress response and the potential influence of HRV biofeedback in stress relaxation training on improving PTSD symptoms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a predeployment stress inoculation training (PRESTINT) protocol on physiologic measures of HRV in a large sample of the military population randomly assigned to experimental HRV biofeedback-assisted relaxation training versus a control condition. PRESTINT altered the parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity, with experimental subjects exhibiting greater HRV, that is, less arousal, during a posttraining combat simulation designed to heighten arousal. Autonomic reactivity was also found to be related to PTSD and self-reported use of mental health services. Future PRESTINT training could be appropriate for efficiently teaching self-help skills to reduce the psychological harm following trauma exposure by increasing the capacity for parasympathetically modulated reactions to stress and providing a coping tool (i.e., relaxation method) for use following a stressful situation.

  19. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual.

  20. Emotional arousal state influences the ability of amygdalar endocannabinoid signaling to modulate anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Maria; Leitl, Kira D; Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gray, J Megan; Campolongo, Patrizia; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-12-01

    Systemic activation of cannabinoid receptors often induces biphasic effects on emotional memory and anxiety depending on the levels of emotional arousal associated to the experimental context. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) represents a crucial structure for the ability of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling to modulate emotional behaviour, and receives dense projections from brainstem arousal system nuclei. We examined whether changes in emotional arousal state would influence the ability of acute eCB manipulations within the BLA to modulate anxiety. Rats were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) under low or high arousal conditions. The low emotional arousal group was extensively handled and habituated to the experimental room and tested under red light condition, the high emotional arousal group was not handled or habituated and tested under high light condition. We examined amygdalar eCB anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels immediately after the EPM and the effects of intra-BLA administration of the AEA hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 or the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor KML29 on anxiety behaviour. The modulation of anxiety-like behaviour by eCBs in the BLA was strictly dependent on the environmental-associated emotional arousal. Pharmacologically-induced elevations of AEA or 2-AG in the BLA decreased anxiety under conditions of low emotional arousal. Conversely, when the level of emotional arousal increased, local eCB manipulation was ineffective in the modulation of the emotional arousal-induced anxiety response. These findings suggest that, depending on the emotional arousal state, eCB system is differentially activated to regulate the anxiety response in the amygdala and help to understand the state-dependency of many interventions on anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Neuropeptides FLP-2 and PDF-1 Act in Concert To Arouse Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Didi; Taylor, Kelsey P; Hall, Qi; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    During larval molts, Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a sleep-like state (termed lethargus) that is characterized by the absence of feeding and profound locomotion quiescence. The rhythmic pattern of locomotion quiescence and arousal linked to the molting cycle is mediated by reciprocal changes in sensory responsiveness, whereby arousal is associated with increased responsiveness. Sensory neurons arouse locomotion via release of a neuropeptide (PDF-1) and glutamate. Here we identify a second arousing neuropeptide (FLP-2). We show that FLP-2 acts via an orexin-like receptor (FRPR-18), and that FLP-2 and PDF-1 secretion are regulated by reciprocal positive feedback. These results suggest that the aroused behavioral state is stabilized by positive feedback between two neuropeptides. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Effect of actinobacteria agent inoculation methods on cellulose degradation during composting based on redundancy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Lu, Qian; Wei, Yuquan; Cui, Hongyang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xueqin; Shan, Si; Wei, Zimin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, actinobacteria agent including Streptomyces sp. and Micromonospora sp. were inoculated during chicken manure composting by different inoculation methods. The effect of different treatments on cellulose degradation and the relationship between inoculants and indigenous actinobacteria were investigated during composting. The results showed that inoculation in different stages of composting all improved the actinobacteria community diversity particularly in the cooling stage of composting (M3). Moreover, inoculation could distinctly accelerate the degradation of organic matters (OM) especially celluloses. Redundancy analysis indicated that the correlation between indigenous actinobacteria and degradation of OM and cellulose were regulated by inoculants and there were significant differences between different inoculation methods. Furthermore, synergy between indigenous actinobacteria and inoculants for degradation of OM and cellulose in M3 was better than other treatments. Conclusively, we suggested an inoculation method to regulate the indigenous actinobacteria based on the relationship between inoculants and indigenous actinobacteria and degradation content.

  3. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  4. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Philbeck, John W; Wirtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  5. [Design of SCM inoculation device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingli; Xie, Haiyuan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of bacilli culture is inoculation bacteria on culture medium. Designing a device to increase efficiency of inoculation is significative. The new device is controlled by SCM. The stepper motor can drive the culture medium rotating, accelerating, decelerating, overturn and suspending. The device is high practicability and efficient, let inoculation easy for operator.

  6. Arousal Cues Arousal-Related Material in Memory: Implications for Understanding Effects of Mood on Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses research showing that material people learn when in a high arousal state and material they learn when in a normal arousal state is subsequently best recalled when they are in a similar arousal state. Speculates that this effect may partially underlie mood cuing, mood-related material from memory. (EKN)

  7. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep.

  8. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-07-23

    Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive mood-high arousal; (ii) positive mood-low arousal; (iii) negative mood-high arousal; (iv) negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  9. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  10. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  11. Fluctuation of Brain Tissue Oxygen Partial Pressure: A Biochemical Landmark in the Arctic Ground Squirrel's Spontaneous Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi L. Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibernation in the Arctic ground Squirrel (AGS is a regulated, adaptive response to arctic environmental conditions. Problem statement: Regional brain Blood Flow (rCBF has been observed to increase dramatically during arousal in hibernators. However, the real time dynamic change in PtO2 during arousal has not been studied, we hypothesized that PtO2 is Interdependent of Tbrain and a key component in the arousal process. Approach: Simultaneous in vivo measurements of PtO2 and brain temperature (Tbrain in conjunction with oxygen consumption (V02 were conducted in the striatum of non-sedated, non-anesthetized Arctic ground squirrels during spontaneous arousal from hibernation. Results: A dramatic fluctuation of brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtO2 is associated with the complex phenomena of spontaneous arousal. In this study, we observed that: (1 a PtO2 elevation precedes changes in Tbrain and V02; (2 PtO2 changes do not correlate with changes in V02 during arousal and (3, endogenous O2 shift from O2 enriched blood to brain in hibernating AGS induces an arousal with the pharmaceutical chemical, efaproxiral (RSR-13. Conclusion: The four turning points of PtO2 appearing at different Tbrain during arousal suggest that changes in PtO2 are Tbrain interdependent and support the concept that arousal from hibernation is complex process invoking different feedbacks.

  12. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  13. An Evidence-based Analysis of the Association between Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep and Arousals in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Fulda, Stephany

    2015-06-01

    To analyze statistically the association between periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and arousals, in order to eventually support or challenge the current scoring rules and to further understand their reciprocal influence. Sleep research center. Twenty untreated consecutive patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (13 women and 7 males, mean age 60.9 y). In each recording, we selected all PLMS/arousal pairs that met the following inclusion criteria: (a) PLMS events that were separated from another PLMS event (preceding or following) by at least 10 s of EMG inactivity; (b) arousal events separated from another arousal event (preceding or following) by at least 10 s of stable EEG baseline activity; (c) PLMS/arousal pairs were then selected among events identified according to the previous two criteria, when PLMS and arousals were separated (offset-to-onset) by no more than 10 s, regardless of which was first. We selected a mean of 46.1 (SD 25.55) PLMS/arousal pairs per subject; in these pairs, average PLMS duration was 3.2 s (0.65) and average arousal duration was 6.5 s (0.92). Within these event pairs, the great majority (on average 98.4%, SD 3.88) was separated by less than 0.5 s (i.e., between the end of one event and the onset of the other, regardless of which was first). Arousal onsets preceded PLMS onset in 41.2% of pairs, while the opposite was true for the remaining 58.8% of pairs. A significant correlation between PLMS duration and arousal duration was also found (r = 0.447, P leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and arousals. The tight time relationship between PLMS and arousals and their correlated durations seem to indicate that both events might be regulated by a complex mechanism, rather than being connected by a simple reciprocal cause/effect relationship. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Multilevel modulation of a sensory motor circuit during C. elegans sleep and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Julie Y; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-16

    Sleep is characterized by behavioral quiescence, homeostasis, increased arousal threshold, and rapid reversibility. Understanding how these properties are encoded by a neuronal circuit has been difficult, and no single molecular or neuronal pathway has been shown to be responsible for the regulation of sleep. Taking advantage of the well-mapped neuronal connections of Caenorhabditis elegans and the sleep-like states in this animal, we demonstrate the changed properties of both sensory neurons and downstream interneurons that mediate sleep and arousal. The ASH sensory neuron displays reduced sensitivity to stimuli in the sleep-like state, and the activity of the corresponding interneurons in ASH's motor circuit becomes asynchronous. Restoration of interneuron synchrony is sufficient for arousal. The multilevel circuit depression revealed provides an elegant strategy to promote a robust decrease in arousal while allowing for rapid reversibility of the sleep state.

  15. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan J Nealis

    Full Text Available Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness, arousal (activation, or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the 'handgrip task' and cognitive (Stroop assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources.

  16. Focusing 'Hot' or Focusing 'Cool' : Attentional Mechanisms in Sexual Arousal in Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, S.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.

    INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about the regulation of sexual emotion may add to the understanding of sexual problems such as diminished sexual desire and hypersexuality. AIM: To investigate the regulation of sexual arousal by means of attentional focus in healthy sexually functional men and women. METHOD:

  17. Sweet pepper seed responses to inoculation with microorganisms and coating with micronutrients, aminoacids and plant growth regulators Tratamento de sementes de pimentão com microrganismos, micronutrientes, aminoácidos e reguladores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Almeida Diniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized seeds, such as the horticultural species, have limited quantities of reserves that can be balanced by coating then with essential nutrients for their initial development. In addition, inoculation of the seeds with microorganisms may protect the plants against phytopathogens, thus enhancing their growth. The present work had the objective of evaluate the physiological quality and seedling development of sweet pepper seeds and seedlings coated with several kind of films. Seeds were first coated with polymers and then with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma polysporhum, Trichoderma stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, mycorrhizas, aminoacids, micronutrients and plant growth regulators. Evaluation was performed for percentage of germination and for seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, number of plants, dry mass of the aerial and root parts and height of the seedlings. Inoculation with Trichoderma viride increased the percentage and rate of the seedlings emergence Inoculation with Trichoderma viride, Metarhizium anisopliae and mycorrhizas promote better seedling development; seed microbiolization with microorganisms Trichoderma viride, T. polysporhum, T. stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae. Mycorrhizas mixture negatively affected seeds and seedling quality. Seed covering with plant growht regulator, at a 5 mL kg-1 dose increased the roots dry matter.Em sementes pequenas, como as de espécies hortícolas, as limitadas quantidades de reservas podem ser equilibradas por meio do seu recobrimento com nutrientes essenciais para o seu desenvolvimento inicial. Além disso, a inoculação dessas sementes com microrganismos, além de proteger as plantas contra fitopatógenos, pode promover o seu crescimento. Assim, objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tipos de revestimentos na qualidade de sementes e mudas de pimentão (Capsicum annum. Para tanto, as

  18. Financial Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Planning Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grable

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from this exploratory clinical study indicate that financial anxiety—holding an unhealthy attitude about one’s financial situation—and physiological arousal—the physical precursor to behavior—play important roles in shaping consumer intention to engage in future financial planning activity. Findings suggest that those who are most likely to engage the services of a financial adviser exhibit low levels of financial anxiety and moderate to high levels of physiological arousal. The least likely to seek the help of a financial adviser are those who exhibit high financial anxiety and low physiological arousal. Results support findings documented in the literature that high anxiety levels often lead to a form of self-imposed helplessness. In order to move those experiencing financial anxiety towards financial solutions, financial advisers ought to take steps to simultaneously reduce financial stressors and stimulate arousal as a way to promote behavioral change and help seeking.

  19. Emotion and Implicit Timing: The Arousal Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Berthon, Mickaël

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the effects of emotion on implicit time judgment. The participants did not receive any overt temporal instructions. They were simply trained to respond as quickly as possible after a response signal, which was separated from a warning signal by a reference temporal interval. In the testing phase, the inter-signal interval was shorter, equal or longer than the reference interval and was filled by emotional pictures (EP) of different arousal levels: high, moderate, and low. The results showed a U-shaped curve of reaction time plotted against the interval duration, indicating an implicit processing of time. However, this RT-curve was shifted toward the left, with a significantly lower peak time for the high-arousal than for the low-arousal EP. This emotional time distortion in an implicit timing task suggests an automatic effect of emotion on the internal clock rate. PMID:28261125

  20. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-06-10

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli.

  1. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M; Miller, Claude H

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. RESULTS provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims). As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1) good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2) an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  2. An Arousal Model of Interpersonal Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Miles L.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical model designed to explain and predict reactive changes in the expression of interpersonal intimacy is presented. The model basically proposes that in an interaction, sufficient changes in one person's intimacy behaviors (e.g., interpersonal distance, eye contact, touch) precipitate arousal change in the other person. (Editor)

  3. Drug Induced Arousal and Fear Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.

    It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…

  4. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system. PMID:26175672

  5. The Insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Andrés Rojas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA compared to a low arousal context (LA. The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1% was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular norepinephrine blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system.

  6. Concepts and mechanisms of generalized central nervous system arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Donald; Ribeiro, Ana; Matthews, James; Kow, Lee-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A concept of generalized arousal of the CNS is presented and given an operational definition that leads to quantitative physical measures. Because this primitive arousal function underlies all motivated behavioral responses, cognitive functions, and emotional expression, disorders of generalized arousal can be associated with a large number of problems in medicine and public health, including vegetative states, attentional disorders, depression, occupational hazards, and problems with sleep and anesthesia. Some of its known mechanisms are briefly reviewed, at the levels of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and functional genomics. Generalized arousal contributes to the excitement and the activation of behaviors during specific arousal states. Data are summarized for four genomic/neurochemical systems through which changes in generalized arousal could affect sexual arousal, two of which heighten, and the other two of which reduce arousal.

  7. Synchronized Bilateral Synaptic Inputs to Drosophila melanogaster Neuropeptidergic Rest/Arousal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, E. V.; Wu, Y.; deCarvalho, T.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide PDF (pigment-dispersing factor)-secreting large ventrolateral neurons (lLN(v)s) in the Drosophila brain regulate daily patterns of rest and arousal. These bilateral wake-promoting neurons are light responsive and integrate information from the circadian system, sleep circuits, and li...

  8. Neurophysiological foundations of sleep, arousal, awareness and consciousness phenomena. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwańczuk, Waldemar; Guźniczak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Second section of the paper contains description of hypothalamic centres involved in regulation of circadian rhythms. Connections between these neurons and activating reticular system are described. Transition from arousal to sleep, promoted by substances called somnogens, is discussed. Lastly, function of suprachiasmatic nucleus as circadian oscillator is presented.

  9. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Fear Arousal and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Yolanda; Crowe, Michael J.

    While self-efficacy has been described as a basic mechanism underlying arousal and performance, the hypothesis that belief of higher self-efficacy should produce lower anticipatory arousal and distress has not been proven. This study assessed perceived self-efficacy, self-report measures of fear and arousal, performance across sex, and a…

  10. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Arousal and mood factors in the "Mozart effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, K M

    2000-08-01

    Some investigators of the "Mozart effect" have not controlled for the influence of differences in arousal or mood induced by treatment conditions. Studies by Rideout and colleagues reported differences in spatial reasoning after listening to a Mozart sonata compared against a relaxation instruction tape. The conditions may have affected subjects' arousal differentially, with the sonata increasing arousal and the relaxation instructions decreasing arousal, which could have affected spatial reasoning performance. Evidence is cited in support of this suggestion and indicates the importance of analyzing the influence of arousal differences in Mozart effect research.

  12. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara M Greene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i positive mood-high arousal; (ii positive mood-low arousal; (iii negative mood-high arousal; (iv negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  13. Effect of Morphology of Instantaneous Inoculant on Inoculated Result of Melted Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Da

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of some elements in inoculant were analyzed. The effect of the morphology of instantaneous inoculant on its melting velocity was studied. When the inoculants pass through the same sieve number, the volume and the ratio of surface area to volume are different. It is evident from the theoretical analysis and experiment under some conditions that the melting velocity of inoculant depends on the morphology of inoculant. The morphology of inoculant during production should be controlled carefully.

  14. Mindfulness-Based Sex Therapy Improves Genital-Subjective Arousal Concordance in Women With Sexual Desire/Arousal Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Chivers, Meredith L; Millman, Roanne D; Albert, Arianne

    2016-11-01

    There is emerging evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for improving women's sexual functioning. To date, this literature has been limited to self-reports of sexual response and distress. Sexual arousal concordance-the degree of agreement between self-reported sexual arousal and psychophysiological sexual response-has been of interest due to the speculation that it may be a key component to healthy sexual functioning in women. We examined the effects of mindfulness-based sex therapy on sexual arousal concordance in a sample of women with sexual desire/arousal difficulties (n = 79, M age 40.8 years) who participated in an in-laboratory assessment of sexual arousal using a vaginal photoplethysmograph before and after four sessions of group mindfulness-based sex therapy. Genital-subjective sexual arousal concordance significantly increased from pre-treatment levels, with changes in subjective sexual arousal predicting contemporaneous genital sexual arousal (but not the reverse). These findings have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which mindfulness-based sex therapy improves sexual functioning in women, and suggest that such treatment may lead to an integration of physical and subjective arousal processes. Moreover, our findings suggest that future research might consider the adoption of sexual arousal concordance as a relevant endpoint in treatment outcome research of women with sexual desire/arousal concerns.

  15. Sleep, anesthesiology, and the neurobiology of arousal state control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2005-12-01

    Sleep, like breathing, is a biologic rhythm that is actively generated by the brain. Neuronal networks that have evolved to regulate naturally occurring sleep preferentially modulate traits that define states of sedation and anesthesia. Sleep is temporally organized into distinct stages that are characterized by a unique constellation of physiologic and behavioral traits. Sleep and anesthetic susceptibility are genetically modulated, heritable phenotypes. This review considers 40 yr of research regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to arousal state control. Clinical and preclinical data have debunked and supplanted the primitive view that sleep need is a weakness. Sleep deprivation and restriction diminish vigilance, alter neuroendocrine control, and negatively impact immune function. There is overwhelming support for the view that decrements in vigilance can negatively impact performance. Advances in neuroscience provide a foundation for the sea change in public and legal perspectives that now regard a sleep-deprived individual as impaired.

  16. Sleep-related cognitive processes, arousal, and emotion dysregulation in insomnia disorder: the role of insomnia-specific rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Moretto, Umberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Carney, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    Insomnia-specific rumination has presented in subjects with insomnia. Research has identified hyperarousal as a key factor, with both trait and state components. It has been shown that emotion dysregulation also plays a role in insomnia. Hence, the aim was to investigate how insomnia rumination is associated with both trait- and state-dependent arousal and emotion dysregulation in insomnia. Sixty-eight subjects with insomnia disorder (DSM-5) and 36 good sleepers were evaluated using: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Daytime Insomnia Symptom Response Scale (DISRS), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses and mediation analyses were performed. Subjects with insomnia (F 41, mean age 50.2 ± 10) presented higher scores than good sleepers (F 22, mean age 49.7 ± 14) in all the scales (ISI, DISRS, APS, PSAS, DERS; p cognitive B = 0.22, p cognitive and somatic arousal (p = 0.02), and the association between trait hyperarousal and emotion dysregulation (Z = 2.3, p = 0.04). In insomnia, specific rumination is related to both trait predisposition to arousal and to state-dependent arousal. It is also related to emotion dyregulation. Insomnia-specific ruminative response style may modulate the complex association between trait- and state-dependent arousal factors and arousal and emotion regulation in insomnia. In this framework, a broad range of cognitive processes may be considered when dealing with subjects with insomnia: the use of rumination-oriented psychological strategies could be important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CNS- and ANS-arousal predict response to antidepressant medication: Findings from the randomized iSPOT-D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Tränkner, Anja; Surova, Galina; Gevirtz, Richard; Gordon, Evian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Arns, Martijn

    2016-02-01

    Arousal systems are one of the recently announced NIMH Research Domain Criteria to inform future diagnostics and treatment prediction. In major depressive disorder (MDD), altered central nervous system (CNS) wakefulness regulation and an increased sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity have been identified as biomarkers with possible discriminative value for prediction of antidepressant treatment response. Therefore, the hypothesis of a more pronounced decline of CNS and ANS-arousal being predictive for a positive treatment outcome to selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) treatment was derived from a small, independent exploratory dataset (N = 25) and replicated using data from the randomized international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment Response in Depression (iSPOT-D). There, 1008 MDD participants were randomized to either a SSRI (escitalopram or sertraline) or a serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor (SNRI-venlafaxine) arm. Treatment response was established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. CNS-arousal (i.e. electroencephalogram-vigilance), ANS-arousal (heart rate) and their change across time were assessed during rest. Responders and remitters to SSRI treatment were characterized by a faster decline of CNS-arousal during rest whereas SNRI responders showed a significant increase of ANS-arousal. Furthermore, SSRI responders/remitters showed an association between ANS- and CNS-arousal regulation in comparison to non-responders/non-remitters while this was not the case for SNRI treatment arm. Since positive treatment outcome to SSRI and SNRI was linked to distinct CNS and ANS-arousal profiles, these predictive markers probably are not disorder specific alterations but reflect the responsiveness of the nervous system to specific drugs.

  18. Inoculation effects on root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities spread beyond directly inoculated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Martina; Krak, Karol; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may improve plant performance at disturbed sites, but inoculation may also suppress root colonization by native AMF and decrease the diversity of the root-colonizing AMF community. This has been shown for the roots of directly inoculated plants, but little is known about the stability of inoculation effects, and to which degree the inoculant and the inoculation-induced changes in AMF community composition spread into newly emerging seedlings that were not in direct contact with the introduced propagules. We addressed this topic in a greenhouse experiment based on the soil and native AMF community of a post-mining site. Plants were cultivated in compartmented pots with substrate containing the native AMF community, where AMF extraradical mycelium radiating from directly inoculated plants was allowed to inoculate neighboring plants. The abundances of the inoculated isolate and of native AMF taxa were monitored in the roots of the directly inoculated plants and the neighboring plants by quantitative real-time PCR. As expected, inoculation suppressed root colonization of the directly inoculated plants by other AMF taxa of the native AMF community and also by native genotypes of the same species as used for inoculation. In the neighboring plants, high abundance of the inoculant and the suppression of native AMF were maintained. Thus, we demonstrate that inoculation effects on native AMF propagate into plants that were not in direct contact with the introduced inoculum, and are therefore likely to persist at the site of inoculation.

  19. Sensitization, subjective health complaints, and sustained arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, H; Eriksen, H R

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the possibility that sensitization is a psychobiological mechanism underlying not only multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), but a much more general cluster of illness, referred to as "subjective health complaints". Sustained arousal, or sustained "stress" responses, may be an important factor for the development of these conditions. Patients with subjective complaints without objective changes are sometimes referred to as having "fashionable diagnoses" or "unexplained symptoms". They may be given diagnoses like MCS, epidemic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, burnout, stress, a variety of intoxications, environmental illness, radiation, multiple chemical hypersensitivity, food intolerance, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel, myalgic encephalitis, postviral syndrome, yuppie flu, fibromyalgia, or vital exhaustion. One issue is whether this is one general condition or separate entities. Another issue is whether sensitization may be the psychobiological mechanism for most or all of these conditions. Finally, is it likely that sustained arousal may facilitate the development of sensitization in some or many neural circuits? In this review, the main emphasis will be on musculoskeletal pain. This is the most frequent and most expensive condition for sickness compensation and disability. The comorbidity of other complaints, however, will also be taken into account.

  20. Adolescent pertussis-induced partial arousal parasomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Zeharia, Avraham

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neurologic complications of pertussis infection. A file review of all children (age 7-18 years) in our hospital with serology-positive pertussis infection admitted from 1995 to 2005 yielded six patients with neurologic symptoms in whom electroencephalographic studies were performed. Data were collected on their clinical symptoms, electroencephalographic findings, final diagnosis, and outcome. The six patients accounted for 10% of all children diagnosed with pertussis during the study period. Their ages ranged from 10 to 15.5 years. All the children were referred by their primary physician because of a suspicion of epilepsy on the basis of parental reports of inefficient attempts to breathe during sleep accompanied by high-pitched sounds and sounds of suffocation, and sleepwalking. The children were amnesic for the episodes. However, findings on electroencephalogram taken during sleep were negative in all cases. The final diagnosis was partial arousal parasomnia. The symptoms of parasomnia disappeared with resolution of the symptoms of the pertussis infection. In conclusion, partial arousal parasomnia may be induced by pertussis infection. Further studies in larger groups are required to confirm this association.

  1. Nocturnal Hypermotor Activity during Apnea-Related Arousals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Romy; DelRosso, Lourdes M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 50-year-old patient who exhibits nocturnal hypermotor activity occurring exclusively during apnea-related arousals consisting of repetitive lower extremity hip-flapping. This movement is unusual and reflects a new form of lower extremity movement associated with apnea-related arousals. Citation: Hoque R, DelRosso LM. Nocturnal hypermotor activity during apnea-related arousals. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1305–1307. PMID:27092691

  2. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia.

  3. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Implications for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Garcia-Rill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia.

  4. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  5. Impact of microbial inoculation on biomass accumulation by Sulla carnosa provenances, and in regulating nutrition, physiological and antioxidant activities of this species under non-saline and saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidri, R; Barea, J M; Mahmoud, O Metoui-Ben; Abdelly, C; Azcón, Rosario

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp.) and/or the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus intraradices were able to improve growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of four Sulla carnosa Desf. provenances (Sidi khlif, Thelja, Kalbia and Kerker) from Tunisia under both saline and non-saline conditions. S. carnosa is a salt-tolerant legume plant, native from North Africa. The intrinsic bacterial characteristics evidenced the fitness of these bacteria to support salt stress and to stimulate plant growth. Bacillus sp. produced more indol acetic acid (IAA) than Pseudomonas sp. and showed a great surviving capacity under salt conditions supporting its capacity to improve plant growth under stress conditions. The microorganisms applied also have a different potential to increase the nutritional and related plant growth parameters. It is noticeable that some provenances reached the highest level of growth when inoculated with Bacillus sp. in Sidi khlif or by Bacillus plus AMF in Kalbia, which increased shoot by 318% and root by 774%. In contrast, in Thelja and Kerker the impact of the test microorganisms was mainly evidenced at increasing nutritional and physiological functions. Salinity reduced some growth and physiological variables as stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic efficiency and increased electrolyte leakage. However, the microbial inoculants compensated these detrimental effects in a degree depending on the S. carnosa provenance. These microorganisms also orchestrate antioxidant activities involved in adaptative responses in S. carnosa provenances. The intrinsic ability of inoculants allow us to select the provenance/microorganism combination which maximizes S. carnosa growth, nutrition and physiological/biochemical responses under salt and non-salt conditions. The results obtained support that the target microbial inocula are beneficial for the ecological stability if this Mediterranean legume.

  6. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  7. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  8. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.J.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and

  9. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  10. The level of arousal modulates P50 peak amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Paskevic, Jevgenij; Dapsys, Kastytis;

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of arousal level in healthy subjects on P50 potential, as the variation in the level of arousal may be a source of variance in the recordings as well as it may provide additional information about the pathology under study. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in...

  11. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, M.J. van der; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and the

  12. Let's be skeptical about reconsolidation and emotional arousal in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Lane et al. imply hypotheses that are questionable: that emotional arousal is a cause of positive change and reconsolidation research can be applied to therapy to alter memory. Given the history of problematic attempts to incorporate memory distortion or high emotional arousal into therapeutic techniques, both of which heralded premature optimism and hubris, I urge open-minded skepticism.

  13. Menstrual cycle phase and sexual arousability in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Slob (Koos); M. Ernste (M.); J.J. Van der Werff ten Bosch (Jacob)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexual arousability of women has not been consistently found to vary significantly over phases of the menstrual cycle. We studied changes in the temperature of a labium minus and subjective sexual and genital arousal recorded on semantic scales while watching erotic

  14. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  15. Menstrual cycle phase and sexual arousability in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Slob (Koos); M. Ernste (M.); J.J. Van der Werff ten Bosch (Jacob)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexual arousability of women has not been consistently found to vary significantly over phases of the menstrual cycle. We studied changes in the temperature of a labium minus and subjective sexual and genital arousal recorded on semantic scales while watching erotic vid

  16. SEED INOCULATION WITH Azospirillum brasilense, ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF BIOREGULATORS IN MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro de Lucca e Braccini; LILIAN GOMES DE MORAES DAN; GLEBERSON GUILLEN PICCININ; LEANDRO PAIOLA ALBRECHT; MAURO CEZAR BARBOSA; ALEX HENRIQUE TIENE ORTIZ

    2012-01-01

    The inoculation of seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum has been carried out in maize culture and other grasses. The application of growth bio-regulators is another technology whose results in maize culture have yet to become more widespread. Current study evaluates the agronomic effectiveness of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in maize, associated with the use of the growth regulator Stimulate ®. Triple hybrid maize CD 304 underwent the following treatments: 1 - control withou...

  17. SEED INOCULATION WITH Azospirillum brasilense, ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF BIOREGULATORS IN MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    BRACCINI,ALESSANDRO DE LUCCA E; LILIAN GOMES DE MORAES DAN; GLEBERSON GUILLEN PICCININ; LEANDRO PAIOLA ALBRECHT; MAURO CEZAR BARBOSA; ALEX HENRIQUE TIENE ORTIZ

    2012-01-01

    The inoculation of seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum has been carried out in maize culture and other grasses. The application of growth bio-regulators is another technology whose results in maize culture have yet to become more widespread. Current study evaluates the agronomic effectiveness of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in maize, associated with the use of the growth regulator Stimulate ®. Triple hybrid maize CD 304 underwent the following treatments: 1 - control withou...

  18. Changes in rumen bacterial community composition following feeding of silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants yield an increase in milk production without increasing fiber digestibility, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that silage treated with a commercial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum, LP) would improve milk production and would alter rumen bacter...

  19. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  20. Sexual arousal and masculinity-femininity of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Chivers, Meredith L; Bailey, J Michael

    2016-08-01

    Studies with volunteers in sexual arousal experiments suggest that women are, on average, physiologically sexually aroused to both male and female sexual stimuli. Lesbians are the exception because they tend to be more aroused to their preferred sex than the other sex, a pattern typically seen in men. A separate research line suggests that lesbians are, on average, more masculine than straight women in their nonsexual behaviors and characteristics. Hence, a common influence could affect the expression of male-typical sexual and nonsexual traits in some women. By integrating these research programs, we tested the hypothesis that male-typical sexual arousal of lesbians relates to their nonsexual masculinity. Moreover, the most masculine-behaving lesbians, in particular, could show the most male-typical sexual responses. Across combined data, Study 1 examined these patterns in women's genital arousal and self-reports of masculine and feminine behaviors. Study 2 examined these patterns with another measure of sexual arousal, pupil dilation to sexual stimuli, and with observer-rated masculinity-femininity in addition to self-reported masculinity-femininity. Although both studies confirmed that lesbians were more male-typical in their sexual arousal and nonsexual characteristics, on average, there were no indications that these 2 patterns were in any way connected. Thus, women's sexual responses and nonsexual traits might be masculinized by independent factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  2. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  3. Neural Representation of Subjective Sexual Arousal in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Mayte; Gérard, Marina; Larcher, Kevin; Dagher, Alain; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2016-10-01

    Studies investigating brain indices of sexual arousal have begun to elucidate the brain's role in processing subjective arousal; however, most research has focused on men, used discrete ratings of subjective arousal, and used stimuli too short to induce significant arousal in women. To examine brain regions modulated by changes in subjective sexual arousal (SSA) rating intensity in men and women. Two groups (20 men, 20 women) viewed movie clips (erotic or humorous) while continuously evaluating changes in their SSA using a Likert-like scale (0 = not aroused, 10 = most aroused) and answering discrete questions about liking the movies and wanting sexual stimulation. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood oxygen level-dependent responses and continuous and discrete measurements of sexual arousal. Erotic movies induced significant SSA in men and women. No sex difference in mean SSA was found in response to the erotic movies on continuous or discrete measurements. Several brain regions were correlated with changes in SSA. Parametric modulation with rating intensity showed a specific group of regions within the parietal lobe that showed significant differences in activity among low, medium, and high SSA. Multiple regions were concordant with changes in SSA; however, a subset of regions in men and women was modulated by SSA intensity, a subset previously linked to attentional processes, monitoring of internal body representation, and processing of sensory information from the genitals. This study highlights that similar brain regions are activated during subjective assessment of sexual arousal in men and women. The data further highlight the fact that SSA is a complex phenomenon made up of multiple interoceptive and attentional processes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological arousal, distress tolerance, and social problem-solving deficits among adolescent self-injurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-02-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However, objective physiological and behavioral data supporting this model are lacking. The authors compared adolescent self-injurers (n = 62) with noninjurers (n = 30) and found that self-injurers showed higher physiological reactivity (skin conductance) during a distressing task, a poorer ability to tolerate this distress, and deficits in several social problem-solving abilities. These findings highlight the importance of attending to increased arousal, distress tolerance, and problem-solving skills in the assessment and treatment of NSSI.

  5. Ought-approach versus ought-avoidance: nonlinear effects on arousal under achievement situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Sideridis, Georgios D

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the dimensions of oughts under a nonlinear perspective. Ought-approach and ought-avoidance have been proposed as two different dimensions of oughts, which have an opposite effect on subjects' arousal level under achievement situation. The change in arousal level measured by heart rates per minute (HRPM) was modeled as cusp catastrophe by implementing the two dimensions of oughts as the control parameters: the ought-approach as the asymmetry and the ought-avoidance as the bifurcation factor. The cusp model was proved by far superior from the three alternative linear models and provided the empirical evidence that the two dimensions of oughts are distinct and are associated with different processes. The ought-avoidance dimension being the bifurcation factor acts in a destructive manner by introducing nonlinearity and uncertainty in the self-regulation process (with regard to HRPM). The interpretation of the model is provided and implications are discussed.

  6. Social and nonsocial content differentially modulates visual attention and autonomic arousal in Rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Platt, Michael L; Amaral, David G

    2011-01-01

    The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that benefits from comparative studies of humans and animal models. However, many questions remain regarding the relationship between visual attention and arousal while processing social stimuli. Using noninvasive infrared eye-tracking methods, we measured the visual social attention and physiological arousal (pupil diameter) of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they watched social and nonsocial videos. We found that social videos, as compared to nonsocial videos, captured more visual attention, especially if the social signals depicted in the videos were directed towards the subject. Subject-directed social cues and nonsocial nature documentary footage, compared to videos showing conspecifics engaging in naturalistic social interactions, generated larger pupil diameters (indicating heightened sympathetic arousal). These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys will actively engage in watching videos of various kinds. Moreover, infrared eye tracking technology provides a mechanism for sensitively gauging the social interest of presented stimuli. Adult male rhesus monkeys' visual attention and physiological arousal do not always trend in the same direction, and are likely influenced by the content and novelty of a particular visual stimulus. This experiment creates a strong foundation for future experiments that will examine the neural network responsible for social information processing in nonhuman primates. Such studies may provide valuable information relevant to

  7. Social and nonsocial content differentially modulates visual attention and autonomic arousal in Rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Machado

    Full Text Available The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that benefits from comparative studies of humans and animal models. However, many questions remain regarding the relationship between visual attention and arousal while processing social stimuli. Using noninvasive infrared eye-tracking methods, we measured the visual social attention and physiological arousal (pupil diameter of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta as they watched social and nonsocial videos. We found that social videos, as compared to nonsocial videos, captured more visual attention, especially if the social signals depicted in the videos were directed towards the subject. Subject-directed social cues and nonsocial nature documentary footage, compared to videos showing conspecifics engaging in naturalistic social interactions, generated larger pupil diameters (indicating heightened sympathetic arousal. These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys will actively engage in watching videos of various kinds. Moreover, infrared eye tracking technology provides a mechanism for sensitively gauging the social interest of presented stimuli. Adult male rhesus monkeys' visual attention and physiological arousal do not always trend in the same direction, and are likely influenced by the content and novelty of a particular visual stimulus. This experiment creates a strong foundation for future experiments that will examine the neural network responsible for social information processing in nonhuman primates. Such studies may provide valuable information

  8. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

  9. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense.

  10. Pupil-linked arousal determines variability in perceptual decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Peter R; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    .... We measured pupil size, a highly sensitive index of arousal, while human subjects performed a motion-discrimination task, and decomposed task behavior into latent decision making parameters using...

  11. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  12. Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, André; Brocke, Burkhard; Leue, Anja

    2006-11-01

    This study investigates an extension of H.J. Eysenck's [Eysenck, H.J., 1967. The Biological Basis of Personality. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL] arousal theory of extraversion, incorporating an effort system as a control system for different aspects of arousal. Extraverts were expected to have lower levels of reticocortical arousal than introverts, to invest more effort, and to have lower task performance in a monotonous vigilance task. In a 40-min vigilance task, participants had to react to the shorter of two 1 kHz tones presented binaurally at an event rate of 200 per 10 min. Spontaneous EEG, event-related potential, and performance data of 40 extremely introverted and 41 extremely extraverted students were available for statistical analysis. A tendency for lower arousal levels of extraverts (alpha 2 band), the expected higher effort investment (P300) and a lower performance (hits) of extraverts were found.

  13. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  14. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  16. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  17. Automatic surface inoculation of agar trays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.; Boykin, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a machine and technique for the automatic inoculation of a plastic tray containing agar media with a culture, using either a conventional inoculation loop or a cotton swab. The design of the machine is simple, it is easy to use, and it relieves the operator from the manual task of streaking cultures. The described technique makes possible the visualization of the overall qualitative and, to some extent, quantitative relationships of various bacterial types in a sample tested.

  18. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  19. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  20. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are involved in the mediation of the arousal effect of noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Zoltán; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Stenberg, Dag

    2013-12-01

    Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are implicated in cortical arousal and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Cholinergic neurones are innervated by noradrenergic terminals, noradrenaline excites them via alpha-1 receptors and microinjection of noradrenaline into the basal forebrain enhances wakefulness. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing effects of noradrenaline. To elucidate the roles of cholinergic basal forebrain structures we administered methoxamine, an alpha-1-adrenergic agonist into the basal forebrain, in intact animals and again after selective destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic cells by 192 IgG-saporin. In eight male Han-Wistar rats implanted with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes, a microdialysis probe targeted into the basal forebrain was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 6 h on a baseline day, and with cerebrospinal fluid in the first and with methoxamine in the second 3-h period of the subsequent day. The sleep-wake activity was recorded for 24 h on both days. Saporin was then injected into the basal forebrain and 2 weeks later the same experimental schedule (with cerebrospinal fluid and methoxamine) was repeated. In the intact animals, methoxamine exhibited a robust arousing effect and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep was suppressed. Lesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones abolished almost completely the NREM sleep-suppressing effect of methoxamine, whereas the REM sleep-suppressing effect remained intact. Thus, the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones mediate, at least in part, cortical arousal and non-REM sleep-suppression, but they are not involved in the REM sleep-suppressing effects of noradrenaline. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Inconsistent Effect of Arousal on Early Auditory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    Mood has been shown to influence cognitive performance. However, little is known about the influence of mood on sensory processing, specifically in the auditory domain. With the current study, we sought to investigate how auditory processing of neutral sounds is affected by the mood state of the listener. This was tested in two experiments by measuring masked-auditory detection thresholds before and after a standard mood-induction procedure. In the first experiment (N = 76), mood was induced by imagining a mood-appropriate event combined with listening to mood inducing music. In the second experiment (N = 80), imagining was combined with affective picture viewing to exclude any possibility of confounding the results by acoustic properties of the music. In both experiments, the thresholds were determined by means of an adaptive staircase tracking method in a two-interval forced-choice task. Masked detection thresholds were compared between participants in four different moods (calm, happy, sad, and anxious), which enabled differentiation of mood effects along the dimensions arousal and pleasure. Results of the two experiments were analyzed both in separate analyses and in a combined analysis. The first experiment showed that, while there was no impact of pleasure level on the masked threshold, lower arousal was associated with lower threshold (higher masked sensitivity). However, as indicated by an interaction effect between experiment and arousal, arousal did have a different effect on the threshold in Experiment 2. Experiment 2 showed a trend of arousal in opposite direction. These results show that the effect of arousal on auditory-masked sensitivity may depend on the modality of the mood-inducing stimuli. As clear conclusions regarding the genuineness of the arousal effect on the masked threshold cannot be drawn, suggestions for further research that could clarify this issue are provided.

  2. Modulation of light-driven arousal by LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Apterous in large PDF-positive lateral neurons of the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Naoto; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-11-17

    Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal. We identified that Ap localizes to the nuclei of s-LNvs and l-LNvs. In light-dark (LD) cycles, RNAi knockdown or the targeted expression of dominant-negative forms of Ap or Chi in PDF-expressing neurons or l-LNvs promoted arousal. In contrast, in constant darkness, knockdown of Ap in PDF-expressing neurons did not promote arousal, indicating that a reduced Ap function in PDF-expressing neurons promotes light-driven arousal. Furthermore, Ap expression in l-LNvs showed daily rhythms (peaking at midnight), which are generated by a direct light-dependent mechanism rather than by the endogenous clock. These results raise the possibility that the daily oscillation of Ap expression in l-LNvs may contribute to the buffering of light-driven arousal in wild-type flies.

  3. Successive site translocating inoculation potentiates DNA/recombinant vaccinia vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Na; Hu, Weiguo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing; Wan, Yanmin

    2015-12-15

    DNA vaccines have advantages over traditional vaccine modalities; however the relatively low immunogenicity restrains its translation into clinical use. Further optimizations are needed to get the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine closer to the level required for human use. Here we show that intramuscularly inoculating into a different limb each time significantly improves the immunogenicities of both DNA and recombinant vaccinia vaccines during multiple vaccinations, compared to repeated vaccination on the same limb. We term this strategy successive site translocating inoculation (SSTI). SSTI could work in synergy with genetic adjuvant and DNA prime-recombinant vaccinia boost regimen. By comparing in vivo antigen expression, we found that SSTI avoided the specific inhibition of in vivo antigen expression, which was observed in the limbs being repeatedly inoculated. Employing in vivo T cell depletion and passive IgG transfer, we delineated that the inhibition was not mediated by CD8(+) T cells but by specific antibodies. Finally, by using C3(-/-) mouse model and in vivo NK cells depletion, we identified that specific antibodies negatively regulated the in vivo antigen expression primarily in a complement depended way.

  4. Pupil-linked arousal determines variability in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter R; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-09-01

    Decision making between several alternatives is thought to involve the gradual accumulation of evidence in favor of each available choice. This process is profoundly variable even for nominally identical stimuli, yet the neuro-cognitive substrates that determine the magnitude of this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that arousal state is a powerful determinant of variability in perceptual decision making. We measured pupil size, a highly sensitive index of arousal, while human subjects performed a motion-discrimination task, and decomposed task behavior into latent decision making parameters using an established computational model of the decision process. In direct contrast to previous theoretical accounts specifying a role for arousal in several discrete aspects of decision making, we found that pupil diameter was uniquely related to a model parameter representing variability in the rate of decision evidence accumulation: Periods of increased pupil size, reflecting heightened arousal, were characterized by greater variability in accumulation rate. Pupil diameter also correlated trial-by-trial with specific patterns of behavior that collectively are diagnostic of changing accumulation rate variability, and explained substantial individual differences in this computational quantity. These findings provide a uniquely clear account of how arousal state impacts decision making, and may point to a relationship between pupil-linked neuromodulation and behavioral variability. They also pave the way for future studies aimed at augmenting the precision with which people make decisions.

  5. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Adam; Barch, Bennett; Bailey, J Michael; Gitelman, Darren R; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J

    2007-04-01

    Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of activation to preferred sexual stimuli, nonpreferred sexual stimuli, and sports stimuli revealed large networks correlated with sexual arousal, spanning multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Both homosexual and heterosexual men exhibited category-specific arousal in brain activity. Within the amygdala, greater preference-related activity was observed in homosexual men, but it is unclear whether this is a cause or a consequence of their sexuality. In a subsequent analysis of regions hypothesized to support arousal, both participant groups demonstrated widespread increases in evoked activity for preferred stimuli. Aggregate data from these regions produced significant differences between stimulus types in 16 out of 22 participants. Significant activational differences matched reported sexual orientation in 15 of these 16 participants, representing an advance in psychophysiological measures of arousal.

  6. Arousal dynamics drive vocal production in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjon, Jeremy I; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Cervantes, Diego C; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-08-01

    Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate. On average, we observed a steady increase in heart rate 23 s before the production of a call. Following call production, there is a sharp and steep cardiac deceleration lasting ∼8 s. The dynamics of cardiac fluctuations around a vocalization cannot be completely predicted by the animal's respiration or movement. Moreover, the timing of vocal production was tightly correlated to the phase of a 0.1-Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm known as the Mayer wave. Finally, a compilation of the state space of arousal dynamics during vocalization illustrated that perturbations to the resting state space increase the likelihood of a call occurring. Together, these data suggest that arousal dynamics are critical for spontaneous primate vocal production, not only as a robust predictor of the likelihood of vocal onset but also as scaffolding on which behavior can unfold.

  7. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

  8. Central control of circadian phase in arousal-promoting neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie E Mahoney

    Full Text Available Cells of the dorsomedial/lateral hypothalamus (DMH/LH that produce hypocretin (HCRT promote arousal in part by activation of cells of the locus coeruleus (LC which express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN drives endogenous daily rhythms, including those of sleep and wakefulness. These circadian oscillations are generated by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop in which the Period (Per genes constitute critical components. This cell-autonomous molecular clock operates not only within the SCN but also in neurons of other brain regions. However, the phenotype of such neurons and the nature of the phase controlling signal from the pacemaker are largely unknown. We used dual fluorescent in situ hybridization to assess clock function in vasopressin, HCRT and TH cells of the SCN, DMH/LH and LC, respectively, of male Syrian hamsters. In the first experiment, we found that Per1 expression in HCRT and TH oscillated in animals held in constant darkness with a peak phase that lagged that in AVP cells of the SCN by several hours. In the second experiment, hamsters induced to split their locomotor rhythms by exposure to constant light had asymmetric Per1 expression within cells of the middle SCN at 6 h before activity onset (AO and in HCRT cells 9 h before and at AO. We did not observe evidence of lateralization of Per1 expression in the LC. We conclude that the SCN communicates circadian phase to HCRT cells via lateralized neural projections, and suggests that Per1 expression in the LC may be regulated by signals of a global or bilateral nature.

  9. Chicken cecal microRNAs in the response to Campylobacter jejuni inoculation by Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Maozhi; Wang, Huicui; Yang, Ning; Li, Xianyao

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of major foodborne pathogen that cause human diarrhea by consuming C. jejuni contaminated chicken products. MicroRNAs play an integral role in many different biological processes including bacteria and virus inoculation in chickens. In this study, we identified chicken miRNAs responding to C. jejuni inoculation through Solexa sequencing in the cecum. As a result, four miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between inoculated and non-inoculated groups. There were 1,114 putative target genes regulated by those differentially expressed miRNAs predicted by miRanda, TargetScan, and miRTarget softwares. Functional analysis of those target genes showed that 113 gene ontology biological process terms and 14 pathways were significantly enriched. Hedgehog signaling pathway may contribute to chicken C. jejuni inoculation. MiR-155 played vital role in the C. jejuni inoculation. The result herein will lay the foundation for the further study of regulatory mechanism of chicken miRNAs in the response to C. jejuni inoculation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Physiological arousal and perception of bodily state during parachute jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedlowski, M; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    Heart rate and respiration rate were recorded with a portable data recording system before and during a parachute jump in 36 male sport parachutists with differing degrees of experience. The recordings were analyzed at 12 psychologically relevant points in time along with the subjective ratings of physical arousal. Novice parachutists showed a higher degree of self-rated arousal during jumps. However, the two groups displayed nearly parallel curves for heart and respiration rates, differing significantly from each other only in the level of their respective heart rates. Furthermore, experienced jumpers seem to be better informed about their state of physiological arousal during the jump than are novice jumpers. These results do not confirm the proposed anxiety inhibition process, postulated by Epstein (1967).

  11. Cutting film violence: effects on perceptions, enjoyment, and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M; Gray, T; Donnerstein, E

    1999-10-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cutting specific graphic scenes of film violence on self-reports of arousal, enjoyability, and perceptions of violence among a sample of U.S. students. In 3 studies, they varied film exposure from 1 1/2 min in the 1st study to a complete motion picture (American vs. British version of same film) in the 3rd. In all 3 studies, the participants rated the cut versions as less violent than the uncut versions. The participants distinguished quite subtle differences in levels of violence, even when the cuts were minor and contextualized within an entire movie. Cutting the movie significantly increased its enjoyability for the women; for the men, there was no significant difference. Cutting violent films made no difference in arousal for the men but substantially lowered self-report levels of arousal for the women.

  12. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  13. Messenger RNA expression of chicken CLOCK gene in the response to Campylobacter jejuni inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Maozhi; Yang, Ning; Qi, Yukai; Sun, Yu; Li, Xianyao

    2015-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous research has shown that circadian rhythm plays a critical role in host response to C. jejuni colonization. The CLOCK gene is one of the core genes regulating circadian rhythms and shows significant expression on 7 d post-C. jejuni inoculation. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of chicken CLOCK gene post-C. jejuni inoculation. Cecal and splenic RNA were isolated from 2 distinct chicken breeds and used to compare the mRNA expression of CLOCK gene between inoculated and noninoculated chickens within each breed and between breeds within each of inoculated and noninoculated groups. Our results showed that the CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 h postinoculation (hpi) in cecum and spleen in Jiningbairi chicken. CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 4 and 16 hpi and up-regulated at 8 hpi in cecum and spleen in specific pathogen free white leghorn noninoculated chicken. The findings suggested that expression of CLOCK gene was significantly changed post C. jejuin inoculation. This change was affected by genetic background, tissue, and time points postinoculation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Atypical presentation of NREM arousal parasomnia with repetitive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovic, N N; Shapiro, C M; Ong, A

    2007-08-01

    The case report describes a distinct variant of non-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) arousal parasomnia, sleepwalking type, featuring repetitive abrupt arousals, mostly from slow-wave sleep, and various automatisms and semi-purposeful behaviours. The frequency of events and distribution throughout the night presented as a continuous status of parasomnia ('status parasomnicus'). The patient responded well to treatment typically administered for adult NREM parasomnias, and after careful review of the clinical presentation, objective findings and treatment outcome, sleep-related epilepsy was ruled out in favour of parasomnia.

  15. On pleasure and thrill: the interplay between arousal and valence during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions.

  17. Substantia nigra dopaminergic unit activity in behaving cats: effect of arousal on spontaneous discharge and sensory evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, R E; Jacobs, B L

    1985-12-30

    Single-unit activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was recorded in freely moving cats during a variety of conditions designed to shed light on the hypotheses that these neurons are involved in the regulation of arousal-stress and/or selective attention. Both aversive and non-aversive arousing experimental conditions were used, including tail pinch, immersion of feet in ice-water, white noise, inaccessible food, feeding, grooming, inaccessible rats, and somatosensory stimulation. None of these conditions had an effect on tonic neuronal discharge rate. However, these neurons did exhibit brief excitatory and inhibitory responses to phasic auditory or visual stimuli presented when the cat was sitting quietly. These responses were dramatically attenuated if these stimuli were presented during the aforementioned conditions of behavioral arousal. This sharply contrasts with the inability of these same conditions to influence spontaneous discharge rate. The sensitivity of this neuronal sensory response to the concurrent behavioral condition supports the hypothesis that these neurons are involved in attentional processes or selective responding. The lack of responsiveness of these neurons to a variety of arousal/stress manipulations supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic neurons play a permissive, rather than an active, role in these processes.

  18. Neuronal activity in primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex signals task conflict and predicts adjustments in pupil-linked arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebitz, R Becket; Platt, Michael L

    2015-02-04

    Whether driving a car, shopping for food, or paying attention in a classroom of boisterous teenagers, it's often hard to maintain focus on goals in the face of distraction. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in regulating the conflict between goals and distractors. Here we show that single dACC neurons signal conflict between task goals and distractors in the rhesus macaque, particularly for biologically relevant social stimuli. For some neurons, task conflict signals predicted subsequent changes in pupil size-a peripheral index of arousal linked to noradrenergic tone-associated with reduced distractor interference. dACC neurons also responded to errors, and these signals predicted adjustments in pupil size. These findings provide the first neurophysiological endorsement of the hypothesis that dACC regulates conflict, in part, via modulation of pupil-linked processes such as arousal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Gemell; Elizabeth Hartley; Rosalind Deaker

    2012-01-01

    Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival...

  20. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient...

  1. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salien...

  2. Comparison of artificial inoculation methods for studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divya

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Establishment of disease by artificial inoculation is essential for studies of various aspects of plant pathology. Keeping this in mind .... three to four days under cool white fluorescent light (2,000 lux) followed by 2 days ... and placed in growth chambers at 25°C and 70% relative humidity. The Petri plates were ...

  3. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  4. Prediction of valence and arousal from music features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Brinker, A.C.; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mood is an important attribute of music and knowledge on mood can beused as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems. Moods are assumed to be dominantly determined by two dimensions:valence and arousal. An experiment was conducted to attain data forsong-based ratings of valence

  5. Effects of cyproterone acetate on sexual arousal patterns of pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Pawlak, A

    1993-12-01

    The antiandrogen treatment of sexual offenders has been shown to reduce the recidivism rate. The mechanism of action has been assumed to be through asexualization with its secondary effects on sexual behavior. This study shows that the mechanism may be more complex and may involve a differential effect on sexual arousal patterns. Treatment responses may differ in high and low plasma testosterone groups.

  6. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  7. Driving with music : Effects on arousal and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; de Waard, Dick; Epstude, Kai; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed at exploring the influence of music on driving performance, arousal and mental effort while carrying out a monotonous car-following task in a low-complexity traffic setting. Participants (N = 47) were randomly assigned to loud and moderate volume music groups, and

  8. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Goot; E. van Reijmersdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effect

  9. Driving with music : Effects on arousal and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; de Waard, Dick; Epstude, Kai; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed at exploring the influence of music on driving performance, arousal and mental effort while carrying out a monotonous car-following task in a low-complexity traffic setting. Participants (N = 47) were randomly assigned to loud and moderate volume music groups, and comp

  10. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  11. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  12. Memory recall in arousing situations - an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-07-24

    Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  13. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  14. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  15. Sleep loss and recovery after administration of drugs related to different arousal systems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnik, T; Tóth, A; Szalontai, Ö; Pethő, M; Détári, L

    2016-09-01

    Sleep is homeostatically regulated suggesting a restorative function. Sleep deprivation is compensated by an increase in length and intensity of sleep. In this study, suppression of sleep was induced pharmacologically by drugs related to different arousal systems. All drugs caused non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep loss followed by different compensatory processes. Apomorphine caused a strong suppression of sleep followed by an intense recovery. In the case of fluoxetine and eserine, recovery of NREM sleep was completed by the end of the light phase due to the biphasic pattern demonstrated for these drugs first in the present experiments. Yohimbine caused a long-lasting suppression of NREM sleep, indicating that either the noradrenergic system has the utmost strength among the examined systems, or that restorative functions occurring normally during NREM sleep were not blocked. Arousal systems are involved in the regulation of various wakefulness-related functions, such as locomotion and food intake. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that activation of the different systems results in qualitatively different waking states which might affect subsequent sleep differently. These differences might give some insight into the homeostatic function of sleep in which the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems may play a more important role than previously suggested.

  16. Excitatory and inhibitory actions of isoflurane on the cholinergic ascending arousal system of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hai-Long; Fukuda, Satoru; Murata, Eri; Higuchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The cholinergic arousal systems are known to critically regulate the state of consciousness. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isoflurane on the inhibitory or excitatory neurotransmitters efflux in important nuclei within the cholinergic arousal system using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis. The efflux of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), or acetylcholine in the posterior hypothalamus (PH), the basal forebrain (BF), and the somatosensory cortex (S1BF) of rats was detected using intracerebral microdialysis under an awake condition and at 0.5-2.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane anesthesia. The intrabasalis perfusion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate on the cortical acetylcholine effluxes was also examined under both conditions. Isoflurane had no influence on the glutamate and GABA efflux in the PH, whereas in the BF, it dose-dependently increased glutamate efflux and decreased GABA efflux. A transient increase in glutamate efflux at 1.0 MAC and a decrease in GABA at 0.5-1.5 MAC were observed in the S1BF. Isoflurane dose-dependently decreased acetylcholine efflux in the S1BF. Perfusion of the BF with AMPA increased acetylcholine efflux in the S1BF with electroencephalographic activation during 0.75 MAC isoflurane anesthesia, suggesting an inhibitory action of isoflurane on AMPA receptors in the BF. However, N-methyl-D-aspartate had no effect on these parameters. Isoflurane induces both excitatory and inhibitory actions in the cholinergic arousal system. The predominant inhibitory action of isoflurane over its excitatory action at the BF would result in the decrease in the acetylcholine efflux in the S1BF.

  17. Tonic and phasic co-variation of peripheral arousal indices in infants

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    Wass, S.V.; de Barbaro, K.; Clackson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tonic and phasic differences in peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) indicators strongly predict differences in attention and emotion regulation in developmental populations. However, virtually all previous research has been based on individual ANS measures, which poses a variety of conceptual and methodlogical challenges to comparing results across studies. Here we recorded heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA), pupil size, head movement velocity and peripheral accelerometry concurrently while a cohort of 37 typical 12-month-old infants completed a mixed assessment battery lasting approximately 20 min per participant. We analysed covariation of these autonomic indices in three ways: first, tonic (baseline) arousal; second, co-variation in spontaneous (phasic) changes during testing; third, phasic co-variation relative to an external stimulus event. We found that heart rate, head velocity and peripheral accelerometry showed strong positive co-variation across all three analyses. EDA showed no co-variation in tonic activity levels but did show phasic positive co-variation with other measures, that appeared limited to sections of high but not low general arousal. Tonic pupil size showed significant positive covariation, but phasic pupil changes were inconsistent. We conclude that: (i) there is high covariation between autonomic indices in infants, but that EDA may only be sensitive at extreme arousal levels, (ii) that tonic pupil size covaries with other indices, but does not show predicted patterns of phasic change and (iii) that motor activity appears to be a good proxy measure of ANS activity. The strongest patterns of covariation were observed using epoch durations of 40 s per epoch, although significant covariation between indices was also observed using shorter epochs (1 and 5 s). PMID:26316360

  18. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  19. Arousal-Augmented Priming Effects: Rock Music Videos and Sex Object Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christine Hall; Krygowski, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Investigates effects of undergraduate students' physiological arousal induced by physical activity on schematic priming effects from music videos. Finds that in high-arousal conditions priming effects were more extreme and more closely resembled music video content than in low-arousal conditions. (SR)

  20. SEED INOCULATION WITH Azospirillum brasilense, ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF BIOREGULATORS IN MAIZE

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    ALESSANDRO DE LUCCA E BRACCINI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation of seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum has been carried out in maize culture and other grasses. The application of growth bio-regulators is another technology whose results in maize culture have yet to become more widespread. Current study evaluates the agronomic effectiveness of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in maize, associated with the use of the growth regulator Stimulate ®. Triple hybrid maize CD 304 underwent the following treatments: 1 - control without nitrogen and without Azospirillum brasilense; 2 - Treatment without nitrogen but with Azospirillum brasilense; 3 - Treatment without nitrogen but with Azospirillum brasilense + Stimulate ®; 4 - Treatment with 50% of nitrogen dose recommended for maize culture; 5 - Treatment with 50% of nitrogen dose and inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense; 6 - Same as 5 but with Stimulate ®; 7 - Total N recommended; 8 - Total N recommended + Azospirillum brasilense ; 9 - Total N recommended + Azospirillum brasilense + Stimulate ®. The inoculation of maize seeds with Azospirillum brasilense increases plant height and grain yield when compared with rates in control. The use of 50% of N dose in sowing, associated with the inoculation of maize seeds with Azospirillum brasilense at 200 mL ha-1 (mixed to the seeds and associated with Stimulate ® (in foliar application, is viable.

  1. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  2. All alone with sweaty palms--physiological arousal and ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline

    2012-03-01

    Social exclusion, or ostracism, is universally perceived as a negative emotional experience and often leads to poor social outcomes for individuals and society. Although the experience of distress associated with being ostracized is innate, there has been very little investigation of the effects on the autonomic nervous system. This study provides objective evidence for the effects of ostracism on arousal (examined with skin conductance levels) while participants played an internet ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Forty-two healthy undergraduate students participated in both inclusion and ostracism conditions. When participants were included, there was a marked decrement in arousal over the course of the task, whereas there was no evidence of habituation when participants were ostracized. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the potential of differential autonomic activity to predict the coping strategies that people engage in following ostracism.

  3. Music, perceived arousal, and intensity: psychophysiological reactions to Chopin's "Tristesse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian Alexander; Schwab, Simon; Niederhauser, Sandra; Wuermle, Othmar; Strik, Werner; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the relation of perceived arousal (continuous self-rating), autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate, heart rate variability) and musical characteristics (sound intensity, musical rhythm) upon listening to a complex musical piece. Twenty amateur musicians listened to two performances of Chopin's "Tristesse" with different rhythmic shapes. Besides conventional statistical methods for analyzing psychophysiological reactions (heart rate, respiration rate) and musical variables, semblance analysis was used. Perceived arousal correlated strongly with sound intensity; heart rate showed only a partial response to changes in sound intensity. Larger changes in heart rate were caused by the version with more rhythmic tension. The low-/high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased--whereas the high frequency component decreased--during music listening. We conclude that autonomic nervous system activity can be modulated not only by sound intensity but also by the interpreter's use of rhythmic tension. Semblance analysis enables us to track the subtle correlations between musical and physiological variables.

  4. The DSM diagnostic criteria for female sexual arousal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews and critiques the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). An overview of how the diagnostic criteria for FSAD have evolved over previous editions of the DSM is presented and research on prevalence and etiology of FSAD is briefly reviewed. Problems with the essential feature of the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis-"an inability to attain, or to maintain...an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement"-are identified. The significant overlap between "arousal" and "desire" disorders is highlighted. Finally, specific recommendations for revision of the criteria for DSM-V are made, including use of a polythetic approach to the diagnosis and the addition of duration and severity criteria.

  5. Comparison of transcriptome profiles by Fusarium oxysporum inoculation between Fusarium yellows resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Naomi; Shimizu, Motoki; Miyazaki, Junji; Osabe, Kenji; Sato, Maho; Ebe, Yusuke; Takada, Satoko; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2017-08-17

    Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples. Most of the DEGs were up-regulated by Foc inoculation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that most up-regulated genes increased their expression levels from 24 HAI. An independent transcriptome analysis at 24 and 72 HAI was performed in resistant and susceptible lines. GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 24 HAI indicated that Foc inoculation activated systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in resistant lines and tryptophan biosynthetic process and responses to chitin and ethylene in susceptible lines. By contrast, GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 72 HAI showed the overrepresentation of some categories for the defense response in susceptible lines but not in the resistant lines. We also compared DEGs between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana after F. oxysporum inoculation at the same time point, and identified genes related to defense response that were up-regulated in the resistant lines of Chinese cabbage and A. thaliana. Particular genes that changed expression levels overlapped between the two species, suggesting that they are candidates for genes involved in the resistance mechanisms against F. oxysporum.

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BUSINESS IN AGARWOOD INOCULATION AT DIFFERENT STEM DIAMETERS AND INOCULATION PERIODS

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    Sri Suharti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia signifies as the biggest agarwood producer country in the world. Its demand and price tend to increase and have brought about over exploitation of agarwood. Consequently, its population in nature has decreased significantly. To overcome the situation, since 1995, agarwood has been included in the CITES Appendix II. However, illegal exploitation remains persistent and reaches an excessive level. In order to deal with it, agarwood cultivation and its artificial production have been undertaken at several provinces in Indonesia. Some supporting factors for agarwood cultivation and artificial production are the availability of potential land for extensive cultivation, appropriate agro climate condition, simple cultivation technique and already being well adopted by farmers, the availability of necessary pathogen for agarwood inoculation, and the increasing demand with relatively high price. The research aims to analyze the feasibility study of agarwood inoculation business at several stem diameters (15 - 25 cm; 26 -35 cm and 36 - 40 cm and periods of inoculation (1 - 5 years. Data were collected through field observation and literature study. The results showed that inoculation on agarwood producer tree stands at 12.5% interest rate afforded positive net present value (NPV,  internal rate of return (IRR is much higher than market interest and benefit cost (B/C ratio >2 for those three diameter classes. Furthermore, if agarwood harvesting is delayed until five years after inoculation, NPV,  IRR and B/C ratio would be much higher. It can be concluded that inoculation on agarwood producer tree stands (at appropriate age for inoculation is feasible to be developed.

  7. Acoustical expression of arousal in conflict situations in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehka, Simone; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Zimmermann, Elke

    2007-08-01

    Empirical research on human and non-human primates suggests that communication sounds express the intensity of an emotional state of a signaller. In the present study, we have examined communication sounds during induced social interactions of a monogamous mammal, the tree shrew. To signal their unwillingness to mate, female tree shrews show defensive threat displays towards unfamiliar males paralleled by acoustically variable squeaks. We assumed that the distance between interacting partners as well as the behavior of the male towards the female indicates the intensity of perceived social threat and thereby the arousal state of a female. To explore this hypothesis we analyzed dynamic changes in communication sounds uttered during induced social interactions between a female and an unfamiliar male. Detailed videographic and sound analyzes revealed that the arousal state predicted variations in communication sound structure reliably. Both, a decrease of distance and a male approaching the female led to an increase in fundamental frequency and repetition rate of syllables. These findings support comparable results in human and non-human primates and suggest that common coding rules in communication sounds govern acoustic conflict regulation in mammals.

  8. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemist, R D; Knowles, E S; Matter, C F

    1976-05-01

    The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal.

  9. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

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    Fabien D'Hondt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG data and skin conductance response (SCR, a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the skin conductance response, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links.

  10. Review of Microbial Inoculation Agent Used in Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yaxi; FENG Shuqing; XU Xiuhong; MAO Zhicheng; WANG Mingyue; LIU Yanfang; HUANG Yan

    2009-01-01

    Microbial inoculation agent has been widely used in waste disposal and waste recycling. In this paper, the principle of fermentation in the composting of agricultural waste and the impact of microbial inoculation agent on composting were reviewed.The research and the application of microbial inoculation agent were also introduced. Based on the trend of the research, the promising prospect of microbial inoculation agent was discussed.

  11. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    FUKAMI,J.; M. A. Nogueira; ARAUJO, R. S.; Hungria, M.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense...

  12. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Josiane; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense were employed to perform inoculation in-furrow, via soil spray at sowing and via leaf spray after seedlings had emerged, in comparison to seed inoculation. Experiments were conducted first under greenhouse controlled conditions and then confirmed in the field at different locations in Brazil. In the greenhouse, most parameters measured responded positively to the largest inoculant dose used in foliar sprays, but benefits could also be observed from both in-furrow and soil spray inoculation. However, our results present evidence that field inoculation with plant-growth promoting bacteria must consider inoculant doses, and point to the need of fine adjustments to avoid crossing the threshold of growth stimulation and inhibition. All inoculation techniques increased the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria in plant tissues, and foliar spray improved colonization of leaves, while soil inoculations favored root and rhizosphere colonization. In field experiments, inoculation with A. brasilense allowed for a 25 % reduction in the need for N fertilizers. Our results have identified alternative methods of inoculation that were as effective as the standard seed inoculation that may represent an important strategy to avoid the incompatibility between inoculant bacteria and pesticides employed for seed treatment.

  13. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

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    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  14. The subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Tian; Lu, Yong

    2014-11-07

    This study on the subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal employed event-related potentials (ERPs). The participants were asked to rate the arousal of ambiguous medium-arousing faces that were preceded by high- or low-arousing priming faces presented subliminally. The results revealed that the participants exhibited arousal-consistent variation in their arousal level ratings of the probe faces exclusively in the negative prime condition. Compared with high-arousing faces, the low-arousing faces tended to elicit greater late positive component (LPC, 450-660ms) and greater N400 (330-450ms) potentials. These findings support the following conclusions: (1) the effect of subliminal affective priming of faces can be detected in the affective arousal dimension; (2) valence may influence the subliminal affective priming effect of the arousal dimension of emotional stimuli; and (3) the subliminal affective priming effect of face arousal occurs when the prime stimulus affects late-stage processing of the probe.

  15. Food neophobia in humans: effects of manipulated arousal and individual differences in sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliner, P; Melo, N

    1997-02-01

    The study examined the effects of manipulated arousal and the trait of Sensation Seeking on willingness to taste novel foods (as assessed by means of a choice task). Arousal was manipulated by having subjects play an exciting, neutral, or boring video game. In line with predictions from optimal level of arousal theories, subjects chose more novel foods when manipulated arousal was low (vs. neutral) and fewer novel foods when manipulated arousal was high (vs. neutral). There was no main effect of individual differences in optimal level of arousal as assessed by the Sensation Seeking Scale; however, an interaction between the two independent variables revealed high-sensation seekers to try more novel foods than lows under conditions of low arousal.

  16. Arousal modulates activity in the medial temporal lobe during a short-term relational memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eThoresen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to measure the BOLD signal relative to task. Subjects’ own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  17. Effects of valence and arousal on written word recognition: time course and ERP correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Weekes, Brendan S; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2013-01-15

    Models of affect assume a two-dimensional framework, composed of emotional valence and arousal. Although neuroimaging evidence supports a neuro-functional distinction of their effects during single word processing, electrophysiological studies have not yet compared the effects of arousal within the same category of valence (positive and negative). Here we investigate effects of arousal and valence on written lexical decision. Amplitude differences between emotion and neutral words were seen in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive complex and in a sustained slow positivity. In addition, trends towards interactive effects of valence and arousal were observed in the EPN, showing larger amplitude for positive, high-arousal and negative, low-arousal words. The results provide initial evidence for interactions between arousal and valence during processing of positive words and highlight the importance of both variables in studies of emotional stimulus processing. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  19. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  20. The inoculation method affects colonization and performance of bacterial inoculant strains in the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Yousaf, Sohail; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Sessitsch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Plants in combination with microorganisms can remediate soils, which are contaminated with organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Inoculation of plants with degrading bacteria is one approach to improve remediation processes, but is often not successful due to the competition with resident microorganisms. It is therefore of high importance to address the persistence and colonization behavior of inoculant strains. The objective of this study was to determine whether the inoculation method (seed imbibement and soil inoculation) influences bacterial colonization, plant growth promotion and hydrocarbon degradation. Italian ryegrass was grown in non-sterilized soil polluted with diesel and inoculated with different alkane-degrading strains Pantoea sp. ITSI10, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Pseudomonas sp. MixRI75 individually as well as in combination. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation, however, strains inoculated in soil performed better than applied by seed imbibement. Performance correlated with the colonization efficiency of the inoculated strains. The highest hydrocarbon degradation was observed in the treatment, in which all three strains were inoculated in combination into soil. Our study revealed that besides the degradation potential and competitive ability of inoculant strains the inoculation method plays an important role in determining the success of microbial inoculation.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  2. Effects of inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on resident rhizosphere microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sowinski, Susana; Herschkovitz, Yoav; Okon, Yaacov; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2007-11-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are exogenous bacteria introduced into agricultural ecosystems that act positively upon plant development. However, amendment reproducibility as well as the potential effects of inoculation upon plant root-associated microbial communities can be sources of concern. To address these questions, an understanding of mutual interactions between inoculants and resident rhizosphere microorganisms is required. Mechanisms used by PGPR can be direct or indirect; the former entails the secretion of growth regulators and the latter occurs through the production of antimicrobial compounds that reduce the deleterious effects of phytopathogens. The different modes of action may lead to different relationships between an inoculant and root microbial communities. Rhizobacterial communities are also affected by the plant, engineered genes, environmental stresses and agricultural practices. These factors appear to determine community structure more than an exogenous, active PGPR introduced at high levels.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Gossypium thurberi in Response to Verticillium dahliae Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Fang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt is threatening cotton productivity globally. This disease is caused by soil-borne Verticillium dahliae which directly infects cotton roots, and exclusively colonizes and occludes xylem vessels, finally resulting in necrosis, defoliation, and most severely, plant death. For the first time, iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification was applied to screen the differentially expressed proteins of Gossypium thurberi inoculated with V. dahliae. A total of 6533 proteins were identified from the roots of G. thurberi after inoculation with V. dahliae, and 396 showed up- and 279 down-regulated in comparison to a mock-inoculated roots. Of these identified proteins, the main functional groups were those involved in cell wall organization and reinforcement, disease-resistant chemicals of secondary metabolism, phytohormone signaling, pathogenesis-related proteins, and disease-resistant proteins. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that peroxidase activity, which promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of lignin, was induced early in the hypocotyl after inoculation with V. dahliae. Similarly, salicylic acid also accumulated significantly in hypocotyl of the seedlings after inoculation. These findings provide an important knowledge of the molecular events and regulatory networks occurring during G. thurberi-V. dahliae interaction, which may provide a foundation for breeding disease-resistance in cotton.

  4. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, Elena V; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response-automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component,-found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased, or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, "sensory gating" studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants "at risk" who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  5. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants at risk who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  6. RNA interference of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone gene induces arousal in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Ubuka

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH was originally identified in quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of pituitary gonadotropin synthesis and release. However, GnIH neuronal fibers do not only terminate in the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function but also extend widely in the brain, suggesting it has multiple roles in the regulation of behavior. To identify the role of GnIH neurons in the regulation of behavior, we investigated the effect of RNA interference (RNAi of the GnIH gene on the behavior of white-crowned sparrows, a highly social songbird species. Administration of small interfering RNA against GnIH precursor mRNA into the third ventricle of male and female birds reduced resting time, spontaneous production of complex vocalizations, and stimulated brief agonistic vocalizations. GnIH RNAi further enhanced song production of short duration in male birds when they were challenged by playbacks of novel male songs. These behaviors resembled those of breeding birds during territorial defense. The overall results suggest that GnIH gene silencing induces arousal. In addition, the activities of male and female birds were negatively correlated with GnIH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus. Density of GnIH neuronal fibers in the ventral tegmental area was decreased by GnIH RNAi treatment in female birds, and the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons that received close appositions of GnIH neuronal fiber terminals was negatively correlated with the activity of male birds. In summary, GnIH may decrease arousal level resulting in the inhibition of specific motivated behavior such as in reproductive contexts.

  7. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleegers, Willem W A; Proulx, Travis; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-05-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this arousal. We hypothesize that this is due to the differential impact of measuring extremism on behavioral inhibition and approach systems following meaning violations, whereby extremism both reduces markers of conflict arousal (BIS) and increases values affirmation (BAS) unrelated to this initial arousal. Using pupil dilation as a proxy for immediate conflict arousal, we found that the same meaning violation (anomalous playing cards) evoked greater pupil dilation, and that this pupillary reaction was diminished in participants who earlier reported extreme beliefs. We also found that reporting extreme beliefs was associated with greater affirmation of an unrelated meaning framework, where this affirmation was unrelated to physiological markers of conflict arousal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence.

  9. Fading of inoculation effects in ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In work i t has bccn shown rcsults or invcsligations of influcncc of rime Iapsed form inoculation proccss on graphitc nucleation potentialrcprcscntcd by: numbcr of graphitc nodulcs N and N,, maximum undercooling AT,, during solidification of gmphile eutcct ic. abmlutcchilling tcndcncy CT and critical casting diametct dh. undcr which cementite euteclic occur (so-callcd chills. Morcovcr it has hccncstima~cd raic of changc of N and N, AT,,,. CT and dk,. Also, it has bccn provcd that altcr onc minutc sincc rhc momcnt of inocuIationproccss nhout 35% of prnphttc nucIeation potenrial is tost. by 40% chitking tendency, by 70% incrcascs maximum undcrcmling forgraphitc ci~tccrica nd by nearly 40% caging diameter has to bc incrcascd in ordcr to avoid chills.

  10. Does the arousal system contribute to near death experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin R; Mattingly, Michelle; Lee, Sherman A; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2006-04-11

    The neurophysiologic basis of near death experience (NDE) is unknown. Clinical observations suggest that REM state intrusion contributes to NDE. Support for the hypothesis follows five lines of evidence: REM intrusion during wakefulness is a frequent normal occurrence, REM intrusion underlies other clinical conditions, NDE elements can be explained by REM intrusion, cardiorespiratory afferents evoke REM intrusion, and persons with an NDE may have an arousal system predisposing to REM intrusion. To investigate a predisposition to REM intrusion, the life-time prevalence of REM intrusion was studied in 55 NDE subjects and compared with that in age/gender-matched control subjects. Sleep paralysis as well as sleep-related visual and auditory hallucinations were substantially more common in subjects with an NDE. These findings anticipate that under circumstances of peril, an NDE is more likely in those with previous REM intrusion. REM intrusion could promote subjective aspects of NDE and often associated syncope. Suppression of an activated locus ceruleus could be central to an arousal system predisposed to REM intrusion and NDE.

  11. Prenatal cocaine exposure effects on arousal-modulated attention during the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, B Z; Gardner, J M

    1996-07-01

    The organization of arousal and attention as a function of intrauterine cocaine exposure was investigated in 180 normal nursery infants prior to hospital discharge and at 1 month of age. This was done by studying visual looking preferences when infants were in three arousal conditions: less aroused (after feeding); more aroused-endogenous (before feeding); and more aroused-exogenous (after feeding but including 8-Hz visual stimulation prior to each visual preference trial). The stimuli were light panels illuminated at three temporal frequencies between 1 and 8 Hz presented in pairs using a balanced presentation series of trials. Infants not exposed to cocaine demonstrated strong arousal-modulated attention, preferring faster frequencies when less aroused and slower frequencies when more aroused in both endogenous and exogenous conditions. In contrast, cocaine-exposed infants showed a lack of arousal-modulated attention and preferred faster frequencies of stimulation regardless of arousal condition. Similar differences in arousal-modulated attention as a function of cocaine exposure were obtained at 1 month after birth, indicating that these effects lasted longer than would be reasonable to attribute to the active presence of cocaine or its metabolites. This form of stimulus-seeking behavior was shown to be independent of confounding factors associated with prenatal cocaine exposure such as the absence of prenatal care, alcohol use, minority status, or gender, as well as mediating factors associated with growth such as birthweight. A direct and more chronic effect of intrauterine cocaine exposure on arousal-modulated attention and presumably on the developing CNS therefore was supported.

  12. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of ...

  13. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired.

  14. Interoceptive Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived and Physiological Genital Arousal in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Meston, Cindy M

    2016-12-01

    In general, laboratory studies have shown low correlations between subjective (ie, self-report) and physiologic (ie, vaginal pulse amplitude) measurements of sexual arousal in women. One explanation for this presumed low concordance is that women might not be attending to their genital responses and/or might be unable to accurately perceive their genital responses. To examine the extent to which women can perceive their genital arousal sensations, the role that interoceptive awareness plays in this ability, and whether interoceptive awareness influences sexual concordance in women. Twenty-six sexually functional women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic and perceived genital sexual arousal levels were measured continuously. Self-report measurements of sexual function and bodily awareness also were administered. Physiologic sexual arousal was measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph, and perception of genital arousal was measured with an arousometer. Degree of bodily awareness was measured with the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness questionnaire. Women exhibited a significant degree of agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal (P awareness was found to significantly moderate this relation (P awareness facilitated greater agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Interoceptive awareness also was found to facilitate greater concordance between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal (P awareness influences this ability and the relation between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal. Increasing bodily awareness could be a plausible route for treatment development. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crossmodal transfer of arousal, but not pleasantness, from the musical to the visual domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Gingras, Bruno; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2012-06-01

    Arousal and valence (pleasantness) are considered primary dimensions of emotion. However, the degree to which these dimensions interact in emotional processing across sensory modalities is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by applying a crossmodal priming paradigm in which auditory primes (Romantic piano solo music) varying in arousal and/or pleasantness were sequentially paired with visual targets (IAPS pictures). In Experiment 1, the emotion spaces of 120 primes and 120 targets were explored separately in addition to the effects of musical training and gender. Thirty-two participants rated their felt pleasantness and arousal in response to primes and targets on equivalent rating scales as well as their familiarity with the stimuli. Musical training was associated with elevated familiarity ratings for high-arousing music and a trend for elevated arousal ratings, especially in response to unpleasant musical stimuli. Males reported higher arousal than females for pleasant visual stimuli. In Experiment 2, 40 nonmusicians rated their felt arousal and pleasantness in response to 20 visual targets after listening to 80 musical primes. Arousal associated with the musical primes modulated felt arousal in response to visual targets, yet no such transfer of pleasantness was observed between the two modalities. Experiment 3 sought to rule out the possibility of any order effect of the subjective ratings, and responses of 14 nonmusicians replicated results of Experiment 2. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the crossmodal priming paradigm in basic research on musical emotions.

  16. Emotional arousal amplifies the effects of biased competition in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Sakaki, Michiko; Cheng, Ruth; Velasco, Ricardo; Mather, Mara

    2014-12-01

    The arousal-biased competition model predicts that arousal increases the gain on neural competition between stimuli representations. Thus, the model predicts that arousal simultaneously enhances processing of salient stimuli and impairs processing of relatively less-salient stimuli. We tested this model with a simple dot-probe task. On each trial, participants were simultaneously exposed to one face image as a salient cue stimulus and one place image as a non-salient stimulus. A border around the face cue location further increased its bottom-up saliency. Before these visual stimuli were shown, one of two tones played: one that predicted a shock (increasing arousal) or one that did not. An arousal-by-saliency interaction in category-specific brain regions (fusiform face area for salient faces and parahippocampal place area for non-salient places) indicated that brain activation associated with processing the salient stimulus was enhanced under arousal whereas activation associated with processing the non-salient stimulus was suppressed under arousal. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that arousal can enhance information processing for prioritized stimuli while simultaneously impairing processing of non-prioritized stimuli. Thus, it goes beyond previous research to show that arousal does not uniformly enhance perceptual processing, but instead does so selectively in ways that optimizes attention to highly salient stimuli.

  17. Disorders in sexual desire and sexual arousal in women, a 2010 state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2010-12-01

    In this contribution, female sexual desire and arousal disorders are viewed from the perspective of incentive motivation and information processing models of sexual response. The effects of hormones, somatic disease, and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of psychological factors, such as stimulus meaning, mood and cognition, and relational context on female sexual desire and arousal. Specific topics to attend to during the anamnesis of sexual desire and arousal problems, and empirically evaluated psychological and pharmacological treatments for these problems are discussed.

  18. Excitatory orexinergic innervation of rat nucleus incertus--Implications for ascending arousal, motivation and feeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Anna; Siwiec, Marcin; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Blasiak, Tomasz; Czerw, Anna; Blasiak, Ewa; Kania, Alan; Rajfur, Zenon; Lewandowski, Marian H; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Orexin/hypocretin peptides play a central role in the integrated control of feeding/reward and behavioural activation, principally via interactions with other neural systems. A brainstem area involved in behavioural activation is the nucleus incertus (NI), located in the posterior ventromedial central grey. Several studies have implicated NI in control of arousal/stress and reward/feeding responses. Orexin receptor mRNA expression identifies NI as a putative target of orexin modulation. Therefore, in this study we performed neural tract-tracing and immunofluorescence staining to characterise the orexinergic innervation of NI. Our results indicate a convergent innervation of the NI area by different orexin neuron populations, with an abundance of orexin-A-containing axons making putative synaptic contacts with relaxin-3-positive NI neurons. The influence of orexin-A on NI neuron activity was investigated using patch-clamp recordings. Orexin-A depolarised the majority (64%) of recorded neurons and this effect was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin and glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, indicating a likely postsynaptic action. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that in 'type I' NI neurons comprising relaxin-3-positive cells, orexin-A acted via L-type calcium channels, whereas in 'type II' relaxin-3-negative neurons, activation of a sodium/calcium exchanger was involved. A majority of the orexin-A sensitive neurons tested for the presence of orexin receptor mRNA, were OX2 mRNA-positive. Immunohistochemical staining for putative orexin receptors on NI neurons, confirmed stronger expression of OX2 than OX1 receptors. Our data demonstrate a strong influence of orexin-A on NI neurons, consistent with an important role for this hypothalamic/tegmental circuit in the regulation of arousal/vigilance and motivated behaviours.

  19. Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-05-15

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-β-S. A specific H3R agonist, α-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal.

  20. Strategies of arousal control: biofeedback, meditation, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, B; Kristeller, J; Simons, R; Hodes, R; Lang, P J

    1981-12-01

    A series of four experiments assessed the effects of instructions to lower heart rate on heart rate change and general arousal reduction. Various conditions of biofeedback, cognitive load, incentive, knowledge of results, and the experimenter-subject relationship were tested. Experiment 1 compared physiological responses to the delivery of direct organ feedback (i.e., heart rate) with responses to electromyographic biofeedback from the frontalis muscle area and with responses to a nonfeedback tracking task. The results suggest that neither heart rate nor muscle tension feedback is an especially powerful method for achieving sustained reductions in heart rate. Furthermore, although some specificity of physiologic pattern is apparent, biofeedback is no more effective in lowering general activation level than simple instructions to relax accompanied by a general knowledge of results. The second experiment was designed to assess the role of cognitive load in arousal reduction. Heart rate biofeedback was compared with a procedure involving minimal external information processing--the secular meditation exercise of Wallace and Benson. The results indicated a clear superiority for the meditation strategy in effecting reductions in cardiac rate and lowering activation. However, in a third experiment, meditation subjects lowered heart rate much less than observed in the previous study, and this time the reduction did not exceed that achieved by feedback subjects. Subsequent analysis suggested that the quality of the subject-experimenter relationship (active-supportive vs. formal-distant) was a significant variable in accounting for outcome differences. The above hypothesis was supported by a fourth experiment. Under conditions of high subject-experimenter involvement, the superior meditation performance of Experiment 2 was reproduced; under low-involvement conditions the Experiment 3 result of no difference between training groups was obtained. The findings suggest that the

  1. Arousal responses in babies at risk of sudden infant death syndrome at different postnatal ages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, K P

    1992-03-01

    Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.

  2. Dynamic modulation of amygdala-hippocampal connectivity by emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Spalek, Klara; Milnik, Annette; Gschwind, Leo; Roozendaal, Benno; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F

    2014-10-15

    Positive and negative emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. Studies in animals suggest that this phenomenon depends on the influence of the amygdala upon the hippocampus. In humans, however, it is largely unknown how these two brain structures functionally interact and whether these interactions are similar between positive and negative information. Using dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data in 586 healthy subjects, we show that the strength of the connection from the amygdala to the hippocampus was rapidly and robustly increased during the encoding of both positive and negative pictures in relation to neutral pictures. We also observed an increase in connection strength from the hippocampus to the amygdala, albeit at a smaller scale. These findings indicate that, during encoding, emotionally arousing information leads to a robust increase in effective connectivity from the amygdala to the hippocampus, regardless of its valence.

  3. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try to do, then, is to illustrate Matravers theory and claim that it is a good solution to many problems concerning music and its capacity to affect our inner states.

  4. Emotion Processing for Arousal and Neutral Content in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Satler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P=.001. CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P=.001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P=.32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  5. Chronic burnout, somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, S; Ugarten, U; Shirom, A; Kahana, L; Lerman, Y; Froom, P

    1999-06-01

    Burnout syndrome, comprised of the symptoms of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, is believed to be a result of ineffective coping with enduring stress. This study of 111 nonshift blue-collar workers free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) examined whether chronic burnout is associated with a state of somatic and physiological hyperarousal. Results showed that 37 workers exhibited symptoms of chronic burnout, with symptoms lasting at least 6 months. These workers, compared to those with no burnout symptoms (n = 52) or nonchronic burnout symptoms (n = 22), had higher levels of tension at work, postwork irritability, more sleep disturbances and complaints of waking up exhausted, and higher cortisol levels during the work day. These results suggest that chronic burnout is associated with heightened somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels. This may be part of the mechanism underlying the emerging association between burnout and risk of CVD.

  6. Extraversion, arousal, and speed of retrieval from secondary storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W

    1975-09-01

    Fifty-two subjects were assigned to one of four groups on the basis of scores on the Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and on the General Activation scale of the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List. The subjects learned two lists composed of categorically related groups of words, with the number of categories and the number of words per category varied. Memory was probed by simultaneously presenting the subject with a category name and an item-position cue, and recording the recall latency. The major finding was that activation and extraversion interactively determined the recall latency for both category and item recall. The results were considered in light of arousal theory.

  7. The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Edward A; Smith, Kenneth H

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli.

  8. Personality change at the intersection of autonomic arousal and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children can be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal and that children characterized by both high-risk families and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems tend to show maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a 6-year longitudinal study in which personality-type prototypicality, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at 2-year intervals. The results indicated that children who both had exaggerated skin conductance responses (a measure of autonomic reactivity) and were living in families with multiple risk factors were most likely to develop an undercontrolled personality type and to exhibit increases in problem behavior and negative emotional intensity. The implications of the results for understanding personality change are discussed.

  9. Re-epithelializaiton by epithelial inoculation with recipient phenotype in heterotopically transplanted rat allografts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Hui; Hu Xuefei; Li Chao; Xie Huikang; Gao Wen; Chen Chang

    2014-01-01

    Background Re-epithelialization has remained a major obstacle in both tracheal and lung transplantations.This study examines the realization of re-epithelialization by epithelial inoculation in a rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation model.Methods The original epithelia of tracheas from donor Wistar rats were removed and the tracheas were then inoculated with 106/ml in vitro cultured epithelial cells of the Spraque-Dawley (SD) rat phenotype.These allo-tracheas were then heterotopically transplanted into SD rats.After 28 days,the allo-trachea tissues were recovered and assessed for epithelial morphology and cellular differentiation using immunohistochemical analysis.An additional experimental group was used to compare the outcomes of re-epithelialization in immunosuppressed animals.Results Histological examination showed that allografts with epithelial inoculation maintained patent tracheal lumens,which were obliterated in controls.Recipient immunosuppression facilitated the formation of an integrated ciliated epithelial layer,further demonstrated by the presence of a dense cilia population,a well-developed plasma membrane,and readily recognizable intercellular junctions.Epithelial cellular differentiation markers such as cytokeratin 14 and 18,and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were all positive in allografts under immunosuppression.Conclusion Concurrent recipient-derived epithelial inoculation with immunosuppression can result in complete reepithelialization with the recipient phenotype and suppress the luminal obliteration process in heterotopic transplantations.

  10. Effects of genotype x bradyrhizobium inoculation or x fertilizer n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype x inoculation interaction was significant only for protein and oil content in one year. ... seed composition, or other agronoi:nic traits including plant .... used to compare expected genetic of inoculation on maturity, p;ant height, a;:d yick!

  11. Silage Inoculant Effects on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four inoculants, B (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium), C (Lactobacillus plantarum), D (Lactobacillus pentosus), E (Lactococcus lactis), were compared with an uninoculated treatment (A) on alfalfa (38% DM, AS), corn (36% DM, CS), and brown midrib corn (33% DM, BMR) silages. All inocul...

  12. Lactating cow response to lucerne silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...

  13. Warming up for sleep? - ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Barnes, Brian M.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (δ power

  14. WARMING UP FOR SLEEP - GROUND-SQUIRRELS SLEEP DURING AROUSALS FROM HIBERNATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAAN, S; BARNES, BM; STRIJKSTRA, AM

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (delta-p

  15. Sleep respiratory disturbances and arousals at moderate altitude have overlapping electroencephalogram spectral signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Tarokh, Leila; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Tesler, Noemi; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter

    2014-08-01

    An ascent to altitude has been shown to result in more central apneas and a shift towards lighter sleep in healthy individuals. This study employs spectral analysis to investigate the impact of respiratory disturbances (central/obstructive apnea and hypopnea or periodic breathing) at moderate altitude on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and to compare EEG changes resulting from respiratory disturbances and arousals. Data were collected from 51 healthy male subjects who spent 1 night at moderate altitude (2590 m). Power density spectra of Stage 2 sleep were calculated in a subset (20) of these participants with sufficient artefact-free data for (a) epochs with respiratory events without an accompanying arousal, (b) epochs containing an arousal and (c) epochs of undisturbed Stage 2 sleep containing neither arousal nor respiratory events. Both arousals and respiratory disturbances resulted in reduced power in the delta, theta and spindle frequency range and increased beta power compared to undisturbed sleep. The similarity of the EEG changes resulting from altitude-induced respiratory disturbances and arousals indicates that central apneas are associated with micro-arousals, not apparent by visual inspection of the EEG. Our findings may have implications for sleep in patients and mountain tourists with central apneas and suggest that respiratory disturbances not accompanied by an arousal may, none the less, impact sleep quality and impair recuperative processes associated with sleep more than previously believed.

  16. Low-arousal speech noise improves performance in N-back task: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhu Han

    Full Text Available The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits.

  17. Physiological and subjective sexual arousal in self-identified asexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

    2011-08-01

    Asexuality can be defined as a lifelong lack of sexual attraction. Empirical research on asexuality reveals significantly lower self-reported sexual desire and arousal and lower rates of sexual activity; however, the speculation that there may also be an impaired psychophysiological sexual arousal response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to compare genital (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) and subjective sexual arousal in asexual and non-asexual women. Thirty-eight women between the ages of 19 and 55 years (10 heterosexual, 10 bisexual, 11 homosexual, and 7 asexual) viewed neutral and erotic audiovisual stimuli while VPA and self-reported sexual arousal and affect were measured. There were no significant group differences in the increased VPA and self-reported sexual arousal response to the erotic film between the groups. Asexuals showed significantly less positive affect, sensuality-sexual attraction, and self-reported autonomic arousal to the erotic film compared to the other groups; however, there were no group differences in negative affect or anxiety. Genital-subjective sexual arousal concordance was significantly positive for the asexual women and non-significant for the other three groups, suggesting higher levels of interoceptive awareness among asexuals. Taken together, the findings suggest normal subjective and physiological sexual arousal capacity in asexual women and challenge the view that asexuality should be characterized as a sexual dysfunction.

  18. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed sexual arousal, in response to nondeviant and pedophilic audiotapes, among inpatient adult male sexual offenders. Audiotapes describing consenting sexual intercourse created significantly greater arousal than did descriptions of physically forcible sexual/nonsexual activity with female minors. Correspondence of physiological measures with…

  19. Time-of-Day Effects in Arousal: Disrupted Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study…

  20. Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Yegiyan, Narine; Kamhawi, Rasha

    2008-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message…

  1. Response inhibition and immediate arousal in children with high-functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymaekers, Ruth; van der Meere, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    The current study compared high-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a peer control group on an immediate arousal task measuring response inhibition. In one condition go stimuli were presented whereas in another condition a tone preceded the go stimulus. The tone caused an immediate arousal ef

  2. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  3. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents…

  4. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  5. Disorders in sexual desire and sexual arousal in women, a 2010 state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, female sexual desire and arousal disorders are viewed from the perspective of incentive motivation and information processing models of sexual response. The effects of hormones, somatic disease, and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of ps

  6. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents…

  7. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  8. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Arousals occur from all sleep stages and can be identified as abrupt electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) changes. Manual scoring of arousals is time consuming with low interscore agreement. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting...... arousals from non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, independent of the subject's age and disease. The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG, and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using...... compared with those of previously presented arousal detection algorithms and especially compared with the high interscore variability of manual scorings....

  9. Upbeat and happy: arousal as an important factor in studying attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M; Shore, David I

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of music-induced mood changes on different components of visual attention. Affective valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) were manipulated by having participants listen to one of four versions of a Mozart Sonata that varied in mode (major or minor) and tempo (fast or slow). Attention was measured in three domains-alerting, orienting, and executive control. Affective valence and arousal had an effect on executive control, but not on alerting or orienting. Individuals who experienced positive valence had less efficient control over their responses than those who experienced negative valence, but only when arousal levels were high. Positive and negative valence did not influence executive control measures when arousal levels were low. These findings demonstrate that affective valence and arousal interact with one another to influence the processing of items in visual attention.

  10. Influence of future choice importance and arousal upon the halo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Two determinants of the magnitude of the influence of anticipated choice on the halo effect are investigated: importance of future choice and arousal. Male subjects ranked photographs on positive personality traits. Half of the photographs were of persons about which they anticipated making a choice. In confirmation of the hypotheses, (a) the intercorrelation of the rankings was greater for the choice photographs than for the nonchoice photographs when the subjects anticipated an important choice, but not when they anticipated an unimportant choice; and (b) the intercorrelation was greater for the choice photographs than for the nonchoice photographs when the subjects were aroused by caffeine and uninformed as to the source of their arousal, but not when they were informed as to the source of their arousal or not aroused.

  11. Roles of temperamental arousal and gender-segregated play in young children's social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, R A; Shepard, S A; Guthrie, I K; Martin, C L

    1997-07-01

    The hypothesis that gender differences in children's adjustment is partially influenced by differences in temperament and interactions with same-sex peers was examined. Fifty-seven predominantly White, middle-class preschoolers (29 boys and 28 girls, M age = 54.5 months) participated. Measures were taken of children's arousability, problem behaviors, and tendencies to play with same-sex peers. A semester later, children's peer status was assessed. Analyses revealed that arousability and same-sex peer play interacted to predict problem behaviors. For boys high in arousability, play with same-sex peers increased problem behaviors. In contrast, arousable girls who played with other girls were relatively unlikely to show problem behaviors. Moreover, the interaction of arousability and same-sex peer play predicted boys' (but not girls') peer status, and this relation was partially mediated by problem behaviors. The role of gender-related processes is discussed.

  12. Threat but not arousal narrows attention: Evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that negative affect causes attentional narrowing. According to Easterbrook’s (1959 influential hypothesis this effect is driven by the withdrawal motivation inherent to negative emotions and might be related to increases in arousal. We investigated whether valence-unspecific increases in physiological arousal, as measured by pupil dilation, could account for attentional narrowing effects in a cognitive control task. Following the presentation of a negative, positive, or neutral picture, participants performed a saccade task with a prosaccade versus an antisaccade instruction. The reaction time difference between pro- and antisaccades was used to index attentional selectivity, and while pupil diameter was used as an index of physiological arousal. Pupil dilation was observed for both negative and positive pictures, which indicates increased physiological arousal. However, increased attentional selectivity was only observed following negative pictures. Our data show that motivational intensity effects on attentional narrowing can occur independently of physiological arousal effects.

  13. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.

  14. Pupil-linked arousal is driven by decision uncertainty and alters serial choice bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Anne E.; Braun, Anke; Donner, Tobias H.

    2017-03-01

    While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty. Pupil dilation, after choice but before external feedback, reflects three hallmark signatures of decision uncertainty derived from a computational model. This increase in pupil-linked arousal boosts observers' tendency to alternate their choice on the subsequent trial. We conclude that decision uncertainty drives rapid changes in pupil-linked arousal state, which shape the serial correlation structure of ongoing choice behaviour.

  15. Adding fuel to fire: the impact of followers' arousal on ratings of charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Juan Carlos; Mayo, Margarita; Shamir, Boas

    2007-11-01

    The authors conducted an experimental laboratory study and a longitudinal field study to investigate the impact of followers' arousal on ratings of charisma. Both studies examined 2 contrasting hypotheses: (a) the misattribution hypothesis, which posits a direct effect of arousal, and (b) the response-facilitation hypothesis, which posits an interactive effect of arousal and leaders' charismatic appeal on ratings of charisma. The overall results from both studies provide support for the response-facilitation hypothesis. In addition, the authors tested the hypothesis that arousal effects are limited to ratings of charisma. As expected, ratings of transactional leadership, in contrast with ratings of charisma, were not influenced by followers' arousal states. The authors discuss the implications of these results and offer suggestions for future research.

  16. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. McGreevy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

  17. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...

  18. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  19. USE OF PULSE TRANSIT TIME AS A MEASURE OF AUTONOMIC AROUSALS IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xiao; Xu Zhong; Rong Huang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of pulse transit time ( PIT) arousals as an index of sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).Methods Individuals referred for evaluation of possible OSAHS underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG). Three conventional indices of sleep fragmentation [ electroencephalography (EEG) arousals, apnea/hypopnea index (AMI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI) ], PTT arousals, and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were compared.Results PTT arousals were positively correlated with EEG arousals (r = 0.746, P<0. 001), AHI (r = 0.786, P< 0. 001) , and ODI (r = 0. 665, P<0. 001), respectively. But, both PTT arousals and EEG arousals had no correlation with ESS O= 0.432, P=0.201; r= 0.196, P=0.59l, respectively).Conclusion PTT arousals are correlated well with other standard measures estimating severity of OSAHS and potentially a non-invasive marker with which to measure the sleep fragmentation in patients with OSAHS.

  20. Experimental inoculation of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K R; Fitzgerald, S D; Hattey, J A; Bolin, C A; Berry, D E; Church, S V; Reed, W M

    2006-03-01

    Although avian species are known to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium spp. organisms, much remains unknown about the susceptibility of birds to infection with M. bovis. The objective of this current study was to determine if wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be infected with M. bovis when inoculated by the oral or intratracheal route. Six turkeys were orally inoculated and another six were inoculated via the trachea with a high dose of M. bovis, 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Six turkeys were sham-inoculated controls. Two turkeys from each treatment group were sacrificed on days 30, 60, and 90 postinoculation. There were no gross or microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis in the 23 inoculated turkeys over the 90-day duration of this study. Fecal cultures were also consistently negative for M. bovis when sampled before inoculation and on days 1, 30, and 60 postinoculation. Two intratracheally inoculated turkeys were positive for M. bovis in visceral tissues at 30 days postinoculation. However, this finding was only indicative of passive persistence of mycobacteria in the tissues and not of infection, as there were no attendant lesions or clinical compromise to support infection. Thus, it can be concluded that young wild turkeys are resistant to infection with M. bovis and, therefore, pose minimal threat as reservoir or spillover hosts for this organism.

  1. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  2. Variability in emotional/behavioral problems in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder : the role of arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist

  3. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models.

  4. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  5. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  6. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G; Toomey, John M; Balsters, Joshua H; Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-10-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants' ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic-cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck.

  7. Event-related nociceptive arousal enhances memory consolidation for neutral scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Bingel, Ulrike; Sommer, Tobias

    2012-01-25

    The superior memory for emotional events has been attributed to the beneficial effects of noradrenaline released into the amygdala attributable to arousal. Noradrenaline mediates the effects of different hormones and neurotransmitters, including adrenal stress hormones on consolidation (McGaugh, 2004; Roozendaal et al., 2009). The majority of human fMRI studies of the enhancement of emotional memories contrasted successful encoding of emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli (LaBar and Cabeza, 2006; Murty et al., 2010). Recently, it was highlighted that emotional stimuli elicit not only arousal but also intensify cognitive processes that contribute to the enhanced memory. In particular, the enhanced use of selective attention as well as the greater distinctiveness and semantic relatedness of emotional stimuli influence memory formation (Talmi et al., 2007a). The present study aimed to explore the effects of arousal on memory formation independent of these cognitive factors in an event-related manner. Arousal was induced by the application of a nociceptive stimulus briefly after the presentation of neutral scenes. The results show a purely arousal-driven memory enhancement for the neutral scenes that differs in critical aspects from the superior memory for emotional stimuli. In particular, the enhancement was only evident after consolidation and exclusively based on an increase in item familiarity but not recollection. Moreover, successful memory formation for stimuli followed by arousal was correlated with activity in the parahippocampal cortex but not the amygdala, as is the case for emotional stimuli.

  8. The interaction of arousal and valence in affective priming: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Kong, Lingyue; Jiang, Yang

    2012-09-20

    The affective priming paradigm has been studied extensively and applied in many fields during the past two decades. Most research thus far has focused on the valence dimension. Whether emotional arousal influences affective priming remains poorly understood. The present study demonstrates how arousal impacts evaluation of affective words using reaction time and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Eighteen younger subjects evaluated pleasantness of target words after seeing affective pictures as primes. The participants' responses were faster and/or more accurate for valence-congruent trials than for incongruent trials, particularly with high-arousal stimuli. An ERP affective priming effect (N400) also occurred mainly in high-arousing stimulus pairs. In addition, whereas valence congruency influenced both the N400 and the LPP, arousal congruency influenced only the LPP, suggesting that arousal congruency mainly modulates post-semantic processes, but valence congruency effects begin with semantic processes. Overall, our current findings indicate that the arousal level of visual images impacts both behavioral and ERP effects of affective priming.

  9. Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073

  10. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased of sexual arousal (ISA has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Method Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette´s syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Results Among Parkinson’s disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS. In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington’s disease, two with Tourette’s syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. Conclusions ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson’s disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

  11. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Caused by Spinal Meningeal Cysts in the Sacrum: Successful Neurosurgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Frank; Boone, Kaitlynn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether treatment of spinal meningeal cysts that compress sacral spinal nerve roots is associated with relief of persistent genital arousal disorder. In this case series we encountered a group of patients with persistent genital arousal disorder among a larger cohort undergoing a prospective outcomes study on the surgical treatment of symptomatic spinal meningeal cysts. Epidemiologic data were collected and the type, number, and location of the meningeal cysts in each patient were determined on magnetic resonance imaging. Postoperatively patients were asked to self-report whether their persistent genital arousal disorder was eliminated, significantly better, the same, or worse. In a cohort of 1,045 patients with symptomatic spinal meningeal cysts, we identified 11 with persistent genital arousal disorder; all were female and all had meningeal cysts in the sacral spinal canal causing sacral nerve root compression. In addition to persistent genital arousal disorder, all patients had other symptoms typical of sacral nerve root compression such as perineal, bladder, and bowel symptoms. Although multiple types of meningeal cysts were encountered, Tarlov cysts were the most common (8/11). Postoperatively, seven (64%) patients reported elimination of their persistent genital arousal disorder, three (27%) noted significant improvement, one (9%) said they were unchanged, and none experienced worsening with an average follow-up of 23 months ranging from 2 months to 6 years. Although Tarlov cysts were more numerous, the presence of persistent genital arousal disorder and the surgical outcomes appeared unrelated to the type of spinal meningeal cyst treated. Our case series suggests that sacral nerve root compression caused by spinal meningeal cysts can cause persistent genital arousal disorder. The presence of nerve root compression appears to be more important than the particular type of meningeal cyst involved. Microsurgical cyst treatment cured or significantly

  12. Significance of Including a Surrogate Arousal for Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Diagnosis by Respiratory Polygraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Gomez de Terreros, Javier; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Zamorano, Jose; Cano, Ricardo; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Embid, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory polygraphy is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis, although it underestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) because respiratory polygraphy cannot identify arousals. Objectives: We performed a multicentric, randomized, blinded crossover study to determine the agreement between home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) and PSG, and between simultaneous respiratory polygraphy (respiratory polygraphy with PSG) (SimultRP) and PSG by means of 2 AHI scoring protocols with or without hyperventilation following flow reduction considered as a surrogate arousal. Methods: We included suspected SAHS patients from 8 hospitals. They were assigned to home and hospital protocols at random. We determined the agreement between respiratory polygraphy AHI and PSG AHI scorings using Bland and Altman plots and diagnostic agreement using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The agreement in therapeutic decisions (continuous positive airway pressure treatment or not) between HRP and PSG scorings was done with likelihood ratios and post-test probability calculations. Results: Of 366 randomized patients, 342 completed the protocol. AHI from HRP scorings (with and without surrogate arousal) had similar agreement with PSG. AHI from SimultRP with surrogate arousal scoring had better agreement with PSG than AHI from SimultRP without surrogate arousal. HRP with surrogate arousal scoring had slightly worse ROC curves than HRP without surrogate arousal, and the opposite was true for SimultRP scorings. HRP with surrogate arousal showed slightly better agreement with PSG in therapeutic decisions than for HRP without surrogate arousal. Conclusion: Incorporating a surrogate arousal measure into HRP did not substantially increase its agreement with PSG when compared with the usual procedure (HRP without surrogate arousal). Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Gomez de Terreros J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hern

  13. Paenibacillus lentimorbus Inoculation Enhances Tobacco Growth and Extenuates the Virulence of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Kumar

    Full Text Available Previous studies with Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488" (hereafter referred as B-30488, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from cow's milk, revealed its capabilities to improve plant quality under normal and stress conditions. Present study investigates its potential as a biocontrol agent against an economically important virus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley plants and delineates the physical, biophysical, biochemical and molecular perturbations due to the trilateral interactions of PGPR-host-CMV. Soil inoculation of B-30488 enhanced the plant vigor while significantly decreased the virulence and virus RNA accumulation by ~12 fold (91% in systemic leaves of CMV infected tobacco plants as compared to the control ones. Histology of these leaves revealed the improved tissue's health and least aging signs in B-30488 inoculated tobacco plants, with or without CMV infection, and showed lesser intercellular spaces between collenchyma cells, reduced amount of xyloglucans and pectins in connecting primary cells, and higher polyphenol accumulation in hypodermis layer extending to collenchyma cells. B-30488 inoculation has favorably maneuvered the essential biophysical (ion leakage and photosynthetic efficiency and biochemical (sugar, proline, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase attributes of tobacco plants to positively regulate and release the virus stress. Moreover, activities of defense related enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase induced due to CMV-infection were ameliorated with inoculation of B-30488, suggesting systemic induced resistance mediated protection against CMV in tobacco. The quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the genes related to normal plant development, stress and pathogenesis also corroborate well with the biochemical data and revealed the regulation (either up or down of these genes in favor of

  14. Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quervain, Dominique J. -F; Aerni, Amanda; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades considerable evidence has accumulated indicating that glucocorticoids - stress hormones released from the adrenal cortex - are crucially involved in the regulation of memory. Specifically, glucocorticoids have been shown to enhance memory consolidation of emotionally arousing e

  15. Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A; Klerman, E B

    2013-02-21

    Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-min ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to Wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. Unlike other models of the ultradian rhythm, this model of sleep dynamics does not include an ultradian pacemaker, nor does it invoke a hypothetical homeostatic process that exists purely to drive ultradian rhythms. Instead, only two inputs are included: the homeostatic drive for Sleep and the circadian drive for Wake. These two inputs have been the basis for the most influential Sleep/Wake models, but have not previously been identified as possible ultradian rhythm generators. Using the model, realistic ultradian rhythms are generated by arousal state feedback to either the homeostatic or circadian drive. For the proposed 'homeostatic mechanism', homeostatic pressure increases in Wake and REM sleep, and decreases in NREM sleep. For the proposed 'circadian mechanism', the circadian drive is up-regulated in Wake and REM sleep, and is down-regulated in NREM sleep. The two mechanisms are complementary in the features they capture. The homeostatic mechanism reproduces experimentally observed rebounds in NREM sleep duration and intensity following total sleep deprivation, and rebounds in both NREM sleep intensity and REM sleep duration following selective REM sleep deprivation. The circadian mechanism does not reproduce sleep state rebounds, but more accurately reproduces the temporal patterns observed in a normal night of sleep. These findings have important implications in terms of sleep physiology and they provide a parsimonious explanation for the

  16. Power modulates over-reliance on false cardiac arousal when judging target attractiveness: the powerful are more centered on their own false arousal than the powerless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffre, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Individuals attempting to label their emotions look for a plausible source of their physiological arousal. Co-occurrence of plausible sources can lead to the misattribution of real (or bogus) physiological arousal, resulting in physically attractive individuals being perceived as more attractive than they actually are. In two experiments, female participants heard bogus heart rate feedback while viewing photos of attractive male models. Compared with low-power and control participants, high-power participants rated reinforced photos (increased heart rate) more attractive than non-reinforced photos (stable heart rate) to a greater extent when they heard their own bogus heart rate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2) and to a lesser extent when they heard a recording of another participant's heart rate (Experiment 2). These findings, which suggest that power increases the tendency to misattribute one's physiological arousal to physically attractive individuals, are discussed with reference to theories linking power and social perception.

  17. Inoculation of maize with Azospirillum brasilense in the seed furrow

    OpenAIRE

    Tâmara Prado de Morais; Césio Humberto de Brito; Afonso Maria Brandão; Wender Santos Rezende

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies addressing the inoculation of cereals with diazotrophic microorganisms can be found in the literature. However, in many experiments, investigators have overlooked the feasibility of applying these microorganisms to the furrow together with the seed, and the effect of bacterial concentration on phytostimulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses of an inoculant based on Azospirillum brasilense, applied to the seed furrow when planting maize, comb...

  18. Albendazole inhibits Pneumocystis carinii proliferation in inoculated immunosuppressed mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, M S; Edlind, T D; Lee, C. H.; Dean, R; Queener, S F; Shaw, M M; Smith, J W.

    1994-01-01

    Albendazole, a benzimidazole derivative widely used for treating helminth infections, was successfully used to treat and prevent development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in transtracheally inoculated immunosuppressed mice. For treatment, 3 weeks postinoculation, albendazole at 300 and 600 mg/kg of body weight per day was administered in food for 3 weeks. For prophylaxis, albendazole was begun on the same day as inoculation at 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then the dose was reduced to 150...

  19. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  20. Effect of inoculating addition on machinability of gray cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fengzhang; LI Fengjun; LIU Weiming; MA Zhanhong; TIAN Baohong

    2009-01-01

    Gray cast irons were inoculated with FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants. The changes of apex angle of the drills before and af-ter being used were used to evaluate machinability of gray cast irons. Effect of FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants on mechanical proper-ties, machinability and sensibility of gray cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. Experimental results showed that gray cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40% RE inoculants exhibited tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and im-proved metallurgical quality. While gray cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80% Sr inoculants exhibited the best machinability, the low-est cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The tool flank wear of the drill increased correspondingly with the in-crease of the microhardness difference of the matrix, indicating the great effect of homogeneity of the matrix on the machinability of gray cast iron.

  1. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  2. Order of inoculation affects the success of co-invading entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Macorra, E J; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Pell, J K; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Suarez-Espinoza, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of order of inoculation of Pandora blunckii and Zoophthora radicans co-infecting Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was investigated. After co-inoculation, the proportion of larvae infected by either species was greatly reduced compared to when they were inoculated singly. The order of inoculation influenced the final outcome; the isolate inoculated last always killed more larvae than the isolate inoculated first.

  3. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  4. Impaired circadian waking arousal in narcolepsy-cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, R; Krupa, S; Boucher, B; Rivers, M; Mullington, J

    1998-01-01

    The 24-hour sleep/wake distributions of untreated patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy and matched normal habitual nappers were compared using home ambulatory monitoring. Subjects followed their usual sleep patterns including, for the habitual nappers, a self-selected daytime nap. There were no differences in 24-hour totals of sleep between groups other than a small increase in SWS in narcolepsy. Narcolepsy showed greater amounts of day sleep (stages 2, SWS, REM and total sleep) and less night sleep (stage 2, total sleep). Data were collapsed into 5 min epochs and entered into a matrix. The data in the two groups were then "wrapped" (re-aligned) around the 24 hours with phase 0 as each of the times of: evening sleep onset, onset of SWS, mid-point of night sleep and moment of morning awakening. In habitual nappers alignment beginning at morning wake-up produced the highest amplitude, least temporal dispersion and greatest kurtosis of daytime sleep (naps). The 24-hour sleep/wake distribution curves of both subject groups (data aligned at morning wake-up) based on collapsed data into 5 min bins then underwent curve fitting using 15th order polynomial regression. As with visual analyses of the raw data, the curve fits confirmed that the peak in daytime sleep propensity in narcoleptics was earlier by about 40 (2.66 hours). It was concluded that decreased daytime amplitude of a circadian arousal system was the most parsimonious explanation for the increased amount, broader temporal distribution and relative phase advance of day sleep in narcolepsy and that, as well, such a mechanism could explain a number of other features of the disease.

  5. Rethinking butterflies: the affective, physiological, and performance effects of reappraising arousal during social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltzer, Miranda L; Nock, Matthew K; Peters, Brett J; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of reappraising stress arousal on affective displays, physiological responses, and social performance during an evaluative situation. Participants were sampled from across the social anxiety spectrum and instructed to reappraise arousal as beneficial or received no instructions. Independent raters coded affective displays, nonverbal signaling, and speech performance. Saliva samples collected at baseline and after evaluation were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a protein that indexes sympathetic activation. Arousal reappraisal participants exhibited less shame and anxiety, less avoidant nonverbal signaling, and performed marginally better than no instruction controls. Reappraisal participants also exhibited increased levels of sAA and increased appraisals of coping resources compared with controls. Furthermore, stress appraisals mediated relationships between reappraisal and affective displays. This research indicates that reframing stress arousal can improve behavioral displays of affect during evaluative situations via altering cognitive appraisals.

  6. Directed attention reduces processing of emotional distracters irrespective of valence and arousal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Stefan; Syrjänen, Elmeri

    2013-09-01

    Emotional stimuli tend to capture attention, and this so-called motivated attention is commonly measured using the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). We hypothesized that voluntary, directed attention reduces motivated attention more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant or unpleasant pictures. Participants were instructed to direct their attention to either a picture at fixation or the letters flanking the picture. Pictures varied substantially in arousal and valence. When the pictures were attended to, EPN and LPP increased linearly with arousal. When the letters were attended to, these linear effects decreased in the EPN for pleasant and unpleasant pictures and in the LPP for pleasant pictures. Thus, directed attention decreases processing of emotional distracters more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant and unpleasant pictures. These results are consistent with the view that directed attention decreases emotion effects on sensory gain. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Memory for committing a crime: effects of arousal, proximity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Heather L; Lee, Zina; Read, J Don

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the memories of active participants in an emotionally arousing crime. The present study used a mock crime paradigm to explore participant memories for a low, moderate, or highly arousing event. Forty-seven undergraduate participants committed a "theft" of an exam from a professor's office. Two weeks after the theft, participants completed a cognitive interview, recalled objects from the professor's office, and constructed a map of the route to and from the crime room. Arousal improved reports on a map recall task but no other recall indices. Although there was a general superiority of recall of proximal over distal details, arousal only infrequently interacted with proximity. Some support was found for proximity (spatial-temporal distinction) as a useful proxy for centrality. Future work will benefit from an examination of the overlap between definitions of centrality and proximity with more traditional stimuli.

  8. Pupil-Linked Arousal Determines Variability in Perceptual Decision Making: e1003854

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter R Murphy; Joachim Vandekerckhove; Sander Nieuwenhuis

    2014-01-01

    .... We measured pupil size, a highly sensitive index of arousal, while human subjects performed a motion-discrimination task, and decomposed task behavior into latent decision making parameters using...

  9. Effects of Increased Physiological Arousal on Upper Extremity Positional Awareness in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased physiological arousal on the ability to perceive upper extremity positional awareness in healthy young adults. Approach: Thirty-eight participants were pre- and post-tested for upper extremity positional awareness using a manual kinesthesiometer. Participants in the experimental group underwent a combination of the Stroop color-word task and timed arithmetic problems to produce a state of physiological arousal. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken during data collection to assess levels of physiological arousal. Pre-and post-test absolute error scores for each participant were compared. Results: ANCOVA revealed a significant time effect (pConclusion: The results suggested positional awareness is altered under a state of elevated physiological arousal and that these results may have significant implications for individuals performing various types of motor skills.

  10. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, W.W.A.; Proulx, T.; van Beest, I.

    2015-01-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this

  11. [Interactions between human sexual arousal and sexual desire: a challenge for social neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-03-28

    The frequent interaction and synergy between sexual arousal and sexual desire occuring during a sexual experience explains the difficulty in disentagling these two phenomena in the human sexual response. Sexual desire is defined as a goal-directed motivational state integrating the other in one's personal sphere on the basis of intentionality, rather than by instinct only. Sexual arousal includes physical manifestations and subjective perception of excitement. Interest in sexual arousal has engendered a growing body of research concerning its nature and function as well as the biological basis of the mechanisms sustaining it. Recent functional imaging has played a key role in seeking to isolate brain regions specific to sexual arousal. This field may represent a new challenge for social neuroscience.

  12. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    .... However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory...

  13. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, W.W.A.; Proulx, T.; van Beest, I.

    2015-01-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this ar

  14. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Homeostatic and Circadian Abnormalities in Sleep and Arousal in Gulf War Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    areas would have deleterious impacts on short-term daytime function. Moreover, optimal sleep is not only critical for daytime learning and...1 Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0129 TITLE: Homeostatic and Circadian Abnormalities in Sleep and Arousal in Gulf War Syndrome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE in Gul 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0129 Homeostatic and Circadian Abnormalities in Sleep and Arousal f War Syndrome 5b

  16. Temporal associations between arousal and body/limb movement in children with suspected obstructed sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Marnie L; Bradley, Andrew P; Williams, Gordon; Terrill, Philip I

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between arousal events and body and/or limb movements during sleep may significantly impact the performance and clinical interpretation of actigraphy. As such, the objective of this study was to quantify the temporal association between arousals and body/limb movement. From this, we aim to determine whether actigraphy can predict arousal events in children, and identify the impact of arousal-related movements on estimates of sleep/wake periods. Thirty otherwise healthy children (5-16 years, median 9 years, 21 male) with suspected sleep apnoea were studied using full polysomnography and customised raw tri-axial accelerometry measured at the left fingertip, left wrist, upper thorax, left ankle and left great toe. Raw data were synchronised to within 0.1 s of the polysomnogram. Movements were then identified using a custom algorithm. On average 67.5% of arousals were associated with wrist movement. Arousals associated with movement were longer than those without movement (mean duration: 12.2 s versus 7.9 s respectively, p  sleep movements (wrist duration: 6.26 s and 9.89 s versus 2.35 s respectively, p  actigraphy's poor sensitivity for wake. However, as sleep-related movements tend to be shorter than those during wake or arousal, incorporating movement duration into the actigraphy scoring algorithm may improve sleep staging performance. Although actigraphy-based measurements cannot reliably predict all arousal events, actigraphy can likely identify longer events that may have the greatest impact on sleep quality.

  17. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Fleischman

    Full Text Available Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76 were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission.

  18. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7–14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents reported clinically-significant child sleep problems, whereas 54% of youth reported trouble sleeping. Young children, those with primary generalized ...

  19. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    OpenAIRE

    Iris eVan Den Bosch; Valorie eSalimpoor; Robert J Zatorre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectatio...

  20. The effect of music on decreasing arousal due to stress: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Cori L

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of research articles using music to decrease arousal due to stress was conducted on 22 quantitative studies. Results demonstrated that music alone and music assisted relaxation techniques significantly decreased arousal (d = +.67). Further analysis of each study revealed that the amount of stress reduction was significantly different when considering age, type of stress, music assisted relaxation technique, musical preference, previous music experience, and type of intervention. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  2. Leader Affective Displays and Attributions of Charisma: The Role of Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Damen, Frederic; van Knippenberg, Daan; Knippenberg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch suggests that leader displays of positive affect are conducive to attributions of charisma. We qualify and extend this conclusion by arguing that this mainly holds for displays of positive affect that are associated with high levels of arousal. Results of a scenario experiment and a survey support this hypothesis, and show that besides the transfer of positive feelings per se, it is the transfer of arousal that mediates the relationship between leader affective displays a...

  3. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  4. Neural modulation of directed forgetting by valence and arousal: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Sara N; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2016-10-01

    Intentional forgetting benefits memory by removing no longer needed information and promoting processing of more relevant materials. This study sought to understand how the behavioural and neurophysiological representation of intentional forgetting would be impacted by emotion. We took a novel approach by examining the unique contribution of both valence and arousal on emotional directed forgetting. Participants completed an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral words at high and lower levels of arousal while brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Behaviourally, recognition of to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) items varied as a function of valence and arousal with reduced directed forgetting for high arousing negative and neutral words. In the brain, patterns of frontal and posterior activation in response to TBF and TBR cues respectively replicated prior EEG evidence to support involvement of inhibitory and selective rehearsal mechanisms in item directed forgetting. Interestingly, emotion only impacted cue-related posterior activity, which varied depending on specific interactions between valence and arousal. Together, results suggest that the brain handles valence and arousal differently and highlights the importance of considering in a collective manner the multidimensional nature of emotion in experimentation.

  5. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

  6. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  7. Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2009-11-05

    Across mammalian species, comparable morphological and physiological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations are suggested to lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity. To explore this hypothesis we examined intra- and interindividual acoustic variation in chatter calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). The calls were induced experimentally by a disturbance paradigm and related to two defined arousal states of a subject. The arousal state of an animal was primarily operationalised by the habituation of the subject to a new environment and additionally determined by behavioural indicators of stress in tree shrews (tail-position and piloerection). We investigated whether the arousal state and indexical features of the caller, namely individual identity and sex, are conveyed acoustically. Frame-by-frame videographic and multiparametric sound analyses revealed that arousal and identity, but not sex of a caller reliably predicted spectral-temporal variation in sound structure. Furthermore, there was no effect of age or body weight on individual-specific acoustic features. Similar results in another call type of tree shrews and comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence that comparable physiological and morphological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations across mammals lead to commonalities in acoustic features conveying arousal and identity, respectively.

  8. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Soybean Root Hairs Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tran H.; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Clauss, Therese RW; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hixson, Kim K.; Libault, Marc; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Yang, Feng; Yao, Qiuming; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Stacey, Gary

    2012-11-11

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e., roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag 8-plex ITRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nRPLC-MS/MS analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1,625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1,659 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1,126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5 fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation.

  9. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Soybean Root Hairs Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Hong Nha; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Clauss, Therese R.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hixson, Kim K.; Libault, Marc; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Yang, Feng; Yao, Qiuming; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Stacey, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e. roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag eight-plex iTRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nanoRPLC-MS/MS1 analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1659 nonredundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5-fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation. PMID:22843990

  10. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of soybean root hairs inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Hong Nha; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T; Clauss, Therese R; Gritsenko, Marina A; Hixson, Kim K; Libault, Marc; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Yang, Feng; Yao, Qiuming; Pasa-Tolić, Ljiljana; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T; Stacey, Gary

    2012-11-01

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e. roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag eight-plex iTRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nanoRPLC-MS/MS1 analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1659 nonredundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5-fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation.

  11. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  12. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria.

  13. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheli de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria.

  14. [Molecular biology of biological clock--genetic regulation of circadian rhythm and sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kazuhiko

    2006-07-01

    Circadian rhythm is a universal biological property functioning in most living species on the earth from bacteria and plants to animals. The molecular mechanisms creating this rhythm have recently been elucidated and the transcriptional feedback loop regulation of 'clock genes' is regarded as essential for all species studied so far. Both mammals and insects share the similar clock genes, which highlights the long conservation of circadian rhythm at the genetic level. Sleep and arousal cycles in mammals are known to be regulated by both homeostatic and circadian processes, but the genetic machinery for sleep regulation is still unclear. Recently, it has been reported that insects also have sleep-like behavior, and we showed that insects use dopamine as a regulator of their sleep/arousal cycling, which strongly suggests the similarity of arousal regulation between insects and mammals at the molecular level. In this review, these recent advancements of the molecular understanding of circadian rhythm and sleep/arousal regulation are outlined.

  15. Inoculation of soil native cyanobacteria to restore arid degraded soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raúl Román Fernández, José; Roncero Ramos, Beatriz; Chamizo de la Piedra, Sonia; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Ángeles Muñoz Martín, M.; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón Castilla, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Restoration projects in semiarid lands often yield poor results. Water scarcity, low soil fertility, and poor soil structure strongly limit the survival and growth of planted seedlings in these areas. Under these conditions, a previous stage that improves edaphic conditions would turn out to a successful plant restoration. By successfully colonizing arid soils, cyanobacteria naturally provide suitable edaphic conditions, enhancing water availability, soil fertility and soil stability. Furthermore, cyanobacteria can be easily isolated and cultured ex-situ to produce high quantities of biomass, representing a potential tool to restore large areas efficiently. The objective of this study was to test the effect of inoculated cyanobacteria on degraded soils at three different semiarid areas from southeast Spain: Tabernas badlands, a limestone quarry located in Gádor, and grazed grassland in Las Amoladeras (Cabo de Gata). Soil native cyanobacteria belonging to three representative N-fixing genera (Nostoc, Scytonema and Tolypothrix) were isolated from such soils and cultured in BG110 medium. Each strain was inoculated (6 g m-2), separately and mixed (all in the same proportion), on Petri dishes with 80 g of each soil. Biocrust development was monitored during 3 months in these soils under laboratory conditions, at a constant temperature of 25oC. During the experiment, two irrigation treatments were applied simulating a dry (180 mm) and a wet (360 mm) rainfall year (average recorded in the study sites). After 3 months, net CO2 flux, spectral response and soil surface microtopography (1 mm spatial resolution) of inoculated and control soils was measured under wet conditions, all of them as a surrogate of biocrust development. Samples of the surface crust were collected in order to determine total soil organic carbon (SOC) content. The inoculated soils showed positive values of net CO2 flux, thus indicating a net CO2 uptake, whereas control soils showed CO2 fluxes closed to

  16. Feelings of disgust and disgust-induced avoidance weaken following induced sexual arousal in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Borg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. METHODOLOGY: Participants were healthy women (n = 90 randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups. SIGNIFICANCE: This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the

  17. Clonidine Has a Paradoxical Effect on Cyclic Arousal and Sleep Bruxism during NREM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Macaluso, Guido M.; Rompré, Pierre H.; Huynh, Nelly; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: Clonidine disrupts the NREM/REM sleep cycle and reduces the incidence of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characteristic of sleep bruxism (SB). RMMA/SB is associated with brief and transient sleep arousals. This study investigates the effect of clonidine on the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in order to explore the role of cyclic arousal fluctuation in RMMA/SB. Design: Polysomnographic recordings from a pharmacological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratory. Participants and Interventions: Sixteen SB subjects received a single dose of clonidine or placebo at bedtime in a crossover design. Measurements and Results: Sleep variables and RMMA/SB index were evaluated. CAP was scored to assess arousal instability between sleep-maintaining processes (phase A1) and stronger arousal processes (phases A2 and A3). Paired t-tests, ANOVAs, and cross-correlations were performed. Under clonidine, CAP time, and particularly the number of A3 phases, increased (P ≤ 0.01). RMMA/SB onset was time correlated with phases A2 and A3 for both placebo and clonidine nights (P ≤ 0.004). However, under clonidine, this positive correlation began up to 40 min before the RMMA/SB episode. Conclusions: CAP phase A3 frequency increased under clonidine, but paradoxically, RMMA/SB decreased. RMMA/SB was associated with and facilitated in CAP phase A2 and A3 rhythms. However, SB generation could be influenced by other factors besides sleep arousal pressure. NREM/REM ultradian cyclic arousal fluctuations may be required for RMMA/SB onset. Citation: Carra MC; Macaluso GM; Rompré PH; Huynh N; Parrino L; Terzano MG; Lavigne GJ. Clonidine has a paradoxical effect on cyclic arousal and sleep bruxism during NREM sleep. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1711-1716. PMID:21120152

  18. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

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    Alireza eGharabaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography often fails to assess both the level (i.e. arousal and the content (i.e. awareness of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations.We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state. Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at < 4, ~ 7 and ~ 20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e. avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient’s arousal, e.g. amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters.Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain

  19. Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.

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    Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.

  20. Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.

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    Nicolas Gilles Mathieu

    Full Text Available Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP, sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.

  1. [Environmental uncertainty and arousal/stress as the direct determinants of animal behaviour].

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    Popov, S V

    2010-01-01

    A model of direct behavioural mechanisms is suggested. The suggestion is founded on the following prerequisites: the law of optimum arousal by Yerkes-Dodson; the data on animals' purposeful striving towards the optimum; and the data on effect of stimuli uncertainty (unpredictability and/or uncontrollability) on susceptibility to the stimuli. The key postulate of the model is animals' ability to affect the environment uncertainty with their behaviour and, hence, to change their susceptibility to various stimuli and optimize their stress/arousal level. This function of behaviour had never been discussed and seems to be rather important for proximal behavioural mechanisms and for forming direct motives of behaviour. Optimization of arousal level may be viewed as "universal benefit" at the level of direct behavioural mechanisms (similar to "joint genetic fitness" at the level of evolutional mechanisms). Within the model framework it is possible to take up some sophisticated aspects of ethology such as social relations forming, "begging for punishment", "zoo stereotypy", and so on. Among verifiable predictions that can be derived from its analysis, the following ones are worthwhile: (1) the stronger of two similar social relations cannot be more stressful than the weaker one; (2) the intensity of marking activity never increases as arousal/stress level decreases; (3) stress/arousal level of an animal having been experienced "zoo stereotypy" for a long time can never be higher than that of a conspecific individual showing the behaviour for the first time; (4) the rate of "begging for punishment" behaviour of an individual should positively correlate with environmental uncertainty; (5) arousal/stress level of an individual looking for novelty can never be higher than arousal/stress level of the same individual when avoiding novelty; (6) the striving of a specimen for displaying the behaviour promoting an increase in uncertainty can be suppressed by raising the

  2. Experimental inoculation of juvenile rhesus macaques with primate enteric caliciviruses.

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    Karol Sestak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue culture-adapted Tulane virus (TV, a GI.1 rhesus enteric calicivirus (ReCV, and a mixture of GII.2 and GII.4 human norovirus (NoV-containing stool sample were used to intrastomacheally inoculate juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in order to evaluate infection caused by these viruses. METHODOLOGY & FINDINGS: Two of the three TV-inoculated macaques developed diarrhea, fever, virus-shedding in stools, inflammation of duodenum and 16-fold increase of TV-neutralizing (VN serum antibodies but no vomiting or viremia. No VN-antibody responses could be detected against a GI.2 ReCV strain FT285, suggesting that TV and FT285 represent different ReCV serotypes. Both NoV-inoculated macaques remained asymptomatic but with demonstrable virus shedding in one animal. Examination of duodenum biopsies of the TV-inoculated macaques showed lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria and villous blunting. TV antigen-positive (TV+ cells were detected in the lamina propria. In most of the TV+ cells TV co-localized perinuclearly with calnexin--an endoplasmic reticulum protein. A few CD20+TV+ double-positive B cells were also identified in duodenum. To corroborate the authenticity of CD20+TV+ B cells, in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy macaques were inoculated with TV. Multicolor flow cytometry confirmed the presence of TV antigen-containing B cells of predominantly CD20+HLA-DR+ phenotype. A 2-log increase of viral RNA by 6 days post inoculation (p<0.05 suggested active TV replication in cultured lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show that ReCVs represent an alternative cell culture and animal model to study enteric calicivirus replication, pathogenesis and immunity.

  3. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

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    Kum C Hiong

    Full Text Available The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of

  4. Inducing Resistance to Conspiracy Theory Propaganda: Testing Inoculation and Metainoculation Strategies

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    Banas, John A.; Miller, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the boundaries of inoculation theory by examining how inoculation can be applied to conspiracy theory propaganda as well as inoculation itself (called metainoculation). A 3-phase experiment with 312 participants compared 3 main groups: no-treatment control, inoculation, and metainoculation. Research questions explored…

  5. Inoculation methods of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Migliorini; Keilor da Rosa Dorneles; Gustavo Fonseca Rodrigues; Gabriele de Paula; Lilian Vanussa Madruga de Tunes

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p37 Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Scrib. is one of the most serious diseases of bean crops. Inoculation techniques are important to evaluate the resistance of genotypes and control methods at early stages of seedling development. Due to the need for infected seedlings, the objective of the present study was to test different inoculation methods of C. lindemuthianum on bean seeds to verify the the impact on...

  6. Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kate E; Martin, Frances H

    2009-06-01

    There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 34 participants during a modified oddball paradigm in which levels of stimulus valence, arousal, and motivational relevance were systematically varied. Results were partially consistent with motivated attention models of emotional perception, as P3b amplitude was enhanced in response to highly arousing and motivationally relevant sexual and unpleasant stimuli compared to respective low arousing and less motivationally relevant stimuli. However P3b amplitudes were significantly larger in response to the highly arousing sexual stimuli compared to all other affective stimuli, which is not consistent with either dominant theory. The current study therefore highlights the need for a revised model of affective picture processing and provides a platform for further research investigating the independent effects of sexual arousal on cognitive processing.

  7. Time-limited effects of emotional arousal on item and source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Bukuan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the time-limited effects of emotional arousal on consolidation of item and source memory. In Experiment 1, participants memorized words (items) and the corresponding speakers (sources) and then took an immediate free recall test. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video 5, 35, or 50 min after learning, and 24 hours later they took surprise memory tests. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that (a) a reality monitoring task was used; (b) elicitation delays of 5, 30, and 45 min were used; and (c) delayed memory tests were given 60 min after learning. Both experiments showed that, regardless of elicitation delay, emotional arousal did not enhance item recall memory. Second, both experiments showed that negative arousal enhanced delayed item recognition memory only at the medium elicitation delay, but not in the shorter or longer delays. Positive arousal enhanced performance only in Experiment 1. Third, regardless of elicitation delay, emotional arousal had little effect on source memory. These findings have implications for theories of emotion and memory, suggesting that emotion effects are contingent upon the nature of the memory task and elicitation delay.

  8. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  9. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph; Schjødt, Uffe; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Wallot, Sebastian; Van Orden, Guy; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-17

    Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show physiological effects of synchronized arousal in a Spanish fire-walking ritual, between active participants and related spectators, but not participants and other members of the audience. We assessed arousal by heart rate dynamics and applied nonlinear mathematical analysis to heart rate data obtained from 38 participants. We compared synchronized arousal between fire-walkers and spectators. For this comparison, we used recurrence quantification analysis on individual data and cross-recurrence quantification analysis on pairs of participants' data. These methods identified fine-grained commonalities of arousal during the 30-min ritual between fire-walkers and related spectators but not unrelated spectators. This indicates that the mediating mechanism may be informational, because participants and related observers had very different bodily behavior. This study demonstrates that a collective ritual may evoke synchronized arousal over time between active participants and bystanders. It links field observations to a physiological basis and offers a unique approach for the quantification of social effects on human physiology during real-world interactions.

  10. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

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    Jonathan Guez

    Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  11. The eye is listening: Music-induced arousal and individual differences predict pupillary responses

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    Bruno eGingras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females. We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music.

  12. The animacy advantage for free-recall performance is not attributable to greater mental arousal.

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    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2017-05-15

    People often demonstrate better memory for animate concepts (e.g., lion and sailor) than for inanimate concepts (e.g., hammer and mountain). Researchers have attributed this effect to an adaptive memory mechanism that favours information relevant for survival, including information about living things. In the present experiment, we examined the hypothesis that people demonstrate better free-recall performance for animate than inanimate words because animate words tend to be associated with greater mental arousal than inanimate words, a factor that was not controlled for in previous experiments on this topic. To this end, we matched animate and inanimate word lists on mental arousal (and several other factors), and compared participants' free-recall performance for the two word types. We were able to replicate past findings that participants' free-recall of animate words exceeds their free-recall of inanimate words, but we found no support for the possibility that the effect stems from differences in mental arousal between animate and inanimate concepts, as this effect maintained even when the word lists were matched on mental arousal. The present results therefore indicate that mental arousal cannot explain the effects of animacy on free-recall performance.

  13. Memory modulation in the classroom: selective enhancement of college examination performance by arousal induced after lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristy A; Arentsen, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory studies examining moderate physiological or emotional arousal induced after learning indicate that it enhances memory consolidation. Yet, no studies have yet examined this effect in an applied context. As such, arousal was induced after a college lecture and its selective effects were examined on later exam performance. Participants were divided into two groups who either watched a neutral video clip (n=66) or an arousing video clip (n=70) after lecture in a psychology course. The final examination occurred two weeks after the experimental manipulation. Only performance on the group of final exam items that covered material from the manipulated lecture were significantly different between groups. Other metrics, such as the midterm examination and the total final examination score, did not differ between groups. The results indicate that post-lecture arousal selectively increased the later retrieval of lecture material, despite the availability of the material for study before and after the manipulation. The results reinforce the role of post-learning arousal on memory consolidation processes, expanding the literature to include a real-world learning context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

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    Chiara Mirandola

    Full Text Available Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1 whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2 whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently, compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  15. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  16. An assessment of the construct distinctiveness of stress arousal and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J; Davy, Jeanette A; Everly, George S

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the construct and discriminant validity of stress arousal and burnout as measured on the Stress Arousal Scale and the multidimensional role-specific version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, respectively. The analyses utilized data from 148 individuals randomly selected from a database of 563 respondents to a larger study. The sample responded to a survey sent to members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). Sample size used in this study fell within Loehlin's 1992 prescription that for confirmatory factor analysis with two to four factors, a minimum of 100 to 200 cases should be collected. Forty-six respondents indicated that they were partners, principals, or sole practitioners in accounting firms, and 103 indicated that they were staff members (juniors, seniors, or managers). Latent variables were first constructed for the stress arousal and burnout factors. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the scale data to assess whether the factors would load on their respective underlying theoretical constructs. Finally, a nested model constraining stress arousal and burnout to load on one underlying construct was tested against the hypothesized two-factor model. The results indicated good model fit for the two-factor model and a significant loss of fit for the one-factor model, thus providing strong support for the conceptualization of stress arousal and burnout as distinct constructs.

  17. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

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    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  18. Restoring Conscious Arousal During Focal Limbic Seizures with Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundishora, Adam J; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Ma, Chanthia; Liu, Mengran; McCafferty, Cian; Schiff, Nicholas D; Willie, Jon T; Gross, Robert E; Gerrard, Jason; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2016-03-03

    Impaired consciousness occurs suddenly and unpredictably in people with epilepsy, markedly worsening quality of life and increasing risk of mortality. Focal seizures with impaired consciousness are the most common form of epilepsy and are refractory to all current medical and surgical therapies in about one-sixth of cases. Restoring consciousness during and following seizures would be potentially transformative for these individuals. Here, we investigate deep brain stimulation to improve level of conscious arousal in a rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that dual-site stimulation of the central lateral nucleus of the intralaminar thalamus (CL) and the pontine nucleus oralis (PnO) bilaterally during focal limbic seizures restored normal-appearing cortical electrophysiology and markedly improved behavioral arousal. In contrast, single-site bilateral stimulation of CL or PnO alone was insufficient to achieve the same result. These findings support the "network inhibition hypothesis" that focal limbic seizures impair consciousness through widespread inhibition of subcortical arousal. Driving subcortical arousal function would be a novel therapeutic approach to some forms of refractory epilepsy and may be compatible with devices already in use for responsive neurostimulation. Multisite deep brain stimulation of subcortical arousal structures may benefit not only patients with epilepsy but also those with other disorders of consciousness.

  19. Arousal effect of orexin A depends on activation of the histaminergic system.

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    Huang, Z L; Qu, W M; Li, W D; Mochizuki, T; Eguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Urade, Y; Hayaishi, O

    2001-08-14

    Orexin neurons are exclusively localized in the lateral hypothalamic area and project their fibers to the entire central nervous system, including the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). Dysfunction of the orexin system results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy, but the role of orexin in physiological sleep-wake regulation and the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. Here we provide several lines of evidence that orexin A induces wakefulness by means of the TMN and histamine H(1) receptor (H1R). Perfusion of orexin A (5 and 25 pmol/min) for 1 hr into the TMN of rats through a microdialysis probe promptly increased wakefulness for 2 hr after starting the perfusion by 2.5- and 4-fold, respectively, concomitant with a reduction in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Microdialysis studies showed that application of orexin A to the TMN increased histamine release from both the medial preoptic area and the frontal cortex by approximately 2-fold over the baseline for 80 to 160 min in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, infusion of orexin A (1.5 pmol/min) for 6 hr into the lateral ventricle of mice produced a significant increase in wakefulness during the 8 hr after starting infusion to the same level as the wakefulness observed during the active period in wild-type mice, but not at all in H1R gene knockout mice. These findings strongly indicate that the arousal effect of orexin A depends on the activation of histaminergic neurotransmission mediated by H1R.

  20. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  1. Observations on the regulation of granulocytopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P; Burlington, H; Chanana, A D; Joel, D D; Stevens, J; Reincke, U

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: current concept of the structure of hemopoiesis; a deterministic model of granulocytopoiesis in man; influence of sterile inflammation upon kinetics of granulocytopoiesis; studies on granulopoiesis after inoculation of a granulocytosis-producing tumor in the mouse; in vivo effects of inoculation of granulocytosis-producing tumor; and working hypothesis on regulation of granulopoiesis. (HLW)

  2. Mycorrhizal inoculation of pecan seedlings with some marketable truffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian M. Benucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pecan is the common name of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, an ectomycorrhizal tree native to North America, also frequently known as hickory. Mycorrhizal inoculations of pecan seedlings with: Tuber aestivum Vittad., T. borchii Vittad., T. indicum Cooke & Massee, and T. lyonii Butters are described and discussed.

  3. Erythema at BCG Inoculation Site in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

    2014-08-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limiting childhood systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology. Because there is no diagnostic test for Kawasaki disease, the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. An important clinical sign that is not included in the classical clinical criteria for Kawasaki disease is a reaction at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site that are present in about 30-50% of Kawasaki disease patients. of this review was to highlight the usefulness of the inflammation at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, we conducted a literature review on Medline in PubMed area, Google scholar, Magiran and Scientific Information Database using the search terms "Kawasaki disease, Erythema, BCG, inoculation site, children, cardiac complications, coronary artery lesion, aneurysm, incomplete Kawasaki in 2013. A total of 15 articles had been found. Erythema at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site was found in 49.87% of Kawasaki disease patients. Coronary artery abnormalities were found in 10.3% of cases. According to this review, BCGitis is more prevalent than cervical lymphadenopathy and rash and it can be a useful criterion in the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in cases not fulfills the classic criteria of at least four of the five findings.

  4. Effects of bacterial inoculation on the fermentation characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and CO2, pH, hours for temperature to rise above 2 ºC, yeasts and moulds were ... Further work is needed to determine the effects of soybean silage on growth ... Keywords: Cultivars, forages, inoculants, legumes, nutrients, silage, soybean ...

  5. The effect of rhizobacterial inoculation on growth and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 2Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malysia, ... was conducted to observe the effect of plant growth promoting ... Key words: Banana, rhizobacteria, root stimulation, growth, nutrient uptake. ... Biofertilizer, inoculants of microorganisms, an alter- ... ensure a sustainable banana production.

  6. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  7. New Inoculants Containing Lactic Bacteria Applied in Forage Ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In a first study, the capacity of lactic bacteria to accumulate biomass in different culture media and temperatures was tested and the biosynthesis parameters were established. In the second study, the strains producing the highest quantity of biomass and determining the most rapid pH drop in culture medium were conditioned in solid supports. The obtained solid products containing lactic bacteria were used to inoculate different types of forages. Ensilage was carried out in laboratory silos made from O2-impermeable plastic flasks, vacuumed using a vacuum pump. The experiment was 2 x 2 factorial with two types of forage (alfalfa and sorghum, each of them inoculated and not inoculated with lactic bacteria. The evolution of lactic bacteria, pH value, and the concentration in volatile acids was verified. In the third experiment, lactic bacteria were used to inoculate silages in farm conditions. The obtained results recommend the tested strain for the improvement of preserving conditions and nutritive value in ensiled forages.

  8. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  9. Inoculation methods of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Migliorini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus Scrib. is one of the most serious diseases of bean crops. Inoculation techniques are important to evaluate the resistance of genotypes and control methods at early stages of seedling development. Due to the need for infected seedlings, the objective of the present study was to test different inoculation methods of C. lindemuthianum on bean seeds to verify the the impact on the emergence and early development of seedlings. Seeds of BRS Expedito were inoculated by spore suspension, contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium, and with PDA discs containing mycelium and spores of the fungus. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight repetitions. Emergence, shoot length and dry mass, and incidence of symptoms of the disease on the hypocotyl and leaf were evaluated. The inoculation methods were effective at causing the infection of the pathogen in the bean seedlings, without affecting emergence, and contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium was the most effective method.

  10. Inoculation methods of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Migliorini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p37 Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus Scrib. is one of the most serious diseases of bean crops. Inoculation techniques are important to evaluate the resistance of genotypes and control methods at early stages of seedling development. Due to the need for infected seedlings, the objective of the present study was to test different inoculation methods of C. lindemuthianum on bean seeds to verify the the impact on the emergence and early development of seedlings. Seeds of BRS Expedito were inoculated by spore suspension, contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium, and with PDA discs containing mycelium and spores of the fungus. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight repetitions. Emergence, shoot length and dry mass, and incidence of symptoms of the disease on the hypocotyl and leaf were evaluated. The inoculation methods were effective at causing the infection of the pathogen in the bean seedlings, without affecting emergence, and contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium was the most effective method.

  11. smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In Kenya, wide-scale adoption of this innovation among the smallholder ... Rhizobia inoculant, a product of Kenya, and its profitability in smallholder farms. Data were collected from ... Rhizobia may pose a barrier to infection and subsequent ... small-scale farmers in western Kenya. .... on soybean production. Gross margin is ...

  12. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behavioral...... this peptide has been shown in other cell types to lead to rises in calcium via release of calcium from intracellular stores. To determine whether ghrelin induced intracellular calcium rises in mouse LDT neurons, we conducted calcium imaging studies in LDT brain slices loaded with the calcium binding dye, Fura...

  13. Mood and the DRM paradigm: An investigation of the effects of valence and arousal on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies regarding the effect of mood on the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) illusion have not been able to clearly establish yet whether valence or arousal is most critical in determining susceptibility to false memories, nor what the underlying processes are. In three experiments, both the valence and the level of arousal of participants' mood were manipulated. Six conditions were used: positive mood with high/low arousal, negative mood with high/low arousal, neutral mood, and a control condition. Memory was tested by means of immediate and delayed recognition and immediate free recall. The mood induction procedure was effective. For recognition memory, there was an effect of arousal on the endorsement of critical lures. Low-arousal moods elicited more false recognition than high-arousal moods, regardless of valence. Based on signal detection analyses, the effect was attributed to more liberal response criteria with low arousal, in combination with a tendency towards improved item-specific memory with high arousal.

  14. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Morup, Morten; Parnas, Josef;

    2007-01-01

    by the level of arousal, but the findings are somewhat controversial. Generally, ASSR is diminished in sleep but it may be increased in drowsiness. Besides, ASSR reduction has been observed in schizophrenia. However, schizophrenic patients are known to have a disturbance of arousal level, what makes......-negative multi-way factorization (NMWF) (Morup et al. in J Neurosci Methods 161:361-368, 2007). The estimates of these measures were subjected to statistical analysis. The amplitude and phase precision of the ASSR were significantly larger during the low arousal state compared to the high arousal condition...

  15. Suppressive properties of composts may be improved by microbial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Galitskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of suppressive composts instead of traditional fertilizers and pesticides is becoming more commonplace in modern agricultural biotechnology. In this study, we investigated the possibility of obtaining composts with suppressive properties from widespread agricultural wastes produced in tatarstan (russia. Straw and corn wastes, as well as chicken, cattle and swine manure were used to prepare 11 two- and three-component mixtures for further composting. It was found that mesophilic phase of composting lasted for 1 to 3 days for all the waste mixtures; the thermophilic phase lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. From 27°с to 59°с. In the initial mixture, the dissolved organic carbon (doc content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1 ; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg со2-сg -1 . After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (sw+sm to 100% (cw+chm+sm, cw+chm; however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic, and the others were slightly toxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (trichoderma asperellum t203, pseudomonas putida pcl1760, pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 and streptomyces spp., and the other part was not inoculated. Both parts were composted under equivalent conditions for 60 days. Inoculation led to a slightly shorter period of increasing doc and respiration activity. However, after 3-10 days, no differences were observed between the mixtures. Inoculation did not influence the temperature profile or phytotoxicity of

  16. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external.

  17. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills.

  18. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH, touch sensitive (ALM and PLM, and stretch sensing (DVA neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states.

  19. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  20. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed.

  1. Optimizing assessment of sexual arousal in postmenopausal women using erotic film clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Alarcon, Lauren G; Dai, Jing; Collins, Karen; Perez, Mindy; Woodard, Terri; Diamond, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to assess sexual arousal in a subgroup of women by identifying erotic film clips that would be most mentally appealing and physically arousing to postmenopausal women. By measuring levels of mental appeal and self-reported physical arousal using a bidirectional scale, we aimed to elucidate the clips that would best be utilized for sexual health research in the postmenopausal or over 50-year-old subpopulation. Our results showed that postmenopausal women did not rate clips with older versus younger actors differently (p>0.05). The mean mental and mean physical scores were significantly correlated for both premenopausal subject ratings (r=0.69, perotic film clips; this knowledge is relevant for design of future sexual function research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects on archery performance of manipulating metamotivational state and felt arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J H; Yoshida, H; Hirata, C; Takai, K; Yamazaki, F

    1997-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the four different combinations of metamotivational state and felt arousal level (telic-low, paratelic-low, telic-high, paratelic-high) on archery performance. Skilled, average, and novice archers (n = 28) were voluntary subjects, randomly divided into 2 groups, balanced for ability. Each group performed 2 out of the 4 experimental conditions. In this reversal theory-based field experiment, telic and paratelic metamotivational states and arousal level were manipulated prior to archery performance. The hypothesis that archery performance would be superior under telic-low arousal conditions was rejected, but evidence pointed to the possible importance of hedonic tone in performance. Post boc analysis showed differences between combined high (telic-low, paratelic-high) and combined low (telic-low, paratelic-high) hedonic-tone groups which fell short of significance. This observation is taken as justification for further exploration of the relationship between hedonic tone and sports performance.

  3. Effective visual short-term storage capacity and speed of encoding are affected by arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Effects of spatial cueing on visual attention have been thoroughly investigated during the last 30 odd years. Similar to spatial cueing, temporal cueing seems to afford a performance enhancement to an observer when he or she knows the point in time at which an event will occur (Coull & Nobre, 1998......). Varying the statistical distribution of cue-stimulus onset asynchronies (foreperiods) is an effective way of manipulating the observer's temporal expectancies and, presumably, the observer's level of arousal. By use of this manipulation, Vangkilde and Bundesen (2009) found strong evidence that speed...... of encoding into visual short-term memory (VSTM) increased with the level of arousal in a single-stimulus identification experiment. Here we present a whole-report experiment corroborating the finding that speed of encoding stimulus items (letters) into VSTM increases with the level of arousal. However...

  4. Esophageal sensation in premature human neonates: temporal relationships and implications of aerodigestive reflexes and electrocortical arousals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Parks, Vanessa N; Peng, Juan; Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Fernandez, Soledad; Shaker, Reza; Splaingard, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Electrocortical arousal (ECA) as an effect of visceral provocation or of its temporal relationships with aerodigestive reflexes in premature neonates is not known. We tested the hypothesis that esophageal provocation results in both esophageal reflex responses and ECAs during sleep and that ECAs are dependent on the frequency characteristics of esophageal neuromotor responses. We defined the spatiotemporal relationship of ECAs in relation to 1) spontaneous pharyngoesophageal swallow sequences and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) events and 2) sensory-motor characteristics of esophageal reflexes. Sixteen healthy premature neonates born at 27.9 ± 3.4 wk were tested at 36.8 ± 1.9 wk postmenstrual age. Ninety-five midesophageal and 31 sham stimuli were given in sleep during concurrent manometry and videopolysomnography. With stimulus onset as reference point, we scored the response latency, frequency occurrence and duration of arousals, peristaltic reflex, and upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex (UESCR). Changes in polysomnography-respiratory patterns and esophageal sensory-motor parameters were scored by blinded observers. Significantly (for each characteristic listed, P reflexes or clearance, sleep state modification, and prolonged respiratory arousal. Midesophageal stimuli (54%) provoked arousals and were associated with increased frequency, prolonged latency, prolonged response duration of peristaltic reflexes and UESCR, and increased frequency of sleep state changes and respiratory arousals. In human neonates, ECAs are provoked upon esophageal stimulation; the sensory-motor characteristics of esophageal reflexes are distinct when accompanied by arousals. Aerodigestive homeostasis is defended by multiple tiers of aerodigestive safety mechanisms, and when esophageal reflexes are delayed, cortical hypervigilance (ECAs) occurs.

  5. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  6. Effects of Arousal and Context on Recognition Memory for Emotional Pictures in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00 ± 1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive, and neutral valences. Half of the pictures had a human context, and the other half did not. In addition, emotional dimensions of negative and positive pictures were divided into high-arousal and low-arousal. The experimental task was to provide old/new recognition and confidence rating judgments. Both groups of subjects showed the positivity bias for low-arousal pictures, but the positivity bias was restricted to low-arousal pictures without the human context in older adults. In addition, the positivity bias was mainly driven by the recollection process in younger adults, and it was mainly driven by both the recollection and familiarity processes in older adults. The recognition of the nonhuman positive pictures was correlated with cognitive control abilities, but the recognition of pictures with human contexts was correlated with general memory abilities in older adults. This study highlights the importance of arousal and contextual information in modulating emotional memory in younger and older adults. It suggests that there are different mechanisms for memorizing pictures with and without human contexts in older adults.

  7. Inducing changes in arousal and valence: comparison of two mood induction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallais, Christophe; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2010-02-01

    This research examined the relative effectiveness of two mood induction procedures (MIPs) for inducing four specific moods varying along the dimensions of both valence and arousal. Participants were randomly assigned either to an autobiographical recall or to a music and guided imagery MIP and underwent a happiness, serenity, anger, or sadness mood induction. The findings confirmed the effectiveness of the two MIPs in producing changes on both the valence and arousal dimensions of mood. The results also revealed an unexpected greater efficiency of the autobiographical recall than of the combined procedure.

  8. Neurophysiological foundations of sleep, arousal, awareness and consciousness phenomena. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwańczuk, Waldemar; Guźniczak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a state of the art review of the anatomical and physiological foundations of awareness, consciousness, arousal and sleep phenomena and provides current definitions. We describe 20(th) century discoveries that were milestones in the understanding of central nervous system function. Structures that are specifically involved in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of awareness are characterised here. We also describe the relationships between particular groups of neurons, their positive and negative feedback loops, and the neurotransmitters engaged in states of arousal and sleep.

  9. Emotional arousal when watching drama increases pain threshold and social bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Ben; Thompson, Jackie; Budelmann, Felix; Duncan, Sophie; van Emde Boas, Evert; Maguire, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding. PMID:27703694

  10. Greater emotional arousal predicts poorer long-term memory of communication skills in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Atkins, David C; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f(0)), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatment couple conflict. Higher levels of f(0) were linked to fewer skills remembered 11 years after completing the program, and women remembered more skills than men. Implications of results for behaviorally based couple interventions are discussed.

  11. Emotional arousal when watching drama increases pain threshold and social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R I M; Teasdale, Ben; Thompson, Jackie; Budelmann, Felix; Duncan, Sophie; van Emde Boas, Evert; Maguire, Laurie

    2016-09-01

    Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding.

  12. The interactive effect of personality, time of day, and caffeine: a test of the arousal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, W; Humphreys, M S; Simon, L; Gilliland, K

    1980-03-01

    The personality dimension of introversion/extraversion is one of the few personality dimensions that can be reliably identified from study to study and investigator to investigator. The importance of this demension within personality theory is due both to the stability of the trait and the influential theory of H. J. Eysenck. The basic assumption in Eysenck's theory of introversion/extraversion is that the personality differences between introverts and extraverts reflect some basic difference in the resting level of cortical arousal or activation. Assuming that there is a curvilinear relationship (an inverted U) between levels of stress and performance leads to a test of this arousal theory. That is, moderate increases in stress should hinder the performance of introverts who are presumably already highly aroused. However, the same moderate increase in stress might help the performance of the presumably underaroused extraverts. Revelle, Amaral, and Turriff reported that the administration of moderate doses of caffeine hindered the performance of introverts and helped the performance of extraverts on a cognitive task similar to the verbal test of the Graduate Record Examination. Assuming that caffeine increases arousal, this interaction between introversion/extraversion and drug condition supports Eysenck's theory. This interaction was explored in a series of experiments designed to replicate, extend, and test the generality of the original finding. The interaction between personality and drug condition was replicated and extended to additional cognitive performance tasks. However, these interactions were affected by time of day and stage of practice, and the subscales of introversion/extraversion, impulsivity, and sociability, were differentially affected. In the morning of the first day, low impulsives were hindered and high impulsives helped by caffeine. This pattern reversed in the evening of the first day, and it reversed again in the evening of Day 2. We

  13. Influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Bajc, Marko; Robek, Robert; Humar, Miha; Sinjur, Iztok; Kadunc, Aleš; Oven, Primož; Rep, Gregor; Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kraigher, Hojka; Jurc, Dušan; Pohleven, Franc

    2011-11-01

    The influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and on fungal community structure was studied. The experiments were performed on an organically poor fly ash deposit covered with a 10 cm layer of beech wood chips inoculated with P. ostreatus isolate ZIM76. Compared to non-inoculated wood chips, inoculation increased the temperatures and relative humidities and, in the first 6 months, accelerated Klason lignin degradation by 9% and also, after 17 months, increased iron translocation into wood chips by 30%. After 6 months, PCR-DGGE showed 22-28 and 13-21 fungal taxa in non-inoculated and P. ostreatus-inoculated beech chips, respectively. The differences in number of taxa and in the fungal community structure (based on Dice coefficient) between non-inoculated and inoculated wood chips diminished with time. The results indicate that the naturally occurring processes of wood degradation are as efficient as those occurring in sites inoculated with P. ostreatus.

  14. Yeast inoculation as a strategy to improve the physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced salt fermented sausages produced with entire male fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Belloch, Carmela; López-Díez, José Javier; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Yeast inoculation of dry fermented sausages manufactured with entire male fat was evaluated as a strategy to improve sausage quality. Four different formulations with entire male/gilt back fat and inoculated/non-inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii were manufactured. The use of entire male back fat produced the highest weight losses, hardness and chewiness in dry sausages. Consumers clearly distinguished samples according to drying time and D. hansenii inoculation while the use of entire/gilt back fat was not highly perceived. The presence of androstenone and skatole was close to their sensory thresholds. Androstenone was not degraded during the process but skatole was affected by yeast inoculation. D. hansenii growth on the surface regulated water release during ripening, reduced hardness and chewiness in entire male sausages and resulted with similar texture to gilt sausages. Yeast inoculation inhibited lipid oxidation providing fruity odours and less oxidized fatty sausages in the sensory analysis. The effectiveness of yeast to mask boar taint was demonstrated by sensory analysis.

  15. Physiological, structural and molecular traits activated in strawberry plants after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2015-05-01

    The plant growth-promoting strain REC3 of Azospirillum brasilense, isolated from strawberry roots, prompts growth promotion and systemic protection against anthracnose disease in this crop. Hence, we hypothesised that A. brasilense REC3 can induce different physiological, structural and molecular responses in strawberry plants. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study these traits activated in Azospirillum-colonised strawberry plants, which have not been assessed until now. Healthy, in vitro micropropagated plants were root-inoculated with REC3 under hydroponic conditions; root and leaf tissues were sampled at different times, and oxidative burst, phenolic compound content, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, callose deposition, cell wall fortification and gene expression were evaluated. Azospirillum inoculation enhanced levels of soluble phenolic compounds after 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), while amounts of cell wall bound phenolics were similar in inoculated and control plants. Other early responses activated by REC3 (at 24 hpi) were a decline of lipid peroxidation and up-regulation of strawberry genes involved in defence (FaPR1), bacterial recognition (FaFLS2) and H₂O₂ depuration (FaCAT and FaAPXc). The last may explain the apparent absence of oxidative burst in leaves after bacterial inoculation. Also, REC3 inoculation induced delayed structural responses such as callose deposition and cell wall fortification (at 72 hpi). Results showed that A. brasilense REC3 is capable of exerting beneficial effects on strawberry plants, reinforcing their physiological and cellular characteristics, which in turns contribute to improve plant performance.

  16. Cast Iron Inoculation Enhanced by Supplementary Oxy-sulfides Forming Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riposan, Iulian; Stan, Stelian; Uta, Valentin; Stefan, Ion

    2017-08-01

    Inoculation is one of the most important metallurgical treatments applied to the molten cast iron immediately prior to casting, to promote solidification without excessive eutectic undercooling, which favors carbides formation usually with undesirable graphite morphologies. The paper focused on the separate addition of an inoculant enhancer alloy [S, O, oxy-sulfides forming elements] with a conventional Ca-FeSi alloy, in the production of gray and ductile cast irons. Carbides formation tendency decreased with improved graphite characteristics as an effect of the [Ca-FeSi + Enhancer] inoculation combination, when compared to other Ca/Ca, Ba/Ca, RE-FeSi alloy treatments. Adding an inoculant enhancer greatly enhances inoculation, lowers inoculant consumption up to 50% or more and avoids the need to use more costly inoculants, such as a rare earth bearing alloy. The Inoculation Specific Factor [ISF] was developed as a means to more realistically measure inoculant treatment efficiency. It compares the ratio between the improved characteristic level and total inoculant consumption for this effect. Addition of any of the commercial inoculants plus the inoculant enhancer offered outstanding inoculation power [increased ISF] even at higher solidification cooling rates, even though the total enhancer addition was at a small fraction of the amount of commercial inoculant used.

  17. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging. PMID:28046070

  18. Pneumonia in mice inoculated experimentally with Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad; La Scola, Bernard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate whether Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM) was pathogenic (i.e., induces histological evidence of inflammation or tissue destruction or both) in mammalian host, we inoculated adult BALB/c (n=6) and C57BL/6 (n=6) mice with APM via intracardiac route. C57BL/6 mice developed histopathological features of pneumonia by post-inoculation day (PID) 3 and BALB/c mice, by PID7. The histopathological features of pneumonia, characterized by the presence of thickened alveolar walls with cellular infiltrates comprising mononuclear leukocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes, diffuse alveolar damages with the formation of hyaline membrane and erythrocytes in the alveolar lumen, were most marked by PID 7. We conclude that APM is pathogenic in mice in experimental conditions.

  19. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The required compression strength (over 1MPa isprovided by the supporting layers, deposited on the preform, which is a polyurethane foam. Based on a two-level fractional experiment24-1, the significance of an impact of various technological parameters (independent variables on selected functional parameters of theready filters was determined. Important effect of the number of the supporting layers and sintering temperature of filters after evaporationof polyurethane foam was stated.

  20. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard;

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  1. Agreement of Self-Reported and Genital Measures of Sexual Arousal in Men and Women: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Chivers; M.C. Seto; M.L. Lalumière; E. Laan; T. Grimbos

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of sexual arousal in men and women informs theoretical studies of human sexuality and provides a method to assess and evaluate the treatment of sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias. Understanding measures of arousal is, therefore, paramount to further theoretical and practical advances

  2. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  3. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiwen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care.

  4. Inoculation with Azospirillum, associated with nitrogen fertilization in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Lana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen fixation is an alternative to supply the nitrogen needed for maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of maize in response to inoculation with Azospirillum associated with nitrogen fertilization. We conducted two field experiments in the summer harvest, the first in the 2000/2001 crop year in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon, under conventional tillage, and second in the 2002/2003 agricultural year in the region of Cascavel, under no tillage. The experimental design in both experiments was a randomized complete block, with four replications, 2x2x2 factorial, with two levels of nitrogen at sowing (zero and 20 kg ha-1, two levels of inoculum (zero and 200 g ha-1 and two levels of nitrogen in topdressing (zero and 100 kg ha-1. There was evaluated the height of ear insertion, total plant height, leaf N content, shoot dry biomass and grain yield. The height of ear insertion and total plant height were not influenced by the factors under study. Nitrogen fertilization at sowing increased the leaf N content, causing the opposite effect when combined with inoculation. Inoculation with Azospirillum in the absence of nitrogen, provide productivity increases of 15.4% and 7.4% for 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 crops, respectively. The inoculation provided productivity similar to that obtained with 100 kg ha-1 in topdressing in crop 2000/2001, while in association with the topdressing, reduced productivity and shoot dry biomass in crop 2002/2003.

  5. Stress inoculation training: a case study in gymnastics.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, R; Eastman, C.; Carroll, D.

    1986-01-01

    A young female gymnast of regional squad potential had ceased to make progress when she resumed training after a series of injuries and was given stress inoculation training to help her to regain her form. Preliminary interviews revealed that she had developed a number of negative self-statements and images which, it was hypothesised, may have been contributing towards her lack of progress. In order to replace these with positive self-statements and images a treatment programme of eight train...

  6. Effective visual short-term storage capacity and speed of encoding are affected by arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    ). Varying the statistical distribution of cue-stimulus onset asynchronies (foreperiods) is an effective way of manipulating the observer's temporal expectancies and, presumably, the observer's level of arousal. By use of this manipulation, Vangkilde and Bundesen (2009) found strong evidence that speed...

  7. The role of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate in metabolic suppression during hibernation and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher; Staples, James F

    2010-06-01

    Hibernation elicits a major reduction in whole-animal O(2) consumption that corresponds with active suppression of liver mitochondrial electron transport capacity at, or downstream of, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). During arousal from the torpor phase of hibernation this suppression is reversed and metabolic rates rise dramatically. In this study, we used the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to assess isolated liver mitochondrial respiration during the torpor phase of hibernation and various stages of arousal to elucidate a potential role of SDH in metabolic suppression. State 3 and state 4 respiration rates were seven- and threefold lower in torpor compared with the summer-active and interbout euthermic states. Respiration rates increased during arousal so that when body temperature reached 30 degrees C in late arousal, state 3 and state 4 respiration were 3.3- and 1.8-fold greater than during torpor, respectively. SDH activity was 72% higher in interbout euthermia than in torpor. Pre-incubating with isocitrate [to alleviate oxaloacetate (OAA) inhibition] increased state 3 respiration rate during torpor by 91%, but this rate was still fourfold lower than that measured in interbout euthermia. Isocitrate pre-incubation also eliminated differences in SDH activity among hibernation bout stages. OAA concentration correlated negatively with both respiration rates and SDH activity. These data suggest that OAA reversibly inhibits SDH in torpor, but cannot fully account for the drastic metabolic suppression observed during this hibernation phase.

  8. Same-Day Surgery Preparation: Reduction of Pediatric Patient Arousal and Distress through Participant Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children (n=26) were exposed to one of three surgery preparatory conditions: participant modeling alone, participant modeling with mother, and standard procedure control. Children exposed to modeling alone had significant reductions in physiological arousal after treatment compared to other groups. Both modeling groups exhibited significantly…

  9. NREM parasomnias: arousal disorders and differentiation from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, M; Ferini-Strambi, L

    2000-09-01

    Parasomnias emerging from NREM sleep such as sleep walking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals are considered arousal disorders. Nocturnal video-polysomnography is the gold standard to diagnosing and differentiating parasomnias from other arousals with atypical motor behaviors such as nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). This form of nocturnal seizures with prominent dystonic-dyskinetic components, in some cases genetic, has been recently identified by means of detailed video-analysis of movements during sleep. The clinical picture of parasomnias (with onset in early childhood, rare episodes of long duration, absence of stereotypy, general disappearance after puberty) is different from that of NFLE (which first occurs between the age of 10 and 20, manifests frequent complex and repetitive behaviors of short duration excluding rare prolonged seizures, nocturnal agitation, some daytime complaints such as fatigue or sleepiness, persistence into adulthood). Patients show no difference from classical sleep parameters whilst microstructure analysis shows sleep instability and arousal fluctuations in parasomnias and NFLE. In children as well, at least in our experience, the differential diagnosis between the two disorders is difficult and requires one or more complete nocturnal video-polygraphic recording. In any case the diagnosis of NFLE should be considered in children with nocturnal motor episodes or nocturnal motor agitation, when the attacks persist; this diagnosis is probably more frequent than expected.

  10. Parents’ empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants’ arousal to others’ emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children’s overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others’ emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants’ arousal toward others’ emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants’ (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant’s emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants’ pupil dilation in response to others’ emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others’ emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others’ emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents’ empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors. PMID:25883577

  11. Parents' empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants' arousal to others' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children's overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others' emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants' arousal toward others' emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants' (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant's emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants' pupil dilation in response to others' emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others' emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others' emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents' empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors.

  12. How fear appeals work : motivational biases in the processing of fear-arousing health communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the study of fear appeals, i.e. messages in which people are presented with fear-arousing health information, in order to convince them they should alter unhealthy habits and adopt healthy lifestyles. Fear appeals typically start with the presentation of the negative con

  13. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The

  14. Ambient temperature during torpor affects NREM sleep EEG during arousal episodes in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Ambient temperature (T-a) systematically affects the frequency of arousal episodes in mammalian hibernation. This variation might hypothetically be attributed to temperature effects on the rate of sleep debt increase in torpor. We studied this rate by recording sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in

  15. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The prese

  16. Reproducing affective norms with lexical co-occurrence statistics : Predicting valence, arousal, and dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.M.; Recchia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Human ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance are frequently used to study the cognitive mechanisms of emotional attention, word recognition, and numerous other phenomena in which emotions are hypothesized to play an important role. Collecting such norms from human raters is expensive and time

  17. Stress selectively and lastingly promotes learning of context-related high arousing information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, T.; Wolf, O.T.; Giesbrecht, T.; Sijstermans, K.; Telgen, S.; Joëls, M.

    2009-01-01

    The secretion of adrenal stress hormones in response to acute stress is known to affect learning and memory, particularly for emotionally arousing memory material. Here, we investigated whether stress-induced modulation of learning and memory performance depends on (i) the conceptual relatedness bet

  18. Dyspareunia in women : a painful affair : the role of fear of pain and sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as genital pain associated with penile-vaginal intercourse, is a common problem in women. According to the prevailing cognitive-behavioural model of dyspareunia (Spano & Lamont, 1975), fear of pain and diminished sexual arousal are key components in the onset and maintenance of

  19. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  1. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: an exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.; Beentjes, J.; Nuijten, K.; Peeters, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content

  2. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: An exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.G.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; Nuijten, C.M.; Peeters, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content

  3. The Effects of Novel Stimulation on Arousal Level in Young Children Alone and with a Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. Conrad

    To assess the effects of familiar social stimuli on arousal in a novel and mildly stressful environment, skin conductance was measured in 4-year-old nursery school children who experienced this environment under two conditions: (a) alone, and (b) in the presence of a close friend. The study was intended to test Zajonc's (1965) social facilitation…

  4. Stress selectively and lastingly promotes learning of context-related high arousing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Wolf, Oliver T; Giesbrecht, Timo; Sijstermans, Kevin; Telgen, Sebastian; Joëls, Marian

    2009-09-01

    The secretion of adrenal stress hormones in response to acute stress is known to affect learning and memory, particularly for emotionally arousing memory material. Here, we investigated whether stress-induced modulation of learning and memory performance depends on (i) the conceptual relatedness between the material to be learned/remembered and the stressor and (ii) the timing of stress exposure versus learning phase. Participants learned stressor-related and stressor-unrelated words of varying arousal 1h prior to, immediately following, or 2h after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (all groups n=16). Twenty-four hours later, delayed free recall was assessed. Cortisol and alpha-amylase were sampled to evaluate if concurrent stress-induced raised glucocorticoid levels and high adrenergic activity are implicated in modulating learning performance. Our results demonstrate that immediate and delayed post-stress learning selectively enhanced the learning and delayed recall of stressor-related high arousing words. This enhancing effect was strongly associated with concurrent stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity. Our data suggest that when to-be-learned information is conceptually related to a stressor and considered important (i.e., arousing) by the individual, learning under stressful circumstances results in improved memorability afterwards.

  5. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  6. Neural pathways in processing of sexual arousal: a dynamic causal modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, J-W; Park, M-S; Sohn, J-H

    2016-09-01

    Three decades of research have investigated brain processing of visual sexual stimuli with neuroimaging methods. These researchers have found that sexual arousal stimuli elicit activity in a broad neural network of cortical and subcortical brain areas that are known to be associated with cognitive, emotional, motivational and physiological components. However, it is not completely understood how these neural systems integrate and modulated incoming information. Therefore, we identify cerebral areas whose activations were correlated with sexual arousal using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and used the dynamic causal modeling method for searching the effective connectivity about the sexual arousal processing network. Thirteen heterosexual males were scanned while they passively viewed alternating short trials of erotic and neutral pictures on a monitor. We created a subset of seven models based on our results and previous studies and selected a dominant connectivity model. Consequently, we suggest a dynamic causal model of the brain processes mediating the cognitive, emotional, motivational and physiological factors of human male sexual arousal. These findings are significant implications for the neuropsychology of male sexuality.

  7. Posttrauma Numbing of Fear, Detachment, and Arousal Predict Delinquent Behaviors in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.; Horan, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This study elaborated on associations between youth's trauma-related emotional numbing across multiple affective domains (e.g., fear, sadness, happiness, anger) and delinquent behaviors. The study also examined whether the effects of posttrauma emotional numbing varied by the occurrence of posttrauma arousal symptoms. Participants were 123 middle…

  8. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Cryan, Paul; Fricker, Paul D.; Dannemiller, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding natural behaviours is essential to determining how animals deal with new threats (e.g. emerging diseases). However, natural behaviours of animals with cryptic lifestyles, like hibernating bats, are often poorly characterized. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an unprecedented disease threatening multiple species of hibernating bats, and pathogen-induced changes to host behaviour may contribute to mortality. To better understand the behaviours of hibernating bats and how they might relate to WNS, we developed new ways of studying hibernation across entire seasons.We used thermal-imaging video surveillance cameras to observe little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and Indiana bats (M. sodalis) in two caves over multiple winters. We developed new, sharable software to test for autocorrelation and periodicity of arousal signals in recorded video.We processed 740 days (17,760 hr) of video at a rate of >1,000 hr of video imagery in less than 1 hr using a desktop computer with sufficient resolution to detect increases in arousals during midwinter in both species and clear signals of daily arousal periodicity in infected M. sodalis.Our unexpected finding of periodic synchronous group arousals in hibernating bats demonstrate the potential for video methods and suggest some bats may have innate behavioural strategies for coping with WNS. Surveillance video and accessible analysis software make it now practical to investigate long-term behaviours of hibernating bats and other hard-to-study animals.

  9. PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: assessing the newly proposed Dysphoric Arousal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Elklit, Ask

    2013-03-30

    The underlying latent structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is widely researched. However, despite a plethora of factor analytic studies, no single model has consistently been shown as superior to alternative models. The two most often supported models are the Emotional Numbing and the Dysphoria models. However, a recently proposed five-factor Dysphoric Arousal model has been gathering support over and above existing models. Data for the current study were gathered from Malaysian Tsunami survivors (N=250). Three competing models (Emotional Numbing/Dysphoria/Dysphoric Arousal) were specified and estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The Dysphoria model provided superior fit to the data compared to the Emotional Numbing model. However, using chi-square difference tests, the Dysphoric Arousal model showed a superior fit compared to both the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the Dysphoric Arousal model better represents PTSD's latent structure and that items measuring sleeping difficulties, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties form a separate, unique PTSD factor. These results are discussed in relation to the role of Hyperarousal in PTSD's on-going symptom maintenance and in relation to the DSM-5.

  10. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  11. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  12. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  13. Persistent genital arousal disorder and trazodone. Morphometric and vascular modifications of the clitoris. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Cesare; Venturoli, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an unwanted genital arousal which occurs in absence of sexual interest and desire. To report a case of PGAD presumably due to the use of trazodone in a young eumenorrheic woman. A young (29 years old), eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of >25 and <35 days) woman suffered of unwanted genital arousal and uncontrollable orgasms. In the past, the patient undertook trazodone treatment. The patient was submitted, in the periovulatory (day 12) phase of the menstrual cycle, to bi- and tri-dimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler analyses of the clitoral structures prior and after an unwanted orgasm. 2D ultrasonographic evaluation of the clitoral body volume and color Doppler evaluation of the dorsal clitoral arteries; 3D power Doppler reconstruction of the clitoral vascularization. The clitoral volume was 1.33 mL before the orgasm and resulted 1.36 mL and 1.33 mL, respectively after 1 minute and 15 minutes from the orgasm. The Pulsatility Index (PI) of the dorsal clitoral artery was 1.05 before the orgasm. It resulted lower after 1 minute (PI = 0.82) and 15 minutes (PI = 0.85) from the orgasm. A subtle and intermittent clitoral priapism may favor the feeling of arousal persistence and elicit unbidden and unwelcomed orgasms.

  14. Heterogeneity in Autonomic Arousal Level in Perseverative Worry: The Role of Cognitive Control and Verbal Thought

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    Toh, Gim Y.; Vasey, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    One puzzle in high worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the heterogeneity in the level of autonomic arousal symptoms seen among affected individuals. While current models agree that worry persists, in part, because it fosters avoidance of unpleasant internal experiences, they disagree as to whether worry does so by suppressing activation of autonomic arousal or by fostering persistent autonomic hyperarousal. Our Cognitive Control Model predicts that which pattern of autonomic arousal occurs depends on whether or not a worrier has sufficient cognitive control capacity to worry primarily in a verbal versus imagery-based manner. Because this model has been supported by only one study to date, the present study sought to replicate and extend that study’s findings. Results from an online survey in an unselected sample of over 900 college students provide further support for our model’s central tenet and initial support for its prediction that higher effortful control is associated with a higher percentage of verbal thought during worry. Finally, we report tentative evidence that autonomic arousal symptoms in worry and GAD vary as a function of individual differences in cognitive control capacity because higher capacity is linked to a greater predominance of verbal thought during worry.

  15. Parents’ Empathic Perspective Taking and Altruistic Behavior predicts Infants’ Arousal to Others’ Emotions

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    Michaela Boone Upshaw

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy emerges in children’s overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others’ emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants’ arousal towards others’ emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants’ (n = 49 pupillary changes in response to another infant’s emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants’ pupil dilation in response to others’ emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others’ emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal towards others’ emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents’ empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors.

  16. Beyond pleasure and arousal: appetitive erotic stimuli modulate electrophysiological brain correlates of early attentional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, Benjamin; Schomberg, Jessica; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2013-03-27

    Previous studies investigating affective reactions to pictures that elicit a specific effect have mainly focused on the dimensions valence and arousal. Using an event-related picture-viewing paradigm in electroencephalography, we investigated whether erotica - that is appetitive, evolutionarily relevant stimuli - have effects on early stages of attentional processing that are distinct from those of other positive and arousing stimuli. Seventeen male students viewed arousing photos of erotic, nude women or pictures of extreme sport scenes, as well as control pictures of attractive, dressed women or daily activities. Erotic pictures differed from extreme sport pictures not only in late but also in early attentional processes, as indicated by event-related potentials appearing from 130 ms after stimulus onset (P1). The findings suggest (a) that the dimension of appetence should be considered in addition to valence and arousal when investigating psychophysiological reactions to affective-motivational stimuli and (b) that early attentional processing as mirrored by the P1 can be influenced by motivational systems.

  17. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  18. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

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    Hasselbach Simone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  19. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed. PMID:16863589

  20. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  1. Cortical Activity Patterns in ADHD during Arousal, Activation and Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Macion, James; Hanada, Grant; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study is to test whether there are Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-related differences in brain electrical activity patterns across arousal, activation and vigilance states. Method: The sample consists of 80 adults (38 with ADHD and 42 non-ADHD controls) who were recruited for a family study on…

  2. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…

  3. Effects of Appraisal of Sexual Stimuli on Sexual Arousal in Women with and Without Superficial Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Brauer; M.M. ter Kuile; E. Laan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 50) and sexually functional women (n = 25). To elicit different appraisals of an erotic film fragment, participants received an instruction prior to viewing it, with a focus on

  4. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  5. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  6. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: an exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.; Beentjes, J.; Nuijten, K.; Peeters, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content ana

  7. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: An exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.G.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; Nuijten, C.M.; Peeters, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content ana

  8. Images From a Jointly-Arousing Collective Ritual Reveal Affective Polarization

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    Joseph A. Bulbulia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negatively valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video data and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition.

  9. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulia, Joseph A; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition.

  10. Leader Affective Displays and Attributions of Charisma: The Role of Arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. Damen (Frederic); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); B. van Knippenberg (Barbara)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch suggests that leader displays of positive affect are conducive to attributions of charisma. We qualify and extend this conclusion by arguing that this mainly holds for displays of positive affect that are associated with high levels of arousal. Results of a scenario experiment a

  11. Phytochemical Variations and Enhanced Efficiency of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Ingredients in Salvia officinalis as Inoculated with Different Rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Hatami, Mehrnaz; Kariman, Khalil; Abbaszadeh Dahaji, Payman

    2016-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites to improve their performance upon exposure to pathogens, pests, herbivores, or environmental stresses. Secondary metabolism in plants is, therefore, highly regulated by presence of biotic or abiotic elicitors in the environment. The present research was undertaken to characterize plant growth-promoting attributes of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including two Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf Ap1, Pf Ap18) and two P. putida (Pp Ap9, Pp Ap14) strains, and to determine their role (individually or in consortium) on growth of Salvia officialis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs), total phenolics, and flavonoids. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts and EOs obtained from the inoculated plants were also investigated. The PGPR inoculum was applied to soil, cuttings, and foliage. Results indicated that different PGPR strains varied in their efficiency for production of auxin, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and phosphate solubilization. All individually inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass, leaf P content, EOs yield, total phenolics, and flavonoids content compared to uninoculated control plants. The major constituents of EOs, cis-thujene, camphor, and 1,8-cineol, increased following inoculation with reference PGPRs. Although the extract from all inoculated plants had improved antioxidant activity, it was remarkable for the Pf Ap18 strain, which had the lowest IC50 value across treatments. Antibacterial assay of various EOs and their major constituents against pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus using EOs of Pp Ap14 source. Based on our findings, we suggest that individual inoculation with effective PGPR strains can substantially improve plant growth and secondary metabolism in S. officinalis plants.

  12. Two stages kinetics of municipal solid waste inoculation composting processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Bei-dou1; HUANG Guo-he; QIN Xiao-sheng; LIU Hong-liang

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the key mechanisms of the composting processes, the municipal solid waste(MSW) composting processes were divided into two stages, and the characteristics of typical experimental scenarios from the viewpoint of microbial kinetics was analyzed. Through experimentation with advanced composting reactor under controlled composting conditions, several equations were worked out to simulate the degradation rate of the substrate. The equations showed that the degradation rate was controlled by concentration of microbes in the first stage. The degradation rates of substrates of inoculation Run A, B, C and Control composting systems were 13.61 g/(kg·h), 13.08 g/(kg·h), 15.671 g/(kg·h), and 10.5 g/(kg·h), respectively. The value of Run C is around 1.5 times higher than that of Control system. The decomposition rate of the second stage is controlled by concentration of substrate. Although the organic matter decomposition rates were similar to all Runs, inoculation could reduce the values of the half velocity coefficient and could be more efficient to make the composting stable. Particularly. For Run C, the decomposition rate is high in the first stage, and is low in the second stage. The results indicated that the inoculation was efficient for the composting processes.

  13. Inoculation of maize with Azospirillum brasilense in the seed furrow

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    Tâmara Prado de Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies addressing the inoculation of cereals with diazotrophic microorganisms can be found in the literature. However, in many experiments, investigators have overlooked the feasibility of applying these microorganisms to the furrow together with the seed, and the effect of bacterial concentration on phytostimulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses of an inoculant based on Azospirillum brasilense, applied to the seed furrow when planting maize, combined with different doses of nitrogen fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in the field, in soil of the cerrado region of Brazil. An experimental design of randomised blocks in bands was adopted, comprising nitrogen (40, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 and doses of an A. brasilense-based liquid inoculant applied to the seed furrow (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mL ha-1. The dose of 200 mL ha-1Azospirillum was noteworthy for grain production. This is the first report of the effective application of Azospirillum in the seed furrow when planting maize in the cerrado region of Brazil.

  14. Clitoral sexual arousal: neuronal tracing study from the clitoris through the spinal tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alguacil, Nieves; Schober, Justine M; Sengelaub, Dale R; Pfaff, Donald W; Shelley, Deborah N

    2008-10-01

    Although genital tactile stimulation is regarded as a precursor to sexual arousal and a recognized initiator of central nervous system arousal, specific afferent neural pathways transmit sensory stimuli of arousal, beginning at the epithelial level on the clitoris and following the course of arousal stimuli through the central nervous system. Limited knowledge exists of the pathway from the cutaneous receptors of nerves originating in the epithelial tissue of the clitoris and continuing to spinal cord afferents. Such information may contribute to an understanding of sexual arousal, particularly in female vertebrates. We further defined the neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for arousal originating in the epithelium of the clitoris as well as related neural pathways to the spinal cord in a murine model. We performed a comprehensive review of the published relevant clinical and histological material from human and nonhuman vertebrate studies. In 29 adult female C57B1/6 mice the distribution of pelvic nerves and vessels was mapped. Gross dissection of 4 female mice was facilitated by resin injection of the vascular system in 2. Neuronal tracing was performed in 25 mice that received clitoral injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the clitoris and were sacrificed after 72 to 96 hours. The spinal cord and periclitoral tissue were removed and fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Gross anatomy of the mouse clitoris showed that pudendal and hypogastric nerves have a major role in the innervation of the external genitalia. Neuronal tracing revealed that the greatest nerve density was noted in the L5/6 spinal cord. The distribution extended from S1 to L2 with no labeling seen in the L3 spinal cord. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labeling was seen caudal in levels S1 through L4 and rostral in L2. Understanding the neuroanatomy of the clitoris using a murine model may provide a valuable tool for the study of sexual arousal

  15. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-03-02

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The present study did so by repeated assessment of declarative memory in 386 children (45% boys) aged 9-11 years through an online word-pair task. Children were randomly assigned to either a morning or evening learning session of 30 unrelated word-pairs with positive, neutral or negative valenced cues and neutral targets. After immediately assessing baseline recognition, delayed recognition was recorded either 12 or 24 h later, resulting in four different assessment schedules. One week later, the procedure was repeated with exactly the same word-pairs to evaluate whether effects differed for relearning versus original novel learning. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to evaluate how the probability of correct recognition was affected by sleep, valence, arousal, novelty and their interactions. Both immediate and delayed recognition were worse for pairs with negatively valenced or less arousing cue words. Relearning improved immediate and delayed word-pair recognition. In contrast to these effects, sleep did not affect recognition, nor did sleep moderate the effects of arousal, valence and novelty. The findings suggest a robust inclination of children to specifically forget the pairing of words to negatively valenced cue words. In agreement with a recent meta-analysis, children seem to depend less on sleep for the consolidation of information than has been reported for adults, irrespective of the emotional valence, arousal and novelty of word-pairs.

  16. The Effects of Caffeine on Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Performance in Division I Collegiate Fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Taylor P; Lutz, Rafer S; Pellegrino, Joseph K; Sanders, David J; Arent, Shawn M

    2016-11-01

    Doyle, TP, Lutz, RS, Pellegrino, JK, Sanders, DJ, and Arent, SM. The effects of caffeine on arousal, response time, accuracy, and performance in Division I collegiate fencers. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3228-3235, 2016-Caffeine has displayed ergogenic effects on aerobic performance. However, sports requiring precision and quick reaction may also be impacted by central nervous system arousal because of caffeine consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of caffeine on arousal, response time (RT), and accuracy during a simulated fencing practice. Using a randomized, within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, Division I male and female college fencers (N = 13; 69.1 ± 3.5 kg) were administered caffeine doses of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5 mg·kg during separate testing days. Performance was assessed via RT and accuracy to a 4-choice reaction task. A total of 25 trials were performed each day using a random 2- to 8-s delay between trials. Arousal was assessed using the activation-deactivation adjective check list. Results of repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant dose effect (p = 0.02) on performance. Follow-up analyses indicated this was due to a significant effect for RT (p = 0.03), with the dose-response curve exhibiting a quadratic relationship. Response time was significantly faster (p caffeine dose (p ≤ 0.05). Based on these results, caffeine improves RT and overall performance in fencers, particularly as doses increase up to 4.5-6.0 mg·kg. Above this level, performance begins to deteriorate, consistent with an "inverted-U" model of arousal and performance.

  17. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music.

  18. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVan Den Bosch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA, an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1 pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2 whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 minutes. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music.

  19. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheumann Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus. Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals.

  20. Dynamic Transcription profiles of Qinguan apple (Malus × domestica leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junke eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant’s response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of ‘Qinguan’ (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-inoculation (hpi with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed.

  1. Benefits of inoculation with azotobacter in the growth and production of tomato and peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarak Mirjana N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum in tomato and pepper growth and production by using two types of inoculation - seed inoculation and seedling inoculation. The effect of inoculation was observed thirty days after sowing, thirty days after transplanting, and in the phase of technological maturity. The following were measured: height of the plants, dry matter of the plants and number and the weight of the fruits. Inoculation had a positive effect on these in both plants. With tomato, better results were achieved when seedlings were inoculated. With pepper, the length of the plant and the dry matter were greater with seedling inoculation, whereas the number and the weight of the fruits were greater with seed inoculation.

  2. Growth and histamine formation of Morganella morganii in determining the safety and quality of inoculated and uninoculated bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, T A; Gingerich, T M; Pierson, M D; Flick, G J; Hackney, C R; Sumner, S S

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of normal microflora and Morganella morganii on histamine formation and olfactory acceptability in raw bluefish under controlled storage conditions. Fillets inoculated with and without M. morganii were stored at 5, 10, and 15 degrees C for 7 days. Microbial isolates from surface swabs were identified and screened for histidine decarboxylase activity. Olfactory acceptance was performed by an informal sensory panel. Histamine levels were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. While olfactory acceptance decreased, histamine concentration and bacterial counts increased. Storage temperature had a significant effect on histamine levels, bacterial counts, and olfactory acceptance of the bluefish. Inoculation with M. morganii had a positive significant effect on histamine formation for bluefish held at 10 and 15 degrees C (P < 0.0001). The results of the study will serve in supporting U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations regarding guidance and hazard levels of histamine in fresh bluefish.

  3. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...

  4. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Hofman; L.M. Talamini

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in t

  5. Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication).

  6. Glucocorticoids interact with the noradrenergic arousal system in the nucleus accumbens shell to enhance memory consolidation of both appetitive and aversive taste learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichmann, Romy; Fornari, Raquel V.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences but have little effect on memory of low-arousing experiences. Although both positive and negative emotionally arousing events tend to be well remembered, studies i

  7. Emotional Reactions Mediate the Effect of Music Listening on Creative Thinking: Perspective of the Arousal-and-Mood Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jing He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of music listening on creative thinking through the lens of the arousal-and-mood hypothesis, which posits that emotional reactions (i.e., arousal and valence mediate the effect of music listening on cognitive functioning. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a positive music group (n = 198, a negative music group (n = 195, and a control group (n = 191. Creative thinking and emotional reactions were assessed with the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production and the Affect Grid, respectively. The results showed that both positively and negatively arousing music enhanced creative thinking. The results further revealed that arousal, regardless of valence, significantly mediated the music-creativity relationship. This study enriches the research on the arousal-and-mood hypothesis by (1 providing direct empirical testing on the mediating roles of emotional reactions; (2 including both positively and negatively arousing music in the study design; and (3 identifying that only arousal, and not valence, was a significant mediator in the music-creativity link.

  8. Emotion Induced Blindness Is More Sensitive to Changes in Arousal As Compared to Valence of the Emotional Distractor

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    Divita Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotion Induced Blindness (EIB refers to the impairment in the identification of a neutral target image that follows a threatening or fearful distractor image. It has been suggested that valence plays a significant role in driving the perceptual impairment in EIB. Recent findings from the literature suggest that arousal has a very important role in biasing early cognitive functions. Hence, in the present study, we systematically investigate the role of valence (Experiment 1 and arousal (Experiment 2 in determining the impairment in EIB. The results suggest that when valence is controlled for, the stimuli with higher arousal level lead to greater impairment in target detection. Moreover, under high arousal condition, both positive and negative stimuli lead to significantly greater impairment in target detection. Present study suggests that impairment in EIB is sensitive to the arousal component of the emotional image as compared to valence. The arousal biased competition account that explains the effect of arousal on cognitive processing can sufficiently explains the current results.

  9. Emotion and decision-making under uncertainty: Physiological arousal predicts increased gambling during ambiguity but not risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Glimcher, Paul; Baker, Augustus L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty, which is ubiquitous in decision-making, can be fractionated into known probabilities (risk) and unknown probabilities (ambiguity). Although research has illustrated that individuals more often avoid decisions associated with ambiguity compared to risk, it remains unclear why ambiguity is perceived as more aversive. Here we examine the role of arousal in shaping the representation of value and subsequent choice under risky and ambiguous decisions. To investigate the relationship between arousal and decisions of uncertainty, we measure skin conductance response-a quantifiable measure reflecting sympathetic nervous system arousal-during choices to gamble under risk and ambiguity. To quantify the discrete influences of risk and ambiguity sensitivity and the subjective value of each option under consideration, we model fluctuating uncertainty, as well as the amount of money that can be gained by taking the gamble. Results reveal that although arousal tracks the subjective value of a lottery regardless of uncertainty type, arousal differentially contributes to the computation of value-that is, choice-depending on whether the uncertainty is risky or ambiguous: Enhanced arousal adaptively decreases risk-taking only when the lottery is highly risky but increases risk-taking when the probability of winning is ambiguous (even after controlling for subjective value). Together, this suggests that the role of arousal during decisions of uncertainty is modulatory and highly dependent on the context in which the decision is framed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. "DIFERENTIAION OF LEISHMANIA TROPICA MAJOR FROM LEISHMANIA TROPICA MINOR BY INOCULATION TO LABORATORY ANIMALS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Nadim

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available The subcutaneous inoculation of 16 white mice and 10 golden hamsters with L.tropica major resulted in the development of leishmanial lesions in all, becoming generalized in some.Two of 10 hamsters inoculated intraperitoneally with this parasite developed generalized lesions. On the other hand, the inoculation of L. tropica minor to 128 mice subcutaneously and 170 mice intraperitoneally did not cause any leishmanial lesions , while 22 out of 47 hamsters inoculated with this parasite showed lesions at the site of inoculation.

  11. Effects of Homofermentative Lactic Acid Bacterial Inoculants on the Fermentation and Aerobic Stability Characteristics of Low Dry Matter Corn Silages

    OpenAIRE

    SUCU, Ekin; FİLYA, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculants on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter corn silages. Corn was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1188 (Pioneer®, USA; Inoculant A) and Maize-All (Alltech, UK; Inoculant B) were used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculants. Inoculants were applied to silages 1.5 x 106 colony forming units/g levels. Silages with no additive served as co...

  12. Poorer Subjective Sleep Quality Is Related to Higher Fantasy-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Tânia F

    2016-11-16

    Lack of sleep enhances erections and lubrication the next day. This raises the possibility that poorer subjective sleep quality is related to sexual arousal. To test this hypothesis, sexual arousal was elicited in 70 Portuguese women of reproductive age by means of fantasy. The level of salivary testosterone before and shortly after fantasy was determined by luminescence immunoassays. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), reported their sexual arousal before and during fantasy, and how anxious they were after the fantasy. The hypothesis was confirmed. Anxiety did not explain the association, but testosterone response (poststimulus minus baseline) had a slight explanatory effect.

  13. Emotional arousal modulates oscillatory correlates of targeted memory reactivation during NREM, but not REM sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Mick; Schreiner, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered to preferentially reprocess emotionally arousing memories. We tested this hypothesis by cueing emotional vs. neutral memories during REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness by presenting associated verbal memory cues after learning. Here we show that cueing during NREM sleep significantly improved memory for emotional pictures, while no cueing benefit was observed during REM sleep. On the oscillatory level, successful memory cueing during NREM sleep resulted in significant increases in theta and spindle oscillations with stronger responses for emotional than neutral memories. In contrast during REM sleep, solely cueing of neutral (but not emotional) memories was associated with increases in theta activity. Our results do not support a preferential role of REM sleep for emotional memories, but rather suggest that emotional arousal modulates memory replay and consolidation processes and their oscillatory correlates during NREM sleep. PMID:27982120

  14. Reproducing affective norms with lexical co-occurrence statistics: Predicting valence, arousal, and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel; Louwerse, Max M

    2015-01-01

    Human ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance are frequently used to study the cognitive mechanisms of emotional attention, word recognition, and numerous other phenomena in which emotions are hypothesized to play an important role. Collecting such norms from human raters is expensive and time consuming. As a result, affective norms are available for only a small number of English words, are not available for proper nouns in English, and are sparse in other languages. This paper investigated whether affective ratings can be predicted from length, contextual diversity, co-occurrences with words of known valence, and orthographic similarity to words of known valence, providing an algorithm for estimating affective ratings for larger and different datasets. Our bootstrapped ratings achieved correlations with human ratings on valence, arousal, and dominance that are on par with previously reported correlations across gender, age, education and language boundaries. We release these bootstrapped norms for 23,495 English words.

  15. Simulation Analysis of Transient Earth Voltages Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgear

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    Man Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the properties of Transient Earth Voltages (TEV Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgear by Simulation. The mechanism of TEV aroused by partial discharge in switchgears is analyzed. The Finite Integration Theory (FIT was employed to simulate the propagation of TEV in the switchgear. The simulation results show that the pulse width of TEV increases as the pulse width of PD pulse increases and the amplitude of TEV is proportional to the PD pulse amplitude. There are time differences between the TEV signals of different detecting points when the TEV propagating on the switchgear’s surface. Based on the simulation, a method of locating the PD of switchgear is proposed by positioning multi-sensors on the external surface of switchgear.

  16. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed.

  17. An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toates, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a "route map" in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different academic perspectives on understanding sexuality. It is suggested that both excitation and inhibition of sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior act at various levels in a hierarchical structure, and much confusion can be avoided by distinguishing these levels. The model integrates information from different branches of psychology: biological, evolutionary, clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social. It describes interactions between sexual behavior and anxiety, attachment, aggression, and drug taking; and it is applied to gender differences, evolutionary psychology, sexual deviancy, sexual addiction, and the biological bases of sexuality.

  18. Topical alprostadil in the treatment of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A; Mitchel, J; Rosen, R; Phillips, N; Ayers, C; Ferguson, D; Yeager, J

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of topical alprostadil USP (prostaglandin E1) cream in 8 patients with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). Each patient was administered a single intravaginal dose of placebo followed by escalating intravaginal doses of the active drug at 2-week intervals. Alprostadil's effectiveness in enhancing subjective and physiological arousal during visual sexual stimulation was supported by patient ratings and physician assessments of vaginal erythema and transudate volume. Photoplethysmography measurement of vaginal pulse amplitude was not able to demonstrate treatment sensitivity in the present study. Adverse events included mild cases of vaginal itching and burning. The data support further investigation of the use of alprostadil for FSAD.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  20. Phytohormones and induction of plant-stress tolerance and defense genes by seed and foliar inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense cells and metabolites promote maize growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Josiane; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-12-01

    Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2.5 stage growth-a strategy to relieve incompatibility with pesticides used for seed treatment. We also investigate the effects of spraying the metabolites of these two strains at V2.5. Maize growth was promoted by the inoculation of bacteria and their metabolites. When applied via foliar spray, although A. brasilense survival on leaves was confirmed by confocal microscopy and cell recovery, few cells were detected after 24 h, indicating that the effects of bacterial leaf spray might also be related to their metabolites. The major molecules detected in the supernatants of both strains were indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-ethanol, indole-3-lactic acid and salicylic acid. RT-PCR of genes related to oxidative stress (APX1, APX2, CAT1, SOD2, SOD4) and plant defense (pathogenesis-related PR1, prp2 and prp4) was evaluated on maize leaves and roots. Differences were observed according to the gene, plant tissue, strain and method of application, but, in general, inoculation with Azospirillum resulted in up-regulation of oxidative stress genes in leaves and down-regulation in roots; contrarily, in general, PR genes were down-regulated in leaves and up-regulated in roots. Emphasis should be given to the application of metabolites, especially of Ab-V5 + Ab-V6 that in general resulted in the highest up-regulation of oxidative-stress and PR genes both in leaves and in roots. We hypothesize that the benefits of inoculation of Azospirillum on

  1. Feedback and self-efficacy, arousal, and performance of introverts and extraverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R F; Perlini, A H

    1998-06-01

    Research has suggested that introverts and extraverts differ in their responses to performance feedback. The present study examined the effect on introverts and extraverts of a short-term memory task. Subjects (ns = 8) were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: positive, negative, or control. On posttest, introverts performed better than extraverts regardless of feedback condition. These findings suggest that individual differences in introversion-extraversion mediate differences in performance through subjective arousal, namely, state-anxiety.

  2. Altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa: effects of meal anticipation, consumption and bodily arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; Craske, Michelle G.; Li, Wei; Vangala, Sitaram; Strober, Michael; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Impaired interoceptive awareness (IA), the subjective perception of internal body sensations, has been proposed as a vulnerability or maintaining factor in anorexia nervosa (AN). We examined whether IA of heartbeat and breathing sensations was impaired in AN across a range of arousal levels, and whether it was influenced by meal anticipation and consumption. Method IA was assessed using randomized, double-blinded, bolus intravenous infusions of isoproterenol, a peripheral beta-adrenergic sympathetic agonist, and saline. Fifteen women with AN and 15 age-, and sex- matched healthy comparisons were evaluated before and after consumption of a 1000 Calorie meal. During each infusion participants rated their moment-to-moment intensity of heartbeat and breathing sensations with a dial. To measure IA we evaluated interoceptive detection thresholds, retrospective ratings of palpitation and dyspnea intensity, and interoceptive accuracy via correlations between subjective dial ratings and observed heart rate responses. Results Contrary to prediction the AN group was more likely to report detection of interoceptive sensations across all conditions, an effect driven by false discriminations at low arousal levels. Concordant with prediction, meal anticipation was associated with intensified interoceptive sensations, particularly dyspnea. There were no differences in interoceptive accuracy. Discussion This represents the first demonstration of interoceptive prediction errors in AN. Although IA is unimpaired at high arousal levels in AN, prediction signals are abnormal at low arousal levels, especially during meal anticipation. Altered interoceptive prediction signaling during meal anticipation could contribute to phenotypes of high anxiety in AN or alternatively, might be explained by enhanced meal associated anxiety. PMID:25712775

  3. Towards a smart glove: arousal recognition based on textile Electrodermal Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; De Rossi, Danilo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Electrodermal Response, acquired by a sensing fabric glove with embedded textile electrodes, as reliable means for emotion recognition. Here, all the essential steps for an automatic recognition system are described, from the recording of physiological data set to a feature-based multiclass classification. Data were collected from 35 healthy volunteers during arousal elicitation by means of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures. Experimental results show high discrimination after twenty steps of cross validation.

  4. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Eibye; Hans Mørch Jensen

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient’s symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant ...

  5. Female cats, but not males, adjust responsiveness to arousal in the voice of kittens

    OpenAIRE

    Konerding, Wiebke S.; Zimmermann, Elke; Bleich, Eva; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Scheumann, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background The infant cry is the most important communicative tool to elicit adaptive parental behaviour. Sex-specific adaptation, linked to parental investment, may have evolutionary shaped the responsiveness to changes in the voice of the infant cries. The emotional content of infant cries may trigger distinctive responsiveness either based on their general arousing properties, being part of a general affect encoding rule, or based on affective perception, linked to parental investment, dif...

  6. Comparison of two isometric handgrip protocols on sympathetic arousal in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Mather, Mara

    2015-04-01

    Isometric handgrip is commonly used in stress research because the task reliably increases sympathetic arousal. Various handgrip protocols have been used; they vary in handgrip strength, duration of grip, and the number of cycles of handgrip and rest. However, most protocols require the calibration of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) prior to the handgrip task, which is not always convenient (i.e., in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study). Here, we wanted to test whether two handgrip protocols with different strength, duration and cycle protocols would reliably elicit sympathetic arousal in the absence of calibrating an MVC. Sixty-two healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception participated in one of the two isometric handgrip protocols using a hand therapy ball of medium resistance. Women completed one of the following handgrip protocols: 1) 30% of a perceived maximum voluntary contraction for 3 min or 2) 3 cycles of maximum voluntary contraction for 18s with a one minute rest in between. All handgrip blocks were counterbalanced with a control condition. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes and salivary alpha-amylase. Results indicate that in the absence of calibrating an MVC, the handgrip tasks elicited different changes in sympathetic arousal. Pupil dilation responses increased significantly in the handgrip versus control blocks only in participants in the 18-s protocol. Additionally, more participants exhibited a salivary alpha-amylase response to the handgrip block in the 18-s condition compared to the 3-min condition. Thus, these results suggest that neuroimaging and behavioral studies with isometric handgrip should be able to successfully induce sympathetic nervous activity with the 18-s paradigm, regardless of the handgrip device and the ability to calibrate an MVC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sleep bruxism and sleep arousal: an experimental challenge to assess the role of cyclic alternating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Kato, T; Parrino, L; Terzano, M G; Lavigne, G J; Macaluso, G M

    2011-09-01

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) is the characteristic electromyographic pattern of sleep bruxism (SB), a sleep-related motor disorder associated with sleep arousal. Sleep arousals are generally organised in a clustered mode known as the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). CAP is the expression of sleep instability between sleep maintaining processes (phase A1) and stronger arousal processes (phases A2 and A3). This study aimed to investigate the role of sleep instability on RMMA/SB occurrence by analysing CAP and electroencephalographic (EEG) activities. The analysis was performed on the sleep recordings of 8 SB subjects and 8 controls who received sensory stimulations during sleep. Baseline and experimental nights were compared for sleep variables, CAP, and EEG spectral analyses using repeated measure ANOVAs. Overall, no differences in sleep variables and EEG spectra were found between SB subjects and controls. However, SB subjects had higher sleep instability (more phase A3) than controls (P= 0·05). The frequency of phase A3 was higher in the pre-REM sleep periods (P < 0·001), where peaks in RMMA/SB activity were also observed (P = 0·05). When sleep instability was experimentally increased by sensory stimuli, both groups showed an enhancement in EEG theta and alpha power (P = 0·04 and 0·02, respectively) and significant increases in sleep arousal and all CAP variables. No change in RMMA/SB index was found within either groups (RMMA/SB occurred in all SB subjects and only one control during the experimental night). These findings suggest that CAP phase A3 may act as a permissive window rather than a generator of RMMA/SB activity in predisposed individuals.

  8. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking and sexual satisfaction among female African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M; Smearman, Erica L; Brody, Gene H; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-12-01

    Sexuality-related constructs, such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction, have been related to sexual behaviours that place one at risk of adverse consequences, such as sexually transmissible infections, HIV and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors to biological and psychological predispositions, that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescents. Female African Americans aged 14-20 years were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (n=304) were used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS and sexual satisfaction. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviours were associated with increased SSS, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to the number of sex partners, the frequency of vaginal sex and the number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past 6 months. The findings emphasise the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviours, that influence sexuality constructs, which, in turn, are associated with sexual behaviours, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy

  10. Some relationships between personality, arousal and the strength of the excitatory process

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sunjai

    1981-01-01

    The primary object of the present investigation was to test the inverted 'U' model developed by investigators of 'arousal' in the west and of the 'strength of the excitatory process' in the Soviet Union to explain the relationship between a variety of factors and measures of behavioural, subjective and physiological response. In the present project adult human subjects took part in four experiments. The following factors were investigated in one or more of them: introversion, neuroticism, 'st...

  11. Effects of Tiagabine on Slow Wave Sleep and Arousal Threshold in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Sands, Scott A; Edwards, Bradley A; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; de Melo, Camila; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is markedly reduced during slow-wave sleep (SWS) even in patients with a severe disease. The reason for this improvement is uncertain but likely relates to non-anatomical factors (i.e. reduced arousability, chemosensitivity, and increased dilator muscle activity). The anticonvulsant tiagabine produces a dose-dependent increase in SWS in subjects without OSA. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that tiagabine would reduce OSA severity by raising the overall arousal threshold during sleep. After a baseline physiology night to assess patients' OSA phenotypic traits, a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of tiagabine 12 mg administered before sleep was performed in 14 OSA patients. Under each condition, we assessed the effects on sleep and OSA severity using standard clinical polysomnography. Tiagabine increased slow-wave activity (SWA) of the electroencephalogram (1-4 Hz) compared to placebo (1.8 [0.4] vs. 2.0 [0.5] LogμV2, p = .04) but did not reduce OSA severity (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 41.5 [20.3] vs. 39.1 [16.5], p > .5). SWS duration (25 [20] vs. 26 [43] mins, p > .5) and arousal threshold (-26.5 [5.0] vs. -27.6 [5.1] cmH2O, p = .26) were also unchanged between nights. Tiagabine modified sleep microstructure (increase in SWA) but did not change the duration of SWS, OSA severity, or arousal threshold in this group of OSA patients. Based on these findings, tiagabine should not be considered as a therapeutic option for OSA treatment.

  12. Misattribution of musical arousal increases sexual attraction towards opposite-sex faces in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Raphaela; Gingras, Bruno; Leder, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Several theories about the origins of music have emphasized its biological and social functions, including in courtship. Music may act as a courtship display due to its capacity to vary in complexity and emotional content. Support for music’s reproductive function comes from the recent finding that only women in the fertile phase of the reproductive cycle prefer composers of complex melodies to composers of simple ones as short-term sexual partners, which is also in line with the ovulatory shift hypothesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which music may influence sexual attraction are unknown, specifically how music may interact with visual attractiveness cues and affect perception and behaviour in both genders. Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, we examined whether listening to music influences ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability of opposite-sex faces. We also tested whether misattribution of arousal or pleasantness underlies these effects, and explored whether sex differences and menstrual cycle phase may be moderators. Our sample comprised 64 women in the fertile or infertile phase (no hormonal contraception use) and 32 men, carefully matched for mood, relationship status, and musical preferences. Musical primes (25 s) varied in arousal and pleasantness, and targets were photos of faces with neutral expressions (2 s). Group-wise analyses indicated that women, but not men, gave significantly higher ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability after having listened to music than in the silent control condition. High-arousing, complex music yielded the largest effects, suggesting that music may affect human courtship behaviour through induced arousal, which calls for further studies on the mechanisms by which music affects sexual attraction in real-life social contexts. PMID:28892486

  13. Arousal, valence, and the uncanny valley: Psychophysiological and self-report findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eCheetham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main prediction of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH is that observation of humanlike characters that are difficult to distinguish from the human counterpart will evoke a state of negative affect. Well-established electrophysiological (late positive potential [LPP] and facial electromyography [EMG] and self-report (Self-Assessment Manikin; SAM indices of valence and arousal, i.e., the primary orthogonal dimensions of affective experience, were used to test this prediction by examining affective experience in response to categorically ambiguous compared with unambiguous avatar and human faces (N=30. LPP and EMG provided direct psychophysiological indices of affective state during passive observation and the SAM provided self-reported indices of affective state during explicit cognitive evaluation of static facial stimuli. The faces were drawn from well-controlled morph continua representing the UVH’ dimension of human likeness (DHL. The results provide no support for the notion that category ambiguity along the DHL is specifically associated with enhanced experience of negative affect. On the contrary, the LPP and SAM-based measures of arousal and valence indicated a general increase in negative affective state (i.e., enhanced arousal and negative valence with greater morph distance from the human end of the DHL. A second sample (N=30 produced the same finding, using an ad hoc self-rating scale of feelings of familiarity, i.e., an oft-used measure of affective experience along the UVH' familiarity dimension. In conclusion, this multi-method approach using well-validated psychophysiological and self-rating indices of arousal and valence rejects - for passive observation and for explicit affective evaluation of static faces - the main prediction of the UVH.

  14. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselbach Simone; Rüsseler Jascha; Wiswede Daniel; Münte Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This...

  15. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G.; Toomey, John M.; Balsters, Joshua H.; Bokde, Arun L.W.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants’ ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extravers...

  16. Use of inoculated lactic acid bacteria in fermenting sour cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PETÄJÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of sour vegetables has to date occurred through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB naturally present in vegetables. The present article deals with preliminary studies on the effects of some LAB inocula (Lactobacillus alimentarius or Pediococcus pentosaceus on fermenting sour cabbage. The effect of LAB on yeast growth, a problem in sour vegetables, was also studied through the use of dual yeast and LAB inocula. The pH of cabbage juice decreased to levels under pH 4 during the first 10 days of fermentation, which is near the final values, pediococci decreasing the pH to the lowest values. The LAB count in inoculated cabbages increased by 0.5-2.0 log cfu (colony forming unit /g during the first 10 days of fermentation and thereafter decreased. Pediococci formed predominant part of microbial flora almost in all experimental batches. In cabbage challenged with yeasts, yeast counts rose only when the pH was < 3.5. Yeasts appeared almost regularly also in cabbages inoculated only with LAB. Pediococci fermented cabbage effectively decreasing the pH to lower levels than lactobacilli or natural LAB. However, too strong a decrease in pH may result in a decrease of LAB count which may subsequently lead to yeast growth. The yeast problem could not be solved with the LAB inocula used in our study.;

  17. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  18. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O2), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10(1)-10(6)CFU/cm(2)). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10(4)CFU/cm(2) inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO2 mixtures.

  19. Dependency and Response of Apuleia leiocarpa to Inoculation with Different Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Quintino de Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF is a strategy to improve the efficiency of forest plantations, reducing costs and increasing the survival of plant species. The objective of this study was to assess the response and mycorrhizal dependency of seedlings of the forest species Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J.F. Macbr to inoculation with AMF. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design using a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement with six replications. The treatments consisted of combinations of five P rates (0, 24, 71, 213, and 650 mg kg-1 with five types of inoculations with AMF (inoculation with the fungi Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora margarita, Dentiscutata heterogama, inoculation with an AMF mix of these three species, and a treatment without inoculation. The A. leiocarpa showed the highest biomass accumulations in inoculation with D. hetorogama combined with the P rates of 213 and 650 mg kg-1, and in the AMF mix combined with the P rates of 71, 213, and 650 kg-1. Biomass accumulation showed a linear, positive response to inoculation with D. heterogama combined with the different P rates, and a positive square root fit to inoculation with the AMF mix. The plants inoculated with G. margarita had no significant biomass accumulation. The plant species had a positive response to inoculation with R. clarus combined with the lowest P rates; however, it had a negative response to combination with the highest P rate (650 mg kg-1. The relative benefit of inoculation with these fungi was more than 100 % in most treatments, showing the high mycorrhizal dependency of A. leiocarpa and the nutritional benefit of AMF inoculation for this species. However, this response is dependent on the fungus species that colonize the plant roots. The best combination between fungus and P rate was inoculation with the AMF mix combined with the P rate of 71 mg kg-1.

  20. CAP characteristics differ in patients with arousal parasomnias and frontal and temporal epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbir, Gulcin; Kutlu, Ayse; Gozubatik-Celik, Gokcen; Karadeniz, Derya

    2013-08-01

    Arousal parasomnias (AP) and frontal and temporal epilepsies consist of pathologic arousals originating in abnormal thalamocortical circuits, reflecting increased sleep instability and arousal oscillations--the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). In this study, the authors aim to investigate the CAP characteristics in 27 patients with AP, 22 patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies, and age- and gender-matched 20 healthy subjects. The mean CAP sequence and cycle was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (P < 0.003). The total CAP duration was always higher in the patients with AP than in those with frontal and temporal epilepsies, reaching statistically significant level at the first (P = 0.044), second (P = 0.024), third (P = 0.010), and sixth (P < 0.001) sleep cycles. The duration of A1 in descending branch (P = 0.062) and trough phase of sleep cycles (P = 0.038) was longer in the patients with AP. The duration of A2 subtype of CAP in ascending branch (P = 0.039) and the number (P = 0.036) and duration (P = 0.050) of A3 subtype of CAP in descending branch of sleep cycles were higher in the patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies. This difference in CAP parameters might suggest that AP are associated with milder activation in specific brain areas, showing a similar evolution with physiologic homeostatic decrease in sleep synchronization. Frontal and temporal epilepsies, however, is associated with a moderate-to-powerful activation in wider brain networks.

  1. Sexual behavior and responsiveness to sexual stimuli following laboratory-induced sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen

    2004-08-01

    Sexual excitement can be seen as an action disposition. In this study sexual arousal was expected to generate sexual action and to increase interest and responsiveness to sexual stimuli. In two experiments, male and female participants were exposed to a neutral or a sexual film. We measured genital and subjective responses to the film, and sexual behavior following the laboratory visit. In Experiment 2, film exposure was followed by a task in which participants rated the sexual arousability of neutral and sexual pictures. Rating time of the sexual pictures served as an index for sexual interest. Responsiveness to the sexual pictures was measured by modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes. Sexual activity, but not sexual desire, was higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for participants in the neutral condition. Sexual interest and responsiveness to still pictures were not higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for those in the neutral film condition. In addition, men who saw the neutral film showed a greater responsiveness to still pictures than men who saw the sexual film. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state generating action tendencies and actual sexual behavior.

  2. The influence of pre-sleep cognitive arousal on sleep onset processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Johan; De Valck, Elke; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Pattyn, Nathalie; Bulckaert, Arnoud; Berckmans, Daniel; Haex, Bart; Verbraecken, Johan; Cluydts, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive hyperarousal, resulting in enhanced cognitive activation, has been cited as an important contributor to the development and preservation of insomnia. To further understand this process, our study examined the effects of acutely-induced pre-sleep cognitive hyperarousal on sleep onset processes in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptation night, 15 subjects slept two nights in our sleep laboratory: one reference night and another one with cognitive arousal induction, in a counterbalanced order. In the cognitive arousal condition, subjects worked through half an hour of cognitive tasks without interference of an emotional component prior to retiring to bed. Objective sleep onset latency was significantly prolonged in the cognitive arousal condition compared to the reference condition. Significantly more high frequency activity was recorded during the first and second deep-sleep period. Moreover, differences in heart rate and proximal temperature during and after sleep onset were observed in the nights after the cognitive induction. Pre-sleep cognitive activation successfully induced a significant cognitive load and activation in our subjects to influence subsequent sleep (onset) processes.

  3. Chebyshev and Modified Wavelet Algorithm Based Sleep Arousals Detection Using EEG Sensor Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalaxmi U. S. B. K.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalographic (EEG arousals are generally observed in EEG recordings as an awakening response of the human brain. Sleep apnea is a major sleep disorder. The patients, with Severe Sleep Apnea (SAS suffers from frequent interruptions in their sleep which brings about EEG arousals. In this paper, a new method for Segmentation and Filtering process of EEG sensor database signals for finding sleep arousals using Chebyshev and Modified Wavelet Algorithm is proposed. The Segmentation Algorithm appears as various features extracted from EEG Data’s and PSG Recordings. The Chebyshev Equiripple Filter is used in Filtering algorithm and then MSVM [M-Support Vector Machine] was utilized as Classification Tool. Algorithms are performed and different features are extracted and the ROC characteristics are performed. The extracted features are Delta, Gama, Beta, Alpha, Sigma of the EEG signal, EEG Signal Mean, EEG Signal Standard Deviation, EEG Signal Peak Signal to Noise Ratio [PSNR], and EEG Signal Normalization. MSVM tool showing EEG signals results.

  4. Oral Sex, Semen Displacement, and Sexual Arousal: Testing the Ejaculate Adjustment Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Pham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Male Indian Flying Foxes (Pteropus giganteus that spend more time performing oral sex on a female also spend more time copulating with her. In humans, men who spend more time copulating with their regular partner also perform more “semen-displacing” copulatory behaviors (e.g., deeper, more vigorous penile thrusting. We investigated whether men who spend more time performing oral sex on their regular partner also spend more time copulating with her and perform more semen-displacing copulatory behaviors. We proposed and tested the ejaculate adjustment hypothesis for men's copulatory behaviors: Men adjust their copulatory behaviors to increase their sexual arousal and consequent ejaculate quality, thereby increasing their chances of success in sperm competition. Two hundred and thirty-three men in a committed, heterosexual relationship responded to questions about their copulatory behavior and sexual arousal during their most recent sexual encounter with their long-term partner. The results indicated that men who spend more time performing oral sex on their partner also spend more time copulating with her, perform more semen-displacing copulatory behaviors, and report greater sexual arousal. We discuss limitations to the current research and highlight the heuristic value of sperm competition theory for understanding human sexual behaviors.

  5. Subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralanova, Evelina; Haralanov, Svetlozar; Beraldi, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2012-02-01

    From the clinical practice and some experimental studies, it is apparent that paranoid schizophrenia patients tend to assign emotional salience to neutral social stimuli. This aberrant cognitive bias has been conceptualized to result from increased emotional arousal, but direct empirical data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to quantify the subjective emotional arousal (SEA) evoked by emotionally non-salient (neutral) compared to emotionally salient (negative) social stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Thirty male inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia psychosis and 30 demographically matched healthy controls rated their level of SEA in response to neutral and negative social scenes from the International Affective Picture System and the Munich Affective Picture System. Schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls had an increased overall SEA level. This relatively higher SEA was evoked only by the neutral but not by the negative social scenes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first designed to directly demonstrate subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia. This finding might explain previous clinical and experimental data and could be viewed as the missing link between the primary neurobiological and secondary psychological mechanisms of paranoid psychotic-symptom formation. Furthermore, despite being very short and easy to perform, the task we used appeared to be sensitive enough to reveal emotional dysregulation, in terms of emotional disinhibition/hyperactivation in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Thus, it could have further research and clinical applications, including as a neurobehavioral probe for imaging studies.

  6. Perceptual processing of natural scenes at rapid rates: effects of complexity, content, and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the perceptual system is confronted with a rapidly changing array of sensory information demanding resolution. At rapid rates of presentation, previous studies have found an early (e.g., 150-280 ms) negativity over occipital sensors that is enhanced when emotional, as compared with neutral, pictures are viewed, suggesting facilitated perception. In the present study, we explored how picture composition and the presence of people in the image affect perceptual processing of pictures of natural scenes. Using RSVP, pictures that differed in perceptual composition (figure-ground or scenes), content (presence of people or not), and emotional content (emotionally arousing or neutral) were presented in a continuous stream for 330 ms each with no intertrial interval. In both subject and picture analyses, all three variables affected the amplitude of occipital negativity, with the greatest enhancement for figure-ground compositions (as compared with scenes), irrespective of content and emotional arousal, supporting an interpretation that ease of perceptual processing is associated with enhanced occipital negativity. Viewing emotional pictures prompted enhanced negativity only for pictures that depicted people, suggesting that specific features of emotionally arousing images are associated with facilitated perceptual processing, rather than all emotional content.

  7. Concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress among Vietnam combat veterans undergoing challenge testing for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Accelerative and decelerative effects of hedonic valence and emotional arousal during visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual processing of natural scene pictures is enhanced when the scene conveys emotional content. Such "motivated attention" to pleasant and unpleasant pictures has been shown to improve identification accuracy in non-speeded behavioural tasks. An open question is whether emotional content also modulates the speed of visual scene processing. In the present studies we show that unpleasant content reliably slowed two-choice categorization of pictures, irrespective of physical image properties, perceptual complexity, and categorization instructions. Conversely, pleasant content did not slow or even accelerated choice reactions, relative to neutral scenes. As indicated by lateralized readiness potentials, these effects occurred at cognitive processing rather than motor preparation/execution stages. Specifically, analysis of event-related potentials showed a prolongation of early scene discrimination for stimuli perceived as emotionally arousing, regardless of valence, and reflected in delayed peaks of the N1 component. In contrast, the timing of other processing steps, reflected in the P2 and late positive potential components and presumably related to post-discriminatory processes such as stimulus-response mapping, appeared to be determined by hedonic valence, with more pleasant scenes eliciting faster processing. Consistent with this model, varying arousal (low/high) within the emotional categories mediated the effects of valence on choice reaction speed. Functionally, arousal may prolong stimulus analysis in order to prevent erroneous and potentially harmful decisions. Pleasantness may act as a safety signal allowing rapid initiation of overt responses.

  9. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.

  10. Effects of a structured problem-solving procedure on pre-sleep cognitive arousal in college students with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Colleen E; Waters, William F

    2006-01-01

    Pre-sleep cognitive arousal, more specifically worry, is often reported as a distressing symptom that interferes with sleep. Using a controlled group design, a "constructive worry" intervention, similar to Espie and Lindsay's (1987) "worry control" procedure, was tested for its effects on pre-sleep cognitive arousal in an undergraduate population reporting insomnia. After 2 baseline nights, participants (N = 33) either recorded possible solutions to worries (constructive worry group) or recorded worries and completed worry questionnaires (worry group) for 5 nights. As hypothesized, the constructive worry group had decreased pre-sleep cognitive arousal relative to the worry group and relative to baseline scores. This study provides further support for augmenting existing insomnia treatments with cognitive interventions to successfully treat the complaint of pre-sleep cognitive arousal.

  11. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  12. Effect of arousal methods for 175 cases of prolonged coma and its factors after severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江基尧; 包映晖; 殷玉华; 潘耀华; 梁玉敏; 罗其中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of arousal methods for prolonged coma of 175 patients with severe traumatic brain injury and related factors.Methods: There were 175 cases with persistent coma longer than 1 month after severe traumatic brain injury. Coma lasted 1-12 months. Arousal procedures included hyperbaric oxygen, physical therapy and arousal drugs. Results: In the 175 prolonged coma patients 110 got recovery of consciousness; in 118 cases with coma of 1-3 months, 86 cases recovered consciousness (72.9%); in 42 cases with coma of 4-6 months, 20 cases recovered consciousness (47.6);and in 15 cases with coma of longer than 6 months, only 4 cases recovered consciousness (26.7%). The recovery of consciousness depended on patient's primary brain stem damagme, cerebral hernia, GCS score, and age .Conclusions: Application of appropriate arousal procedures improves recovery of consciousness in patients with prolonged coma.

  13. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in healthy subjects, the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to 40 Hz stimulation in two resting conditions varying in the level of arousal. Previously, ASSR measures have shown to be affected by the le......The aim of this study was to investigate, in healthy subjects, the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to 40 Hz stimulation in two resting conditions varying in the level of arousal. Previously, ASSR measures have shown to be affected...... it pertinent to know the effects of fluctuations in arousal on passive response to gamma-range stimulation. In nine healthy volunteers trains of 40 Hz click stimuli were applied during two conditions: in the "high arousal" condition subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book of interest; in the "low...

  14. Over-Expression of Rice CBS Domain Containing Protein, OsCBSX3, Confers Rice Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Shaoliang; Shi, Lanping; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yanyan; Shen, Lei; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2015-07-13

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain containing proteins (CDCPs) constitute a big family in plants and some members in this family have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, but the precise functions and the underlying mechanism of the majority of this family in plant immunity remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a CBS domain containing protein gene, OsCBSX3, is functionally characterized in rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). By quantitative real-time PCR, transcripts of OsCBSX3 are up-regulated significantly by inoculation of M. oryzae and the exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). OsCBSX3 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression of OsCBSX3 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) through approach of Agrobacterium infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The plants of homozygous T3 transgenic rice lines of over-expressing OsCBSX3 exhibit significant enhanced resistance to M. oryzae inoculation, manifested by decreased disease symptoms, and inhibition of pathogen growth detected in DNA. Consistently, the over-expression of OsCBSX3 enhances the transcript levels of immunity associated marker genes including PR1a, PR1b, PR5, AOS2, PAL, NH1, and OsWRKY13 in plants inoculated with M. oryzae. These results suggest that OsCBSX3 acts as a positive regulator in resistance of rice to M. oryzae regulated by SA and JA-mediated signaling pathways synergistically.

  15. Over-Expression of Rice CBS Domain Containing Protein, OsCBSX3, Confers Rice Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoling Mou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS domain containing proteins (CDCPs constitute a big family in plants and some members in this family have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, but the precise functions and the underlying mechanism of the majority of this family in plant immunity remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a CBS domain containing protein gene, OsCBSX3, is functionally characterized in rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae. By quantitative real-time PCR, transcripts of OsCBSX3 are up-regulated significantly by inoculation of M. oryzae and the exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA. OsCBSX3 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression of OsCBSX3 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP through approach of Agrobacterium infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The plants of homozygous T3 transgenic rice lines of over-expressing OsCBSX3 exhibit significant enhanced resistance to M. oryzae inoculation, manifested by decreased disease symptoms, and inhibition of pathogen growth detected in DNA. Consistently, the over-expression of OsCBSX3 enhances the transcript levels of immunity associated marker genes including PR1a, PR1b, PR5, AOS2, PAL, NH1, and OsWRKY13 in plants inoculated with M. oryzae. These results suggest that OsCBSX3 acts as a positive regulator in resistance of rice to M. oryzae regulated by SA and JA-mediated signaling pathways synergistically.

  16. Efficiency of inoculant with Azospirillum brasilense on the growth and yield of second-harvest maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Ribeiro Guedes Fonseca Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The misuse of fertilizers has become a growing concern in terms of agricultural and environmental sustainability. One alternative to reduce the impact of chemical fertilizers is the use of inoculants containing nitrogen-fixing and plant growth promoting bacteria. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of an inoculant with Azospirillum brasilense on the growth and yield of secondharvest maize. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, in a 3 × 5 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of three inoculation methods (control without inoculation, seed inoculation and leaf-sprayed inoculation at the V4 stage and five cover N-fertilization doses (0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % and 100 %, with the 100 % dose corresponding to 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea. Inoculated plants showed a greater growth for height (9.5 % and 16 %, stem dry biomass (49 % and 6.75 % and root dry biomass (123 % and 97 %, respectively for seed inoculation and spraying, as well as increases in ear size (8 %, chlorophyll content (4 %, 1,000-grain weight (12 % and grain yield (29 %, when compared to non-inoculated plants. The effects of N doses were only significant for 1,000-grain weight and grain yield (kg ha-1, with seed inoculation providing a higher yield for second-harvest maize.

  17. Agro-industrial waste materials and wastewater sludge for rhizobial inoculant production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rebah, F; Prévost, D; Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D

    2007-12-01

    Inoculating legumes with commercial rhizobial inoculants is a common agriculture practice. Generally, inoculants are sold in liquid or in solid forms (mixed with carrier). The production of inoculants involves a step in which a high number of cells are produced, followed by the product formulation. This process is largely governed by the cost related to the medium used for rhizobial growth and by the availability of a carrier source (peat) for production of solid inoculant. Some industrial and agricultural by-products (e.g. cheese whey, malt sprouts) contain growth factors such as nitrogen and carbon, which can support growth of rhizobia. Other agro-industrial wastes (e.g. plant compost, filtermud, fly-ash) can be used as a carrier for rhizobial inoculant. More recently, wastewater sludge, a worldwide recyclable waste, has shown good potential for inoculant production as a growth medium and as a carrier (dehydrated sludge). Sludge usually contains nutrient elements at concentrations sufficient to sustain rhizobial growth and heavy metals are usually below the recommended level. In some cases, growth conditions can be optimized by a sludge pre-treatment or by the addition of nutrients. Inoculants produced in wastewater sludge are efficient for nodulation and nitrogen fixation with legumes as compared to standard inoculants. This new approach described in this review offers a safe environmental alternative for both waste treatment/disposal and inoculant production.

  18. Post-learning arousal enhances veridical memory and reduces false memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristy A; Correro, Anthony N

    2017-10-01

    The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm examines false memory by introducing words associated with a non-presented 'critical lure' as memoranda, which typically causes the lures to be remembered as frequently as studied words. Our prior work has shown enhanced veridical memory and reduced misinformation effects when arousal is induced after learning (i.e., during memory consolidation). These effects have not been examined in the DRM task, or with signal detection analysis, which can elucidate the mechanisms underlying memory alterations. Thus, 130 subjects studied and then immediately recalled six DRM lists, one after another, and then watched a 3-min arousing (n=61) or neutral (n=69) video. Recognition tested 70min later showed that arousal induced after learning led to better delayed discrimination of studied words from (a) critical lures, and (b) other non-presented 'weak associates.' Furthermore, arousal reduced liberal response bias (i.e., the tendency toward accepting dubious information) for studied words relative to all foils, including critical lures and 'weak associates.' Thus, arousal induced after learning effectively increased the distinction between signal and noise by enhancing access to verbatim information and reducing endorsement of dubious information. These findings provide important insights into the cognitive mechanisms by which arousal modulates early memory consolidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. No longer his and hers, but ours: examining sexual arousal in response to erotic stories designed for both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christina L; Cortez, Angelberto

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual arousal and erotica has focused primarily on men and women's responses to erotic films and stories designed for a sex-specific audience. To reduce the confounds of relying on separate materials when evaluating sex differences in arousal, the present study designed suggestive and explicit erotic stories that were rated as being equally appealing to men and women. Participants were 212 undergraduate students who completed self-report measures of sexual self-esteem, sexual desire, and pre- and posttest measures of arousal. As hypothesized, women in the suggestive and explicit conditions reported a significant increase in sexual arousal; however, only men who read the explicit story demonstrated significant elevations in arousal. The creation of "equally appealing" erotic stories has challenged the existing research paradigm and has initiated the investigation of sexual arousal from a set of common materials designed for both sexes. The benefits of creating a series of equally appealing erotic materials extends beyond empirical research and may ultimately facilitate greater openness and communication between heterosexual couples.

  20. Network Inoculation: Heteroclinics and phase transitions in an epidemic model

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hui; Gross, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiological modelling, dynamics on networks, and in particular adaptive and heterogeneous networks have recently received much interest. Here we present a detailed analysis of a previously proposed model that combines heterogeneity in the individuals with adaptive rewiring of the network structure in response to a disease. We show that in this model qualitative changes in the dynamics occur in two phase transitions. In a macroscopic description one of these corresponds to a local bifurcation whereas the other one corresponds to a non-local heteroclinic bifurcation. This model thus provides a rare example of a system where a phase transition is caused by a non-local bifurcation, while both micro- and macro-level dynamics are accessible to mathematical analysis. The bifurcation points mark the onset of a behaviour that we call network inoculation. In the respective parameter region exposure of the system to a pathogen will lead to an outbreak that collapses, but leaves the network in a configuration wher...

  1. Stress inoculation training: a case study in gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R; Eastman, C; Carroll, D

    1986-09-01

    A young female gymnast of regional squad potential had ceased to make progress when she resumed training after a series of injuries and was given stress inoculation training to help her to regain her form. Preliminary interviews revealed that she had developed a number of negative self-statements and images which, it was hypothesised, may have been contributing towards her lack of progress. In order to replace these with positive self-statements and images a treatment programme of eight training sessions was implemented. Recorded interviews and subsequent comparison of comments made by the subject before and after the intervention programme, indicated that the training had been successful. This was endorsed by the coaches who reported an improved attitude to training and rapid progress in skill learning.

  2. Inoculation of aluminium with titanium and boron addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of studies was to determine mechanism of inocualtion of pure alumnium EN AW-Al99,5 structure with addition of titanium and boron, which are introduced to liquid metal in small ammount - less than obligatory standard PN-EN 573-3 (concerning about aluminium purity.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations it was used light microscopy, X-ray Phase Analysis and TEM. Surfaces of samples which were prepared for macrostructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 50g Cu, 400ml HCl, 300ml HNO3 and 300ml H2O. Surfaces of samples which were were prepared for microstructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 0,5ml HF, 99,5ml H2O. Thin foils for TEM investigations were electropolished with use of 20 ml HClO4 and 80ml CH3OH.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show, that increase of size reduction in aluminium EN AW-Al99,5 after inoculation with (Ti+B result from “washers” of type Ti3Al and CuTi2 to heterogeneous nucleation formation.Research limitations/implications: I further research, authors of this paper are going to identifiy the “washers” to heterogeneous nucleation, in aluminium structure after inoculation with zirconium and vanadium addition.Practical implications: The work presents refinement of structure method which are particularly important in continuous and semi – continuous casting where products are used for plastic forming. Large columnar crystals zone result in forces extrusion rate reduction and during the ingot rolling delamination of external layers can occur. Thus, in some cases ingot skinning is needed, which rises the production costs.Originality/value: Contributes to research on size reduction in pure aluminium structure.

  3. INTRATHYMIC INOCULATION OF LIVER SPECIFIC ANTIGEN ALLEVIATES LIVER TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  4. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  5. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dalong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  6. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalong, M; Luhe, W; Guoting, Y; Liqiang, M; Chun, L

    2011-07-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  7. Biochemical contents of pepper seedlings inoculated with phytophthora infestans and arbuscular mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odebode A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of interactions between Arbuscular Glomus etunicatum and fungus Phytophthora infestans on biochemical contents of pepper plants was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. The sugar contents (i.e. Glucose fructose and sucrose were higher in the control and mycorrhizal inoculated pepper seedlings and the lowest in pathogen inoculated seedlings. Free amino acids were the highest in the simultaneously inoculated pepper seedlings while total phenol was found to be the highest in pepper seedlings inoculated with P. infestans. The levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied in the inoculated pepper seedlings without any significant difference in the treatment. The results obtained suggest protective influence of mycorrhiza by enhancing the nutritional status of the inoculated pepper seedlings.

  8. Paddy plants inoculated with PGPR show better growth physiology and nutrient content under saline condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachana Jha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR to alleviate salt stress during plant growth has been studied on paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. 'GJ-17' under greenhouse conditions; the study included growth parameters, mineral concentration, and antioxidant enzyme level. Salinity reduced plant growth, but PGPR inoculation reduced its harmful effect up to 1% salinity. Plants inoculated with PGPR under saline conditions showed 16% higher germination, 8% higher survival, 27% higher dry weight, and 31% higher plant height. Similarly, PGPR inoculated plants showed increased concentrations of N(26%, P (16%, K (31%, and reduced concentrations of Na (71% and Ca (36% as compared to non-inoculated control plants under saline conditions. Plants inoculated with PGPR under saline conditions also showed significant variations in antioxidant levels and growth physiology. Results suggested that inoculation with PGPR Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in salt-stressed plants could help to alleviate salt stress in the paddy.

  9. The roles of inoculants' carbon source use in the biocontrol of potato scab disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Zhao, Xinbei; Shangguan, Nini; Chang, Dongwei; Ma, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Despite the application of multiple strains in the biocontrol of plant diseases, multistrain inoculation is still constrained by its inconsistency in the field. Nutrients, especially carbons, play an important role in the biocontrol processes. However, little work has been done on the systematic estimation of inoculants' carbon source use on biocontrol efficacies in vivo. In the present study, 7 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains alone and in different combinations were inoculated as biocontrol agents against the potato scab disease, under field conditions and greenhouse treatments. The influence of the inoculants' carbon source use properties on biocontrol efficacies was investigated. The results showed that increasing the number of inoculated strains did not necessarily result in greater biocontrol efficacy in vivo. However, single strains with higher growth rates or multiple strains with less carbon source competition had positive effects on the biocontrol efficacies. These findings may shed light on optimizing the consistent biocontrol of plant disease with the consideration of inoculants' carbon source use properties.

  10. Co-inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense and Herbaspirillum seropedicae in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Janaína Dartora; Deniele Marini; Edilaine. D. V. Gonçalves; Vandeir F. Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria from the genera Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum have been associated with increments in maize yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maize yield and nutritional content in response to inoculation with A. brasilense and H. seropediceae in association with nitrogen (N) fertilization. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of seed inoculation (control without N and inoculation, A. brasi...

  11. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Matos Pereira; Elise de Matos Pereira; Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti; Sonia Marli Zingaretti; Gustavo Vitti Môro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, ...

  12. Analysis of 30 patients with acupuncture-induced primary inoculation tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangbo; Pan, Jingye; Jin, Keke; Liu, Cailong; Wang, Jing; Chen, Li; Chen, Lei; Yuan, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Primary inoculation tuberculosis is a skin condition that develops at the site of inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis-free individuals. This report describes the diagnosis, treatment and >1 year follow-up of 30 patients presenting with acupuncture-induced primary inoculation tuberculosis. Our data provide a deeper insight into this rare route of infection of tuberculosis. We also review effective treatment options.

  13. FERMENTATION QUALITY OF KING GRASS SILAGE TREATED WITH LIQUID OR DRIED INOCULANT OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and fermentation characteristic of king grass silage treated with addition of liquid or dried lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. Four treatments as follows (A king grass without LAB inoculant as the control; (B king grass + 30 ml of liquid of epiphytic LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage; (C king grass + 30 g of freeze-dried powder of LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage; (D king grass + 30 g of centrifuged powder of LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage. The liquid LAB inoculant was sprayed on the top of grass and then mannualy mixed by hand. The intial LAB concentration in all inoculants were 1.0 × 106 cfu/g. About 500 g of silage materials were ensiled into plastic silos and stored at room temperatures (approximately 28oC for 30 days. Results showed that pH value, concentrations of lactic acid, N-amonia (NH3-N, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids (VFA as well as Fleigh Point were affected by treatment of LAB inoculant. Silage treated with liquid or dried of LAB inoculant had lower (P<0.01 pH value compared to the control silage. Concentrations of NH3-N and butyric acid significantly decreased (P<0.01 in silage treated with LAB inoculants. Silage treated with centrifuged powder of LAB inoculant had the highest (P<0.05 Fleigh Point than other silage. In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05 in silage treated with LAB inoculant compared to the control silage.

  14. Co-inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense and Herbaspirillum seropedicae in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Janaína Dartora; Deniele Marini; Edilaine. D. V. Gonçalves; Guimarães, Vandeir F. [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria from the genera Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum have been associated with increments in maize yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maize yield and nutritional content in response to inoculation with A. brasilense and H. seropediceae in association with nitrogen (N) fertilization. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of seed inoculation (control without N and inoculation, A. brasi...

  15. A combination of high stress-induced tense and energetic arousal compensates for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Andreas; Schwabe, Lars; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-09-01

    Stress can both impair and enhance memory retrieval. Glucocorticoids mediate impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. Little is known, however, about factors that facilitate post-stress memory performance. Here, we asked whether stress-induced arousal mediates facilitative stress effects on memory retrieval. Two arousal dimensions were separated: tense arousal, which is characterized by feelings ranging from tension and anxiety to calmness and quietness, and energetic arousal, which is associated with feelings ranging from energy and vigor to states of fatigue and tiredness. Fifty-one men (mean age +/- SEM: 24.57 +/- 0.61 years) learned emotional and neutral words. Memory for these words was tested 165 min later, after participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress or a non-arousing control condition. Changes in heart rate, self-reported (energetic and tense) arousal, and saliva cortisol in response to the stress/control condition were measured. Overall, stress impaired memory retrieval. However, stressed participants with large increases in both tense and energetic arousal performed comparably to controls. Neither salivary cortisol level nor autonomic arousal predicted memory performance after controlling for changes in energetic and tense arousal. The present data indicate that stress-induced concurrent changes in tense and energetic arousal can compensate for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. This finding could help to explain some of the discrepancies in the literature on stress and memory.

  16. Assessment of the Low Alloy Cast Steel Inoculation Effects with Chosen Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bartocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Structure, and thus the mechanical properties of steel are primarily a function of chemical composition and the solidification process which can be influenced by the application of the inoculation treatment. This effect depends on the modifier used. The article presents the results of studies designed to assess the effects of structural low alloy steel inoculation by selected modifying additives. The study was performed on nine casts modeled with different inoculants, assessment of the procedure impact was based on the macrostructure of made castings. The ratio of surface area equivalent to the axial zone of the crystals and columnar crystals zone was adopted as a measure of the inoculation effect.

  17. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  18. Establishment of Desmoncus orthacanthos Martius (Arecaceae): effect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Orellana, Roger; Allen, Edith B

    2006-03-01

    Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has often promoted increased growth of plants but very little work has been done in the tropics to evaluate the effects of inoculation on the establishment and development of seedlings in forests. Desmoncus orthacanthos Martius is a scandent palm present both in early and late succession, and consequently can be used in restoration processes. A test was conducted to determine the effect of AM on the establishment of Desmoncus orthacanthos in tropical forest in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Thirty inoculated and 30 non-inoculated seedlings were introduced in two sites of different successional age, a mature forest and an eight-year old abandoned cornfield (acahual). Survival and growth parameters were evaluated after 12 months. Leaf area and phosphorus, but not height, were greater in inoculated than non-inoculated plants in the forest but not in the acahual. However, mycorrhizae had a clear effect on plant survival in both sites, with a threefold increase in survival of inoculated compared with non-inoculated plants bassed on an odds ratio. The results suggest that inoculation will be important to increase the establishment of this commercially important palm.

  19. Effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on maize grown in multi-metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chang-Cong; Li, Tao; Xiao, Yan-ping; Liu, Mao-Jun; Zhang, Han-Bo; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Pot culture experiments were established to determine the effects of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus mosseae and G. sp) on maize (Zea mays L.) grown in Pb, Zn, and Cd complex contaminated soils. AMF and non-AMF inoculated maize were grown in sterilized substrates and subjected to different soil heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cd) concentrations. The root and shoot biomasses of inoculated maize were significantly higher than those of non-inoculated maize. Pb, Zn, and Cd concentrations in roots were significantly higher than those in shoots in both the inoculated and non-inoculated maize, indicating the heavy metals mostly accumulated in the roots of maize. The translocation rates of Pb, Zn, and Cd from roots to shoots were not significantly difference between inoculated and non-inoculated maize. However, at high soil heavy metal concentrations, Pb, Zn, and Cd in the shoots and Pb in the roots of inoculated maize were significantly reduced by about 50% compared to the non-inoculated maize. These results indicated that AMF could promote maize growth and decrease the uptake of these heavy metals at higher soil concentrations, thus protecting their hosts from the toxicity of heavy metals in Pb, Zn, and Cd complex contaminated soils.

  20. The effects of sedative music, arousal music, and silence on electrocardiography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Mehdy; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Haghjoo, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that music can affect heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance. Music can stimulate central emotions in the brain and release biochemical materials that change the physiologic state. We sought to compare changes in the electrical function of the heart in response to music. Subjects were asked to listen to 2 types of music, namely, sedative and arousal music, in conjunction with two 30-second periods of complete silence. The experiment was conducted in 4 segments: the first and third parts were silence, and the second and fourth parts were music. First, the response to each type of music was compared with that to the preceding period of silence. Next, the responses to both types of music were compared. Finally, the response to music regardless of the type was compared with that to silence. The amplitude of polarization and depolarization changed in response to different kinds of music. The electrical function of the heart in response to music, irrespective of the music type, differed from that in response to silence. The 2 types of music impacted the electrical function of the heart in different ways: the arousal music influenced T-wave maximum amplitude, whereas no such change was recorded in response to the sedative music. The bandwidth of the polarization and depolarization of the heart rate and R-wave amplitude increased in response to music by comparison with silence. In addition, the heart did not seem to try to synchronize with music. The mean R-wave amplitude in sedative music is higher than the arousal music, so our heart works differently when different types of music are heard. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.