Stokes, William S; Wind, Marilyn
Advances in science and innovative technologies are providing new opportunities to develop test methods and strategies that may improve safety assessments and reduce animal use for safety testing. These include high throughput screening and other approaches that can rapidly measure or predict various molecular, genetic, and cellular perturbations caused by test substances. Integrated testing and decision strategies that consider multiple types of information and data are also being developed. Prior to their use for regulatory decision-making, new methods and strategies must undergo appropriate validation studies to determine the extent that their use can provide equivalent or improved protection compared to existing methods and to determine the extent that reproducible results can be obtained in different laboratories. Comprehensive and optimal validation study designs are expected to expedite the validation and regulatory acceptance of new test methods and strategies that will support improved safety assessments and reduced animal use for regulatory testing.
Highlights of the EPA innovative regulatory strategies workshop: Market-based incentives and other innovations for air pollution control. Summary of workshop discussion sessions. Held in Washington, DC on January 15-17, 1992
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 allow, and in some cases require, States to adopt market-based strategies or other innovative types of air pollution control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) innovative regulatory strategies program seeks to encourage and facilitate, as appropriate, the development, demonstration, and implementation of a wide range of innovative regulatory air pollution programs, including market-based, informational, and pollution prevention approaches. The 3-day national workshop, attended by over two hundred people from Federal, State, and local agencies, industry, environmental and public interest groups, and the academic community highlighted issues associated with a variety of innovative, market-based strategies which are currently being developed or used by State and local authorities around the country
Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko
Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use
Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John
Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of
Kim, Yeon Min
This book introduces strategy of technology and innovation which includes design and development of strategy of technology, performance of strategy of technology and building and practice of strategy of development. The contents of this book are form of industrial innovation, act in strategy, advantage of technical innovation, new perspective of studying and innovation, alliance with competitor, cost of transmission and innovation, learning cycle of new product and power of consistency of product.
Neurosurgery has tremendous possibilities for development of innovative medical devices. However, most of the neurosurgical devices used in Japan are imported products. Promotion and development of domestic medical devices is highly encouraged and it is one of the pillars of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's growth strategy of Japanese economy. Innovative "Made in Japan" medical devices can be developed by interdisciplinary collaboration between industries and academic institutions. Proper orientation of medical and engineering education, social and administrative awareness of the need of facilitating the medical devices creative process with corresponding regulatory changes, and appropriate medical and technological infrastructure establishment are needed for stimulating medical device innovation.
Rossini, Frederick; Bozeman, Barry
Considers the implications of the technological innovation literature for possible national strategies for innovation. Sketches highly generalized innovation strategies for nations at various levels of technological development. (Author/IRT)
Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary
Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano
Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on
Lowe, Craig B; Clarke, Julia A; Baker, Allan J; Haussler, David; Edwards, Scott V
The evolution of avian feathers has recently been illuminated by fossils and the identification of genes involved in feather patterning and morphogenesis. However, molecular studies have focused mainly on protein-coding genes. Using comparative genomics and more than 600,000 conserved regulatory elements, we show that patterns of genome evolution in the vicinity of feather genes are consistent with a major role for regulatory innovation in the evolution of feathers. Rates of innovation at feather regulatory elements exhibit an extended period of innovation with peaks in the ancestors of amniotes and archosaurs. We estimate that 86% of such regulatory elements and 100% of the nonkeratin feather gene set were present prior to the origin of Dinosauria. On the branch leading to modern birds, we detect a strong signal of regulatory innovation near insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) 2 and IGFBP5, which have roles in body size reduction, and may represent a genomic signature for the miniaturization of dinosaurian body size preceding the origin of flight. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
I.A. Tunçdoğan (Aybars)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation makes use of the behavioral strategy perspective in order to examine a number of constructs pertaining to innovation in corporate settings. In particular, the dissertation consists of four studies; one conceptual and three empirical. The conceptual
the ‘predictability’ of the discovery process/FEI ought to be an immediate priority area of investment for Pharma (Duyck, 2003). This paper explores how pharmaceutical front end innovation can be actively supported through the development and implementation of an innovation strategy. The empirical field......-year Ph.D. study the process of identifying, developing and integrating a targeted innovation corporate strategy and divisional action plans is examined and effects and results are evaluated and measured. The findings and key learnings from the study are presented as propositions of how innovation......, Steven & Burly, 2003, and Vernorn et al., 2008) and that innovation strategies play a central role in optimization of innovation (Clark & Wheelwright, 1995; Cottam et al., 2001; Morgan & Berthon, 2008). Cottam et al. (2001) stress that in order to maximize the benefits of previous innovations innovative...
Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian
Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving ...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....
Savelyeva Irina Petrovna
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.
Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James
With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.
Lee, Ga Jong
This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.
Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
Recent innovation and strategy research emphasizes the importance of firm’s search for external knowledge to improve innovation performance. We focus on such search strategies within the domain of sustainable innovation in which problems are inherently complex and the relevant knowledge is widely...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...... for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...
Ирина Петровна Савельева
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-4
Dhar, Michael; Griffin, Margaret; Hollin, Ilene; Kachnowski, Stan
Innovation remains an understudied resource within health care. Furthermore, the goals of US health care reform make innovation vitally important, while the time and resource limitations characteristic of health care make new strategies for innovation both necessary and potentially highly meaningful. The purpose of this study was to examine strategies for innovation in various industries and draw lessons for improving innovation in health care. This qualitative study began with literature research that provided a framework for discussion and identified a recurrent challenge in innovation: balancing the freedom to be creative with the need for structured management of ideas. Researchers then identified leading innovative companies and conducted phone interviews with innovation officers and other experts about their strategies for addressing the major innovation challenge. This article breaks out innovation strategies into 6 categories (dedicated times, formal teams, outside ideas, idea-sharing platforms, company/job goals, and incentives) and evaluates them for levels of control, yield, and pervasiveness. Based on this analysis, recommendations are offered for improving innovation in health care, calling for employee time allocated to innovation, dedicated innovation teams, and the incorporation of outside ideas.
Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Roijakkers, Nadine; Lorenz, A.; Chesbrough, Henry W.
Companies that are experienced in open innovation integrate open innovation activities as part of their strategy. By contrast, open innovation research has not been adequately integrated into the strategy literature and vice versa. In this chapter, we discuss a number of existing strategy fields
During the last fifteen years, several Latin American countries have launched new policies to spur the structural transformation of their economies. In parallel, the availability of R&D and innovation statistics is greater than ever before. However, most of the new policies have been backed by the use of simple aggregated R&D and innovation indicators. This work will use a unique dataset of IS from several LA economies to produce a detailed analysis of innovation strategies of LA firms. These results will facilitate a more comprehensive comparison of innovation performance between LA countries and a richer benchmark analysis with economies from the EU. Furthermore, it will allow to measure the explanatory power of industry and country conditions in the heterogeneity of innovation strategies and to test the pertinence of the OECD sector-based technological classifications in the LA context. During the last fifteen years, several Latin American countries have launched new policies to spur the structural transformation of their economies. In parallel, the availability of R&D and innovation statistics is greater than ever before. However, most of the new policies have been backed by the use of simple aggregated R&D and innovation indicators. This work will use a unique dataset of IS from several LA economies to produce a detailed analysis of innovation strategies of LA firms. These results will facilitate a more comprehensive comparison of innovation performance between LA countries and a richer benchmark analysis with economies from the EU. Furthermore, it will allow to measure the explanatory power of industry and country conditions in the heterogeneity of innovation strategies and to test the pertinence of the OECD sector-based technological classifications in the LA context. (Author)
Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.
The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the link between strategy formulation process and innovation performance indicators in microfinance banks in Nigeria (MFBs. 100 employees of leading microfinance banks were randomly selected for this study. 80 questionnaires were returned but only 76 were found usable for the analysis. Regression analysis technique was used in examining the nature of the relationships of the variables and for hypotheses testing. The authors used exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha to test for the validity and reliability of the questionnaires. The results show that strategy formulation process has a positive effect on process innovation performance, product innovation performance and marketing innovation performance. Thus, all the three hypotheses tested were supported. The authors, therefore, concludes that a systematic strategy formulation process is necessary for firms to achieve and sustain process innovation performance, product innovation performance and marketing innovation performance. This study proposed suggestion for further studies.
Organizations that choose or are forced to innovate in co-operation withother organizations, go through four stages of co-innovation strategy development.The stages are successively: (1) autonomous strategy making: organizations developstrategies on their own, (2) co-operative strategy making:
Saebi, Tina; Foss, Nicolai Juul
-This is the author's version of the article:"Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions", European Management Journal, Volume 33, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages 201–213 Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies' business models are not attuned to open strategies. Ac...
Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Maria
Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provides funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies.
Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Fabiana
Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provide funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company's choice of innovation strategies.
I. M. Golova
Full Text Available The author considered problems and contradictions of modern innovation policy in Russia. It is shown, that at present time regions are removed from management of science-technical complex and spatial priorities are not produced. It is a serious factor of risk for conservation perspectives of innovation development for Russia. With taking into account of world experience main districts of rise effects regional police were formulated. It is underlined, that creation conditions for transformation of regional authorities in active subjects of innovation policy is necessary condition for building vital innovation system. It is shown, that state innovation policy must be constructed at combination of next principles: a support science-technical potential of regions — generators of innovation and creation conditions for its realization; b using of innovations for evening-out disproportions of social-economic development between regions; c widening powers and financial possibilities of regions at management of innovation climate. Methodical approaches for making effective mechanisms of management of innovation processes of territory are opened. Typology of Russian regions with high and middle degree of innovation climate is proposed, which takes level of science and innovation potential of territory and also degree of comfort of social-economic conditions for development of innovation activity are offered. Peculiarities of innovation strategy for different types of regions are defined. This typology may be used for substantiation spatial priorities of innovation strategy of Russia.
This short brochure issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI defines the organisation’s regulatory framework strategy. Six guiding principles are declared and discussed: Comprehensive harmonisation with relevant international requirements, basing the regulatory framework on existing, tried-and-tested regulations, issuing of its own guidelines only when it is necessary to do so, guidelines to be drawn up transparently and with the involvement of all stakeholders and basing the level of detail of its regulatory framework on hazard potential and risk
do Nascimento Gambi, Lillian; Boer, Harry
Firms strive for improving their performance, and organizational culture has been recognized as an important driver of better performance. In parallel, strategy is viewed as an important contextual variable that influences organizational culture as well as performance. This study has two main goals......: (1) investigating the relationship between strategic practices and innovation performance, and (2) determining if strategy has a direct and/or an indirect, culture-mediated effect on innovation performance, and if this effect varies across strategic practices and culture profiles. The research model...... cultural profile achieve the strongest performance effects....
M. S. Reshetnikova
Full Text Available Among main strategic goals of China in the second half of XX century was the creation of a superpower with an efficient economy, which occupies a leading position in the world. Modernization of the country was inextricably linked to the formation of its own self-sustaining innovation system. Using the experience of recognized innovation leaders such as the Soviet Union, France and the United States, China has transformed the elements of its innovation strategy, adjusting it to the circumstances of global innovative activity. The result of government policy was the creation of one of the world's largest national innovation system (NIS. Today China's NIS is a complex set of both public and private institutions, which are closely interrelated. Their joint activities focus on the creation, use and improvement of new and high technologies. The current NIS combines the features of both the administrative-command and market systems and components, folding under the influence of the major trends of global economy, especially the internationalization of innovation activities. Analysis of innovative development strategy pursued by China, allowed to define a distinct periodization that was influenced by the changes taking place in the global economy. The main steps of China's NIS development are the following: formation of incremental type innovation system, upgrading the innovation system, the shift from the strategy of "market in exchange for technology" to "interaction and integration into the world market" and the creation of its own high-tech products. The uniqueness of the political system and structure of economy impact on the state strategy in R&D and NIS, forming both the strengths and weaknesses. The analysis of China's government strategy of innovative development shows that it is significantly and deliberately worked on extensive scientific development indicators. However, this strategy did not lead to a breakthrough in basic research and the
Häckel, Björn; Isakovic, Vasko; Moser, Florian
Allocating an IT Innovation budget to technologies in different maturity stages (mature vs. fashionable IT innovations) is a demanding task for companies. Due to the dynamic innovation cycles with new emerging technologies, many IT innovation investment decisions follow a bandwagon behavior or fixed investment strategies. Instead of optimizing the IT innovation budget’s allocation to mature or fashionable IT innovations and following a mindful investment strategy, fixed strategies with naïve ...
Kishna, M.; Negro, S.O.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.
This paper focuses on the strategies of incumbents that seek to develop discontinuous innovations within the boundaries of a mature innovation system. Mature innovation systems do not provide support for these discontinuous innovations. This article focuses on exploring why incumbents in these
Anthony, Scott D; Eyring, Matt; Gibson, Lib
In the complex sport of American football, teams rely on playbooks as thick as the Manhattan phone directory. But when it comes to creating innovative growth businesses-which is at least as complicated as professional football--most companies have not developed detailed game plans. Indeed, many managers have concluded that a fog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunities. The authors believe that companies can penetrate that fog by developing growth strategies based on disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen. Such innovations conform to a pattern: They offer an entirely new solution; they perform adequately along traditional dimensions and much better along other dimensions that matter more to target customers; and they are not initially appealing to powerful incumbents. Companies can develop customized checklists, or playbooks, by combining this basic pattern with analysis of major innovations in their markets. The key early on is to focus not on detailed financial estimates--which will always guide companies toward the markets most hostile to disruptive innovations--but on how well the innovation fits the pattern of success. It's also crucial to encourage flexibility: Companies must be willing to kill projects that are going nowhere, exempt innovations from standard development processes, and avoid burdening project teams with extra financing, which can keep them heading in the wrong direction. Companies can create competitive advantage by becoming champions at defining the pattern of successful innovations and executing against it. But as that pattern becomes obvious--and others emerge-building a sustainable advantage on innovation competencies will again prove elusive.
Johnson, R.L.; Linehan, J.J.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has updated its initial regulatory strategy for the High-Level Waste Repository Licensing Program. The update describes changes to the initial strategy and summarizes progress and future activities. This paper summarizes the first update of the regulatory strategy. In general the overall strategy of identifying and reducing uncertainties is unchanged. Identifying regulatory and institutional uncertainties is essentially complete, and therefore, the current and future emphasis is on reducing those regulatory and institutional uncertainties identified to date. The NRC staff has improved the methods of reducing regulatory uncertainties by (1) enhancing the technical basis preparation process for potential rulemakings and guidance and (2) designing a new guidance document, called a staff position, for clarifying regulatory uncertainties. For guiding the US DOE's reduction of technical uncertainties, the NRC staff will give more emphasis to prelicense application reviews and less emphasis on preparing staff technical positions
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and to estimate the forming of expediency of the development strategy of financial and innovative technologies in the context of modern economic space realities.The results of the analysis. The growing importance of the financial sector in the contemporary economic space, as well as rapid changes in it, generates a need for financial innovative technologies. Development strategy of financial and innovative technologies is always asso...
Innovation in animal health pharmaceuticals is important to address unmet and underserved medical needs, and often comes from products initially developed for human medicine. The purpose of the review is to help readers understand how breakthroughs from human biotechnology may be developed for use in veterinary medicine, while understanding the key drivers to success, the difficulties of regulatory approval, and the realistic risks and rewards of developing applications for animals. The types of human drugs which may be useful for veterinary applications are reviewed, including examples. The regulatory path is discussed, with a review of the various oversight agencies, and the categories of data required to be submitted, including safety, efficacy, manufacturing, environmental impact and human food safety. In conclusion, the cost, development time, and barriers to innovation in veterinary medical pharmaceuticals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NORM) faces the increasing likelihood of federal or state regulatory control. Public concern and limited preliminary survey data fuel the debate over the necessity, approach, and jurisdiction of a NORM regulatory strategy. This debate requires the resolution of technical controversies and potentially competing state and federal agency interests. An additional facet of the debate is the impact of regulation upon traditionally non-nuclear industries, such as oil and gas production. Regulatory response has been initiated in several states, such as Louisiana's controls on equipment used in oil and gas production, to control specific industrial activities which generate NORM. A more comprehensive, generic federal strategy to control NORM contamination is also under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper will detail the emerging technical issues, federal and state regulatory strategies under consideration, and evaluate the efficacy of selected regulatory approaches. (author)
Grignolo, Alberto; Mingping, Zhang
Sweeping reforms in the largest markets of the Asia-Pacific region are transforming the regulatory and commercial landscape for foreign pharmaceutical companies. Japan, South Korea, and China are leading the charge, establishing mechanisms and infrastructure that both reflect and help drive international regulatory convergence and accelerate delivery of needed, innovative products to patients. In this rapidly evolving regulatory and commercial environment, drug developers can benefit from reforms and proliferating accelerated pathway (AP) frameworks, but only with regulatory and evidence-generation strategies tailored to the region. Otherwise, they will confront significant pricing and reimbursement headwinds. Although APAC economies are at different stages of development, they share a common imperative: to balance pharmaceutical innovation with affordability. Despite the complexity of meeting these sometimes conflicting demands, companies that focus on demonstrating and delivering value for money, and that price new treatments reasonably and sustainably, can succeed both for their shareholders and the region's patient population.
Hoegberg, L.; Svensson, G.; Viktorsson, C.
This paper describes the new regulatory objectives and strategy of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Factors that have influenced the development of the regulatory strategy, including an international peer review, are discussed. In addition to general technical requirements for a defence in depth, the new strategy strongly focuses on the quality of plant safety management processes, to be monitored by process-oriented inspections. Also, quality assurance of regulatory activities is stressed. Experience gained so far shows that the regulatory approach chosen in Sweden promotes utility self assessment, quality of safety management and ownership of safety work within the utility staff. (author)
So, Anthony D; Shah, Tejen A
The increase in antibiotic resistance and the dearth of novel antibiotics have become a growing concern among policy-makers. A combination of financial, scientific, and regulatory challenges poses barriers to antibiotic innovation. However, each of these three challenges provides an opportunity to develop pathways for new business models to bring novel antibiotics to market. Pull-incentives that pay for the outputs of research and development (R&D) and push-incentives that pay for the inputs of R&D can be used to increase innovation for antibiotics. Financial incentives might be structured to promote delinkage of a company's return on investment from revenues of antibiotics. This delinkage strategy might not only increase innovation, but also reinforce rational use of antibiotics. Regulatory approval, however, should not and need not compromise safety and efficacy standards to bring antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action to market. Instead regulatory agencies could encourage development of companion diagnostics, test antibiotic combinations in parallel, and pool and make transparent clinical trial data to lower R&D costs. A tax on non-human use of antibiotics might also create a disincentive for non-therapeutic use of these drugs. Finally, the new business model for antibiotic innovation should apply the 3Rs strategy for encouraging collaborative approaches to R&D in innovating novel antibiotics: sharing resources, risks, and rewards.
Bruijn, P.J.M. de; Lagendijk, A.
This contribution explores the framing of the concept of Regional Innovation Systems (RISs) within European ecoruomic policies. Regional innovation systems are analytically and empirically assessed within the policy corltext of the Lisbon strategy, with special reference to regional dimensions in
John E. Ettlie; William P. Bridges; Robert D. O'Keefe
The purpose of this study was to test a model of the organizational innovation process that suggests that the strategy-structure causal sequence is differentiated by radical versus incremental innovation. That is, unique strategy and structure will be required for radical innovation, especially process adoption, while more traditional strategy and structure arrangements tend to support new product introduction and incremental process adoption. This differentiated theory is strongly supported ...
Full Text Available This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services-over a short period of time-were informed about businesses’ lack of value-added tax (VAT registration. Our approach to the case is twofold: First, the article lays out a legal analysis of the disclosure practice, and second, the article presents an organizational analysis of why the practice was initiated. The analyses show that using proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration.
Gajewski, S.W.; Donaghue, J.F.
The Hanford Site restoration is the largest waste cleanup operation in history. The Hanford plutonium production mission generated two-thirds of all the nuclear waste, by volume, in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Cleanup challenges include not only large stored volumes of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste, but contaminated soil and groundwater and scores of major structures slated for decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition. DOE and its contractors will need to invent the technology required to do the job on a timetable driven by negotiated milestones, public concerns, and budgetary constraints. This paper will discuss the effort at Hanford to develop an integrated, streamlined strategy for compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) in the conduct of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) of innovative cleanup technologies. The aspects that will be discussed include the following: the genesis of the RD ampersand D permitting challenge at Hanford; permitting options in the existing regulatory framework; regulatory options that offered the best fit for Hanford RD ampersand D activities, and the problems associated with them; and conclusions and recommendations made to regulatory bodies
Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian
The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....
Bert Verhoeven; Lester W. Johnson
Purpose: The research links three concepts: product market growth strategy, the magnitude of innovation and Business Model Innovation, merging them together into a dynamic Business Model Innovation strategy framework. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is conceptual and exploratory in nature and builds on existing literature and the author’s experience with developing business models. Findings: The BMI strategy framework can help managers establish a BMI portfolio strategy followi...
High-definition televisions should, by now, be a huge success. Philips, Sony, and Thompson invested billions of dollars to develop TV sets with astonishing picture quality. From a technology perspective, they've succeeded: Console manufacturers have been ready for the mass market since the early 1990s. Yet the category has been an unmitigated failure, not because of deficiencies, but because critical complements such as studio production equipment were not developed or adopted in time. Under-performing complements have left console producers in the position of offering a Ferrari in a world without gasoline or highways--an admirable engineering feat, but not one that creates value for customers. The HDTV story exemplifies the promise and peril of innovation ecosystems--the collaborative arrangements through which firms combine their individual offers into a coherent, customer-facing solution. When they work, innovation ecosystems allow companies to create value that no one firm could have created alone. The benefits of these systems are real. But for many organizations the attempt at ecosystem innovation has been a costly failure. This is because, along with new opportunities, innovation ecosystems also present a new set of risks that can brutally derail a firm's best efforts. Innovation ecosystems are characterized by three fundamental types of risk: initiative risks--the familiar uncertainties of managing a project; interdependence risks--the uncertainties of coordinating with complementary innovators; and integration risks--the uncertainties presented by the adoption process across the value chain. Firms that assess ecosystem risks holistically and systematically will be able to establish more realistic expectations, develop a more refined set of environmental contingencies, and arrive at a more robust innovation strategy. Collectively, these actions will lead to more effective implementation and more profitable innovation.
Holgersson, Marcus; Granstrand, Ove; Bogers, Marcel
In this article, we attempt to extend and nuance the debate on intellectual property (IP) strategy, appropriation, and open innovation in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. We present the case of four generations of mobile telecommunications systems (covering the period 1980-2015), and des......In this article, we attempt to extend and nuance the debate on intellectual property (IP) strategy, appropriation, and open innovation in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. We present the case of four generations of mobile telecommunications systems (covering the period 1980......-2015), and describe and analyze the co-evolution of strategic IP management and innovation ecosystems. Throughout this development, technologies and technological relationships were governed with different and shifting degrees of formality. Simultaneously, firms differentiated technology accessibility across actors...
The purpose of the study focused on the instructional strategies that support creation of creative and innovative education. The sample for this study consisted of 11 experts in the field of instructional strategies that support innovation of education. Among them, five were specialists in design and development of teaching and learning, three…
Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup
To date, a fairly large amount of research has explored how social and organizational processes function and change ‘inside’ virtual spaces. In this article, add to the literature dismantling the longstanding dichotomy between the virtual world and the real world, by analyzing the importance...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory...... and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...
Holgersson, Marcus; Granstrand, Ove; Bogers, Marcel
In this article, we attempt to extend and nuance the debate on intellectual property (IP) strategy, appropriation, and open innovation in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. We present the case of four generations of mobile telecommunications systems (covering the period 1980-2015), and des......In this article, we attempt to extend and nuance the debate on intellectual property (IP) strategy, appropriation, and open innovation in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. We present the case of four generations of mobile telecommunications systems (covering the period 1980...... and technologies to benefit from openness and appropriation of innovation. Our analysis shows that the discussion of competitiveness and appropriability needs to be expanded from the focal appropriability regime and complementary assets to the larger context of the innovation ecosystem and its cooperative...... and competitive actor relations, with dispersed complementary and substitute assets and technologies. Consequently, the shaping of complementary and substitute appropriability regimes is central when strategizing in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. This holds important implications for the management...
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the innovation strategy of contractor firms in the Slovak forestry service sector in the area of further innovation activities development. The strategy identification was based on the analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in this sector. The results indicate that weaknesses of contractor firms exceed their strengths and, considering the degree and importance of their impact, opportunities exceed identified threats. Based on these findings revealing the relations in the area of innovation activities of forestry service contractors, the “Strategy of Partnership” was suggested as the most suitable type of strategy. It can be concluded that such a form of grouping cooperation brings many benefits to contractors in the form of information availability, guidance, training, and management of conflicts, risks and uncertainty, which are associated with the innovation process.
Full Text Available An innovation perspective provides an unencumbered clean sheet view of the future, as it is only concerned with what opportunities lie ahead. It prompts the organization to consider the question of 'what future state do we want to achieve?' as opposed to the orchestrated approaches of strategic planning that promotes incrementalism. The perspective chosen will often determine whether an organization is a competitive innovator and competitive imitator. In today's economic environment, organizations are required to create differentiable value. To do so requires a certain synergy between strategy and innovation. This article outlines the importance of innovation, but more importantly discusses the relationship between strategy and innovation. It argues that strategic innovation is logical, yet strategy and innovation are quite different, both in terms of definition and function. These differences are identified, and approaches to achieving synergy are outlined.
The research results are as follow: the learning experience to use imitation strategy which covers stages of imitation, research, development and creation. This learning process is the result of interaction between personal and behavior factors, as well as the enabler and barriers. The owners of leather small industries which leave the imitation strategy and switch to innovation strategy are craftsmen who have an entrepreneurial spirit. they are able to balance entrepreneurial and business aspects.
Full Text Available In the world marketplace some firms compete successfully and others fail to gain global competitive advantage. Some researchers argue that innovation strategy is the answer to successfully meeting today’s and tomorrow’s global business challenges. An important aspect of the innovation strategy is managing global teams effectively. Thus, firms of tomorrow will be characterized by values such as teamwork, innovation, cultural diversity, and a global mindset. The rapid globalization of business, and increasing competition will continue to drive the need for effective teamwork and/in innovation management. The purpose of our research is to gain insight into global team management and its role as a major component of innovation strategy. We discuss the changing and developing functions of teamwork, examine the characteristics of global teams, and finally offer a process to achieve effective global team management.
Zewen, Chen; xin, Li; Hongjun, Cao
Based on the new Institutional theory and the sample of 116 enterprises, this paper explores the influencing factors of green innovation strategy from the perspective of forced pressure, normative pressure and imitation pressure. The results show that the mandatory regulation, the incentive regulation, the supply chain pressure, and the competitive pressure all have a significant and positive impact on the green innovation strategy. Therefore, the government should take steps to stimulate enterprises to choose the green innovation strategy.
Felkey, Bill G; Fox, Brent I
There are ways to facilitate the successful implementation of technological innovations. These are especially important in a time of rapid development of new tools to support safe and effective medication therapy. This installment addresses some of the key components of a successful technology innovation strategy.
Full Text Available The second larger Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy ‘Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013’ is aimed at continuing the advancement of research and development efforts towards an innovative knowledge-based society and economic system in Estonia. Fostering of knowledge-based high-tech industries is seen as paramount for retaining country’s competitive advantage. However, the mid-term evaluations indicate that several goals of the strategy might not be achievable by 2013. In fact, the policy measures have been much more successful in developing scientific research, as indicated by increased international publication, number of patents, and number of researchers and engineers. The advances in development of high-tech products and services through innovations are noticeable but less prominent. The purpose of this study is to suggest the role for demand-side innovation policies in helping to advance commercial development and innovation
Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith
The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at pre-kindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers' overwhelmingly use commands (e.g., do that) to promote compliance in their 24-month old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predict fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction, whereas children's gender predicts fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24-months predict children's sustained attention at pre-kindergarten whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24-months predicts children's emotion regulation at pre-kindergarten. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. PMID:25798496
Ray R Gehani
Full Text Available After the 2008 economic slowdown, and with increasing assault from enterprises from emerging economies, many innovative strategic leaders of multinational enterprises are forced to radically transform their enterprises. They often choose to change from low-cost strategy to innovation-driven product differentiation strategy. In this study, we use a multi-level Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM and agency theory to empirically illustrate such a strategic transformation at a large composite fabric and accessories enterprise. Lessons are drawn from the impact of strategic transformation at multiple levels: strategic leader level, tactical-team manager level, operational follower level, and stakeholder level. Implications for practitioners and researchers are provided by way of mindful leader orientation and value-based innovation.
This paper examines an attempt to promote a school centred innovation strategy within a highly centralized educational system. The School Based Curriculum Project Scheme, which was introduced into Hong Kong in 1988, is analysed in terms of a professional-bureaucratic dichotomy. It is argued that the operational details of the scheme are designed to satisfy a range of bureaucratic concerns and these are not conducive to promoting the professional work ethic which is required for school centred innovation. Finally the paper identifies the implications which arise for policies designed to promote curriculum innovation.
Dawid, H.; Keoula, M.Y.; Kopel, M.; Kort, Peter
We employ a dynamic market model with endogenous creation of submarkets to study the optimal product innovation strategies of incumbent firms. Firms invest in production capacity and R&D knowledge stock, where the latter determines the hazard rate of innovation. We find that under Markov Perfect
Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester
Through two in-depth case studies we intend to show in this paper, that innovation, marketing, the search for new business opportunities are interlinked in what could be labeled as networking as strategy. But being entrepreneurial, innovative and searching for new business models is a quite...
... Innovation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and Request for... competitiveness but particularly the Administration's Innovation Strategy (see http://www.Commerce.gov/competes..., identified by ``Innovation Strategy RFI'' by any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected
Full Text Available Contemporary concepts of business of service organisations, focus their researches on measuring quality of the services and identification of mistakes. The aim of strategies is the improvement of quality. Marketing concepts shows that the constant creation of new products and the modification of characteristics on the old products, makes possible market strategy that stimulates development of activities. This paper is focusing on the improving of service using the strategies that can innovate and improve the services. Paper seeks to demonstrate one of possible observations and importance of performance, combined with blueprinting of services and benchmarking as a useful strategies for improving and innovation of services.
Alexander O. Bebris
Full Text Available The article provides a brief description of modern concept of strategic management and provides the effectiveness principles for the strategy of modern ventures innovative development. The article refers to the management of ventures strategic development.
Fink, T M A; Reeves, M; Palma, R; Farr, R S
Innovation is to organizations what evolution is to organisms: it is how organizations adapt to environmental change and improve. Yet despite advances in our understanding of evolution, what drives innovation remains elusive. On the one hand, organizations invest heavily in systematic strategies to accelerate innovation. On the other, historical analysis and individual experience suggest that serendipity plays a significant role. To unify these perspectives, we analysed the mathematics of innovation as a search for designs across a universe of component building blocks. We tested our insights using data from language, gastronomy and technology. By measuring the number of makeable designs as we acquire components, we observed that the relative usefulness of different components can cross over time. When these crossovers are unanticipated, they appear to be the result of serendipity. But when we can predict crossovers in advance, they offer opportunities to strategically increase the growth of the product space.
Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia
Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.
Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith Lee
The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), an...
De Spiegelaere, Stan; Van Gyes, Guy; Van Hootegem, Geert
The European strategy for growth has a double aim: becoming an innovative union and enhancing labour flexibility. Yet, few addressed the question whether these two strategies are compatible or concurrent strategies. Through a review of the literature, we address this question by focusing on different types of labour flexibility (functional, contractual and financial), and two types of innovation outcomes: employee-driven innovation (EDI) and organizational innovativeness. Using insights from ...
Alina Irina POPESCU
Full Text Available Emerging economies present the largest growth in the world, and thus tremendous growth opportunities. Developing products for emerging markets proves to be a difficult task requiring a fundamental shift in thinking, and the present paper aims at investigating the product innovation strategies available on emerging markets, theoretically and practically through examples and a case-study of the Romanian tablet market. At the beginning, the theoretical framework is described through the most relevant contributions to the field of product innovation. Some conceptual clarifications are provided, in the context of a widespread usage of terms in various fields of science. The second part of the paper attempts to define the ‘emerging markets’ and to find distinctive their characteristics, attempt hampered by their great diversity and complexity. The third part provides empirical support for the product innovation strategies used by local tablet producers in Romania. Findings show local tablet producers used the frugal innovation strategy in the first years of operations. Afterwards, the increasingly competitive market and the gradual sophistication of consumers made a shift in strategy, to new product development and innovation strategy, in the context of keeping the low-cost positioning of the locally produced tablets.
Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Universities UK, 2014
This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…
This short brochure issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI defines the organisation’s regulatory framework strategy. Six guiding principles are declared and discussed: Comprehensive harmonisation with relevant international requirements, basing the regulatory framework on existing, tried-and-tested regulations, issuing of its own guidelines only when it is necessary to do so, guidelines to be drawn up transparently and with the involvement of all stakeholders and basing the level of detail of its regulatory framework on hazard potential and risk.
Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
– Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence and discusses their relevance.......Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited...... with concept mapping, which is a group-based method. Three meetings were conducted with each of four school classes in Denmark. Participants in the 12-15-year age group were recruited for the study. At the first meeting, participants had to complete the phrase “Things I can do to ensure my healthy eating are...
Malin, Jenessa L; Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith L
The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24 months, and children's regulatory skills at prekindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income, minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (n = 71), we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24 months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers overwhelmingly used commands (e.g., "Do that.") to promote compliance in their 24-month-old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predicted fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction whereas children's gender predicted fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24 months predicted children's sustained attention at pre-K whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24 months predicted children's emotion regulation at pre-K. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
M. E. Zolotareva
Full Text Available In the article is considered the possibility of application of methodology of foresight to the formation of strategy of innovative development of technological companies. The application of existing approaches to defining targets and goals of innovation development does not meet the requirements of the nonlinearity of the modern processes of technological companies’ innovation development.The goals and objectives. The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of application of methods of foresight in forming of technological companies’ innovation development strategy. To achieve the goal, the author has solved the following problems: considered the interrelationship and interdependence between corporate strategy and technological companies’ innovation development strategy; defined the main problems of formation technological companies’ innovation development strategies; revealed the concept of "foresight" and diff erence in methodology of foresight and traditional forecasting techniques; defined the basic principles of foresight; presents the main stages of the foresight project implementation in technological companies.Research methods. The theoretical basis of the study are the publications of Russian and foreign scientists in the field of formation and development of innovation strategies through the application of foresight methods at the level of national innovation system and at company level. As a methodological basis of the study used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction method, deduction method, the comparison, was applied certain aspects of the synergetic analysis.Summary. The results of Russian and foreign researchers systematized by author confirm the possibility and necessity foresight projects implementation in formation and adjustment of technological companies’ innovation development strategies and in the national innovation system development. The principles of engagement of various social forces
This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.
Front end innovation (FEI) represents the first building blocks of product development, but is often regarded as a weak link in innovation literature. Various theorists emphasize that a firm’s innovation can benefit substantially by improving the front end of innovation process (Reinertsen, 1999,......-oriented longitudinal case study of a Danish pharmaceutical company. The findings and key learnings from the study are presented as propositions of how innovation strategies can be applied to actively facilitate FEI and with measurable results.......Front end innovation (FEI) represents the first building blocks of product development, but is often regarded as a weak link in innovation literature. Various theorists emphasize that a firm’s innovation can benefit substantially by improving the front end of innovation process (Reinertsen, 1999...
This Research Study looks at various innovative marketing strategies used by our top most companies .Marketing strategies is a long term, forward looking approach to planning with the fundamental goal achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Overall approach of this paper is to create a link between growth rate of companies and new marketing strategies. Good marketing is no accident, It is both an art and a science and it results from careful planning and execution using state-of-the-ar...
Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.
The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory programme. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)
Full Text Available Lately, the concept of innovation has become a development mantra in the fierce global competition. Competition is not limited to firms; it is also relevant for territories. An observed trend which is not surprising is the number of support tools that have been developed to reinforce the position of territories and their actors in the innovation processes. Clusters and regional innovation systems are the most important of them. However, both are rather underdeveloped in the CEE countries, including the Czech Republic. Faced with this situation, a number of Czech regional authorities (Regions took measures to stimulate the process of creating cluster and regional innovation system (RISs. Hence, strategic planning in the form of regional innovation strategies has become an overarching concept. So far, eleven Czech Regions have elaborated on RISs and analysis of these documents was the main focus of this article. The main finding of this paper is that, there is an increasing quality of RISs in the Czech Republic. Moreover, some common and some differentiated features of RISs were also identified. Consequently, the paper emphasizes numerous problems of RISs that is perceived as a key barrier towards real regional innovation system.
Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...
Klaassen, P.; van de Poel, Ibo; Asveld, Lotte; Flipse, Steven; Scholten, Victor; Yaghmaei, Emad
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has become an important topic in the academic community and in policy circles, but it has not yet been systematically included in the innovation process of companies. We discuss how companies can integrate RRI into their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and business strategy. To this end, we developed a conceptual model that links a company’s RRI strategy to its context, and that helps to translate the RRI strategy into activities that r...
van de Poel, I.R.; Asveld, L.; Flipse, S.M.; Klaassen, Pim; Scholten, V.E.; Yaghmaei, E.
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has become an important topic in the academic community and in policy circles, but it has not yet been systematically included in the innovation process of companies. We discuss how companies can integrate RRI into their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and business strategy. To this end, we developed a conceptual model that links a company's RRI strategy to its context, and that helps to translate the RRI strategy into activities that r...
Full Text Available Background: Talent management (TM strategies are one of the most important factors that can change the innovation climate. The main aim of this research was to investigate the influence of TM strategies on innovation climate in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The target population included all faculty members. In this research, 242 faculty members were selected through accidental sampling method. Data collection instruments were TM strategies questionnaire based on Collings and Mellahi’s model and innovation climate questionnaire based on Luthans et al. model. The data analysis was done using Pearson correlation, one way ANOVA, t-tests and regression model. Results: According to the results, TM strategies and innovation climates cores were 4.29±1.17 and 4.17±1.17, respectively. The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship with TM strategies (open communication, employee development, rewards and recognitions, managing performance and open climate/culture and innovation climate. As a result, all research hypotheses were confirmed. Conclusion: TM strategies are a comprehensive, department wide program designated to improve the employees’ satisfaction, strengthen the workplace learning and help the employees better manage the changes and transitions. The study suggested that talent management strategies are a comprehensive, department wide program designated to improve the faculty member’s satisfaction, strengthen workplace learning and help the employees better manage the changes and transitions.
Renewable energy technology (RET) innovation involves new, improved processes, as well as strategies to accelerate RET development, ranging from breakthroughs with basic technology inventions and improved research, development and deployment (RDD) systems, to improved market mechanisms and commercialisation. In order to achieve RET innovation, a country needs to put in place the right policy approaches, frameworks, governance and policy instruments. This working paper was compiled to assist countries with policy development in order to strengthen renewable energy innovation, primarily through a discussion of design criteria for innovation policy frameworks. The report identifies broad success criteria for innovation policy in the sector and suggests strategic policy approaches to advance RET innovation in the context of constrained options, competition for resources, and national economic development goals. For renewable energy innovation policy regimes to be succeed, they must satisfy two broad criteria: (a) promotion of sustained multi-stakeholder engagement around an achievable, shared vision; and (b) appropriate positioning of a country or region to anticipate and benefit from renewable energy technology flows.
Pashkus N.A; Pashkus V.
The article discusses the possibility of using active marketing strategies for promoting the results of university’s innovations. Benefits, that can be obtained by university through its strategy of breakthrough positioning explored
Stahl, D.; Cloninger, M.O.
This paper summarizes the strategy given in the Site Characterization Plan for demonstrating compliance with the post closure performance objectives for the waste package and the Engineered Barrier System contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. The strategy consists of the development of a conservative waste package design that will meet the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty using a multi-barrier approach that takes advantage of the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site. 7 refs., 1 fig
Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm
sharing and co-operation play a critical part. The paper addresses the involvement of users in opening up the innovation process, which in turn gives the participating actors an interesting alternative for product development. We identify and classify four archetypal strategies for opening up...
Full Text Available Innovation is an important aspect of contemporary business. Rapid change in guests' preferences and expectations significantly affect the restaurant industry. Meeting the diverse hospitality needs implies making innovative programs in all processes such as technical, technological as well as service oriented. Hospitality industry enters into the process of accelerated changes of modern equipment, updated technology, business strategies and hospitality management. The paper will discuss innovative offer design, molecular gastronomy, modern food presentation technique as well as authentic culinary products offer. By introducing such innovations, restaurants create the image of organisations following current trends as well as responding to the market requirements.
Veugelers, Reinhilde; Schneider, Cédric
This paper describes and analyzes the strategies of young highly innovative companies to appropriate the returns from their innovations. Upon controlling for other firm and industry characteristics, we show that firms combining a young age and small scale with a high R&D intensive profile are mor...... likely to use intellectual property (IP), specifically combining formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. They are especially more likely to choose secrecy in combination with formal IP. This holds primarily when they introduce more radical innovations new to the market....
Radauer, Alfred; Rodriguez, V.F.
On October 13, 2009 the Science and Technology Options Assessment Panel (STOA) together with Knowledge4Innovation/The Lisbon Forum, supported by Technopolis Consulting Group and TNO, organised a half-day workshop entitled ‘Towards an Intellectual Property Rights Strategy for Innovation in Europe’.
... innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the extension of the fee waiver results in a modest... to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and membership... may apply to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and...
... by adopting an innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the fee waiver resulted in a... apply to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and membership... Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and membership application...
Materia, V.C.; Pascucci, S.; Dries, L.K.E.
The paper investigates the determinants of innovation strategies in the agri-food sector and
the potential complementarity of these strategies. Innovation strategies are distinguished as
in-house and outsourcing. The choice between strategies is motivated by transaction
Materia, Valentina C.; Pascucci, Stefano; Dries, Liesbeth
We analyse European agri-food firms’ choices about innovation in-house or through outsourcing and provide empirical evidence about the correlation between these strategies. The relationship between the innovation strategy and firm-, industry- and innovation-specific characteristics is analysed
The authors who contributed to this issue of Healthcare Papers have provided rich insights into a promising innovation agenda to support transformational change aimed at achieving high-performing, person-centric health systems that are sustainable and deliver value. First and foremost, the commentaries make clear that a focused innovation agenda with defined goals, objectives and milestones is needed, if innovation is to be a viable and successful strategy to achieve health system transformation. To date, innovation has been a catch-all term for solving the many challenges health systems are experiencing. Yet, innovation on its own cannot fix all the ills of a health system; strategic goals and objectives are needed to define the way forward if innovation is to achieve value for Canadians. To this end, the authors identify goals and objectives that are worthy of serious consideration by all health system stakeholders.
Full Text Available The necessity for development of innovative infrastructure is proved. Its nature, reasonability of systematic approach use and purpose has been identified. The author suggests considering the regime of infrastructural provision aimed at offering horizontal and vertical integration of institutions. This model is designed to create and integral complex for innovative support. The grounds of establishment the state politics are identified. The conceptual recommendations on its development and formation of relevant model, strategy and regulatory mechanism are outlined.
Gagić Snježana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana
Innovation is an important aspect of contemporary business. Rapid change in guests' preferences and expectations significantly affect the restaurant industry. Meeting the diverse hospitality needs implies making innovative programs in all processes such as technical, technological as well as service oriented. Hospitality industry enters into the process of accelerated changes of modern equipment, updated technology, business strategies and hospitality management. The paper will discuss innova...
Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane
This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.
Full Text Available This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialogue, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.
Wunderlich, Nico; Beck, Roman
The presence of digital infrastructures fundamentally changes market conditions, business and IT strategy, and consequently organizational structures. This research investigates how the concept of a digital business strategy leads to increased organizational innovativeness and firm performance. We...... significantly higher influenced by the IT knowledge of business employees in organizations giving the digital business strategy high importance, whereas the top management team IT knowledge plays a greater role when digital business strategy is given low priority. By this research, we deliver first results...... of consequences for organizations conducting a digital business strategy and contribute to the discussion on IT-enabled innovation, CIO leadership, and the increasing relevance of organization-wide IT capabilities....
Full Text Available This article considers regulatory strategies that promote more efficient use of material inputs within the Australian economy, with particular focus on recycling and recovery of metals, drawing upon the concept of a “circular economy”. It briefly reviews the nature of regulation and trends in regulatory strategies within changing policy contexts, and then examines the regulatory framework applicable to the various phases in the life cycle of metals, ranging from extraction of minerals to processing and assimilation of metals into finished products, through to eventual disposal of products as waste. Discussion focuses upon the regulatory strategies applied in each phase and the changing roles of government and business operators within global distribution networks. It is concluded that the prevailing political agenda favoring deregulation and reduced taxation may be a major barrier to development of new styles of regulation and more effective use of taxation powers that is needed to support a more circular economy in metals. The implication for future research is the need to substantiate the outcomes of reflexive regulatory strategies with well-designed empirical studies.
Recently, innovative methods of enabling the students to acquire the knowledge and skills have been evolved, and include student-centered and problem-based learning strategies, among others. These are strategies in which the student is taught how to learn for him/her self and then becomes responsible for his/her own ...
Khan, Sohail Ahmad
Regulatory strategy needed for management of safety and safety culture involves careful planning and use of engineering concepts keeping in mind feasibility to implement certain safety requirements. It also requires adequate attention on working environment and mental conditions of designers, operating and maintenance staff and regulators. Different strategies followed during safety review and regulatory inspection of nuclear power projects for improving status of safety management and safety cultures have given certain results. The present paper brings out certain experience gained during regulation of Indian Nuclear Power Projects by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India in the area of management of safety and safety culture. (author)
Cloninger, M.; Short, D.; Stahl, D.
This document summarizes the strategy given in the Site Characterization Plan (1) for demonstrating compliance with the post closure performance objectives for the waste package and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. The strategy consists of the development of a conservative waste package design that will meet the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty using a multi-barrier approach that takes advantage of the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site. This strategy involves an iterative process designed to achieve compliance with the requirements for substantially complete containment and EBS release. The strategy will be implemented in such a manner that sufficient evidence will be provided for presentation to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) so that it may make a finding that there is ''reasonable assurance'' that these performance requirements will indeed be met. In implementing the strategy, DOE recognizes four fundamental goals: (1) protect public health and safety; (2) minimize financial and other resource commitments; (3) comply with applicable laws and regulations; and (4) maintain an aggressive schedule. The strategy is intended to be a reasonable balance of these competing goals. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Ibo van de Poel
Full Text Available Responsible research and innovation (RRI has become an important topic in the academic community and in policy circles, but it has not yet been systematically included in the innovation process of companies. We discuss how companies can integrate RRI into their corporate social responsibility (CSR policies and business strategy. To this end, we developed a conceptual model that links a company’s RRI strategy to its context, and that helps to translate the RRI strategy into activities that result in RRI outcomes. We also propose a process for developing company-specific RRI key performance indicators (KPIs that can support companies to measure RRI outcomes.
DeWire, Tom; McKithen, Clarissa; Carey, Rebecca
What can the Investing in Innovation (i3) grantees tell us about scaling innovative educational practices? The newly released white paper "Scaling Up Evidence-Based Practices: Strategies from Investing in Innovation (i3)" captures the experiences of nine grantees whose projects collectively have reached over 1.2 million students across…
Leonardi, Paul M
Today, in the midst of economic crisis, senior executives at US automakers and influential industry analysts frequently reflect on the progression that safety testing has taken from the crude trials done on the road, to controlled laboratory experiments, and to today's complex math-based simulation models. They use stories of this seemingly linear and natural sequence to justify further investment in simulation technologies. The analysis presented in this paper shows that change in the structures of automakers' organizations co-evolved with regulations specifying who was at fault in vehicle impacts, how vehicles should be built to withstand the force of an impact, and how testing should be done to assure that vehicles met those requirements. Changes in the regulatory environment were bolstered by new theories about crash test dynamics and changing technologies with which to test those theories. Thus, as new technological and regulatory innovations co-evolved with innovations in organizational structuring, ideas about how to best conduct crash tests shifted and catalyzed new cycles of technological, regulatory, and organizational innovation. However, this co-evolutionary story tells us that the move from road to lab to math was not natural or linear as today's managerial rhetoric would have us believe. Rather, the logic of math-based simulation was the result of technological, regulatory and organizational changes that created an industry-wide ideology that supported the move toward math while making it appear natural within the shifting structure of the industry.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects IT and open innovation strategies have on innovation and financial performances in the Serbian banking sector, using the case study method based on qualitative and quantitative data. The research results point to the need for introducing the concept of open innovation in the banking sector i.e. to adequately incorporate external knowledge in innovation processes using appropriate technologies. Employees and established partnerships with key stakeholders are the two most significant sources for the generation and commercialization of radical innovations, while customers and other sources of knowledge acquisition allow the generation of various knowledge and ideas, and the creation of incremental innovations with the primary purpose of satisfying the end users of banking services, improving existing processes and service quality. To maximize utilization of resources from the open innovation model, the concluding paragraph contains recommendations for managers in the banking sector. The study may be useful for managers in the financial services, banking, IT sector and innovation management.
Executive Office of the President, 2009
Since taking office, President Obama has taken historic steps to lay the foundation for the innovation economy of the future. The Obama Innovation Strategy builds on well over $100 billion of Recovery Act funds that support innovation, additional support for education, infrastructure and others in the Recovery Act and the President's Budget, and…
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship of sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance through the mediation environmental performance. The hypothesis in this study is sustainable innovation strategy affect the financial performance which is mediated by environmental performance. This study is quantitative research in the explanatory level. The population of this study is all the manufacturer companies in East Java. The data is collected through questionnaire. The unit of analysis is a business unit. The respondent of this study is the manager of a business unit manufacturing company in East Java. The results showed that the environmental performance mediates partially the relation between sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance.
... innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the proposal results in a modest percentage increase... may apply to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and...
Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish
Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shafiei, Nader; Ford, James L; Morecroft, Charles W; Lisboa, Paulo J; Taylor, Mark J
This paper is part of a research study that is intended to identify pharmaceutical quality risks induced by the ongoing transformation in the industry. This study establishes the current regulatory context by characterizing the development of the pharmaceutical regulatory environment. The regulatory environment is one of the most important external factors that affects a company's organization, processes, and technological strategy. This is especially the case with the pharmaceutical industry, where its products affect the quality of life of the consumers. The quantitative analysis of regulatory events since 1813 and review of the associated literature resulted in identification of six factors influencing the regulatory environment, namely public health protection, public health promotion, crisis management, harmonization, innovation, and modernization. From 1813 to the 1970s the focus of regulators was centered on crisis management and public health protection-a basic mission that has remained consistent over the years. Since the 1980s a gradual move in the regulatory environment towards a greater focus on public health promotion, international harmonization, innovation, and agency modernization may be seen. The pharmaceutical industry is currently going through changes that affect the way it performs its research, manufacturing, and regulatory activities. The impact of these changes on the approaches to quality risk management requires more understanding. The authors are engaged in research to identify elements of the changes that influence pharmaceutical quality. As quality requirements are an integral part of the pharmaceutical regulations, a comprehensive understanding of these regulations is seen as the first step. The results of this study show that (i) public health protection, public health promotion, crisis management, harmonization, innovation, and modernization are factors that affect regulations in the pharmaceutical industry; (ii) the regulators' main
Ulijn, Jan; O'Hair, Dan; Weggeman, Mathieu; Ledlow, Gerald; Hall, H. Thomas
Reviews relevant literature in the areas of communication and innovation and explores how efforts toward innovative practices are directly related to globalism and business strategy. Focuses on issues associated with national culture, corporate culture, and professional culture that are relevant to strategies for researching business communication…
Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata
Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…
Melber, Barbara; Durbin, Nancy E.; Tael, Irene
This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy and a
Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)
This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy
Demchyshak Nazar B.
Full Text Available The article speaks about problems of formation of the investment and innovation potential in Ukraine. It identifies priority of development and introduction of the investment and innovation strategy for the national economy. It studies the role of state stimulation of the investment and innovation activity using direct and indirect methods. It considers foreign experience of tax stimulation of innovation activity. It analyses application of different tax preferences by different foreign states. It shows positive and negative sides of preferential taxation under conditions of financial instability of Ukrainian economy. In order to identify the level of investment activity the article analyses dynamics of change of the investment attractiveness index and shows problem aspects of attraction of foreign investments into the national economy. It identifies priorities of formation of efficient investment and innovation strategy of development of economy on the basis of a common system approach.
Sinebo, Woldeyesus; Maredia, Karim
The regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops is a topical issue in agriculture and environment over the past 2 decades. The objective of this paper is to recount regulatory and adoption practices in some developing countries that have successfully adopted GM crops so that aspiring countries may draw useful lessons and best practices for their biosafatey regulatory regimes. The first 11 mega-GM crops growing countries each with an area of more than one million hectares in 2014 were examined. Only five out of the 11 countries had smooth and orderly adoption of these crops as per the regulatory requirement of each country. In the remaining 6 countries (all developing countries), GM crops were either introduced across borders without official authorization, released prior to regulatory approval or unapproved seeds were sold along with the approved ones in violation to the existing regulations. Rapid expansion of transgenic crops over the past 2 decades in the developing world was a result of an intense desire by farmers to adopt these crops irrespective of regulatory roadblocks. Lack of workable biosafety regulatory system and political will to support GM crops encouraged unauthorized access to GM crop varieties. In certain cases, unregulated access in turn appeared to result in the adoption of substandard or spurious technology which undermined performance and productivity. An optimal interaction among the national agricultural innovation systems, biosafety regulatory bodies, biotech companies and high level policy makers is vital in making a workable regulated progress in the adoption of GM crops. Factoring forgone opportunities to farmers to benefit from GM crops arising from overregulation into biosafety risk analysis and decision making is suggested. Building functional biosafety regulatory systems that balances the needs of farmers to access and utilize the GM technology with the regulatory imperatives to ensure adequate safety to the environment and human
Leong Wai Yeen, James; Salek, Sam; Walker, Stuart
The assessment report formats of four major regulatory reference agencies, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration were compared to a benefit-risk (BR) documentation template developed by the Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science and a four-member Consortium on Benefit-Risk Assessment. A case study was also conducted using a US FDA Medical Review, the European Public Assessment Report and Australia's Public Assessment Report for the same product. Compared with the BR Template, existing regulatory report formats are inadequate regarding the listing of benefits and risks, the assigning of relative importance and values, visualization and the utilization of a detailed, systematic, standardized structure. The BR Template is based on the principles of BR assessment common to major regulatory agencies. Given that there are minimal differences among the existing regulatory report formats, it is timely to consider the feasibility of a universal template.
Gröessler, Andreas; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which continuous innovation is pursued as a strategy for manufacturing firms in different types of competitive environments, and whether continuous innovation firms perform better than focused firms in certain environments. Statistical...... analyses are used of data collected from an international sample of manufacturing firms through the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey. The main findings are that, while focused as well as continuous innovation firms exist in all three types of business environments identified in this paper...
.... In this context, the report identifies options and strategies for the federal government to consider as it continues to further advance innovation in housing to make homes more affordable, durable...
Hecker, Louise; Birla, Ravi K
At the heart of research is the scientific process, which includes identifying a knowledge gap, execution of experiments, and finally, presentation of scientific data. Identifying a systematic way to undertake research is important; however, equally important are intangible factors, including strategy, innovation and leadership, in determining the outcome of any research project. These intangible factors, although often unspoken, are the essence of success in research. Strategy determines the direction of research and the ability to respond to acute changes in the field to ensure a competitive advantage. Innovation involves generating novel ideas, and at the heart of innovation is the ability to create a positive work environment. Leadership is the ability to exercise influence so as to create change; empowerment and the ability to create leaders at every level are central to effective leadership. Collectively, defining and implementing aspects of these intangible factors will strengthen any research endeavor.
fiorenza belussi; silvia rita sedita; alessia sammarra
The paper investigates the existence of an Open Regional Innovation System (ORIS model). This model is characterised by the firms’ adoption of an open innovation strategy, which overcomes not only the boundaries of the firms but also the boundaries of the region. Using data collected in a sample of life science firms, our research provides the evidence that the Emilia Romagna RIS has evolved towards an ORIS model, where firms’ innovation search strategy, despite being still embedded in local ...
... foundations, emerging technologies and innovations in regulatory science, as well as the current quality and... of today's leading pharmaceutical companies present case studies on how they employ global strategies... Contract Manufacturing Organizations Contract Agreements Drug Safety Emerging Active Pharmaceutical...
... foundations, emerging technologies and innovations in regulatory science, as well as the current quality and... strategies, while industry professionals from some of today's leading pharmaceutical companies present case.... Drug Safety. Emerging Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) Regulations. Investigations. Emerging API...
Daniel Teodoro Gomes
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of strategy formation process with the following starting question: "How the strategy is shaped in an innovative company and how the factors manifesting in the process?". The research builds on a case study of a company considered innovative leader in its industry and a pioneer in providing various services in the area of mobile phone in Brazil. Data collection was through interviews semi-structured with directors and managers involved in strategy formation, supplemented by documents and direct observation. Data analysis is based on the techniques of discourse analysis, from the persuasion strategies suggested by Linhares and Faria (1993. The company's strategy studied can be defined as an entrepreneurial vision, focused on growth supported by a process of diversification of product lines from a new direction composed of three elements: (i componentization; (ii segmentation by products chain and; (iii external to finance leverage in order to resumption of innovative projects. It was concluded that the company's strategy focused on these three factors, supported by a deliberate vision of the future, conditions its historical trajectory type standard cultural, its core values, which acts as a motivator and guide for members of the organization decisions and actions.
Denile Cominato Boer
Full Text Available In 2000 it became mandatory to the Brazilian electricity companies to invest in research, development and innovation (RDI. These investments are performed by firms and regulated by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL. Since then companies have sought ways to cope with this obligation creating internal structures and managerial processes. This article presents the evolution of RDI management routines and organizational models based on a multiple-case study conducted between 2011 and 2012 with seven companies that represent about 27% of the total RDI investment performed in the period of 2008 to 2013. The research showed that firms created minimalist management and organizational structures to handle with the RDI enforcement. Companies have been much more concerned with the regulatory risk (the risk of non-accomplishment with the obligations than to any strategic use of RDI effort since the legal framework is based on punishment rather than in stimulus.
Soetanto, Danny Prabowo; Jack, Sarah Louise
This paper develops understanding about how incubation support and innovation strategy can determine the performance of academic spin-offs. Using a sample of spin-offs from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Norway, we analyse the potential moderating effect of incubation support (networking and entrepreneurial support) on innovation strategy effectiveness. The empirical results demonstrate: (1) a technology and market exploitation strategy has a stronger and more positive effect on the ...
Todiras, A.; Nijkamp, P.; Rafijeras, S.
Product and process innovations are generally regarded as strategic competitive vehicles in industry. Identifying and conquering new market niches through focused marketing approaches - by emphasising new product qualities in mature markets - has become a very appropriate innovation strategy. This
Conventional wisdom provides an increasingly strong endorsement of far-reaching decentralization and delegation of authority to bureaucratic agents as the most likely mechanisms to attain such central environmental policy goals as pollution prevention,cross-media regulatory integration, and development of reliable measures of environmental outcomes. Canada would appear an unusually fertile context for such innovation, given its far-reaching deference to individual provinces and their environment ministries in environmental policy. Comparative analysis of select subnational governments in Canada and the United States suggests that the states in general are far ahead of their provincial counterparts in most of these areas of innovation. Despite all the opprobrium heaped on the American environmental policy system, a combination of federal policy tools and state policy entrepreneurship appear to contribute directly to this innovation in some states and are almost completely absent in the Canadian system. These findings suggest a need for careful study of the mix of intergovernmental policy tools and principal-agent relations most likely to realize desired environmental policy goals.
Full Text Available The article deals with global experience in analysing the priorities based on their importance for country development and on national and international criteria using algorithm for the selection process. The main aspects of the process of development and implementation of international technology strategies were considered. The authors prove that through the analysis of innovation systems at macro level decision about the priorities in optimization with the aim to improve regulations in science, technology and innovation is provided. The main techniques and decisions were considered based on foresight-studies. Authors propose to create informative and analytical system for the foresight aims.
To facilitate the discovery and design of innovative nuclear fuels, multi-scale models and simulations are used to predict irradiation effects on the thermal conductivity, oxygen diffusivity, and thermal expansion of oxide fuels. The multi-scale approach is illustrated using results on ceramic fuels with a focus on predictions of point defect concentrations, stoichiometry, and phase stability. The high performance computer simulations include coupled heat transport, diffusion, and thermal expansion, gas bubble formation and temperature evolution in a fuel element consisting of UO2 fuel and metallic cladding. The second part of the talk is dedicated to a discussion of an international strategy for developing advanced, innovative nuclear fuels. Four initiative are proposed to accelerate the discovery and design of new materials: (a) Develop an international pool of experts, (b) Create Institutes for Materials Discovery and Design, (c) Create an International Knowledge base for experimental data, models (mathematical expressions), and simulations (codes) and (d) Organize international workshops and conference sessions. The paper ends with a discussion of existing and emerging international collaborations.
Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis
According to many researchers of organizational theory, a great number of problems encountered by the manufacturing firms are due to their failure to foster innovative behaviour by aligning business strategy and structure. From this point of view, the fit between strategy and structure is essential in order to facilitate firms' innovative behaviour. In the present paper, we adopt Porter's typology to operationalise business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Organizational structure is built on four dimensions (centralization, formalization, complexity and employees' initiatives to implement new ideas). Innovativeness is measured as product innovation, process and technological innovation. This study provides the necessary theoretical framework for the development of a dynamic simulation method, although the simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, considering that there are so many alternatives (not all well understood).
Environment that created "medical device lag (MDL)" has changed dramatically, and currently that term is not heard often. This was mainly achieved through the leadership of three groups: government, which determined to overcome MDL and took steps to do so; medical societies, which exhibited accountability in trial participation; and MD companies, which underwent a change in mindset that allowed comprehensive tripartite cooperation to reach the current stage. In particular, the global product development strategy (GPDS) of companies in a changing social environment has taken a new-turn with international harmonization trends, like Global Harmonization Task Force and International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. As a result, this evolution has created opportunities for treatment with cutting-edge MDs in Japanese society. Simultaneously, it has had a major impact on the planning process of GPDS of companies. At the same time, the interest of global companies has shifted to emerging economies for future potential profit since Japan no longer faces MDL issue. This economic trend makes MDLs a greater problem for manufacturers. From the regulatory science viewpoint, this new environment has not made it easy to plan a global strategy that will be adaptable to local societies. Without taking hasty action, flexible thinking from the global point of view is necessary to enable the adjustment of local strategies to fit the situation on the ground so that the innovative Japanese medical technology can be exported to a broad range of societies.
Yukhymenko Vita V.
Full Text Available The article considers the process of formation of the strategy of innovation development on the basis of the process approach. The author studies and identifies the most significant cause-effect interrelations between the factors that influence efficiency of the process of formation of the strategy of innovation development of enterprises and their consequences. The article offers a process approach to building the K. Ishikawa diagram based on empirical assessment of management of business processes at railway engineering enterprises. The author’s approach would help solving multiple problems of railway engineering and also could be used in other sectors of economy.
Eccles, Robert G; Serafeim, George
A mishmash of sustainability tactics does not add up to a sustainable strategy. Too often, companies launch sustainability programs with the hope that they'll be financially rewarded for doing good, even when those programs aren't relevant to their strategy and operations. They fail to understand the trade-offs between financial performance and performance on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues. Improving one typically comes at a cost to the other. But it doesn't have to be this way. It's possible to simultaneously boost both financial and ESG performance-if you focus strategically on issues that are the most "material" to shareholder value, and you develop major innovations in products, processes, and business models that prioritize those concerns. Maps being developed by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, which rank the materiality of 43 issues for 88 industries, can provide valuable guidance. And broad initiatives undertaken by three companies-Natura, Dow Chemical, and CLP Group-demonstrate the kind of innovations that will push performance into new territory. Communicating the benefits to stakeholders is also critical, which is why integrated reports, which combine financial and ESG reporting, are now gaining in popularity.
Full Text Available In the context of increasing globalization, global competition and rapid change the EU sees innovation and its commercialization as an effective way to build long-term global competitive advantage. Innovation policy is a link between research and technological development policy and industrial policy and makes it possible to create conditions conducive to bringing ideas to the market. It is also closely linked to other EU policies regarding e.g. employment, competitiveness, environment, industry and energy. This paper presents the evolution, conditions and objectives of the innovation policy of the European, and describes the main assumptions of the Lisbon and Europe 2020 strategies. Additionally it indicates possible ways of assessing the measures undertaken within the above-mentioned policies and of determining the tools necessary to implement the strategies.
Felisa Margarita Cordova; Claudia Durán; Juan Sepúlveda; Alfredo Fernández; Mauricio Rojas
A logistic service innovation strategy for a mining company and their key suppliers is presented, using the win-win concept with the objective of improve its position, policies, strategic objectives and relationships between companies. The strategy allows increasing the business profitability, to diminish the operational costs and the times of negotiation and learning. The chain value of the productive process is analyzed and also the business strategies of each company in order to identify t...
Thorbek, P.; Forbes, V.; Heimbach, F.; Hommen, U.; Thulke, H.H.; Brink, van den P.J.
Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that
Macro, Bronwen; Huang, Lee Ann
This report focuses on the innovative strategies study component of the Peer Assessment and Compliance Review (PACR) project. California (Court Appointed Special Advocates) CASA programs have developed many innovative strategies to serve children in their communities. At each of the programs visited during the PACR project, the team identified at…
Laamanen, Tomi; Schimmer, Markus; Reuter, Emmanuelle
This year's private banking study by KPMG and the University of St. Gallen (HSG) shows that Swiss private banks can remain successful in the future by innovating. Besides effective implementation of new regulatory requirements, key success factors will include innovative strategies and adaptations to business models, starting with more effective segmentation techniques, an open product architecture, transparent price structures and modern distribution and communication channels. Hardly an...
Hertin, Julia; Jacob, Klaus; Kahlenborn, Walter
This study outlines the methodology and results of the research project: ''Umwelt, Innovation und Beschaeftigung in einem europaeischen Kontext: Europaeische Strategien als ein Motor fuer oekeffiziente Technologien und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit'', funded by the BMU and UBA and carried out jointly by the Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltpolitik of Freie Universitaet Berlin and Adelphi Consult. The project was carried out with the intention to evaluate inhowfar current EU policies follow and implement goals that can be classified as ''ecological industrial policy''. In the definition of the BMU, this concept means a political strategy which enhances eco-efficient innovations beyond the traditional approaches of environmental and R + D policy. A strategy of this type is to influence the innovation behaviour and also influence the marketing conditions for generic technologies. As the strategy intends to effect both a reduction of the ecological burden and an enhancement of the economic and competitive standing, it can recur to a two-fold foundation. The current investigation attempted to identify political measures at EU level that are suited for enhancing fast development and propagation of eco-efficient technologies. (orig.)
Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch
analysis using patent data from 1965 to 2012. Our findings suggest a process of co-evolution of firms' strategies and indicate that strong sectoral-specific patterns of eco-innovation are present in this sector from the mid-2000s onwards. For fuel cells technologies, however, we observe the formation......This paper sheds light on some important but underestimated elements of green industrial dynamics: the evolution of firms' eco-innovation strategies and activities within a sector. While eco-innovation sectoral case studies have taken place before, our analysis is distinct in investigating the rate......, direction and extent of eco-innovation in the automotive sector, represented here by the main automakers, in order to identify possibly sectoral-specific patterns in firms' strategies, as opposed to divergent strategic behaviors, grounded on evolutionary economic theory. We conduct a two-step empirical...
Ziegele, B; Dahl, L; Müller, A T
In conformity with Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are now subject to the centralized marketing authorization procedure. This also applies to most medicinal products in regenerative medicine. ATMP that have been marketed in a member state by the end of 2008 must be centrally authorized by the end of 2012 at the latest. In exceptional cases, a national authorization is acceptable. Developers of these medicinal products are usually academic institutions or small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME). They focus on scientific aspects and usually have little experience with pharmaceutical law. The Innovation Office of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) is designed to support developers of medicinal products in the areas between research and development, on the one hand, and regulatory requirements, on the other. Its main role is supportive advice in the regulatory field with an emphasis on ATMP. For this purpose, the Innovation Office makes use of core competences from various experts at the PEI in order to provide a quality consulting service to those companies who are seeking advice as early as possible and hand in hand with the development process. The aim is to support the developer to identify the appropriate regulatory pathway and to provide advice for each individual medicinal product at its corresponding stage of development in order to develop a high-quality ATMP manufactured on the basis of positive nonclinical results and appropriate clinical studies that meet all the necessary requirements for the application of a marketing authorization.
A. D. Yurasov
Full Text Available The article is written by postgraduate students of the Sociological Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University on the results of a general discussion of the possibilities of innovative development through the prism of related fields of knowledge. It reflects the urgency of studying the processes taking place in various institutions of society and causing innovative development. The publication discusses the features of the functioning and interaction between the social institutions of business and education in the context of innovative processes occurring in Russia (low conversion fundamental knowledge in innovation, the inability of young people to engage in science, the specialists outflow from the country, maintaining a balance between traditions and innovations in education, closure of complex industries, and others. The analysis of existing theories and examples of successful interaction between education and business organized to obtain innovative developments are presented (MSU Science Park and others.The data on innovative business models implemented in the countries of the world (Russia, China, Singapore, the United States and the features of their implementation (the possibility of start-up visas, the problems of protecting the rights of entrepreneurs and investors, the time of launching the project and the idea before production, empirical data on the outflow of specialists From Russia, which is considered as one of the consequences of the lack of innovative production in Russia. The authors proposed the possible directions of the organization of education and innovative business, based on the successful experience of foreign countries. The article considers marketing mechanisms as a way of communication between education, business and government institutions in the creation and implementation of innovative developments in Russia, the peculiarities of marketing in the innovative context, in particular, the key role of
Torre, Carolyn T; Crowley, Angela A
Safe medication administration is an essential component of high-quality child care. Its achievement in New Jersey was impeded by a controversy over whether teaching child care providers medication administration involves registered nurses in the process of nursing delegation. Through the theoretical framework of the Diffusion of Innovation, this paper examines how the interpretation of regulatory policy related to nursing practice in New Jersey was adjusted by the Board of Nursing following a similar interpretation of regulatory policy by the Board of Nursing in Connecticut. This adjustment enabled New Jersey nurses to continue medication administration training for child care providers. National data supporting the need for training child care providers in medication administration is presented, the Diffusion of Innovation paradigm is described; the Connecticut case and the New Jersey dilemma are discussed; the diffusion process between the two states is analyzed and an assessment of the need for further change is made.
Vermeulen, Erik; Fenwick, Mark
Seven “Corporate Venturing” Strategies to Foster Innovation tackles the question: What should companies do to accelerate innovation and remain relevant? Or, stated differently: What should companies do to avoid being disrupted by more agile and innovative startups? One answer is corporate venturing.
D. A. Maryasis
Full Text Available This article is an attempt to formulate a non-standard multifactor approach to the problem of consolidating Russia’s presence in the countries of the Middle East. It explores the possibility of creating in the Arab countries a system of educational courses related to innovation. These courses will make it possible for young people in the region to form an attitude towards our country as one of the leaders in the high-tech economy, to strengthen their loyalty to representatives of domestic business. In the future, the ecosystem of innovations can be formed as a result of educational efforts. That is going to allow Russian business circles to take part in the commercialization of new technologies created by innovators of the region. Russia’s innovative presence in the Middle East region can be embodied in the form of joint ventures, the outsourcing of a number of industries and the provision of technological services as well as joint applied scientific research. Such efforts will bring changes in the existing international division of labor by creating more favorable conditions for the development of the economy of the Russian Federation and its transition to the economy of innovation. Moreover, the article draws attention to the possibility of cooperation between Russia and Israel for the organization of a platform for effective interaction between representatives of innovative communities of Muslim countries of the Middle East and participants of the high technology market of the Jewish state. The article shows that the implementation of such a strategy will allow our country to become meaningful player in the process of economic and socio-political transformation of the region. The promotion of innovative business in the region should be part of a wider strategy for promoting a positive image of Russia, creating economic grounds for existing political and military-political ties with the countries of the Middle East.
Nadezhda Igorevna Antipina
Full Text Available The article proposes the approach to evaluate the organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the regions in quantitative and qualitative indicators, as well as the method to calculate the assessment of regulatory support of this activity. It justifies the author’s approach of comparative efficiency evaluation of innovation legislation and regions’ innovation development level. The article gives the qualitative estimation of regulatory support of innovation development in the regions that are innovation leaders. It singles out key directions to develop regulatory support of innovation activity, which encourage RF subjects’ innovation activity
Full Text Available This study analyses strategic proactivity as a driving factor in the implementation of an advanced environmental strategy in a firm. Strategic proactivity is defined as a firm’s tendency to initiate voluntary changes instead of reacting to events in the environment and according to previous literature, can be interpreted as a combination of internal factors that characterise a firm’s business strategy as that of a prospector firm. In this study, we measured this through innovation, with two variables related to the firm’s entire production cycle: R&D expenditure and patents. However, we also considered two more strategic proactivity indicators: innovation proactivity and internationalisation proactivity. These two proactivity variables take into account the innovative and international actions of the firms, going beyond the actions usually taken by firms in the same sector. Using panel data methodology, we obtained results that show that firms who invest in R&D and patent their innovations achieve more advanced positions in their environmental strategies. Empirical evidence also shows that firms with a greater innovation effort throughout the production cycle (product, process, organisation and marketing than their competitors also attain more advanced positions (proactivity in environmental matters. In other words, innovation proactivity is a driver of environmental strategy. In relation to internationalization, the results also showed that firms that operate in a larger geographical area than their competitors adapt to the most demanding environmental legislation, placing them in a position of environmental leadership in their respective sectors. The inclusion of internationalization as an indicator of strategic proactivity, the measurement of proactivity variables and the correction of firms’ specific unobserved aspects are some of this paper’s contributions.
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the technological trajectory and the actors – public and private - political behave in the carciniculture network (cultivate of shrimp in the federal estate of Rio Grande do Norte. The research was based on both embeddedness and cluster policy approach. The case study was based on bibliographic, archives, and empirical data, whose primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried on with 10 members of different organizations from carciniculture sector in the period 2009-2010, as well as interviews already conducted in the area since the year 2005. These data were submitted to content analysis with longitudinal and descriptive approach. Along the technological trajectory of the cluster we highlighted opportunities and limits for innovative strategies generated by asymmetries of power and ability to influence actors in the network. We highlight the relationship between 'power network' and 'links established with public actors' as well as the implications for innovation along the trajectory generated by a more or less state interference.
This thesis discusses the relatively new phenomena of innovative digital products created by startup companies, who often must scale globally fast, before the volatile trends or the fierce competition of the digital marketspace take over. International entry itself is no longer the issue, but rather standing out in the crowd while balancing resources and flexibility. The focus is on how startups can induce global growth and tackle structural obstacles by means of marketing strategy. The t...
Gërguri, Shqipe; Rexhepi, Gadaf; Ramadani, Veland
Companies today operate in a very dynamic, uncertain and competitive environment. They compete in "nicety" that are so small but so important. Companies are trying to achieve competitive advantage in order to help them obtain a better and a stable position in the marketplace. The best way for companies to achieve a competitive advantage is through innovation. This paper addresses the meaning of innovation what does innovation present, types of innovation specifically discussing the right way ...
Moch, C; Salmon, D; Rome, P; Marginean, R; Pivot, C; Colombel, M; Pirot, F
Perspectives for innovative pharmaceutical molecules and intravesical administration of pharmacological agents are presented in the present review carried out from a recent literature. This review of the literature was built by using the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases running 20keywords revealing 34publications between 1983 and 2012. The number of referenced articles on ScienceDirect has increased in recent years, highlighting the interest of scientists for intravesical drug administration and the relevance of innovating drug delivery systems. Different modalities of intravesical administration using physical (e.g., iontophoresis, electroporation) or chemical techniques (e.g., enzyme, solvent, nanoparticles, liposomes, hydrogels) based on novel formulation methods are reported. Finally, the development of biopharmaceuticals (e.g., bacillus Calmette-Guérin, interferon α) and gene therapies is also presented and analyzed in this review. The present review exhibits new development in the pipeline for emerging intravesical drug administration strategies. Knowledge of all these therapies allows practitioners to propose a specific and tailored treatment to each patient with limiting systemic side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wu, Ching-Sung; Hu, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Fu-Hsiang
The development of high-tech industry has been prosperous around the world in past decades, while technology and finance have already become the most significant issues in the information era. While high-tech firms are a major force behind a country's economic development, it requires a lot of money for the development process, as well as the financing difficulties for its potential problems, thus, how to evaluate and establish appropriate technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy has become one of the most critical and difficult issues. Moreover, how the chosen intertwined financial environment can be optimized in order that high-tech firms financing problems can be decided has seldom been addressed. Thus, this research aims to establish a technology and financial services platform innovation strategy improvement model, as based on the hybrid MADM model, which addresses the main causal factors and amended priorities in order to strengthen ongoing planning. A DEMATEL technique, as based on Analytic Network Process, as well as modified VIKOR, will be proposed for selecting and re-configuring the aspired technology and financial services platform. An empirical study, as based on China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy, will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this proposed methodology. Based on expert interviews, technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy improvement should be made in the following order: credit guarantee platform ( C )_credit rating platform ( B )_investment and finance platform ( A ).
Full Text Available Though, in the automotive industry, technology is considered as a source of innovation and development, emerging change in consumer perception has brought industry focus on design. Evolution of this industry is closely related to the convergence of technology and design. In such context, implication of design driven innovation strategy in the automotive industry has potential to be explored and to create sustained competitive advantage through balancing customers’ need, technological opportunities and product meaning. The aim of this paper is to give a holistic view of design driven innovation as a differentiation strategy in the automotive industry and its implication for strategic management through some relevant research reviews and empirical information. On the contrary, this research lacks detailed description on industry practice to provide greater breadth, since it attempts to correlate the strategic concept of design with the dynamic capability of a firm in that particular industry.
Keller, J.F.; Geffen, C.A.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the immense challenge of effectively implementing a program to mitigate and manage the environmental impacts created by past and current operations at its facilities. Such a program must be developed and administered in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These regulations are extremely complex, burdening the environmental restoration process with a number of planning and public interaction requirements that must be met before remediation of a site may begin. Existing regulatory and institutional requirements for environmental restoration dictate that extensive planning, characterization and assessment activities be conducted. An important part of the process is the involvement of regulators and the public in the site characterization and assessment activities and in developing reasonable solutions for cleanup. This paper identifies the regulatory requirements and highlights implementation strategies for key aspects of the environmental restoration process for DOE. Trends in legislation and policy relevant to the DOE environmental restoration process are highlighted, with strategies identified for dealing with the evolution of the regulations while maintaining continuity in the technical activities required for cleaning up the DOE hazardous and mixed waste sites. 10 refs
Sang, Biao; Deng, Xinmei; Luan, Ziyan
Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regulation and explored the contributions of different regulatory strategies to emotion experience regarding the early adolescent development period in a Chinese population. A total of 303 Chinese adolescents (age range = 10-14 years) were followed up in a three-phase longitudinal study for 3 years. In each phase of the study, participants completed Adolescents Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Daily Emotion Scale. Results of hierarchical linear regressions revealed that Chinese adolescents reported more down-regulation. Down-regulation is more effective than up-regulation in enhancing desirable emotion experience and reducing undesirable emotion experience during adolescents' development. Also, the adaptive functions of emotional regulatory strategies in Chinese background were discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M
The purpose of this article is to describe the innovation-decision process teaching strategy (I-DPTS) based on the model of diffusion of innovations [Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press]. A goal of baccalaureate nursing education is to develop competencies required for evidence-based practice. Such practice merges clinician expertise, patient preferences, and critical evaluation of the literature to improve patient outcomes and reduce health care costs [Melnyk, B. M. (2005). A primer on evidence-based practice. Paper presented at the Purdue School of Nursing Seventh Annual Helen R. Johnson Leadership Conference, West Lafayette, IN]. Several strategies to promote evidence-based practice have appeared in the literature. However, when they are examined in light of the innovation-decision process (Rogers, 2003), they do not address all the essential steps for adoption to occur. The I-DPTS allows students to achieve competencies necessary to overcome barriers associated with implementing best practices. This strategy was successfully implemented in a senior-level introductory nursing research class. Community representatives identified practice issues that could be addressed by student groups. After conducting a search of the literature, students analyzed the evidence, determined best practice based on the evidence, and developed a policy for implementation in clinical settings. At course end, representatives were invited to attend oral and poster presentations. Use of the I-DPTS better prepares students to implement best practice as they embark on their professional careers.
Innovation is highly critical for every company, especially for technology-based organizations looking to sustain their competitive advantage. However, this is not an easy task. Regardless of the size of the enterprise, market and location, all organizations face numerous challenges. Even though huge barriers to innovation exist in different countries, firm- and industry-specific challenges can be distinguished. This paper examines innovation strategies and obstacles to innovation in research...
Wang, Shijun; Szalay, Máté S; Zhang, Changshui; Csermely, Peter
Cooperation plays a key role in the evolution of complex systems. However, the level of cooperation extensively varies with the topology of agent networks in the widely used models of repeated games. Here we show that cooperation remains rather stable by applying the reinforcement learning strategy adoption rule, Q-learning on a variety of random, regular, small-word, scale-free and modular network models in repeated, multi-agent Prisoner's Dilemma and Hawk-Dove games. Furthermore, we found that using the above model systems other long-term learning strategy adoption rules also promote cooperation, while introducing a low level of noise (as a model of innovation) to the strategy adoption rules makes the level of cooperation less dependent on the actual network topology. Our results demonstrate that long-term learning and random elements in the strategy adoption rules, when acting together, extend the range of network topologies enabling the development of cooperation at a wider range of costs and temptations. These results suggest that a balanced duo of learning and innovation may help to preserve cooperation during the re-organization of real-world networks, and may play a prominent role in the evolution of self-organizing, complex systems.
Harison, Elad; Koski, Heli
Our study aims at shedding light on the innovative business strategies in the software sector and understanding better the economics that underlies the supply of Open Source Software (OSS). We use survey data collected from 170 Finnish software companies to investigate how different properties of
Arvanitis, S.; Lokshin, B.; Mohnen, P.; Wörter, M.
There is growing evidence that firms increasingly adopt open innovation practices. In this paper we investigate the impact of two such external knowledge acquisition strategies, ‘buy’ and ‘cooperate’, on firm’s product innovation performance. Taking a direct (productivity)approach, we test for complementarity effects in the simultaneous use of the two strategies, and in the intensity of their use. Our results based on large panels of Dutch and Swiss innovating firms, suggest that while both ‘...
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care. Circa 2009, nearly a decade after the release of the IOM report, the health care organizational literature began referring to this challenge as “innovation implementation failure” in health care organizations (HCOs), ie, failure to implement an evidence-based practice that is new to a HCO. This stream of literature drew upon management research to explain why innovation implementation failure occurs in HCOs and what could be done to prevent it. This paper conducts an integrative review of the literature on “innovation implementation” in hospitals and health systems over the last decade, since the spotlight was cast on “innovation implementation failure” in HCOs. The review reveals that while some studies have retrospectively sought to identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, through surveys and interviews of practitioners (the “what”), other studies have prospectively sought to understand how innovation implementation occurs in hospitals and health systems (the “how”). Both make distinctive contributions to identifying strategies for success in innovation implementation. While retrospective studies have helped identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, prospective studies have shed light on how these drivers could be attained, thereby helping to develop context-sensitive management strategies for success. The literature has called for more prospective research on the implementation and
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care. Circa 2009, nearly a decade after the release of the IOM report, the health care organizational literature began referring to this challenge as "innovation implementation failure" in health care organizations (HCOs), ie, failure to implement an evidence-based practice that is new to a HCO. This stream of literature drew upon management research to explain why innovation implementation failure occurs in HCOs and what could be done to prevent it. This paper conducts an integrative review of the literature on "innovation implementation" in hospitals and health systems over the last decade, since the spotlight was cast on "innovation implementation failure" in HCOs. The review reveals that while some studies have retrospectively sought to identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, through surveys and interviews of practitioners (the "what"), other studies have prospectively sought to understand how innovation implementation occurs in hospitals and health systems (the "how"). Both make distinctive contributions to identifying strategies for success in innovation implementation. While retrospective studies have helped identify the key drivers of innovation implementation, prospective studies have shed light on how these drivers could be attained, thereby helping to develop context-sensitive management strategies for success. The literature has called for more prospective research on the implementation and sustainability of health
VALENTINA GECEVSKA; FRANC CUS; RADMIL POLENAKOVIC; PAOLO CHABERT
This article proposes a scenario of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), as a innovative business strategy based on the analysis of business drivers, industry requirements, limit of current solution, and recent state-of-the-art review in the domain related to PLM. Potential industrial impact of the developed PLM technology solutions is analyzed. It is hoped that the proposed PLM technology solutions will form the frontier basis for further research, development, and application of PLM systems ...
van Duin, S.R.; Dekker, Henri; Mendoza Rodriguez, J.P.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
As part of their regulatory strategy, authorities may request firms to periodically submit mandatory self-assessments. The effectiveness of such strategies depends on the quality of the information that firms provide. We conduct a field experiment to assess how official communications reflecting a
Full Text Available Logistics firms play an important role in the economy but they have received little attention in strategic management and logistics management literature. This paper intends to fill in this gap by looking a specific strategising process, innovation, at an international third party logistics (TPL firm. Using strategy as a practice perspective, the paper describes and analyses how innovation emerges and evolves over time. Drawing on an in-depth longitudinal case study of an international TPL firm, this study shows that intra-organisational interactions as well as inter-organisational interactions are essential in the innovation process at logistics firms. The innovation process at logistics firms is complicated and includes both top-down and bottom-up processes. It is vertically decoupled and multidirectional. Innovation at logistics firms emerges as a combination of an ad hoc response to a customer request and a purpose-driven interactive process.
A program to help accelerate the adoption and implementation of new and innovative remediation technologies has been initiated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program Office (EM40). Developed as a Public-Private Partnership program in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Technology Innovation Office (TIO) and coordinated by Sandia National Laboratories, the Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program attempts to reduce many of the classic barriers to the use of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. In this program, DOE facilities work cooperatively with EPA, industry, national laboratories, and state and federal regulatory agencies to establish remediation demonstrations using applicable innovative technologies at their sites. Selected innovative technologies are used to remediate small, one to two acre, sites to generate the full-scale and real-world operating, treatment performance, and cost data needed to validate these technologies and gain acceptance by industry and regulatory agencies, thus accelerating their use nationwide. Each ITRD project developed at a DOE site is designed to address a typical soil or groundwater contamination issue facing both DOE and industry. This includes sites with volatile organic compound (VOC), semi-VOC, heavy metal, explosive residue, and complex or multiple constituent contamination. Projects are presently underway at three DOE facilities, while additional projects are under consideration for initiation in FY96 at several additional DOE sites. A brief overview of the ITRD Program, program plans, and the status and progress of existing ITRD projects are reviewed in this paper
This paper was published in Oxford Development Studies special issue in honor of the late Professor Linsu Kim. The paper reviews evidence on the evolution of electronics design in Asia's leading electronics exporting countries, to establish what capabilities have been developed, and to shed light on the forces that are driving "late innovation" strategies. It also reviews intellectual sources that can be used to theoretically ground these hypotheses. Using a well-known taxonomy of innovation ...
Beswick, Daniel M.; Kaushik, Arjun; Beinart, Dylan; McGarry, Sarah; Yew, Ming Khoon; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Maria, Peter Luke Santa
The process of medical device innovation involves an iterative method that focuses on designing innovative, device-oriented solutions that address unmet clinical needs. This process has been applied to the field of biophotonics with many notable successes. Device innovation begins with identifying an unmet clinical need and evaluating this need through a variety of lenses, including currently existing solutions for the need, stakeholders who are interested in the need, and the market that will support an innovative solution. Only once the clinical need is understood in detail can the invention process begin. The ideation phase often involves multiple levels of brainstorming and prototyping with the aim of addressing technical and clinical questions early and in a cost-efficient manner. Once potential solutions are found, they are tested against a number of known translational factors, including intellectual property, regulatory, and reimbursement landscapes. Only when the solution matches the clinical need, the next phase of building a "to market" strategy should begin. Most aspects of the innovation process can be conducted relatively quickly and without significant capital expense. This white paper focuses on key points of the medical device innovation method and how the field of biophotonics has been applied within this framework to generate clinical and commercial success.
The author analyzed the main issues in current clinical study of integrative medicine in treatment of renal diseases, and proposed the target-oriented strategy for clinical study of different renal diseases, emphasizing the importance of method improvement for academic innovation.
Full Text Available Innovation is needed by micro, small, and medium enterprises to grow and develop into large businesses. However, that innovations are limited by existing constraints such as limited number of employees, total assets, total revenues and total budget for innovation. Human resources or the entrepreneur is known to be an important factor in improving the performance and innovation of SMEs or UMKM. This research aims to formulate strategies given the constraints of innovation, human resource capacity and opportunities for innovation in improving competitiveness. The analytical method used is confirmed method, the evaluation model of structural equation modeling (SEM and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The analysis showed an effect of human resources amounting to 0.761 on the settlement of the constraints and influence of 0.806 to successful innovation. The main obstacle that have to be resolved are human resources, promotion, managerial finance and administration, location, and marketing. The innovation that most influence in purchasing decisions and according to the ability of SMEs are service innovation, organization, business model, supply chain, and marketing. The best strategy formulation that can be done in improving the competitiveness of businesses are participation in exhibitions and entrepreneurship seminars, technical assistance, training and the online marketing promotion, as well as the provision of machinery and appropriate process equipment.Keywords: innovation, competitiveness, structural equation modeling, analytic hierarchy process
Torfing, Jacob; Sørensen, Eva; Hartley, Jean
, which emphasizes market competition; the neo-Weberian state, which emphasizes organizational entrepreneurship; and collaborative governance, which emphasizes multiactor engagement across organizations in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors. The authors conclude that the choice of strategies......-driven private sector is more innovative than the public sector by showing that both sectors have a number of drivers of as well as barriers to innovation, some of which are similar, while others are sector specific. The article then systematically analyzes three strategies for innovation: New Public Management......There are growing pressures for the public sector to be more innovative but considerable disagreement about how to achieve it. This article uses institutional and organizational analysis to compare three major public innovation strategies. The article confronts the myth that the market...
Mothe, Caroline; NGuyen-Thi, Uyen; Triguero-Cano, Angela
International audience; Although the antecedents of environmental innovation and open innovation strategies have been well studied separately, the relationship between a firm's openness and environmental technological innovation still remains an interesting topic to research, especially in terms of the various modes of openness on the one hand and the product–process distinction on the other. This study relies on data from the French Community Innovation Survey to differentiate the associatio...
Full Text Available Purpose - This study aims to suggest directions for innovation-driving paths for sustainable growth through an in-depth case analysis of a successful Internet of Things (IoT in small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME in South Korea. IoT is expected to play a significant role in the future industry 4.0 platform. Yet, little is known about how SMEs in the IoT industry (IoT-SMEs hereafter pursue innovation in alignment with attributes inherent in the IoT. Design/methodology/approach - This study addresses relatively unexplored key research questions on innovation strategies of IoT-SMEs. To do so, we employ an exploratory research methodology, along with an extensive review of the literature in the areas of the IoT, SMEs innovation and sustainable growth strategy. Specifically, we conduct intensive individual interviews to find IoT inherent innovation attributes and a case study to explore the process of linking these attributes to innovation-driving paths. Findings - The analysis results reveal that there exist disruptive and open innovation attributes in the IoT industry that enable IoT-SMEs to enhance their structure and process related capabilities, to create business models for products and services and to collaborate with external parties in marketing to enter the market. We excavate practical insights into driving innovation based on IoT attributes and suggest enabling paths for pursuing innovation and entering overseas markets for IoT-SMEs. Originality/value - This study investigates an underexplored significant area of research on the relationship between IoT attributes and innovation paths. The findings provide profound theoretical and practical implications. To the best of the author’s knowledge, it is the first attempt to link disruptive and open IoT attributes to innovation paths of IoT-SMEs. The results provide directions for pursuing effective innovation in responding to the IoT market for sustainable growth.
Saebi, Tina; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies’ business models are not attuned to open strategies. Accordingly, we propose a contingency model o...... to the open innovation literature by specifying the conditions under which business models are conducive to the success of open innovation strategies.......Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies’ business models are not attuned to open strategies. Accordingly, we propose a contingency model...... of open business models by systematically linking open innovation strategies to core business model dimensions, notably the content, structure, governance of transactions. We further illustrate a continuum of open innovativeness, differentiating between four types of open business models. We contribute...
Saebi, Tina; Foss, Nicolai J.
Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies' business models are not attuned to open strategies. Accordingly, we propose a contingency model o...... to the open innovation literature by specifying the conditions under which business models are conducive to the success of open innovation strategies.......Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies' business models are not attuned to open strategies. Accordingly, we propose a contingency model...... of open business models by systematically linking open innovation strategies to core business model dimensions, notably the content, structure, governance of transactions. We further illustrate a continuum of open innovativeness, differentiating between four types of open business models. We contribute...
Felisa Margarita Cordova
Full Text Available A logistic service innovation strategy for a mining company and their key suppliers is presented, using the win-win concept with the objective of improve its position, policies, strategic objectives and relationships between companies. The strategy allows increasing the business profitability, to diminish the operational costs and the times of negotiation and learning. The chain value of the productive process is analyzed and also the business strategies of each company in order to identify the key factors involved in the strategic alliance. Contracts negotiation between the company and its suppliers is examined by SWOT analysis, Pareto´s ABC tool and expert knowledge of the process. The strategy is applied to a mining company and its key suppliers working in the modality of strategic long term alliances.
Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...
Özdemir, Vural; Patrinos, George P
Original ideas and innovation cannot always be ordered like a courier service and delivered fresh to our desk at 9 am. Yet, most creativity-based organizations, careers, and professions, science and biotechnology innovation included, emphasize the speed as the prevailing ideology. But a narrow focus on speed has several and overlooked shortcomings. For example, it does not offer the opportunity to draw from, and stitch together disparate concepts and practices for truly disruptive innovation. Preventing false starts, learning from others' or our own mistakes, and customizing innovations for local community needs are difficult in a speed-hungry innovation ecosystem. We introduce a new strategy, the Fast-Second Winner, specifically in relation to global development of biotechnologies and precision medicine. This à la carte global development strategy envisions a midstream entry into the innovation ecosystem. Moreover, we draw from the works of the late David Bowie who defied rigid classifications as an artist and prolific innovator, and introduce the concept and practice of slow innovation that bodes well with the Fast-Second Winner strategy. A type of slow innovation, the Fast-Second Winner is actually fast and sustainable in the long term, and efficient by reducing false starts in new precision medicine application contexts and geographies, learning from other innovators' failures, and shaping innovations for the local community needs. The establishment of Centers for Fast-Second Innovation (CFSIs), and their funding, for example, by crowdfunding and other innovative mechanisms, could be timely for omics and precision medicine global development. If precision medicine is about tailoring drug treatments and various health interventions to individuals, we suggest to start from tailoring new ideas, and focus not only on how much we innovate but also what and how we innovate. In principle, the Fast-Second Winner can be applied to omics and other biotechnology
The Overall Review Strategy gives general guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for conducting it's license application and pre-license application reviews. These reviews are in support of the Commission's construction authorization decision for a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Objectives and strategies are defined that focus the staff's reviews on determining compliance with requirements of 10 CFR Part 60. These strategies define how the staff prioritizes its reviews on those key technical uncertainties considered to be most important to repository performance. Strategies also give guidance for developing, in an integrated way, the License Application Review Plan together with supporting performance assessments, analyses, and research
Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M
Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between...... jurisdictions, complicating the global regulatory landscape. We provide a comparative overview of regulatory requirements for GCT approval in five jurisdictions and hypothesize on the consequences of the observed global differences on patient access and therapeutic innovation....
Zhou, Wen; Koptyug, Nikita; Ye, Shutao; Jia, Yifan; Lu, Xiaolong
As computer science and complex network theory develop, non-cooperative games and their formation and application on complex networks have been important research topics. In the inter-firm innovation network, it is a typical game behavior for firms to invest in their alliance partners. Accounting for the possibility that firms can be resource constrained, this paper analyzes a coordination game using the Nash bargaining solution as allocation rules between firms in an inter-firm innovation network. We build an extended inter-firm n-player game based on nonidealized conditions, describe four investment strategies and simulate the strategies on an inter-firm innovation network in order to compare their performance. By analyzing the results of our experiments, we find that our proposed greedy strategy is the best-performing in most situations. We hope this study provides a theoretical insight into how firms make investment decisions.
Full Text Available As computer science and complex network theory develop, non-cooperative games and their formation and application on complex networks have been important research topics. In the inter-firm innovation network, it is a typical game behavior for firms to invest in their alliance partners. Accounting for the possibility that firms can be resource constrained, this paper analyzes a coordination game using the Nash bargaining solution as allocation rules between firms in an inter-firm innovation network. We build an extended inter-firm n-player game based on nonidealized conditions, describe four investment strategies and simulate the strategies on an inter-firm innovation network in order to compare their performance. By analyzing the results of our experiments, we find that our proposed greedy strategy is the best-performing in most situations. We hope this study provides a theoretical insight into how firms make investment decisions.
Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan
Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations....... Much innovation today takes place in open structures in which networks play an important role. However, little is known about how innovation networks can facilitate parallel innovation processes. This paper discusses how innovation network structures develop and support exploration and exploitation...... of the network facilitate the parallel innovation process but also how such processes place new requirements on such networks and their management....
Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.
Hagan, G. W.
Within the context of a discussion of the challenges facing Canadian higher education, this paper reviews some of the innovative approaches to student retention, curriculum development, and modularization in use at Mohawk College in Ontario. After stressing the need for innovation in advanced technological education in Canada, the paper offers an…
Veronica Lo Presti
Full Text Available This paper is a methodological reflection on the use of the "positive thinking approaches" for the promotion of capacity building of the projects in the local and inner areas. Recently, international policies have focused on the need to identify local development strategies to promote the capacity building in the local administrations, for the development of human and social capital.In the inner areas, it is necessary to experiment innovative approaches that are "place based" and “tailor made” for the projects to achieve the objectives of the National Strategy of the Inner Areas”The paper presents the “positive thinking approaches” as an innovative strategy of local development in the inner areas. The positive thinking approaches start from the analysis of "what has worked well", with a focus on the co-construction of the "successes", because “you learn more from successes than failures”.In particular, the article presents three positive thinking approaches (EI, evaluation of innovation; DE - developmental evaluation, and MSC - Most Significant Change. The aim is to explore what these approaches share in the Inner Areas. The advantage of positive thinking approaches is their ability to capitalize on unexpected positive effects. EI, DE and MSC recognise that the good practice that has been detected needs to be adapted to other situations by thoughtful agents. In both cases, a detected success will need responsible actors to produce further success.
Full Text Available This paper incorporates a new scenario method which can use for formulate innovation strategy. The purpose of scenario is not to identify the most likely future, but to create a map of uncertainty — to acknowledge and examine the visible and hidden forces that directed toward the unknown future of a firm. Scenarios are used for capture a range of possibilities, good and bad, expected and surprising. They are designed to stretch our thinking about emerging changes and the opportunities and threats that may occur in the future. Scenario allows us to weigh our choices more carefully when making short-term and long-term strategic decisions.
The purpose of this nonequivalent control group design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metacognitive and self-regulatory strategy use on the assessment achievement of 215 9th-grade, residential physics students from low socioeconomic status (low-SES) backgrounds. Students from low-SES backgrounds often lack the self-regulatory habits…
Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Reinkowski, Janina
We examine the empirical link between collaborative R&D strategies and the research and innovation performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises in peripheral locations. Using a survey of German firms combined with time series information on patent applications obtained from the European...... Patent Office, we apply a comparison-group approach and estimate different “treatment effect” models to assess the notion of causality underlying this relationship. Besides accounting for observed and unobserved firm-specific heterogeneity, we thereby also control for the likely endogeneity of R......&D collaboration as a strategic choice in the course of research and innovation activities. Our results for the period 2001–2007 indicate that engaging in R&D collaboration vis-á-vis a non-collaborative research strategy is related to higher outcome levels for a firm’s key research and innovation indicators...
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks Introduction, problem statement and aims of the study Collaborative regional networks has been long considered as a must in successful tourism development (Dredge & Jenkins 2003) owing to benefits such as scale and scope economics......, as well as joint planning and coordination of supply facilities. However, the setting up and governance of destination networks is paved with managerial challenges, including, among others: the balancing of conflicting stakeholder interest (Wilkinson & March 2008), and bridging over the gap between...... the bureaucratic culture of public administration and the marketing culture adopted by private tourism firms (Palmer 1996). This regional coordinating role must be undertaken in spite of limited ownership, budget or power to control how individual firms deliver (D’Angella & Go 2007). Furthermore, various actors...
Typical of the sorts of ventures local distribution companies are embarking on these days is Northern States Power Co.'s new unregulated subsidiary. Seven Innovations, set up to entice its customers with a rather lengthy menu of energy-related services. Seren's offerings range from home freeze-up protection, for a residential customer away for the winter, to energy load information for a large company. In charge of Seren's operations is Glynis Hinschberger, president and CEO. She's logged many years in the power industry and particularly in energy management services. But in the brave new world of unbundling, how does a company like Seren figure out just what services its customers want and need--in sufficient volume to make a healthy contribution to the company's bottom line? It's not as if the industry had decades of experience, and accumulated wisdom, to draw on in devising marketing strategies and plans for new unregulated businesses. So, to find out how a new company like Seren assesses its market's needs, and then translates those needs into viable services, American Gas went to Seren's Hinschberger for an inside look at how it's done
Zhang, Junfeng; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Hoenig, S.
This study examines the interplay of product development strategy, knowledge utilization, and product innovation performance in the context of Chinese subsidiaries of multinational companies. When firms strive to develop highly innovative products (breakthrough focus), the amount of resources
Chatzistamatiou, Mariza; Dermitzaki, Irini; Efklides, Anastasia; Leondari, Angeliki
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between elementary students' reported use of self-regulatory strategies in mathematics and their motivational and affective determinants. Participants of the study were 344 fifth- and sixth-grade Greek students. Students were asked to complete self-reported measures regarding the strategies…
Flory, Egbert; Reinhardt, Jens
Increasing scientific knowledge and technical innovations in the areas of cell biology, biotechnology and medicine resulted in the development of promising therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) reflect a complex and innovative class of biopharmaceuticals as these products are highly research-driven, characterised by innovative manufacturing processes and heterogeneous with regard to their origin, type and complexity. This class of ATMP integrates gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineering products and are often individualized and patient-specific products. Multiple challenges arise from the nature of ATMPs, which are often developed by micro, small and medium sized enterprises, university and academia, for whom regulatory experiences are limited and regulatory requirements are challenging. Regulatory guidance such as the reflection paper on classification of ATMPs and guidelines highlighting product-specific issues support academic research groups and pharmaceutical companies to foster the development of safe and effective ATMPs. This review provides an overview on the European regulatory aspects of ATMPs and highlights specific regulatory tools such as the ATMP classification procedure, a discussion on the hospital exemption for selected ATMPs as well as borderline issues towards transplants/transfusion products.
Juul Andersen, Torben
Previous research found that capital structure affects performance when it is adapted to the level of environmental dynamism and pursuit of an innovation strategy. The current study reproduces some of these relationships in a more recent dataset but also identifies significant nuances across...... industrial environments. Analyses of a large cross sectional sample and various industry sub-samples suggest that other factors have influenced capital structure effects in recent years including flexibilities in multinational organization and effective strategic risk management capabilities....
Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.
to improved monitoring while simultaneously reducing costs. This paradigm is being tested at the SRS F-Area where an innovative passive remedial system is being monitored and evaluated over the long term prior to traditional regulatory closure. Contaminants being addressed at this site are uranium, strontium-90, iodine-129, and tritium. We believe that the proposed strategies will be more effective in early identification of potential risks; these strategies will also be cost effective because controlling variables are relatively simple to measure. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate large cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance
Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.
to improved monitoring while simultaneously reducing costs. This paradigm is being tested at the SRS F-Area where an innovative passive remedial system is being monitored and evaluated over the long term prior to traditional regulatory closure. Contaminants being addressed at this site are uranium, strontium-90, iodine-129, and tritium. We believe that the proposed strategies will be more effective in early identification of potential risks; these strategies will also be cost effective because controlling variables are relatively simple to measure. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate large cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance.
Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey
In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.
The Canadian Electricity Association is of the opinion that the innovation strategy put forth by the government of Canada represents a step in the right direction. It particularly appreciated the integrated, cross-jurisdictional approach suggested by the government. Two key issues have an impact on the electricity sector's ability to innovate: the competitive challenge and the environmental challenge. The industry must rapidly adjust the corporate structures and cultures to the opening of almost 50 per cent of the electricity market in Canada as of May 2002, and place emphasis on efficiency and customer satisfaction. Awareness concerning the complexities of the environmental and economic trade-offs involved in the generation, transmission, distribution and marketing of electric power must be improved to assist customers in their energy use decisions. The issue of greenhouse gases and the impact of human activity on global climate must be kept in the forefront. The industry must continue to find effective means of improving the economics and environmental performance of low greenhouse gas options. The Canadian Electricity Association believes that the existing barriers to innovation in Canada should be identified and reduced as a first step. It stated that cost of capital is the fundamental driver of investment and innovation. The regulation and taxation system needs revising. Partnerships with governments and academic institutions are an effective way of pushing forward the innovation agenda. The Canadian Electricity Association recommended that tax incentives for research and development and related capital expenditures be increased. The tax treatment of investment in existing personnel should be improved. 1 ref
An investigation was made of the high-level radioactive waste immobilization technology programs in the U.S. and Europe, and of the associated regulatory programs and waste management perspectives in the countries studied. Purpose was to assess the ability of those programs to satisfy DOE waste management needs and U.S. regulatory requirements. This volume includes: introduction, immobilization strategies in the context of waste isolation program needs, high-level waste management as an integrated system, regulatory goals, engineered-barrier characteristics, barrier technology, high-level waste disposal programs, analysis of HLW immobilization technology in the context of policy and regulatory requirements, and waste immobilization program option
Disruptive technologies and business models are fundamentally changing the established ‘rules of the game’ in many industries. Thus, finding an adequate response becomes a matter of survival to companies touched by disruptive innovation. The current research is attempting to reveal the factors determining the response strategy of local incumbent TV broadcasters to global disruptive innovation. In order to do so, these research objectives are pursued in order to answer the research question: t...
Kulyniak, Ihor; Kopets, Galyna
In this paper the organizational aspects of innovative entrepreneurship development are reviewed, along with the emerging synergy effects, social spillover effects, improvement of institutional environment, along with regulatory and financial aids, instrumental to the processes of fostering growth of innovative entrepreneurship.
Woollett, G R
Innovation is assumed to be a good thing in health care, just as it is elsewhere, and to be crucial to the availability of greater choices for consumers. But what is it? Very little definition is provided when the term is used. This report discusses the following aspects of biotech innovation: innovation in medicinal products, innovation in manufacturing processes, and innovation in regulatory science (both oversight and licensure).
Pagliusi, Sonia; Dennehy, Maureen; Kim, Hun
This report covers the topics of pandemics, epidemics and partnerships, including regulatory convergence initiatives, new technologies and novel vaccines, discussed by leading public and private sector stakeholders at the 18th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN). Contributions of Gavi and the vaccine industry from emerging countries to the growing global vaccine market, by improving the supply base from manufacturers in developing countries and contributing to 58% of doses, were highlighted. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) and others reported on new strategies to ensure speedy progress in preclinical and clinical development of innovative vaccines for future MERS, Zika or other outbreak response. Priorities for vaccine stockpiling, to assure readiness during emergencies and to prevent outbreaks due to re-emerging diseases such as yellow fever, cholera and poliomyelitis, were outlined. The role of partnerships in improving global vaccine access, procurement and immunization coverage, and shared concerns were reviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international collaborating partners provided updates on the Product, Price and Procurement database, the prequalification of vaccines, the control of neglected tropical diseases, particularly the new rabies elimination initiative, and regulatory convergence proposals to accelerate vaccine registration in developing countries. Updates on supply chain innovations and novel vaccine platforms were presented. The discussions enabled members and partners to reflect on efficiency of research & development, supply chain tools and trends in packaging technologies improving delivery of existing vaccines, and allowing a deeper understanding of the current public-health objectives, industry financing, and global policies, required to ensure optimal investments, alignment and stability of
Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David
The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable
Wolf, Patricia; Hanisch, Christoph
This paper presents a qualitative interview study with 28 RIS project managers that aimed at understanding whether or not this is true in the context of regional innovation and what the specifics of managing regional innovation projects are. In taking up a recent claim for policy intervention studies which allow to “derive precise suggestions for their design and management”. The study investigated the interrelation between the agility of the management approach and the achievements of RIS p...
Full Text Available This article aims to extend the discussion about entrepreneurial strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs by including the concept of open innovation. How can SMEs overcome the challenges of resource scarcity and harsh competition? How they can gain competitive advantage in today’s ever-changing business environment? The answer to both of these questions might be through open innovation: collaborating with researchers, customers, suppliers – even competitors – as well as research institutions and universities. A common barrier to open innovation in an SME is the perception that it will be too time consuming to gain access to a knowledge base of external knowledge providers and link to “gatekeepers” of knowledge. However, an entrepreneurial mindset might help SMEs to move toward an open-innovation approach, where more codified and transferrable knowledge are important. This article discusses the implications of an entrepreneurial focus for open-innovation activities. The usefulness of the open-innovation principles are highlighted through a case study of an Norwegian SME operating in the maritime-oil industry.
Full Text Available The paper refers to relationships between the innovativeness of an organization and its selected determinants such as strategy, corporate culture, structure and operational processes. Research was conducted among 200 managers at the top, middle and operational levels of management (200 companies operating in Poland implementing innovations - innovative companies. Conditions leading to innovations are described as the combination of processes, which result from the internal and external dynamics of a given entity. The analysis assumed that the assessment of company innovativeness would be based on an assessment of whether the company is a leader in the industry in terms of new products (the higher the rating, the more innovative the company is considered to be. The relationship between the dimensions of the company's functioning and the degree of its innovativeness was rated on the basis of two measures: the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the chi-square coefficient. It was assumed that the most innovative companies have structures similar to organic ones, with a weak influence of the elements of mechanistic structures. This assumption was proven in relation to features of organizations considered important for innovativeness.
Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Podoynitsyna, K.S.
This paper explores how the regulatory regime for Solar PV, defined as a combination of niche shielding and mainstream regulations, affects niche business models, using the Dutch and Flemish regulatory regimes as examples. The regulatory regime does not influence all components of the business
Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz
This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...
Yuliya Semenovna Toktamysheva
Full Text Available Objective to develop methods for analyzing and determining the level of socioeconomic development of the Russian Federation subjects towards innovations. Methods dialectical and systemic approaches to the consideration of economic phenomena and facts processing and synthesis of information using statistical and graphical methods of analysis. Results it was determined that the transition to intensive economic growth as a vital in the longterm strategy for accelerated economic development is not implemented in all regions of Russia. There are disparities in the level of innovation activity and investment performance. Scientific novelty the method used for estimating the efficiency of implementing and realization of the potential of innovationoriented development in the Russian Federation regions was the method of ranking based on information on the key indicators labour productivity capital productivity sustainability of the regional economy production of innovative goods works and services expenditure on research and development investment in technological innovation in the region. Practical value financing and implementation of innovative projects industrial production and technical innovation special economic zones technology parks etc. proved their efficient impact on the growth and performance of the entire regionrsquos economy. The highest positions in the ranking of innovative development are occupied by the regions with high innovative attractivity and welldeveloped energy and raw materials industry. nbsp
Hyde, Norlyn B; Fife, Elizabeth
Educators can develop innovative instructional strategies to engage students within the philosophical framework of Constructivism. To that end, the authors used films--Hollywood movies--to enhance their curriculum on neurological and psychopathological illnesses. During the fourth quarter of a seven-quarter associate degree nursing program, students developed case studies of the disorders portrayed in selected films. The authors outline the methods used to implement this approach and discuss evaluations from student and faculty perspectives.
Chemistry program is one of the essential programs for the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It helps to ensure the necessary integrity, reliability and availability of plant structures, systems and components important to safety. Additionally, the program plays an important role in asset preservation, limiting radiation exposure and environmental protection. A good chemistry program will minimize corrosion of materials, reduce activation products, minimize of the buildup of radioactive material leading to occupational radiation exposure and it helps limit the release of chemicals and radioactive materials to the environment. The legal basis for the chemistry oversight at Canadian NPPs is established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and its associated regulations. It draws on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's regulatory framework and NPP operating license conditions that include applicable standards such as CAN/CSA N286-05 Management System Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants. This paper focuses on the regulatory oversight strategy used in Canada to assess the performance of chemistry program at the nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensed by CNSC. The strategy consists of a combination of inspection and performance monitoring activities. The activities are further supported from information gathered through staff inspections of cross-cutting areas such as maintenance, corrective-action follow-ups, event reviews and safety related performance indicators. (authors)
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to build up students’ writing skills through Innovation Teaching Strategy Model (ITSM. This study was conducted in Letters and Culture Faculty of Universitas Negeri Gorontalo (UNG, with the students of English and Indonesian department as the participants. The current study is based on the social culture and local wisdom context utilizing Information Computer Technology (ICT. This model supports the students to have a high level of thinking and performance in writing skills in English and Indonesian language. This study utilized Research and Development (R &D approach using Focus Group Discussion (FGD and Reflection method with the strategy of one group pre-test and post-test design. This study reaches two target achievements; firstly creating the effective innovation teaching strategy model after statistic examining through one group pre-test and post-test design, and secondly improving the students’ competencies and writing skill through learning and teaching process treatment of writing course as an effect of applying Innovation teaching strategy model application.
Münch, Angela; Becker, Nadine
: In order to change the growth strategy of the Chinese economy, from the recent production focused towards an innovation-oriented approach, the government is trying to foster innovation capacity building among companies operating in China. The implementation of the current Science and Technology...... Development Plan (2006-2020) has granted enterprises special support and subsidies to increase their innovative capacity. Yet, due to specific ownership forms of firms in China the government aid varies tremendously between the various ownership types. Based on their registration status enterprise types can...... be classified as state-owned (SOE), collective-owned (COE), joint-operated enterprises (JOE), private-owned (POE), and foreign-owned enterprises (FOE) as well as foreign joint ventures (FJV). These specific company forms are exposed to different political and regulatory conditions and can be further divided...
Full Text Available Toraja has been considered as the icon of tourism in South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. As the number of tourist decreases and one tourism attraction belongs to many members of family, there is an expectation from stakeholders that innovative strategies should be implemented to develop tourism. To achieve this goal, yayasan keluarga (family foundation has been established to manage tourism in Toraja. The study reveals that although family foundation has been the option to develop tourism and is an innovative strategy in managing tourism attractions, stakeholders believe that Toraja tourism should be developed together with the existence of the family foundation based on the principle of collaborative work. High demand on the role of the regional government in developing tourism exists although the family foundation is the main organizer of tourism attractions. Similarly, the regional government believes that the family foundation is a choice from the community and thus, it is the role of the family foundation to implement activities for tourism development in Toraja. This paper suggests that cultural heritage tourism in Toraja can be developed if the family foundation implements innovative strategies as well as strengthens relationship (synergy and collaborative work with other stakeholders in Toraja.
Robinson, Stephanie A.; Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Lachman, Margie E.
The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to…
In the 21st century, high-tech serves as the foundation of competitiveness for the whole world, at the same time, intellectual property, especially the patent has become an effective means for an enterprise to participate in the international competition, and intellectual property is also the key strategic resource to gain competitive advantage. In effect, the competition amongst enterprises is mainly concerning the competition of patent technology. Those enterprises with a large number of high level professional powers gain the initiative edge of survival. Therefore, it is vital for the enterprise to adopt the patent protection and innovation strategy, so as to elevate the survival ability and competitiveness of an enterprise.
Gilley, Debbie Bray
Full text: The supply of human resources required to adequately manage a radiation safety regulatory program has diminished in the last five years. Competing professional opportunities and a reduction in the number of health physics secondary schools have made it necessary to look at alternative methods of training. There are limited educational programs in the US that prepare our professionals for careers in the Radiation Regulatory Programs. The state of Florida's radiation control program embraced a new methodology using a combination of didactic and work experience using qualification journals, subject matter experts, and formalized training to develop a qualified pool of employees to perform the regulatory functions and emergency response requirements of a state radiation control program. This program uses a task-based approach to identify training needs and draws upon current staff to develop and implement the training. This has led to a task-oriented staff capable of responding to basic regulatory and emergency response activities within one year of employment. Florida's program lends itself to other states or countries with limited resources that have experienced staff attrition due to retirement or competing employment opportunities. Information on establishing a 'task-based' pool of employees that can perform basic regulatory functions and emergency response after one year of employment will be described. Initial task analysis of core functions and methodology is used to determine the appropriate training methodology for these functions. Instructions will be provided on the methodology used to 'mentor' new employees and then incorporate the new employees into the established core functions and be a useful employee at the completion of the first year of employment. New training philosophy and regime may be useful in assisting in the development of programs in countries and states with limited resources for training radiation protection personnel. (author)
Maguire, Karen; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone; Nauwelaers, Claire
This book examines regional innovation in central and southern Denmark, looking at its role in the economy, its governance and policy context and regional strategies for innovation driven growth.......This book examines regional innovation in central and southern Denmark, looking at its role in the economy, its governance and policy context and regional strategies for innovation driven growth....
... (Reg Plan Seq No. 148). 452 Small Business Innovation 3245-AF84 Research (SBIR) Program Policy... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program Policy Directive Regulatory Plan: This entry is Seq. No. 149 in... proposal for a contract and that if the percentage is not met, the large business prime contractor must...
Pohlmann, Philipp Adrian
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the changing innovation management literature by providing an overview of different innovation types and organizational complexity factors. Aiming at a better understanding of effective innovation management, innovation and complexity are related to the formulation of an innovation strategy and interaction between different innovation types is further explored. The chosen approach in this study is to review the existing literature on different inn...
Controlled drainage in agricultural ditches contributes to a drainage management strategy with potential environmental and production benefits. Innovative drainage strategies including spatially orientated low-grade weirs show promise to significantly improve nutrient (e.g. nitrate-N) reductions by...
Current regulatory approaches are ill-equipped to address the challenges of governing through periods of disruptive technological change. This article hones in on the use of assessment regimes at the level of the European Union, particularly in the work of the Commission, to argue for a missing...... I label innovation assessment, to steer polities through periods of disruptive technological change, during which innovations have taken concrete forms and are beginning to diffuse, but still exhibit much scope for rapid, unexpected change and alternative trajectories of development. By juxtaposing...
Tor Helge Aas
Full Text Available Empirical research has confirmed that a positive relationship exists between the implementation of innovation activities and the future performance of organizations. Firms utilize resources and capabilities to develop innovations in the form of new products, services or processes. Some firms prove to be better at reproducing innovation success than others, and the capacity to do so is referred to as innovation capability. However, the term innovation capability is ambiguously treated in extant literature. There are several different definitions of the concept and the distinction between innovation capabilities and other types of capabilities, such as dynamic capabilities, is neither explicitly stated, nor is the relationship between the concept and other resource- and capability-based concepts within strategy theory established. Although innovation is increasingly identified as crucial for a firm’s sustainable competitiveness in contemporary volatile and complex markets, the strategy-innovation link is underdeveloped in extant research. To overcome this challenge this paper raises the following research question: What type of innovation capabilities are required to innovate successfully? Due to the status of the extant research, we chose a conceptual research design to answer our research question and the paper contributes with a conceptual framework to discuss what innovation capabilities firms need to reproduce innovation success. Based on careful examination of current literature on innovation capability specifically, and the strategy-innovation link in general, we suggest that innovation capability must be viewed along two dimensions – innovation novelty and market characteristics. This framework enables the identification of four different contexts for innovation capabilities in a two-bytwo matrix. We discuss the types of innovation capabilities necessary within the four different contexts. This novel framework contributes to the
Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E
Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.
Younus, Irfan; Cho, Kun Woo
Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established in 2001 with one of the objectives to ensure the protection of workers, general public and the environment from the harmful effects of naturally occurring and artificially produced ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing the effective regulations. Radon is a naturally occurring odorless, colorless, tasteless, imperceptible to senses and chemically inert radioactive gas which is produced continuously from the natural decay of U-238, U-235 and Th-232 in most soils, rocks and water all over the earth. High levels of radon in the soil and rock are primarily responsible for indoor radon problems. Therefore when inhaled with air, there much probability that radon decay products will stay and decay in the lungs. If stayed in the lungs, the radiation may damage the cells causing lung cancer. Hence the radon problems have been taken seriously in most of the developed countries of the world. Radon reference levels for dwellings and workplaces have been set and the general public has been made alert of radon through newspapers and electronic media. In Pakistan, neither publicity campaign nor radon measurement and control programmes have been started countrywide. Rather small individual efforts for the sake of interest have been done to investigate the radon in some specific area or institution. This paper presents the regulatory strategy to control radon exposure for the sake of radiation protection of public and workers in Pakistan
Much innovative work in organizations takes place in teams. Because organizational demands are complex and resources are limited, teams need to regulate their collective efforts to perform optimally. Based on previous research and a stage-based approach to innovation, it was hypothesized that
Robert J. Crawhall
Full Text Available Effective time management is a critical success factor for most projects; however, it is particularly challenging for projects involving substantial innovation. For most projects, time (i.e., the schedule becomes a management "red flag" that signals when something goes wrong or gets out of control. The challenge for projects involving significant innovation is that one or more critical activities may be of an unknown duration or involve factors outside the normal design process and require "red flagging" from the outset. Managers of innovation projects have to distinguish between those activities or work packets that are a part of “business as usual” and those that involve innovation. They must identify and quantify the schedule risks and develop strategies to mitigate them. For example, one strategy to manage time-related risk is to decouple the innovation value as perceived by the customer (innovation output from the technology innovation that is needed to deliver the product value in a cost-effective manner (innovation input. This strategy should take into account the likely consequences of longer-than-anticipated innovation time. Two common risks associated with poor time management for innovation are running out of financial runway to reach sustainable revenue and missing a critical market window. In this article, the author reflects on almost 30 years of experience in the Canadian innovation system across several industry sectors and provides some practical recommendations on time management for innovation managers.
Theo van Achterberg; Joke Mintjes; G. Holleman; E. Poot
Implementation of innovations is a complex and intensive procedure in which different strategies can be successful. In nursing, strategies often focus on intrinsic motivation, competencies and attitudes of individual nurses while ignoring the social context. Since nurses often work in teams,
Marcos, Teri A.; Loose, William V.
This report, the second in a series, provides comparative empirical data on current state and national university trends around the thematic strategies and constructs ten fully online Educational Leadership programs engage within their innovative designs. Our 2014 iPrincipals report provided information on how one California University…
Uhlaner, L.M.; Kemp, R.; Tan, S.
This study aimed at identifying some of the factors determining innovation performance in the SME. Based on a sample of 388 Dutch SME's, hypotheses were tested in particular regarding the main effects of strategy, and the direct and indirect efects of family orientation on firm performance. The
Chambers, Andrea; Mustard, Cameron A; Breslin, Curtis; Holness, Linn; Nichol, Kathryn
Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization's change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. The proposed study will focus on Ontario's safer needle regulation (2007) which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues that arise during later stages of implementation, a phase
Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier.
Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H
In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K
The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.
P. Wang (Pengfei)
markdownabstractTo obtain and maintain competitive advantage, firms need to implement appropriate innovation strategies (i.e. exploration or exploitation) and acquire status in external networks. In this dissertation, I investigate how innovation strategy, status, and network structure jointly
Gashinani M. Gholipour
Full Text Available “Light well” as one of the most common means of daylight tolls in building, experiences severe limitations and deserve special attention. The question is which strategy is the best for increasing the daylight penetration to the depth of buildings. One of the main challenges in deep plan is to guide daylight into the building core and this can be performed through daylighting strategies, but the choice of the proper innovative daylighting system (IDS with several parameters is the problem. This paper aims to find elements for optimal choice and selecting context-compatible tools for light well. The result shows that four macro factors were found at the interaction of building and IDS. Identifying the integration components can play an effective role in decision-making or design a new tolls consistent with the physical conditions of light well and building to overcome the daylight crisis.
The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to analyze the theoretical and practical basis for financing national economy innovative development, and ways of financing innovation with international experience.The results of the analysis. It should be noted that Ukraine's transition to an innovative model of national economy development is the only way to improve the quality of economic growth. Some aspects of innovative development are shown in several regulatory documents. However,...
Ogbuehi, Philip I.; Fraser, Barry J.
This study of middle-school students in California focused on the effectiveness of using innovative teaching strategies for enhancing the classroom environment, students' attitudes and conceptual development. A sample of 661 students from 22 classrooms in four inner city schools completed modified forms of the Constructivist Learning Environment…
Piersma, A. H.; Burgdorf, T.; Louekari, K.
concerning the regulatory acceptance and implementation of alternative test methods and testing strategies, with the aim to develop feasible solutions. Classical validation of alternative methods usually involves one to one comparison with the gold standard animal study. This approach suffers from...... the reductionist nature of an alternative test as compared to the animal study as well as from the animal study being considered as the gold standard. Modern approaches combine individual alternatives into testing strategies, for which integrated and defined approaches are emerging at OECD. Furthermore, progress......-focused hazard and risk assessment of chemicals requires an open mind towards stepping away from the animal study as the gold standard and defining human biologically based regulatory requirements for human hazard and risk assessment....
Breunig, Karl Joachim; Aas, Tor Helge; Hydle, Katja Maria
This chapter explores the strategy–innovation link in open service innovations. The increased attention to the role of the firm's external environment on innovation has important implications for strategy. However, our literature review reveals that the strategy–innovation link is ambiguously treated in extant theory, especially with respect to open- and service-innovations. Therefore, we inductively explore innovation practices in five large scale-intensive service firms to establish the lin...
Romaní-Pérez, Marina; Agusti, Ana; Sanz, Yolanda
Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities. Potential next-generation probiotic bacteria (Akkermansia, Bacteroides spp., Eubacterium halli) and microbiota-derived molecules (e.g. membrane proteins, short-chain fatty acids) are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials to promote the development of innovative dietary supplements. The fact that live or inactivated bacteria and their products can regulate pathways that increase energy expenditure, and reduce energy intake, and absorption and systemic inflammation make them attractive research targets from a nutritional and clinical perspective. Understanding which are the beneficial bacteria and their bioactive products is helping us to envisage innovative microbiome-based dietary interventions to tackle obesity. Advances will likely result from future refinements of these strategies according to the individual's microbiome configuration and its particular response to interventions, thereby progressing towards personalized nutrition.
Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon
Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…
Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Neogy, P.
Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize releases during a severe accident. The objective is to make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of the strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident. The identification and assessment process for containment and release strategies is described, and some insights derived from its application to a BWR Mark 1 plant are presented here. 13 refs., 2 figs
Eliana Maria dos Santos Pereira Alves
Full Text Available A current challenge in teaching practice is to transform classrooms into laboratories to exchange experiences in courses whose goal is to enhance the professional skills in a practical and meaningful way. The search for improvement demonstrates that, increasingly, professionals become aware that organizations coexist in highly competitive environments, seeking to conquer more markets based on sustainable competitive advantages demanding fast responses of its employees. Considering that the process of creativity can be stimulated through the establishment of a suitable environment, this study aims to discuss the application of a didactic strategy developed for this purpose. Using the single case study methodology, it was used the technique of unstructured observation (informal or single to carry out the collection and the recording of events that occurred during the strategy application. It discusses elements such as identifying opportunities, creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship, seeking their relationships to understand how it is possible to motivate the generation of proposals for innovative projects in educational environments. As a result, it is presented the perceptions of teachers on the didactic strategy applied, emphasizing that a suitable environment for the development of ideas encourages the student to propose solutions for the improbabilities, creating innovative alternatives to the identified needs.
The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies and pres......The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...... and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise....... They consider quality development a must in the fight for market shares and they adapt equipment and organisation to this goal. The factors forming and determining the strategies of the companies count the technological knowledge and expertise of the owner/founder, the structural changes of the market...
A challenge for urologic nurses and nurse educators is how to present information to staff, students, and patients in a way that will capture their interest and engage them in the learning process. The use of adult-learning principles and innovative teaching strategies can make the learning experience dynamic, and encourage learners to take a more active role in their own learning. Games are a creative, fun, and interactive way to assist in the emphasis, review, reinforcement, and retention of information for urology nurses.
Aaen, Ivan; Jensen, Rikke Hagensby
We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of software intensive systems, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets......, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have opened up for experimentation......, learning, and flexibility in ongoing software projects, but how can this change be used to facilitate software innovation? How can a team systematically identify and pursue opportunities to create added value in ongoing projects? In this paper, we describe Deweyan pragmatism as the philosophical foundation...
This report provides information on the regulatory strategies being developed or implemented in nine countries for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The study was performed by International Energy Associates Limited on behalf of Pacific Northwest Laboratories and the US Department of Energy. IEAL obtained information for this report from the regulatory authorities in each country, who also later reviewed drafts of the respective country sections of the report. The nine countries surveyed were Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries were selected for study because they are among the largest producers of nuclear energy in the world today and have aggressive programs for spent fuel management and waste disposal
Spyros Arvanitis; Areti Gkypali; Kostas Tsekouras
In this paper we demonstrate the complexity that regulates the innovation-exports nexus. In particular we argue that innovation and exports should be treated as latent variables in order to account for as many facets possible thus, accounting for multifaceted heterogeneity. In this context, the role of innovation openness ought to be highlighted within a unified framework, as it is considered an additional activity of firms’ knowledge creation strategy. In this line, innovation and exporting ...
This article addresses the problem of restricted access to industry-sponsored clinical trial data. In particular, it analyzes the intersection of the competing claims that mandatory disclosure of pharmaceutical test data impedes drug sponsors’ innovation incentives and that access facilitates new drug development. These claims are characterized in terms of public-good and common-resource dilemmas. The analysis finds confidentiality protection of primary research data plays an ambiguous role. While secrecy, as such, does not solve the public-good problem in pharmaceutical innovation (in the presence of regulatory instruments that protect the originator drug against generic competition), it is likely to exacerbate the common-resource problem, in view of data as a source of scientific knowledge. It is argued that the claim by the research-based industry that disclosure of clinical data impedes innovation incentives is misplaced and should not be leveraged against pro-access policies. While much attention has been paid to the problem of appropriability of drug R&D investment, this analysis highlights another consequence resulting from the private provision of clinical trials, i.e., factual confidentiality and possession of data by drug sponsors. The associated social costs are qualified in terms of internalized knowledge externalities. Since, in a competitive environment, companies are unlikely to change the strategy of non-sharing of primary data, the resulting economic inefficiencies at the sector level call for regulatory intervention. To reconcile the competing policy objectives, it is proposed that the rules of access should be designed in such a way that third-party use of primary data does not interfere with protection against generic competition. At the same time, the long-term collective benefit can be maximized when the “cooperative choice” (i.e., when everyone shares data) becomes the “dominant strategy.” This can be achieved only when access is
This edited volume brings together academics from both innovation and marketing fields to explore the additional value for companies that can be generated with the innovations in marketing and the marketing of innovations. If ideas need to reach the marketplace, then marketing strategies, concept...
Concentrates on innovation as an under-exploited path to success in the business community, though reckons becoming innovative is not easy. Suggests innovative companies have a number of common characteristics, which are ten strategies to be implemented to create success, these are listed in full.
Ana Mª Serrano-Bedia
Full Text Available We analyse complementarity between different knowledge sources (internal, external and/or cooperation employing a wide range of innovation performance measures (product, process, organizational, and commercial. The empirical study uses 2014 Spanish CIS data and studies complementarities by performing conditional complementarity/substitutability tests. The results show evidence of conditional complementarity in product innovation performance between external and internal knowledge sources in absence of cooperation and of conditional substitute relationship between external and cooperation knowledge sources in presence of internal source. In product and process innovation performance we found a conditional substitute relationship between internal and cooperation sources when external source is used and not used, respectively. This relationship turns to conditional complementarity in organisational innovation in absence of external knowledge source. Therefore, when designing innovation strategy, managers must consider their objectives on a priority basis, since not all the strategies have the same effects on innovation performance.
Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Olmos, L.; Cossent, R.; Gomez, T. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Poot, J.; Bongaerts, M. [Liander, Duiven (Netherlands); Trebolle, D. [Union Fenosa Distribucion, Madrid (Spain); Doersam, B. [MVV Energie, Mannheim (Germany); Bofinger, S.; Lichtner, P.; Gerhardt, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, IWES, Bremerhaven (Germany); Jacobsen, H.; Ropenus, S.; Schroeder, S. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Auer, H.; Weissensteiner, L.; Prueggler, W.; Obersteiner, C.; Zach, K. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)
This Work Package 6 report of the IMPROGRES project provides an overview of regulatory strategies and incentives, conducive to (1) network integration of increasing levels of distributed generation including notably intermittent renewable technology such as wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) as well as (2) options for reducing impacts on surging network integration costs. Similar to the IMPROGRES project in general, this report focuses on European distribution networks. It includes specific country studies of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization’s change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. Methods The proposed study will focus on Ontario’s safer needle regulation (2007 which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. Discussion The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues
Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu
Rapid innovation in printed circuit board, and the uncertainties surrounding quantification of the human and environmental health impacts of e-waste disposal have made it difficult to confirm the influence of evolving e-waste management strategies and regulatory policies on materials. To assess these influences, we analyzed hazardous chemicals in a market-representative set of Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, 1996-2010). We used standard leaching tests to characterize hazard potential and USEtox® to project impacts on human health and ecosystem. The results demonstrate that command-and-control regulations have had minimal impacts on WPCBs composition and toxicity risks; whereas technological innovation may have been influenced more by resource conservation, including a declining trend in the use of precious metals such as gold. WPCBs remain classified as hazardous under U.S. and California laws because of excessive toxic metals. Lead poses the most significant risk for cancers; zinc for non-cancer diseases; copper had the largest potential impact on ecosystem quality. Among organics, acenaphthylene, the largest risk for cancers; naphthalene for non-cancer diseases; pyrene has the highest potential for ecotoxicological impacts. These findings support the need for stronger enforcement of international policies and technology innovation to implement the strategy of design-for-the-environment and to encourage recovery, recycling, and reuse of WPCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drake, Miriam A.
Explores key issues related to innovation in academic libraries--performance gaps, incentives to innovate, nature of innovation, barriers and constraints, impact of innovation, and implementation of innovative strategies--and concludes that innovation requires a conducive climate, capital investment, and a leadership that is enthusiastic and…
Milner, Kerry A; Cosme, Sheryl
This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning and implementation of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741-6787. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Beneragama, Hemantha; Shridhar, Manisha; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Dissanayake, Vajira Hw
In 2008, the Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property (GSPA-PHI) was launched by the World Health Organization, to stimulate fresh thinking on innovation in, and access to, medicines and to build sustainable research on diseases disproportionately affecting low- and middle-income countries. As part of the activities of the GSPA-PHI, Sri Lanka has been the first country to date to assess the national environment for medical technology and innovation. This year-long, multistakeholder, participative analysis facilitated identification of clear and implementable policy recommendations, for the government to increase its effectiveness in promoting innovation in health products through institutional development, investment and coordination among all areas relevant to public health. The assessment also highlighted areas for priority action, including closing the technology gap in development of health products, facilitating technology transfer, and building the health-research and allied workforces. The Sri Lankan experience will inform the ongoing independent external evaluation of the GSPA-PHI worldwide. The assessment process coincided with the passing of the National Medicines Regulatory Authority Act in 2015. In addition, there is growing recognition that regional cooperation will be critical to improving access to medical products in the future. Sri Lanka is therefore actively promoting cooperation to establish a regional regulatory affairs network. Lessons learnt from the Sri Lankan assessment may also benefit other countries embarking on a national GSPA-PHI assessment.
A. Orcun SAKARYA
Full Text Available Innovation strategy practices primarily aim to sustain competitive advantage and growth via new business models and added value. The goal of this study is to discover the extent of innovation statements communicated to stakeholders by Turkish firms listed in the second top 500 industrial enterprises ranking of Istanbul Chamber of Industry as of 2013 and 2014. To do this, topics closely related to innovation are examined via a comparative analysis of related website contents. The study includes four main parts. The first and second parts review the literature and theoretical background. The third part introduces the methodological framework of the paper including the profile of the firms under consideration and analytical procedures. Content analysis is used to group web-based information related to innovation and other notions. Groups include mission, vision and values, research and development ability, and innovation related topics which statement densities are discussed in the context of motivation for value creation. It has been deduced that the gradual increase in firms’ innovation awareness is also communicated to stakeholders especially in research and the context of development activities’. Finally this paper ends with a conclusion.
Transit-oriented development strategies (TODS) are widely pursued by planners and policy makers. However, there is a lack of0clarity on how institutional innovation and learning accompanying0institutional change0facilitates an explicit shift towards a conducive context for TODS. This is evident in
The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is the country’s primary authority on radiation protection and nuclear safety. ARPANSA aims to promote safety, security, and emergency preparedness through efficient and effective regulation of nuclear installations, controlled facilities, and radiation sources. Recent initiatives to improve regulation by ‘cutting red tape’ and reducing regulatory burden have been introduced. ARPANSA’s Regulatory Delivery Model emphasises the key elements to good regulation and describes initiatives such as baseline inspection schedule, Performance Objectives and Criteria, and performance deficiencies. These and other initiatives have streamlined inspection efforts, increased risk-based oversight and risk-informed decision making, leading to increased efficiencies for both regulator and licence holder. In addition, ARPANSA has introduced 12 key performance indicators in its self-assessment of regulatory performance against the Australian Government’s Regulator Performance Framework. (author)
Full Text Available The open innovation paradigm emphasizes the fact that firms can improve their performance by opening their business models and reduce their R&D costs by effective incorporation of external knowledge. In other words, companies are able to capture value through knowledge that exists outside the boundaries of their organization. The shift from closed to open model of innovation has imposed the necessity to adopt more open approach to innovation within traditional academic view of business strategy. The adoption of this innovative approach is emphasized even more, by the necessity for stronger connection and cooperation among the participants of the innovation process. Free will and collaboration are the main characteristics of open source software, which is recognized in literature as the role model of open innovation and is a rapidly growing method of technology development. Furthermore, innovative communities represent a great opportunity for improvement of the companies' innovation activities, since they have become an important source for identifying the needs and problems of the users. Their development has been fostered by information technologies and recent social changes in user behavior. Recognizing and better understanding the motivation of the members of the innovation communities that guide them to participate in the process of idea generation, can have significant influence on their incorporation within the innovation process. Equally important is to define the incentives that are suited for stimulating and fostering innovative user activities. Taking this topic in consideration, the purpose of this article is to address the following questions: In what way does the collaboration in open source software projects have positive effect on companies' innovation performance? What are the innovation communities and how can companies establish successful interaction with them? Why does the interaction with innovation communities lead to
Proveniers, A.; Westra, J.; Chova, L.G.; Belenguer, D.M.; Torres, I.C.
Almost by definition, innovative, sustainable economics, technologies, derived services and products have to be developed in a multi-disciplinary way: all kinds of bits and parts from less sustainable methods, technologies, services and products have to be reshuffled in new innovative, sustainable
Maria Cecilia Mancini
Full Text Available Typical products can contribute to socio-economic development of their place of origin if they are able to take part in the logic of the global market. The aim of this research is to examine one type of innovation, the use of PDO products as ingredients, as a part of a strategy to re-launch PDO products which have a mature market. The evolution of the concept of innovation is discussed; innovation is then considered in relation to product life cycle and information asymmetry. There is then a case study on the use of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as an ingredient in industrial processing. This case shows that even incremental innovation can have serious effects for the market when it is applied on production phases which lie outside the direct control of the PDO producers. In order to protect the consumer as well as the PDO producer, it would be advisable for new legislation to regulate in more detail innovation involving products bearing origin certificates.
Wang, Yu; Zhu, Weigang; Dong, Huanli; Zhang, Xiaotao; Li, Rongjin; Hu, Wenping
Organic cocrystals that are composed of two or more components usually exhibit novel, unpredictable, and even unique properties rather than a simple combination of the properties of their components, such as white-light emission, ambipolar charge transport, nonlinear optics, and ferroelectricity. Since cocrystal engineering represents a novel strategy for synthesizing multifunctional materials, which opens the door for molecular collaborative innovation, it has aroused much attention in recent years. However, as it is also a relatively new research field, it is only in its early stages of development. In order to provide readers with an understanding of the future design of cocrystals for potential applications, a brief review of organic cocrystals is presented here, including an introduction to organic cocrystals as well as discussions of cocrystal preparation, methods and techniques of characterization, and multifunctional applications of cocrystals. Moreover, the outlook for further studies and applications of cocrystal engineering is considered.
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to conduct an empirical investigation and reveal what types of globalization and innovation strategies in turbulent and unfavorable regional institutional environment are most likely to be associated with different trajectories of Russian manufacturing firms’ performance in 2007- 2012. We employ the results of empirical survey of 1000 medium and large enterprises in manufacturing (2009 linked to financial data from Amadeus database and the data on the regional institutional environment. We test that (1 introduction of innovations before the crisis ceteris paribus helped the firms to successfully pass the crisis and recover. We expect that (2 companies that became globalized before the crisis (via importing of intermediate and capital goods; exporting; FDI; establishment of partner linkages with foreign firms ceteris paribus are more likely to successfully pass the crisis and grow. And (3 propose the positive effect of synergy of innovation efforts and globalization strategy of the firm. We expect that the abovementioned factors are complimentary and reinforce the ability of the firm to recover after crisis shock. We found strong support for the hypothesis that firms financing introduction of new products before the crisis and simultaneously managed to promote and sell them on the global market were rewarded by quick return to the growing path after global crisis. Other strategies, i.e. solely innovations without exporting play insignificant role while exporting without attempts to introduce new products contribute even negatively to post-crisis recover. Institutional environment also matters: in the regions with less level of corruption firms were more likely to grow after the crisis.
Reddi, Patrizia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione
The study intend to investigate origin and evolution of concepts on technological innovation as well as enterprises`s strategies, to take the lead from innovative factors present in the economic productive stage. At this purpose, it is considered the theoretical positions of different schools of economic thought with regard to the technological change and to the evolution of the industrial capitalism, comparing the aim of the technological knowledge with the determination of innovation processes, investigating on classification criteria and on economic subjects of the change; then it is examined the connections existing among innovation, enterprises and competitiveness, considering the new contest in which enterprises operate (markets`s globalization, importance of social aspects, etc,) testing the processes of dependent and independent decentralization, starting from 1970, and RS activities. In the share of the study which has empirical characteristic it explored Venetian productive system and the importance of resources, public subjects, privates, others, to innovation.
R.P. Jayani Rajapathirana
Full Text Available Insurers are well versed in the litany of challenging conditions facing the sector. These challenges are economic, political, regulatory, legal, social, and technological. As a result of those pressures, the industry is experiencing increasing competition, muted growth, and an excess of capital. The increased connectivity among household and workplace devices, the development of autonomous vehicle and the rising threat of cyber attacks are transforming the way people live and risk they need to mitigate with insurance products. Insurers need to adopt their business models address the changes which can be threatening to the growth of the industry (Deloitte, 2017. Innovation is widely regarded as pinnacle success factor in highly competitive and global economy. An innovation perspective draws a clear picture of future opportunities that lie ahead. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship among innovations capability, innovation type and on the different aspect of firm performance including innovation, market and financial performance based on an empirical study covering insurance industry in Sri Lanka. The research framework developed in this study was tested 379 senior managers of insurance companies. The empirical verification of assumption of this model has given evidence to confirm the relationship between innovation capabilities; innovation efforts and firm performance are significant and strong. The results of this study could lead effective management of innovation capability which helps to deliver more effective innovations outcomes to generate better performance and it would be benefits for management of the insurance companies.
Strachan, N.; Dowlatabadi, H.
This paper investigates the role of suppliers of a new energy technology, when the market for that technology continues to be in a state of flux, and is characterised by continued regulatory and institutional developments. This paper first summarises the institutional drivers resulting in the widely divergent diffusion of distributed generation (DG) based on natural gas engines in the Netherlands and the UK. Then, supplier responses to this institutionally driven market are discussed. Under regulatory support, supply firms were able to implement innovative operational and ownership arrangements, hugely growing the market while positioning themselves for new R and D and market developments. Under regulatory restrictions, supply firms fought to survive, with resultant implications for the reputation and longer term prospects for this new energy technology. The paper concludes by discussing how continuing institutional instability can limit the supplier strategies based on spillovers from successful regulatory experiments, Thus, the establishment of a viable energy supply industry is delayed under continuing regulatory uncertainty. (author)
M.W. Roza-van Vuren (Marja)
textabstractHow do offshoring strategies impact firm performance? And how are innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size influencing this relationship? This research investigates how firms of varying size, well-established firms and growing firms may profit from relocating business activities to
Jessop, Bob; Moulaert, Frank; Hulgård, Lars
Social innovation is a la mode. The significance that various mainstream strategy and policy documents accord to social innovation varies greatly. Nonetheless, one commonality stands out: they interpret it in economic, indeed often in narrowly market-economic, terms. In this chapter we challenge...
Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.
The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).
Day-Black, Crystal; Merrill, Earline B; Konzelman, Lois; Williams, Tammie T; Hart, Natalie
Serious games have "re-emerged" as innovative teaching-learning strategies that researchers have shown to be effective in improving student learning outcomes. "Serious games" refer to games that are driven by educational goals, not entertainment. The use of serious games as part of the teaching-learning experience in nursing education fits into the philosophy and strategies of active learning. The "digital" nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, realism, and entertainment not more readings and Powerpoint supplements in the classroom to support learning. Nursing faculty at a mid-Atlantic Historical Black College and University introduced "serious gaming" technology into a Community Health Nursing course by using two web-based gamed simulations, Outbreak at WatersEdge: A Public Health Discovery Game, and EnviroRisk. This innovation proved to be effective in reinforcing learning and improving student learning outcomes.
Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Ringborg, Ulrik; Schilsky, Richard L
This article highlights major developments over the last decade in personalized medicine in cancer. Emerging data from clinical studies demonstrate that the use of targeted agents in patients with targetable molecular aberrations improves clinical outcomes. Despite a surge of studies, however, significant gaps in knowledge remain, especially in identifying driver molecular aberrations in patients with multiple aberrations, understanding molecular networks that control carcinogenesis and metastasis, and most importantly, discovering effective targeted agents. Implementation of personalized medicine requires continued scientific and technological breakthroughs; standardization of tumor tissue acquisition and molecular testing; changes in oncology practice and regulatory standards for drug and device access and approval; modification of reimbursement policies by health care payers; and innovative ways to collect and analyze electronic patient information that are linked to prospective clinical registries and rapid learning systems. Informatics systems that integrate clinical, laboratory, radiologic, molecular, and economic data will improve clinical care and will provide infrastructure to enable clinical research. The initiative of the EurocanPlatform aims to overcome the challenges of implementing personalized medicine in Europe by sharing patients, biologic materials, and technological resources across borders. The EurocanPlatform establishes a complete translational cancer research program covering the drug development process and strengthening collaborations among academic centers, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory authorities, health technology assessment organizations, and health care systems. The CancerLinQ rapid learning system being developed by ASCO has the potential to revolutionize how all stakeholders in the cancer community assemble and use information obtained from patients treated in real-world settings to guide clinical practice, regulatory
Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark
In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.
The United States commercial nuclear power industry is nearly forty years old. Soon after the turn of the century, the United States expects to see a significant rise in the number of plants requiring decommissioning. This, coupled with recent economic pressures which are impacting the U.S. electrical generation industry and have resulted in the premature shutdown of some nuclear power plants, heighten the need for clear regulations and standards addressing facility closure and decommissioning. Since the issue of decommissioning involves public health and safety, technical, environmental and financial aspects, this complex regulatory environment poses a major challenge to the industry in this area. There are three fundamental issues facing utilities as they develop strategies for the eventual decommissioning of their nuclear power plants. These issues are the regulatory approach to decommissioning, the question of the availability of adequate funding, including the uncertainty resulting from the uncertainty of waste disposal options, and the need to meet environmental standards for the protection of health and safety. Futhermore, these issues, in particular the economic-related issues, are magnified in the event of prematurely shut down nuclear power plant. (Author)
On-line hemodiafiltration (on-line HDF) is the result of a vision that triggered multifarious changes in very different areas. Driven by the idea to offer better medical treatment for renal patients, technological innovations were developed and established that also constituted new challenges in the field of regulatory affairs. The existing regulations predominantly addressed the quality and safety of those products needed to perform dialysis treatment which were supplied by industrial manufacturers. However, the complexity of treatment system required for the provision of on-line fluids demanded a holistic approach encompassing all components involved. Hence, focus was placed not only on single products, but much more on their interfacing, and the clinical infrastructure, in particular, had to undergo substantial changes. The overall understanding of the interaction between such factors, quite different in their nature, was crucial to overcome the arising regulatory obstacles. This essay describes the evolution of the on-line HDF procedure from the regulatory point of view. A simplified diagram demonstrates the path taken from the former regulatory understanding to the realization of necessary changes. That achievement was only possible through 'management of preview' and consequent promotion of technical and medical innovations as well as regulatory re-evaluations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso
This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…
Newman, Alexander; Prajogo, Daniel; Atherton, Andrew
Purpose This study examines the effects of market orientation on exploratory and exploitative innovation, and the moderating effects of family ownership on these relationships. Design/methodology/approach This study utilizes multi-group path analysis and confirmatory factor analysis in LISREL on data from 228 firms in the Australian service sector. Findings This study establishes that both customer and competitor innovation are positively related to exploitative and exploratory innovation. Ho...
Miriam G. Acuña; Nora M. Sosa; Eusebia C. Valdez
This paper presents the teaching strategy known as problem-based learning as an innovation implemented in the practical experiences of the Organic Chemistry course (Bachelor of Genetics), Faculty of Exact, Chemical and Natural Sciences (Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina). It reviews the results of the experience implemented with students, in groups of 7 selected according to their preferences. A problem that required skills in planning, decision making process, thinking, using of ap...
Haas, Reinhard; Huber, Claus; Resch, Gustav; Faber, Thomas [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group, Vienna (Austria)
The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) has a high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries world-wide. To meeting this objective in recent years a wide variety of deployment strategies and dissemination programmes for RES-E has been launched by quite different organizations and institutions. The core focus of this paper is to extract under which conditions various strategies are effective for substantially boosting RES in the future. Moreover, it is analysed what are the most important regulatory conditions for implementing voluntary (Green Pricing, voluntary green electricity trade) and regulatory (TGC-based quotas, bidding feed-in tariffs) promotion strategies for RES-E. The most important results and conclusions of this analysis are: Regardless which instrument is chosen the careful design of a strategy is of paramount importance; Focus on new capacities: It is of paramount importance that a promotional system does not mix existing (at least fully depreciated) and new capacities. Hence, Green Pricing strategies as well as regulatory approaches should have a strong focus on new capacity; Credibility: To provide confidence among the industry and investors it must be guaranteed by highly credible sources that a strategy survives a certain planning horizon; Feed-in tariffs are an effective instrument if a policy is introduced on a national level and if the rates are optimally designed e.g. using a stepped feed-in tariff; Of high relevance for quotas based on tradable certificates is that the penalty for not purchasing a certificate is higher than the worst case of investment; With respect to voluntary strategies -e.g. Green Power Marketing- the minimum requirement for a label is that it guarantees at least that the proportional increase in total electricity demand is provided by new capacities; With respect to international trading of Green electricity at least one of the following conditions must be fulfilled
Meghal Patel; Margaret Ann Miller
Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted followi...
Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.
Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the
Graduates of the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences. ... with private business and providing incentives for technological innovation. Across Latin America, governments are creating supportive financing and regulatory environments to ...
Ebersberger, Bernd; Bloch, Carter Walter; Herstad, Sverre
This paper develops an indicator framework for examining open innovation practices and their impact on performance. The analysis, which is based on Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data for Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Norway, yields a number of interesting results. First, we find that open inn...... for innovative performance, stressing that open innovation is not a substitute for internal knowledge building.......This paper develops an indicator framework for examining open innovation practices and their impact on performance. The analysis, which is based on Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data for Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Norway, yields a number of interesting results. First, we find that open...... innovation practices have a strong impact on innovation performance. Second, results suggest that that broad-based approaches yield the strongest impacts, and that the collective of open innovation strategies appear more important than individual practices. Third, intramural investments are still important...
Wang, Yi; Guan, Allan; Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Phillips, K Scott
In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration-regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e.g., diagnostic devices), and it can be used to support medical device development throughout the TPLC. In this review, we focus on analytical chemistry as a tool for the regulatory science of medical devices. We highlight recent progress in companion diagnostics, medical devices on chips for preclinical testing, mass spectrometry for postmarket monitoring, and detection/characterization of bacterial biofilm to prevent infections.
In this paper, we conduct innovation strategy research of the Yunnan image in the modern entertainment channels based on regression and inheritance of culture. The concept of culture and complicated contents as simply includes material culture and spiritual culture. Cultural inheritance is the process of acculturation a nation it not only is the transmission of national culture, the inheritance and development that also can be refl ected by many indexes. Multicultural education theory formed in the American civil rights movement in the 1960s. Multicultural education theory is that, when the mainstream national culture and the minority subculture in contact, every culture shall be entitled to retain their own cultural traits. Our research integrate the regression and inheritance of culture to then propose the innovation strategy research of the Yunnan image that will promote further development of the corresponding and related industry.
Gardiner, Terry; Neece, Roger; Mendelevitz, Michael
The Affordable Care Act paves the way for groups to develop innovative, affordable health insurance and care options known as Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans (CO-OPs). These CO-OPs will be nonprofit, consumer-controlled entities that are designed to serve individuals and small businesses, especially in noncompetitive markets. The CO-OP provision was included in the Affordable Care Act to address the lack of affordable health plan alternatives in many state and regional markets and to counter a trend toward market concentration. Despite their promise, CO-OPs face a number of business challenges that go beyond typical start-up hurdles. This issue brief lays out a number of innovative strategies CO-OP organizers are developing to increase the odds of long-term sustainability and economic success. These strategies--aimed at building market share, creating integrated provider networks, and achieving cost savings through payment reform--could establish CO-OPs as a viable new entrant in the health care field.
Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm
An organization's ability to create, retrieve, and use knowledge to innovate is a critical strategic asset. Until recently, most textbooks on business and product development argued that managers should keep their new ideas to themselves and protect knowledge from getting into competitors' hands....... Seeking, developing, and protecting knowledge is a costly endeavour. Moreover, apart from being expensive, the process of turning new knowledge into useful and well-protected innovations often slows the speed of development and increases costs. In this chapter, alternative strategies for innovation......, in which sharing and co-operation play a critical part, are discussed. In particular, we address the involvement of users in opening up the innovation process which, in turn, offers participating actors some useful strategies for product development. Four archetypal strategies are identified and classified...
Narula, Rajneesh; Zanfei, Antonello
underlying the nature and evolution of cross border innovation. We address the issue ofinternational technology partnering as a key strategy that is complementary to theinternationalisation of innovative activities through internal means, before raising importantpolicy dimensions and directions for future......This paper undertakes a brief evaluation of the trends in the internationalization of innovativeactivities. We provide a taxonomy of R&D internationalization strategies, and discuss the main relevant theoretical and empirical issues, before discussing the centripetal and centrifugal forces...
A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well.
A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well
Pihl-Thingvad, Signe; Klausen, Kurt Klaudi
work behaviour of the employees in a particular empirical setting. Innovative work behaviour has become an important concept in the literature on innovation. Theories on managing change and innovation in public service organizations would suggest that managers have several possibilities when ensuring...... the implementation of innovation. There is, however, still a gap (both empirical and theoretical) in the literature on how managers can contribute to and strengthen the employees’ innovative work behaviour in public service organizations. Therefore, we focus on the following research questions. Which management...... strategies are public managers using in order to create more innovative work behaviour? How do public managers create an innovative climate in the organization which affects the innovative work behaviour positively? In this paper we examine the implementation of innovation in a large Danish municipality...
Andersen, Maj Munch; Sandén, Björn A.; Palmberg, Christopher
This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...
Martha Delphino Bambini
Full Text Available This case-study article presents the results from a morphology analysis of a knowledge and information network, focusing on the coordination mechanisms employed to generate a convergent arrangement. Agritempo was the first information system to offer (in 2003 free access to a broad range of agrometeorological data comprising all the Brazilian territory, representing an important technological innovation to the agricultural sector. To study this phenomenon an analytical framework of the Techno-Economic Network (TEN and concepts from the Innovation Sociology field was employed. Results indicate that the durability of this arrangement – from 2003 to 2014 – can be explained by the effectiveness of the coordination strategies established in the network such as: trust based relationships; institutional and individual leadership actions; contracting; software applications and shared common working procedures.
Gonçalves Silveira Fiates, Gabriela; Azevedo Fiates, José Eduardo; Ribeiro Serra, Fernando A; Portugal Ferreira, Manuel
Innovation has been identified as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies – TBCs. Although the adoption of innovation strategies is not easy, small companies have an organizational environment more conducive to innovation. This article examines how managers and employees of small TBCs perceive aspects of the internal environment of innovation in the organization (culture, organizational structure, personnel ...
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob
Western liberal governments increasingly seek to improve the performance of the public sector by spurring innovation. New Public Management reforms from the 1980s onward viewed strategic entrepreneurial leadership and public–private competition as key drivers of public innovation. By contrast......, and democratic legitimacy through innovation rather than incremental improvements. The article aims to sketch out the contours of such a strategy by comparing it with more traditional metagovernance strategies. The argument is illustrated by an empirical analysis of an example of collaborative innovation...
The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a
Vega Jurado, Jaider; Gutiérrez Gracia, Antonio; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio
The recognition of external agents as an important knowledge source to innovation processes means that the firms must face a key decision: generate in-house or acquire externally the required technological knowledge. Owing to its implications, this decision has become a very important topic between academics and practitioners of innovation, promoting the development of a body of theoretical and empirical literature about the factors and motivations which influence it. This paper provides a re...
Agricultural development and new socialism rural construction can't go well without financial support.So access to finance plays important role in the eradication of poverty.Finandal regulatory institutional envilonments enhance accessibility to finance.Financial institutional innovation includes regulatory objecta,approach,principles,and others.As to regulatory objects,regulator must adopt access to finance to enhance accountability and regulatory qualiry.Moreover,we must use incentive - regulation principle, tiered regulation and risk - based regulation approaches to boost financial supply ability.And financial regulator adopts new strategies on market entrance and prudential regulation, with the economic policies and financial technical safeguards.%发展现代农业,建设社会主义新农村,离不开金融服务的有效支持.金融服务可获得性的实质在于保障农民的金融发展权.而金融监管制度环境在保障金融服务可获得性方面发挥着基础性的作用.我国金融监管制度在监管目标、监管原则、监管方法和监管内容方面给予变革和创新.在监管目标中,应当纳入金融服务的可获得性.为提高金融机构提高金融供给能力,我国应当实施激励监管、分类监管和风险监管的方法.金融监管还需要在市场准入、审慎监管上给予创新,同时离不开经济政策的支持和金融技术法律的保障.
Riskiawan, H. Y.; Purnomo, B. H.; Abdurahman, A.; Hariono, B.; Puspitasari, T. D.
Pacitan, Ponorogo, and Magetan had planned the development of featured products as contained in the Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP) until 2020. The focus of development is almost similar to featured products derived from agribusiness, food processing, handycrafts, and tourism. The geographical proximity results characteristics of natural resources and social culture have similarities, including the type of featured products, constraints, problems, and opportunities for development. Given the characteristics and the support system of some featured products contained in these three regions have a lot in common and their functional interactions involving actors from across the region, it is necessary to develop cross-jurisdictional policy. The resulting strategy should be able to support the development of Regional Innovation System (RIS). The purpose of this research is 1) Determining featured product cross-regional between Pacitan regency; Ponorogo and Magetan districts in support of RIS development; and 2) Designing a featured product development strategy using supply chain management in order to drive the local economy. Based on the results of research conducted, featured products across the region that have potentiality to be developed are: processed products of “janggelan” leather products, and woven bamboo.
营销战略永远是企业进行市场营销的前提基础和保证。企业只有制定详细的市场营销策略，才能发掘市场最大的需求，才能真正的细分市场。随着市场的发展，各大公司和企业也越来越重视企业的市场营销，因此要想在竞争激烈的市场中获得胜利，就需要在营销战略目标和思想上敢于突破和创新，制定适合企业自身发展的市场营销战略，这样才能让企业实现可持续发展。本文主要分析了企业市场营销战略的发展现状，并提出几点营销创新。%Marketing strategy is the foundation and guarantee of for enterprise marketing. Only with detailed marketing strategies, can enterprises explore the largest market demand and get the real market segment. Along with the development of the market, all companies and enterprises are paying more and more attention to the marketing of the enterprise, so in order to win in the fierce competition in the market, enterprises should be innovative in marketing strategy and idea and adopt suitable marketing strategies so as to realize sustainable development. This article mainly analyzes the development status quo of enterprise marketing strategy, and puts forward some marketing innovation measures.
OECD Publishing, 2016
OECD's Innovation Strategy calls upon all sectors in the economy and society to innovate in order to foster productivity, growth and well-being. Education systems are critically important for innovation through the development of skills that nurture new ideas and technologies. However, whereas digital technologies are profoundly changing the way…
Full Text Available Competencies mobilized by service providers form an element of hospital services insofar as scientific and technological procedures that are part of the service become tangible. In view of the fact that hospitals have adopted Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, it would be logical to assume that learning contributes towards acquiring competencies related to changes in hospitals resulting from the adoption of new technologies. This paper aims to analyze relationships between workplace learning strategies and professional competencies after the adoption of innovations supported ICT in hospitals. Eleven interviews were carried out with professionals from three different hospitals and identifying the professional competencies resulting from innovations supported by ICT. This was followed by a cross-sectional survey involving 425 employees at the hospitals surveyed. The data analysis was undertaken by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results confirm the hypothesis and indicate that the performance of professional competences based on new ICT is determined by the way the respondents think, change and apply their knowledge, skills and attitudes in the workplace by use of new information and communication technologies.
Pascucci, S.; Royer, A.; Bijman, J.
This paper analyses the "make or buy" decision of food firms applied to innovation strategy using 389 Italian food firms data from the Unicredit 2007 database. We develop a set of hypothesis from three theoretical perspectives such as transaction cost economics, strategic management and
Pascucci, S.; Royer, A.; Bijman, J.
This paper analyses the “make or buy” decision of food firms applied to innovation strategy using 389 Italian food firms data from the Unicredit 2007 database. We develop a set of hypothesis from three theoretical perspectives such as transaction cost economics, strategic management and
What are the implications of innovation systems and innovation practices thinking ..... food security, taxation and mobilisation of domestic resources, anti-bribery, and ... Using the principles arising from the OECD Innovation Strategy and applying ... (Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam).
Agut, Sonia; Peiro, Jose M.; Grau, Rosa
The increase of education in younger people and the relative scarcity of qualified jobs available for them make the overeducation of young workers a social issue. We explored the relationships between overeducation and extra-role behaviors (job content innovation and career-enhancing strategies) as well as the direct and moderating role of…
Full Text Available Innovative integration of social responsibility in the decision making in companies and other organizations, is an activity that causes immediate positive effect on those directly involved, on local communities and society as a whole. Setting up a framework to promote and implement the concept of social responsibility is an important factor for promoting economic development and sustainable development of local communities and society in general. The paper presents aspects of how McDonald's Romania treated with the utmost seriousness social responsibilities under its leadership, using all resources to contribute to a better world. The company must be continuously aware of its impact on the environment and the community, including these issues in its future strategy. Synergy between social responsibility activities of companies and their goals of business is a sure way to be successful on the market, this can be highlighted in the case study conducted at McDonald's Romania, a company that wants to use his position leadership to ensure that benefit ethical, environmental and economic.
Ross, Malcolm S F
Pharmaceutical companies that market generic products generally are not regarded as innovators, but rather as companies that produce copies of originator products to be launched at patent expiration. However, many generics companies have developed excellent scientific innovative skills in an effort to circumvent the defense patents of originator companies. More patents per product, in terms of both drug substances (process patents and polymorph patents) and formulations, are issued to generics companies than to companies that are traditionally considered to be 'innovators'. This quantity of issued patents highlights the technical knowledge and skill sets that are available in generics companies. In order to adopt a completely innovative model (ie, the development of NCEs), a generics company would require a completely new set of skills in several fields, including a sufficient knowledge base, project and risk management experience, and capability for clinical data evaluation. However, with relatively little investment, generics companies should be able to progress into the so-called 'supergeneric' drug space - an area of innovation that reflects the existing competencies of both innovative and generics companies.
Full Text Available This study explores new product development in a strict regulatory and historically secretive environment. Adopting a systems perspective and a mixed methods approach in our research, we examine medical device development in Ireland. Findings indicate that the possession of a regulatory strategy expedites the rate of commercialization, so too does the generation of clear product definitions and marketing claims in the earliest developmental phases. Moreover, results suggest that if the regulated industry strengthens its culture for regulation by prioritizing regulation over speed to market, by encouraging cross-functional team collaborations, and by taking a more proactive approach in post-marketing surveillance activities, it has the potential to improve customer satisfaction and enhance product innovation. This study provides unique empirical data enriched by the homogeneity of its sample. It also contributes guidance to practitioners of new product development within a regulatory context.
German, J Bruce
Lactation biology, microbial selection, and human diversity are central themes that could guide investment in scientific research, industrial innovation, and regulatory policy oversight to propel yogurt into the central role for health-promoting food products. The ability of yogurt to provide the nourishing properties of milk together with the live microorganisms from fermentation provides a unique combination of food assets. Academic research must now define the various targets on which these biological assets act to improve health and develop the metrics that can quantitatively document their benefits. The food industry must reconcile that yogurt and its microorganisms cannot be expected to provide measurable benefits for all consumers, at all doses, and at all times. A supportive regulatory oversight must demand safety and yet encourage innovations that support a value proposition for yogurt in health. Health valuation in the marketplace will be driven by parallel innovations, including accurate assessment technologies, validated microbial ingredients, and health-aware consumers.
Agafitei, I. G.; Avasilcai, S.
The purpose of the present paper is to analyse how product innovation process has been organized by a multinational company, such as Procter & Gamble. Since open innovation is a new approach on the local market, we have chosen to conduct a research in form of a case study showing the steps that the company has taken in order to involve other organizations to contribute to the development of new products. The paper will first describe what innovation management theory is suggesting. Following this, the mission and vision of Procter & Gamble will be analysed emphasizing its innovation efforts in time. The approach that the company has nowadays, related to development of new products, has its roots in several complex initiatives in the past, initiatives that have in their central attention the customer. Finally, it provides the research limitations and implications for future analysis on the case of Procter & Gamble open innovation approach.
Palazzo, Mary O
The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies.
John J. Hageman; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar
Innovation in a company is as essential for sustainable development as it is for continuing profitability. Much knowledge is available to innovate processes, products and activities. More is still being generated. However use of that knowledge is lagging behind and much is not used at all. There are
Full Text Available This article provides the results of an exploratory study that investigated the effect of Capabil- ity Lifecycle Path on attaining effective adaptation through innovation. Based on Miles and Snow (1978, an empirical study was conducted to explore whether performing firms are those that indi- cate consistency within the strategy, process, structure and Capability Lifecycle Path arrangement. The basic premise of this study is adaptability for sustainability, where firms go through adapta- tion cycles through Business Model Innovation would perform well when they are able to consis- tently create value and effectively manage adopted business models, or denoted as Business Mod- el Effectiveness. Using data obtained from seven Indonesian firms in various industries, PLS Analy- sis was conducted to investigate the relationships between Business Strategy, Firm Resource Con- figuration, Capability Lifecycle Path and Business Model Effectiveness. Findings indicated that Ca- pability Lifecycle Path, or decisions made on the development of capabilities at the mature stage, is an important part of the series of decisions made during adaptation to ensure performance.
Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the
In recent years ULA has emphasized advocacy, and contributed to progress towards new legislation (freedom of information, copyright, the ... East African Community e-government strategy) of importance to the library and ... Innovation Vol.
activities and employee behaviour in industrial company cultures. The paper outlines and discusses some results of total quality management research projects and case study research in industrial companies carried out at the Technical University of Denmark. The background of the viewpoints and experience......This paper discusses strategies for development of total quality management as an integrated part of company innovation taking the size and other particular characteristics of the specific company into consideration, with the focus on issues related to the development of appropriate total quality...... outlined is based on a combination of theoretical work, case study research and involvement in the practical development of total quality management in industrial companies of very different sizes....
María Isabel Camio
Full Text Available The software sector is of growing importance and, due to its degree of dynamism, the identification of capabilities for innovation is vital. This study identifies capabilities variables that distinguish Argentine software companies with high innovation results and high innovation impacts from those with lesser results and impacts. It is applied to a sample of 103 companies, a measurement model and the component variables of an innovation degree index for software companies (INIs formulated in previous studies. A Principal Component Analysis and a biplot are conducted. In the analysis of results and impacts, 100% of the variability within the first two components is explained, which shows the high correlation between variables. From the biplots, it appears that companies with high results have higher degrees in the variables of motivation, strategy, leadership and internal determinants; and those with high impacts present higher degrees of structure, strategy, leadership, free software and innovation activities. The findings add elements to the theory of capabilities for innovation in the software sector and allow us to consider the relative importance of different capabilities variables in the generation of innovation results and impacts.
Jackson, John Howard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hildebrandt, Philip Clay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baker, Suzanne Hobbs [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.
Baker, Derek; Hamann, Karen
for innovation, they were able to list and describe their innovation processes and outcomes. Firms expressed some dissatisfaction with innovation policy, and were able to make a number of recommendations for change. Notably, this included its linkage to an overall strategy that emphasises international...
Full Text Available Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.
Patel, Meghal; Miller, Margaret Ann
Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Boeltzig, Heike; Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Marrone, Joe
Barriers to seamless service delivery between workforce development and mental health systems of care have kept both entities from maximizing their potential in regards to employment for job seekers with mental illness who are capable of work and seeking employment. Using a multiple case study design, this study examined the nature of collaboration between workforce development and mental health systems to understand the policies and practices in place to assist individuals with mental illness to find and keep work. The paper presents innovative strategies that involved staff from both workforce development and mental health agencies. Findings from this research identified the following collaborative strategies: (a) the creation of liaison positions and collaborative teams; (b) staff training on mental health and workforce issues; and (c) multi-level involvement of individuals with mental illness. Implications for workforce professionals are offered as a way to stimulate implementation of such strategies.
Full Text Available While there are excellent models of knowledge mobilisation (KMb that address the opportunity for co-production and sharing of best practice knowledge among human service professionals, it remains unclear whether these models will work in less formal settings like community-based non-government organisations (NGOs where there are fewer resources for KMb. For three days, 65 policy-makers, senior staff of NGOs, mental health professionals, KMb specialists and youth participated in a set of simulation exercises to problem solve how to mobilise knowledge in less formal settings that provide services to children and youth in challenging contexts (CYCC. Based on simulation exercises used in other settings (such as the deployment of international aid workers, participants were first provided with reports synthesising best practice knowledge relevant to their workplaces. They then engaged in an appreciative inquiry process, and were finally tasked with developing innovative strategies for KMb. Observation notes and exit interviews were used to evaluate the process and assess impact. Findings related to the process of the simulation exercises show the technique of simulation to be useful but that it requires effort to keep participants focused on the task of KMb rather than the content of best practices within a focal population. With regard to developing innovative KMb strategies, findings suggest that service providers in less formal community-based services prefer KMb activities that promote one-to-one relationships, including the participation of youth themselves, who can speak to the effectiveness of the interventions they have experienced. Unexpectedly, the use of electronic communication, including social media, was not viewed very positively by participants. These results suggest that the use of simulation to search for innovative KMb strategies and to problem solve around barriers to KMb has the potential to inform new ways of co-producing and
The importance of inter-organisational cooperation within the innovation process has been increasingly recognized. In fact, all organisations, at some point, need to look to external sources for inputs to the process of building up technological competence. In this sense, through a detailed case study, this thesis examine theoretical and empirically how collaborative initiatives have supported the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the development and implementation of innovations, in order to verify the positive relationship between the collaboration and the organisational innovation performance. Emphasizing the importance of both internal sources of knowledge and external participation, the study encompasses documentary analysis, a preliminary survey and semi-structured interviews with the regulatory body employers in charge of controlling medical and research facilities and activities involving radiation sources. The thesis demonstrates that innovations developed and implemented in the Brazilian nuclear safety and security area are associated with collaborative initiatives, in order to improve the organizational capability to fulfill safety obligations, providing some important implications for regulatory body managers concerned with the management of innovation. The findings also identified actors with a significant degree of influence in the innovation process. The result reveals that the support provided by these actors has a significant influence on the innovation performance of the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body, suggesting that Brazil should adopt more interactive models of innovation and knowledge transfer. In addition, the findings show that these key actors can play a very distinctive role in the context of sectoral systems of innovation information regime. (author)
Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.
To reduce human causes of global warming, large scale implementation of innovative products that save energy is necessary. Innovative products first reach the early market actors who are driven by a visionary attitude. Hereafter, the products must reach the much larger mainstream market whose actors are driven by a pragmatic attitude. Many innovations, however, only appeal to the visionary early market and do not meet the more pragmatic needs of the mainstream. For that reason, innovations often fall in a 'chasm' between the early market and the mainstream and fail to reach the mainstream. We developed a strategy and a protocol to aid governmental agencies in influencing the mainstream members of housing associations to adopt energy conservation innovations. Our method is an adaptation of an existing marketing method and applicable to other target groups. The first step in crossing this chasm is to find a niche segment in the mainstream as the starting point for winning the rest of the mainstream. By surveying the target group and analyzing the data, we identified 29 housing associations (234 interviewed) that belong to this niche segment. Identifying the niche segment and its determinants of behaviour is part of our 4-step protocol that leads to adapting the innovative product to meet the needs of the niche and setting up a marketing plan to win the rest of the mainstream
Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren; Kock, Alexander
A firm's strategic innovation orientation, which is aimed at discovering and satisfying emerging customer needs with novel technological solutions, has repeatedly been shown to be crucial for firm innovativeness and firm performance. Despite its apparent importance, relatively little research has...... addressed antecedents of a firm's strategic orientation that help explain heterogeneity in innovation strategies across firms. Especially the influence of top management teams (TMT) should be critical, since innovation strategies are shaped at the top management level. Building on the theory of upper...... market data for firm performance. Results indicate that TMT diversity, measured as heterogeneity in educational, functional, industry, and organizational background, has a strong positive effect on a firm's innovation orientation. A strong proactive focus on emerging customer needs and on novel...
Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy Project Management Team
The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy (CWFS) provides a vision for a new, innovative, and integrated approach to wildland fire management in Canada. It was developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers and seeks to balance the social, ecological, and economic aspects of wildland fire through a risk management framework that emphasizes hazard...
Cresswell, Kathrin; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz
The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds. Thematic analysis helped to explore how different stakeholder groups could facilitate/inhibit innovation at individual, organisational, and wider societal levels. We conducted 14 interviews and found that a conducive climate for healthcare innovation comprised of national/regional strategies stimulating commercial competition, promoting public/private relationships, and providing central direction (e.g. incentives for adoption and regulation through standards) without being restrictive. Organisational attitudes with a willingness to experiment and to take risks were also seen as important, but a bottom-up approach to innovation, based on the identification of clinical need, was seen as a crucial first step to construct relevant national policies. There is now a need to create mechanisms through which frontline National Health Service staff in relation can raise ideas/concerns and suggest opportunities for improvement, and then build national innovation environments that seek to address these needs. This should be accompanied by creating competitive health technology markets to stimulate a commercial environment that attracts high-quality health information technology experts and innovators working in partnership with staff and patients.
Ardito, Cynthia P.; Parsons, Alva M.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Phelan, James M.; Mattson, Earl D.
The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque for disposal of hazardous chemicals from the years 1962 to 1985. During routine sampling in the spring of 1990, low levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in groundwater samples from a water table aquifer approximately 146 meters below ground surface. Therefore, a RCRA Site Investigation (RSI) has been initiated and remediation of organic contaminants will be performed at the CWL prior to closure of this landfill. The RSI is focused on optimal characterization of the volatile organic contamination (VOC) and dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination at this site. This will be possible through application of innovative strategies for characterization and promising new technologies which are discussed in this paper. The first part of this paper provides a discussion of conceptual models of VOC and DNAPL transport at the CWL and an overview of our investigative strategy. Each stage of the RSI has been developed to gather information which will reduce the uncertainty in the design of each subsequent phase of the investigation. Three stages are described; a source characterization stage, unsaturated zone characterization stage, and a saturated zone characterization stage. An important focus of the unsaturated zone characterization phase is to provide all data necessary to make decisions concerning the necessity of additional saturated zone characterization. The second part of this paper presents a brief discussion of some innovative approaches to characterization and remediation that are being applied at the CWL. Through the. SNL Environmental Restoration Program's desire to find new and improved methods for site characterization and remediation, several innovative technologies have been identified. These technologies include: the surface towed arrays developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in locating buried ordinance, core drilling using sonic
Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...
Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li
This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted.
Apr 28, 2009 ... These firms are not selling production processes, but they have to ...... the preoccupation with service firms working directly with manufacturers. ..... Given the interest in industrial design as an innovation activity (Vinodrai et al.
GOTTARDO STEFANIA; MECH AGNIESZKA; QUIROS PESUDO LAIA; CRUTZEN HUGUES
This collection contains data, results, information and tools derived from research and institutional activities regarding the environment, health and safety matters for supporting sustainable innovation for regulatory purposes, with a focus on nanomaterials.
Rani Jeanne Dang; Letizia Mortara; Ruth Thomson; Tim Minshall
Current times are characterised by a knowledge-based economy and fast technological change. In this difficult environment, companies compete to maintain a relevant position through innovation. In response to these challenges, many companies are currently adopting an open approach to innovation, pursuing innovation by combining internal and external resources. Technology intelligence (TI) activities support the implementation of open innovation with the systematic capture and delivery of infor...
One of the contributors to the safety of nuclear installations is properly-trained personnel. This applies equally to the staff of a regulatory agency, as they are charged with the task of evaluating the safety of installations and operations involving radioactive materials. In 1990, the nuclear regulatory agency of Canada, the Atomic Energy Control Board, set up a Training Center to train AECB staff and to provide assistance to foreign regulatory agencies who had asked for such assistance. In setting up the Training Centre, the authors considered factors which adversely affect the efficacy of training courses. The technical content must, of course, be of sufficiently high quality, but there are other, significant factors which are independent of the content: consider a presentation in which the lecturer shows a slide which is unreadable from the back of the room. The training value of this slide is zero, even though the content may be sound. Pursuing this thought, they decided to examine the mechanics of presentations and the form of training materials, with a view to optimizing their effectiveness in training. The results of this examination were that they decided to use three technologies as the basis for production of training, support and presentation materials. This paper briefly describes these technologies and their advantages. The technologies are: desktop publishing, video and multimedia
Martínez López, Antonio; Vargas Sánchez, Alfonso
This paper analyses the relationships between certain determinants in the strategic management process on innovation in hotel organisations in Spain, as well as the influence of the level of innovation on competitive advantage and organisational performance. The theoretical positioning is based on the resource and capability-based approach, within the field of strategic management. An analysis of major hotel chains operating in Spain has shown that certain factors (namely twenty dimensions) o...
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is a justification of roles and identifying areas of improving the functioning of innovation infrastructure that will boost innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Methodology. The methodical basis of the study consists of general scientific cognition methods of economic phenomena and processes. Realization of the work tasks required such methods: theoretical generalization method – during study of scientific papers, legislative and regulatory acts; abstract logical method – to summarize theoretical and methodological provisions, as well as define the research goal; system approach method – identifying areas for improving the functioning of the innovation infrastructure of Ukrainian agrarian sector. Results. Found that in modern development conditions, a network of innovative structures that would provide infrastructure support for innovation development in the agricultural sector should be represented by such institutions as: agricultural innovation clusters, science parks, business incubators, venture funds, advisory services. Taking into account the international experience of the main institutions of infrastructural maintenance of innovative development, suggested areas of improvement and optimization of their formation and functioning to ensure innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Proved that the formation of agricultural innovation regional clusters should be represented by the following stages: a preliminary analysis and identifying promising areas and productions; selection of the cluster members; the strategic planning stage; setting goals and objectives; work scheduling of the cluster members in order to implement strategies; control over the execution of the approved programs and projects. Taking into account the global model of organization of advisory services, determined that the development of agricultural advisory system should be implemented through extension services
Camargo, C.T.M.; Furieri, E.B.; Arrieta, L.A.I.; Almeida, C.U.C.
More than 15 years have passed since the term 'safety culture' was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), and although the concept now is widely accepted, practical applications and characteristics have been disseminated mainly for nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is still a lack of international guidance on the use of safety culture as a regulatory matter and on the application of the concept within regulatory organizations. This work explores the meaning of safety culture in two different fields: as an element of safety management systems it shall be a matter of regulatory control; as a complementary tool for quality management it should be used to enhance regulatory effectiveness. Brazilian recent experience on regulating nuclear power reactors provide some examples on how the concept of safety culture may influence regulatory strategies and regulatory management. (author)
Andersen, Maj Munch
This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...
Jeong, Choong Heui; Ji, Seong Hyon; Oh, Soung Hun; Shin, Won Ki
KINS established a Regulatory Strategy for Y2K Readiness Program of the Nuclear Power Plants in May 1998. On July 29, 1998, the Regulatory Action was enforced on licensees to setup the Y2K Readiness Program and report the stepwise Implementation Results of the Program. KEPCO established the Y2K Readiness Program and finished the Detailed Assessment following the Program. The Assessment showed that 108 out of 726 assets are Non-Compliant. KINS has performed the evaluation for Initial and Detailed Assessment Reports and the site audit for the Wolsong Site Division. Through those regulatory activities, we have gotten much assurance that no Y2K problem will impact on safety-related systems. And considering the progress forwarded by the licensee, we expect that all Y2K issues can be resolved before July 1999. However, to obtain the perfect assurance of the safety against the challenge of Year 2000, we will perform a thorough Audit for Validation Tests at Sites, perform a proper review for the major issues, and complete an in-depth evaluation of Submittals including Contingency Plan
Chappell, Alyssa; Dervay, Katelyn
Purpose: To describe an innovative strategy for incorporating leadership training and development across multiple postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residency programs at a single institution. Background: Tampa General Hospital has 7 pharmacy residency positions: 4 postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residents and a single resident for each of the 3 PGY2 programs (critical care, emergency medicine, and solid organ transplant). Administrative topics are incorporated across the PGY1 and PGY2 residency programs, with each PGY2 program having additional administrative topics specific to their specialty area. Summary: What began as an elective administrative topic discussion for the PGY2 emergency medicine resident has evolved over time into a longitudinal leadership book club. The leadership book club is utilized to meet the residency goals and objectives related to leadership development for all 3 PGY2 programs. Each year a single book is identified through the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Leadership Academy book list or by participant suggestion. The book is then divided into 4 sections with corresponding hour-long discussions that occur quarterly throughout the residency year. The residency program directors (RPDs) and co-RPDs lead the initial discussion, and each PGY2 resident leads 1 of the subsequent 3 discussions. Based on resident feedback, the leadership book club is an innovative and effective strategy to incorporate leadership training and development into residency training. Conclusion: It is imperative to foster the development of leadership skills in pharmacy residency programs to prevent a future leadership gap in health system pharmacy. Leadership book club is a unique strategy to incorporate leadership training longitudinally across multiple PGY2 residency programs at a single institution.
Full Text Available Innovation is an integrating part of the re-vitalization plan of EU economy and it is one of the seven initiatives comprised in the 2020 Europe Strategy. The European Union supports through active policies the creative-innovative processes, as illustrated by the Cohesion Policy Program for 2007-2013 and by the ”Horizon 2020” Program for Research and Innovation. The present paper presents, from an organizational perspective, relevant aspects related to the question of innovation and innovation management, while pointing out the most important internal and external factors that favour the introduction of innovation into the sphere of processes that are run by organizations, as well as into the sphere of products and services provided by organizations. At the same time, the paper briefly presents the essential attributes of organizations which obtain competitive sustainable advantages through innovation.
Johnson & Johnson is engaged in a new strategy of partnering and cultivating external innovation that relies on strengthening the ecosystem for innovation in its areas of interest. Johnson & Johnson Innovation (JJI) has been implementing this strategy by identifying early innovation and helping to translate it into value added therapeutic solutions and portfolio products. In order to achieve transformational results in areas of high unmet medical need and risk, collaboration with different st...
Jonas Pedro Fabris
Full Text Available This theoretical paper aimed to explicit, through the rescue of theoretical assumptions, the innovation, the innovation system, and the research and development (R & D activities. The innovation, especially technological innovation, is now seen as essential in differentiation strategies, competitiveness and growth in a greater number of businesses. Innovation is not only the result of financial investments by companies. For it to exist, it is necessary the existence of innovative capacity that should be present at all stages of the innovation process, and a favorable institutional environment and, increasingly, of specific incentive policies. That is, there are internal and external factors to companies and other institutions involved in the process. Innovation systems were discovered to resolve the variations in the degree of competitiveness of different economies and, above all, in relation to the technological performance and the ability to innovate these economies face the growing importance of international markets for high-tech products. Thus, it was found that successful innovators are not successful just because of their personal qualities and actions but as a result of their interaction with research and innovation systems that inhabit the quality of such systems.
This paper discusses a number of unresolved regulatory and institutional issues of fundamental importance to the development of strategies for cleanup of sites contaminated by the radioactive materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These issues include the development of criteria for limiting radiation exposures of the public from remedial action sites, the time period to be assumed for active institutional controls over contaminated sites and the location at which such controls will be maintained, and the applicability of current standards for radioactivity in drinking water to surface waters and ground waters on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Proposals for resolution of these issues emphasize the need to protect public health, but in a cost-effective manner. 21 refs
Yoon, Yang Cheol
This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.
Yoon, Yang Cheol
This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.
Filser, Matthias; Brem, Alexander; Gast, Johanna
, organizational culture and behaviour, resources, and innovation and strategy. Second, based on a thorough literature review the major research avenues are reflected. The comparison of the results of both analyses showed the following areas for future research on family firm innovation: members‘ individual human...... capital and their leadership behaviour, openness to externals, cross-country comparisons, and finally the family‘s functional integrity on innovation performance....
German, J Bruce
Lactation biology, microbial selection, and human diversity are central themes that could guide investment in scientific research, industrial innovation, and regulatory policy oversight to propel yogurt into the central role for health-promoting food products. The ability of yogurt to provide the nourishing properties of milk together with the live microorganisms from fermentation provides a unique combination of food assets. Academic research must now define the various targets on which these biological assets act to improve health and develop the metrics that can quantitatively document their benefits. The food industry must reconcile that yogurt and its microorganisms cannot be expected to provide measurable benefits for all consumers, at all doses, and at all times. A supportive regulatory oversight must demand safety and yet encourage innovations that support a value proposition for yogurt in health. Health valuation in the marketplace will be driven by parallel innovations, including accurate assessment technologies, validated microbial ingredients, and health-aware consumers. PMID:24695899
Nader-Grosbois, N.; Vieillevoye, S.
Objective: This study has examined whether or not self-regulatory strategies vary depending on pretend play situations in 40 children with intellectual disability and 40 typically developing children. Method: Their cognitive, linguistic and individual symbolic play levels were assessed in order to match the children of the two groups. During two…
G. N. Illina
Full Text Available In this article social practicians of large Russian corporations, conditions of creation of social strategy by them are analyzed. The ambiguous treatment of the corporate social responsibility (CSR of subjects of interaction in system "business-society-state', a big range of economic, social, cultural problems which corporations need to consider at adoption of business solutions, is the soil for the conflict of interests and limits possibilities of development of business. New trends in practice of CSR of the Russian corporations concern change of character and essence of their social activity that reflects more adequate level of reflexivity business community of requirements of the changed society. Dynamics in approach of the Russian corporations to a choice of spheres of application of social investments, change of motivation of social and responsible behavior and interaction forms with authorities, public groups and movements is revealed. The most effective, from the point of view of business, model of interaction of business and the state is joint definition of priorities of social policy and those areas in which business can take active part. Large corporations start acting as initiators of dialogue and partner interaction with representatives of authorities and local communities, there are the social innovations initiated by business community and directed on increase of efficiency of social investments, development of social partnership and social business.
Chahal, Harinder Singh; Kashfipour, Farrah; Susko, Matt; Feachem, Neelam Sekhri; Boyle, Colin
Medicines Regulatory Authorities (MRAs) are an essential part of national health systems and are charged with protecting and promoting public health through regulation of medicines. However, MRAs in resource-constrained settings often struggle to provide effective oversight of market entry and use of health commodities. This paper proposes a regulatory value chain model (RVCM) that policymakers and regulators can use as a conceptual framework to guide investments aimed at strengthening regulatory systems. The RVCM incorporates nine core functions of MRAs into five modules: (i) clear guidelines and requirements; (ii) control of clinical trials; (iii) market authorization of medical products; (iv) pre-market quality control; and (v) post-market activities. Application of the RVCM allows national stakeholders to identify and prioritize investments according to where they can add the most value to the regulatory process. Depending on the economy, capacity, and needs of a country, some functions can be elevated to a regional or supranational level, while others can be maintained at the national level. In contrast to a "one size fits all" approach to regulation in which each country manages the full regulatory process at the national level, the RVCM encourages leveraging the expertise and capabilities of other MRAs where shared processes strengthen regulation. This value chain approach provides a framework for policymakers to maximize investment impact while striving to reach the goal of safe, affordable, and rapidly accessible medicines for all.
Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus
Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…
Hansson, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Vad, Torben Bundgaard
. The paper will discuss how to plan and execute research-based knowledge in innovation in the public sector. The paper discusses and criticizes the often-met linear thinking in the application of new knowledge, especially in relation to innovation. It also suggests, by the help of a model based on ideas from...... organizational learning, another strategy for organizing the use of social science research for innovation in the public sector. As a consequence the paper advocates new evaluation strategies, where learning and dialogue is in focus....
Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng
, inhibit companies striving for innovation leadership. In our enquiry into R&D knowledge spillover effects on innovation, we develop case studies from Fastcar and Bigpack. The resulting theoretical framework, built on selected networking and knowledge creation theories, is illustrated through the two case...... studies and useful for further analysis of positive R&D knowledge spillover effects. By proactively facilitating knowledge sharing with relevant parts of the surrounding environment, the company enables itself to feed knowledge into its surrounding environment - thereby developing the innovation potential...
Primavera De Filippi
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of national policies and current discussions on the regulation of bitcoin in Europe and beyond. After presenting the potential threat that cryptocurrencies pose to governmental and financial institutions worldwide, it discusses the regulatory challenges and the difficulty for national regulators to come up with a sound regulatory framework, which the author believes explains the current (lack of regulatory responses in this field. The article concludes that regulation is needed, but that in order not to excessively stifle innovation in this nascent ecosystem, some of these challenges might better be addressed through self-regulation.
Hellström, Tomas; Hellström, Christina; Berglund, Henrik
This paper explores the relevance of the concept of self in the process of independent technological innovation. In‐depth interviews were conducted with technological innovators from start‐up firms in IT, biotech and advanced services concerning the subjective and social forms of engagement...... in the innovation process. Emerging factors in the interview data revealed aspects pertaining to the innovator’s reflexive self‐conception, innovator ego‐involvement in the venture, forms of commitment and control, personal and social stakes, and various self‐oriented cognitive strategies. It is argued...... that the self‐concept allows the innovator to come into view as a social and subjective being who is involved in reflexive activities such as dynamic role‐taking, “is” vs “ought” reflections and social negotiations....
Richtnér, Anders; Åhlström, Pär
Companies implementing a downsizing strategy aiming at increasing cost efficiency and operational effectiveness may face the fact that their innovative ability is hampered. In this paper, we develop a model of the mechanisms through which organizational downsizing affects innovation. We use existing theory to develop propositions regarding the details of how and why organizational downsizing affects innovation. Our model contains three components: a) the organization’s stock of knowledge, b) ...
Innovation has been a driving force for the success of nuclear energy and remains essential for its future. For the continued safe and economically effective operation and maintenance of existing nuclear systems, and to meet the goals set out by projects aiming at designing and implementing advanced systems for the future, efficient innovation systems are needed. Consequently, analysing innovation systems is essential to understand their characteristics and enhance their performance in the nuclear sector. Lessons learnt from innovation programmes that have already been completed can help enhance the effectiveness of future programmes. The analysis of past experience provides a means for identifying causes of failure as well as best practices. Although national and local conditions are important factors, the main drivers for the success of innovative endeavors are common to all countries. Cooperation and coordination among the various actors are major elements promoting success. All interested stakeholders, including research organisations, industrial actors, regulators and civil society, have a role to play in supporting the success of innovation, but governments are an essential trigger, especially for projects with long durations and very ambitious objectives. Governments have a major role to play in promoting innovation because they are responsible for the overall national energy policy which sets the stage for the eventual deployment of innovative products and processes. Moreover, only governments can create the stable legal and regulatory framework favourable to the undertaking and successful completion of innovation programmes. International organisations such as the NEA may help enhance the effectiveness of national policies and innovation programmes by providing a forum for exchanging information, facilitating multilateral collaboration and joint endeavors, and offering technical support for the management of innovative programmes
Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu
The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented.
Conger, Michelle D
OSF HealthCare, based in Peoria, Illinois, has developed an innovative strategy to adapt to the changes and forces disrupting the healthcare environment. This strategy evolved organically from the performance improvement efforts we began more than 15 years ago, as well as from the lessons we learned from years of research into the innovative practices and platforms of other healthcare institutions and of companies in other industries. More important, the strategy reflects our mission "to serve persons with the greatest care and love."The OSF innovation model has three components: internal innovations, partnering with external entities, and validating innovations through simulation. OSF has an ongoing and comprehensive commitment to innovation. Examples include our initiative to transform our model of care in primary care clinics by expanding access, reducing costs, and increasing efficiency; our partnerships with outside entities to find revolutionary solutions and products in which we can invest; and our establishment of a world-class simulation and education center.OSF HealthCare could not do any of this if it lacked the support of its people. To that end, we continue to work on embedding a culture of innovation across all of our facilities. Ours is a culture in which everyone is encouraged to voice creative ideas and no one is afraid to fail-all for the betterment of our organization and the patients we serve.
John J. Hageman; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar
To make sustainable management and innovation attractive for companies, they need focus. In particular SME's don't have a clear view on where innovation should be aimed at in relation to sustainability. It just seems too complex. At the same time innovation suffers from the 'innovation paradox':
Full text: The Republic of Mali is member of the International Atomic Energy Agency since 1961. Of since the creation of the IAEA, some African countries are members. The technical cooperation with the Agency started in the years 1975. Through that cooperation, many pacific uses of nuclear techniques have been introduced, then developed at different levels in many socio- economic domains as medicine, agriculture, research, and so on. That development of nuclear techniques use has occurred without legislation at all or in some limited cases with part of the legislation of the colonizing country), in a precise field (like radiography in medicine). Later the need of regulatory infrastructure implementation started. That implementation has followed several ways in the different African countries. Also, it started earlier in countries which had advanced activities in nuclear techniques and very later in others. Most if not all of these infrastructure (say regulatory board) were created by the greatest users of the nuclear techniques, the Ministry of Health in most cases or Energy Commission for Countries having a research reactor. After the years 90, the Agency has developed new vision in the implementation of Regulatory Authorities. The new innovation was: 1-) Development of Regulatory Authority with independent statute (decisions and finance); 2-) Assuming post graduate training in developing countries to come other the lack of human resources. That new strategy of the IAEA has facilitated the apparition and development of several new regulatory authorities. We are going to develop here the progress done by one of these new regulatory authorities, through five years being. (author)
Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Heid, M.; Spanger-Siegfried, E.; Sideris, J.; Sanford, T. J.; Nurnberger, L.; Huertas, A.; Ekwurzel, B.; Cleetus, R.; Cell, K.
A unique aspect of our work at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is the melding of scientific research and a robust communications initiative to bring salient information to decision makers and the public. Over the years, we have tried many different strategies to convey complex scientific information in an effective and appealing way, from movie stars to hope psychology, from dire warnings to academic appeals. But now that we are seeing climate impacts locally and climate change is no longer a future reality, what new vision do we need to support ongoing education? In this session we will present some of the techniques we have used to convey climate science concepts including our use of metaphors, data visualization, photography, blogs, social media, video, and public outreach events. Realizing that messages that stick are those that contain powerful narrative and speak to the emotional centers of our brains, we use innovative infographics as well as personal stories to encourage people to care about creating a healthier, cleaner planet. Reaching new audiences using unexpected messengers is a key focus. Some of the questions we will explore are: What metrics can we use to determine the efficacy of these tools? What are the best ways to convey urgency without a sense of hopelessness? How can we improve our communication at a time when action on climate is a necessity? Research shows infographics convey concepts much more easily and quickly than text alone, as our brains are wired to process visual scenes. Making complex scientific information accessible to the non-specialist public involves creativity and excellent data visualization.
Lo Schiavo, Luca; Delfanti, Maurizio; Fumagalli, Elena; Olivieri, Valeria
For a long time considered as technologically mature, electric systems are now facing a period of rapid evolution, inspired by climate change concerns. Several studies show that current regulation of natural monopolies does not offer sufficient incentives for network operators (and network users) to participate in this process. Taking Italy as a case study, this paper analyses how energy regulation can change to support the current transformation. We describe the recent regulatory interventions in the domain of smart grids, smart metering and electromobility, with a specific emphasis on the provisions aimed at fostering innovation—an issue that until recently has received almost no attention in the literature nor in the practice of regulation. The progress we observe is considerable in all new areas of concern, and, above all, in the regulator's commitment to provide the right incentives for investments in demonstration projects: the acquisition of experience is regarded as essential to move to more sophisticated regulatory instruments. Finally, regulation is also increasingly concerned with network users, both traditional and new, with the objective to stimulate more active behaviours. - Highlights: ► Regulatory changes in Italy: smart grids, smart metering and electromobility. ► Identification of indicators for regulating innovative investments. ► Demonstration projects for smart grids and EV recharging infrastructures. ► Proposal of an output-based regulation for smart grids. ► Time of Use pricing for residential and small commercial consumers
Lin, Ming-Chia; Cheng, Yuh-Show; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Hsieh, Pei-Jung
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of research-article writing motivation and use of self-regulatory writing strategies in explaining second language (L2) research-article abstract writing ability, alongside the L2 literacy effect. Four measures were administered: a L2 literacy test, a research abstract performance assessment, and inventories of writing motivation and strategy. Participants were L2 graduate students in Taiwan (N=185; M age=25.8 yr., SD=4.5, range=22-53). Results of structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of motivation on research-article writing ability, but no direct effect of strategy or indirect effect of motivation via strategy on research-article writing ability, with L2 literacy controlled. The findings suggest research-article writing instruction should address writing motivation, besides L2 literacy.
Ciptono, Wakhid Slamet
This study extends the prior research (Zahra and Das 1993) by examining the association between a company’s innovation strategy and its non-financial performance in the upstream and downstream strategic business units (SBUs) of oil and gas companies. The sequential model suggests a causal sequence among six dimensions of innovation strategy (leadership orientation, process innovation, product/service innovation, external innovation source, internal innovation source, and investment) that may ...
Danku, Zsuzsa; Wang, Zhen; Szolnoki, Attila
Evolution is based on the assumption that competing players update their strategies to increase their individual payoffs. However, while the applied updating method can be different, most of previous works proposed uniform models where players use identical way to revise their strategies. In this work we explore how imitation-based or learning attitude and innovation-based or myopic best-response attitude compete for space in a complex model where both attitudes are available. In the absence of additional cost the best response trait practically dominates the whole snow-drift game parameter space which is in agreement with the average payoff difference of basic models. When additional cost is involved then the imitation attitude can gradually invade the whole parameter space but this transition happens in a highly nontrivial way. However, the role of competing attitudes is reversed in the stag-hunt parameter space where imitation is more successful in general. Interestingly, a four-state solution can be observed for the latter game which is a consequence of an emerging cyclic dominance between possible states. These phenomena can be understood by analyzing the microscopic invasion processes, which reveals the unequal propagation velocities of strategies and attitudes.
Langteau, Paula T.
This study examines the internal and external networking strategies of leaders furthering potentially disruptive innovations in higher education. The goal of the research was to understand specifically what types of networks they develop, activate, and leverage; the functions of those networks; and the ways they engage them to further their…
Cobo-Armijo, Fernanda; Charvel, Sofía; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
Kristensen, Catharina Juul
hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...
Full Text Available Innovation and development paradigm has dominated the world since the 19th century. In the era of industry 4.0, innovation ecosystem has been advocated globally. There are different innovation paradigms in history. Before 1960s, the competitive and monopolized paradigm was dominative, while between the 1970s and 1990s, the cluster and innovation valley paradigm had played a key role. In the 21st century, with the advent of industry 4.0, the innovation ecosystem paradigm is advocated globally. Accordingly, there exist different innovation strategies, in reality, considering different economic and social context. However, no matter if having in mind developed or developing countries, the ecosystem paradigm has high rewards for different companies and society. There is also evidence showing that research and development by top universities and research institutes have high productivity and benefits for enterprises and society nowadays, no matter the development state of the areas considered. The author analyzes by literature review and case study the necessity, feasibility, strategy and approaches of innovation ecosystem from a knowledge supplying side. The strategy and approaches include collaboration between university, industry, agriculture and government, talents education, knowledge diffusion, patent purchasing, technology tailoring, consulting, human resource training and platform construction. Science community also takes the role of standards development and maintaining, high technology forecasting and innovation monitoring. The patent office, start-ups, spin-offs and innovation labs act as the links between science, technology, and application.
Timmis, Kenneth; de Lorenzo, Victor; Verstraete, Willy; Garcia, Jose Luis; Ramos, Juan Luis; Santos, Helena; Economidis, Ioannis; Nogales, Balbina; Timmis, James Kenneth; Fonseca, César; Pruzzo, Carla; Karagouni, Amalia; Panopoulos, Nickolas; Dixon, Bernard
Countries of Southern Europe are currently suffering from severe socio-economic pain resulting from high debt levels and austerity measures which constrain investment in innovation-based recovery strategies that are essential for entry into a long-term sustainable period of increasing employment and wealth creation. Young university-educated people are particularly innovative, and hence vital to the development of such strategies, but employment opportunities are poor and many are forced to seek employment that neither profits from their training nor satisfies their justified career expectations, or to emigrate. They are the 'lost generation'. A strategy is proposed here for the creation of Pipelines for New Chemicals, national centre-network partnerships for the discovery-synthesis of new chemicals obtained though harvesting new biological diversity, and their exploitation to develop new medicines, agrochemicals, materials, and other products and applications. The goal is to create new regional motors of economic growth and development, by harnessing the knowledge, motivation and innovation potential of the excellently educated young people of Europe to catalyse the development of new small, medium and large enterprises centred around novel chemicals, and the value chains that will evolve with them, and thereby develop a powerful sector of sustainable growth in employment and social and economic prosperity in Southern Europe. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reddi, Patrizia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)
The study intend to investigate origin and evolution of concepts on technological innovation as well as enterprises`s strategies, to take the lead from innovative factors present in the economic productive stage. At this purpose, it is considered the theoretical positions of different schools of economic thought with regard to the technological change and to the evolution of the industrial capitalism, comparing the aim of the technological knowledge with the determination of innovation processes, investigating on classification criteria and on economic subjects of the change; then it is examined the connections existing among innovation enterprises and competitiveness, considering the new contest in which enterprises operate (markets`s globalization, importance of social aspects, etc.) testing the processes of dependent and independent decentralization, starting from 1970, and R and S activities. In the share of the study which has empirical characteristic it is explored Venetian productive system and the importance of resources, public subjects, privates, others to innovation.
Graduates of the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences. ... with private business and providing incentives for technological innovation. Across Latin America, governments are creating supportive financing and regulatory environments to ...
Klerkx, L.W.A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Leeuwis, C.
The purpose of this article is to investigate effective reformism: strategies that innovation networks deploy to create changes in their environment in order to establish a more conducive context for the realization and durable embedding of their innovation projects. Using a case study approach,
This paper examines the evolution of innovation in nuclear power reactors between 1974 and 2008 in twelve OECD countries and assesses to what extent nuclear innovation has been driven by economic incentives, political decisions and safety regulation considerations. We use priority patent applications related to Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) as a proxy for innovating activity. Our results highlight that nuclear innovation is partly driven by the conventional paradigm where both demand-pull, measured by NPPs constructions in the innovating country and in the rest of the world, and technology-push, measured by Research and Development (R and D) expenditures specific to NPPs, have a positive and significant impact on innovation. Our results also evidence that the impact of public R and D expenditures and national NPPs construction on innovation is stronger when the quality of innovation, measured by forward patent citations, is taken into account, and have a long run positive impact on innovation through the stock of knowledge available to innovators. In contrast, we show that political decisions following the Three Miles Island and Chernobyl nuclear accidents, measured by NPPs cancellations, have a negative impact on nuclear innovation. Finally, we find that the nuclear safety authority has an ambivalent effect on innovation. On one hand, regulatory inspections have a positive impact on innovation, one the other hand, regulatory decisions to temporarily close a NPP have an adverse impact on innovation. (author)
Tiago João Freitas Correia
Full Text Available Innovation is an increasingly relevant concept for the success of any organization, but it also represents a set of internal and external considerations, barriers and challenges to overcome. Along the concept of innovation, new paradigms emerge such as open innovation and co-creation that are simultaneously innovation modifiers and intensifiers in organizations, promoting organizational openness and stakeholder integration within the value creation process. Innovation networks composed by a multiplicity of agents in co-creative work perform as innovation mechanisms to face the increasingly complexity of products, services and markets. Technology, especially the Internet, is an enabler of all process among organizations supported by co-creative platforms for innovation. The definition of marketing communication strategies that promote motivation and involvement of all stakeholders in synergic creation and external promotion is the central aspect of this research. The implementation of the projects is performed by participative workshops with stakeholders from Madan Parque through IDEAS(REVOLUTION methodology and the operational model LinkUp parameterized for the project. The project is divided into the first part, the theoretical framework, and the second part where a model is developed for the marketing communication strategies that appeal to the Madan Parque case study. Keywords: Marketing Communication; Open Innovation, Technology; Innovation Networks; Incubator; Co-Creation.
Lerato E. Mohalajeng
Full Text Available Background: Open innovation is becoming a progressive business practice in Southern Africa because it plays a significant role in economic development through promoting the commercialisation of new ideas. The challenge is that while the benefits of open innovation are widely spoken about, not much is understood about the challenges and successes of open innovation accelerators (OIAs in taking ideas to market. Aim: The purpose of this research was to investigate an OIA in South Africa for taking ideas to market. Setting: The Innovation Hub is a science park in Pretoria, South Africa, using open innovation to stimulate entrepreneurship in South Africa. Through The Innovation Hub Open IX, a webbased platform, an opportunity to investigate the bridging from invention to commercialisation is presented. Methods: A qualitative research method using semi-structured, in-depth interviews was applied to collect data. Five key stakeholders of the OIA were interviewed. Results: The findings suggest that stakeholder buy-in is essential for commercialisation through OIAs in South Africa. By involving stakeholders in the initial phases of the open innovation process, the likelihood of a solution being incorporated and fitted into the organisation’s business strategy is increased. Conclusion: The insight gained from this research suggests policymakers, research institutions and commercial businesses ought to explore various innovations across industries relevant to their open innovation proficiencies. This research makes a significant contribution to an indepth understanding of what is needed to bridge the gap from invention to successful commercialisation through open innovation.
Postma, T.J.B.M.; van Ees, H.; Chai, K.H.; Hang, C.C.; Xie, M.
This paper deals with the relationship between innovation and corporate governance. Corporate governance is relevant for innovation, because the characteristics of innovative investment strategies are dependent on the incentives and abilities of the stakeholders who are in control. The purpose of
Ramani, S.V.; Mukherjee, V.
The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of voluntary agreements (VA) in a context, where a non-governmental organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the innovation process is considered in terms of a redistribution of profit towards community development, with or without additional abatement e...
Supporting the Knowledge, Innovation and Development Program at FORO ... limited support granted to science, technology and innovation (STI) activities in Peru ... sustainable development strategy, as it relates to knowledge and innovation.
Lybecker, Kristina M; Freeman, Robert A
Rising pharmaceutical prices, increasing demand for more effective innovative drugs and growing public outrage have heightened criticism of the pharmaceutical industry. The public debate has focused on drug prices and access. As a consequence, the patent system is being reexamined as an efficient mechanism for encouraging pharmaceutical innovation and drug development. We propose an alternative to the existing patent system, instead rewarding the innovating firm with direct tax credits in exchange for marginal cost pricing. This concept is based on the fundamental assumption that innovation that benefits society at large may be financed publicly. As an industry which produces a social good characterized by high fixed costs, high information and regulatory costs, and relatively low marginal costs of production, pharmaceuticals are well-suited to such a mechanism. Under this proposal, drug prices fall, consumer surplus increases, access is enhanced, and the incentives to innovate are preserved.
Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian
Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.
E. G. Sytnychenko
Full Text Available Value of management paradigm management determined that it is the most adequate model of implementation of educational innovations. Innovative approaches to governance, grounded in management theory, the needs reorientation of government to the needs of the consumer education. The main reason for this is the nature of activity management, its focus on management education as a social and cultural process determined in all the richness of social, organizational and personal relationships. In modern terms the greatest impact on innovation processes in governance provides administrative management. Distribution system innovations in the field of education creates opportunities to influence the system of government most directly dynamic management - innovation. Innovation Management - a purposeful innovation management system, its resources, people involved in developing and implementing innovations in order to maximize the effectiveness of innovation as the most important factor of the control system. The focus of innovation management in the management of education is to develop strategies of educational innovation as from within the educational sector, and about the management of innovation processes in its interaction with socio-cultural environment. Development and dissemination of innovation is a priority strategy of education in modern times, as it defines the rest of educational strategies.
Mincarone, Pierpaolo; Leo, Carlo Giacomo; Sabina, Saverio; Sarriá-Santamera, Antonio; Taruscio, Domenica; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro Guillermo; Kanavos, Panos
The pricing and reimbursement policies for pharmaceuticals are relevant to balance timely and equitable access for all patients, financial sustainability, and reward for valuable innovation. The proliferation of high-cost specialty medicines is particularly true in rare diseases (RDs) where the pricing mechanism is characterised by a lack of transparency. This work provides an overall picture of current strategies for the definition of the reimbursed prices of orphan drugs (ODs) and highlights some potential improvements. Current strategies and suggestions are presented along 4 dimensions: (1) comprehensive value assessment, (2) early dialogs among relevant stakeholders, (3) innovative reimbursement approaches, and (4) societal participation in producing ODs. Comprehensive value assessment could be achieved by clarifying the approach of distributive justice to adopt, ensuring a representative participation of stakeholders, and with a broad consideration of value-bearing factors. With respect to early dialogs, cross-border cooperation can be determinant to companies and agencies. The cost-benefit ratio of early dialogs needs to be demonstrated and the "regulatory capture" effect should be monitored. Innovative reimbursement approaches were developed to balance the need for evidence-based decisions with the timely access to innovative drugs. The societal participation in producing ODs needs to be recognised in a collaborating framework where adaptive agreements can be developed with mutual satisfaction. Such agreements could also impact on coverage and reimbursement decisions as additional elements for the determination of a comprehensive societal value of ODs. Further research is needed to investigate the highlighted open challenges so that RDs will not remain, in practical terms, orphan diseases. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker
As the Danish Army is facing (1) new and diverse tasks, (2) a high level of change in these tasks, and (3) a high pace of new technologies, the Army is required to become a highly innovative organization. This is further substantiated by the fact that, unlike the old enemy, the new enemies have...... a much higher potential for innovation and thereby changing the rules of the game. Therefore the current situation demands of the Army that it becomes as innovative as possible. At universities, for decades, scholars/researchers have focused on research on strategy in competitive environments, and one...... of the resulting streams of literature, on evolutionary theory, is used in this article to provide some answers to how the Army can become more innovative. The identified strategies are: (1) creating a corporate culture that provides a wider variation of ideas and knowledge, (2) creating mechanisms that will allow...
Byrne, William L
Infiltration of tumors by regulatory T cells confers growth and metastatic advantages by inhibiting antitumor immunity and by production of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand, which may directly stimulate metastatic propagation of RANK-expressing cancer cells. Modulation of regulatory T cells can enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Strategies include depletion, interference with function, inhibition of tumoral migration, and exploitation of T-cell plasticity. Problems with these strategies include a lack of specificity, resulting in depletion of antitumor effector T cells or global interruption of regulatory T cells, which may predispose to autoimmune diseases. Emerging technologies, such as RNA interference and tetramer-based targeting, may have the potential to improve selectivity and efficacy.
'Mind the gap' between the development of therapeutic innovations and the clinical practice in oncology: A proposal of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) to optimise cancer clinical research.
Kempf, Emmanuelle; Bogaerts, Jan; Lacombe, Denis; Liu, Lifang
In Europe, most of the cancer clinical research dedicated to therapeutic innovations aims primarily at regulatory approval. Once an anticancer drug enters the common market, each member state determines its real-world use based on its own criteria: pricing, reimbursement and clinical indications. Such an innovation-centred clinical research landscape might neglect patient-relevant issues in real-world setting, such as comparative effectiveness of distinct treatment options or long-term safety monitoring. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) advocates reforming the current 'innovation-centred' system to a truly 'patient-centred' paradigm with systematically coordinated applied clinical research in conjunction with drug development, featuring the following strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.
The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory program. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)
The state of Maryland has made a strong commitment to combating climate change and reducing : greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigated the state of practice of innovative contracting : solutions to reduce emissions from highway constructi...
O. S. Laskina
Full Text Available The article is discusses the scientific and theoretical approaches to marketing of innovations in the cosmetic market in the strategic aspect. It is showing the development of the concept of strategic marketing innovation in the foreign and domestic scientific literature; the key concepts of marketing innovations is clarified; elements of the commercialization of innovative products is identified; the specificity of strategic marketing innovations in the cosmetic market in the Russian conditions is established; actual problems of innovative development and commercialization of innovations is identified; an assessment of the Russian market of innovations. The marketing of innovations – is a systematic methodological approach that combines the strategy and tactics of promotion goods (works, services, technologies, having substantially new properties, at the level of economic entities, it is proved. Under the innovative products offered to understand the implementation of the results of scientific and technological activities in the form of goods, works and services, which have an absolute or relative scientific and technological novelty and (or consumer value, going beyond the existing traditions. Innovative production is subdivided into two main categories: not commercialized and the commercialized production. Process of commercialization of innovative goods is considered as three-level system: the first level is the state innovation policy (macro-level; the second level – regional innovation policy (meso-level; the third level – commodity innovative policy of enterprise (micro-level. It was shown that the weak spots for Russian manufacturers of innovative products has been and remains insufficient elaboration of organizational and methodological approaches to strategic marketing of innovations in industry the as aspect, including in the sector of cosmetic goods. Recommendations for the development of marketing strategy of innovation
Seyhan, Hatice Güngör
This study aimed at determining the self-regulatory strategies and the chemistry self-efficacies of a total of one hundred and eighty-nine prospective science teachers in a state university in Turkey while studying the chemistry lesson according to the class level and gender factors. An additional goal was to examine the relationship level between…
Korytcev Maxim, A.
Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.
More and more it is recognised that innovation cannot be explained by a linear approach to innovation in which public sector agricultural research and extension delivers new technology in a pipeline configuration through a dissemination approach, but calls for systems approach in which innovation is
Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
Ulijn, J.M.; Tjosvold, D.
This special issue of International Negotiation is the second in a series on innovation and negotiation. The first issue (Vol. 9, no. 1, 2004) considered innovations in the conduct and process of negotiation, whereas the present issue considers how innovation in the content, style, and strategy of
Gabriela Gonçalves Silveira Fiates
Full Text Available Innovation has been identified as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies – TBCs. Although the adoption of innovation strategies is not easy, small companies have an organizational environment more conducive to innovation. This article examines how managers and employees of small TBCs perceive aspects of the internal environment of innovation in the organization (culture, organizational structure, personnel and infrastructure and their suitability for the innovation process. This is a qualitative research from a multicase study on five companies located in an incubator. Data were collected through open interviews, using a semi-structured script, with one of the managers and two employees from each company. Data were analyzed from preliminary content analysis. The results showed some discrepancies between the perceptions of managers and employees about the issues investigated and their suitability for the innovation system, as well as between reality and the theoretical basis used.
van den Broek, Tijs; van Veenstra, Anne Fleur
Big data is an important driver of disruptive innovation that may increase organizations' competitive advantage. To create innovative data combinations and decrease investments, big data is often shared among organizations, crossing organizational boundaries. However, these big data collaborations
Amaral, Marco Antonio; Javarone, Marco Alberto
Innovation and evolution are two processes of paramount relevance for social and biological systems. In general, the former allows the introduction of elements of novelty, while the latter is responsible for the motion of a system in its phase space. Often, these processes are strongly related, since an innovation can trigger the evolution, and the latter can provide the optimal conditions for the emergence of innovations. Both processes can be studied by using the framework of evolutionary game theory, where evolution constitutes an intrinsic mechanism. At the same time, the concept of innovation requires an opportune mathematical representation. Notably, innovation can be modeled as a strategy, or it can constitute the underlying mechanism that allows agents to change strategy. Here, we analyze the second case, investigating the behavior of a heterogeneous population, composed of imitative and innovative agents. Imitative agents change strategy only by imitating that of their neighbors, whereas innovative ones change strategy without the need for a copying source. The proposed model is analyzed by means of analytical calculations and numerical simulations in different topologies. Remarkably, results indicate that the mixing of mechanisms can be detrimental to cooperation near phase transitions. In those regions, the spatial reciprocity from imitative mechanisms is destroyed by innovative agents, leading to the downfall of cooperation. Our investigation sheds some light on the complex dynamics emerging from the heterogeneity of strategy revision methods, highlighting the role of innovation in evolutionary games.
... permitted by law, such decisions should be made only after consideration of their costs and benefits (both... concerning public participation, integration and innovation, flexible approaches, and science. To the extent... public a plan, consistent with law and reflecting its resources and regulatory priorities and processes...
Schumaker, Jean B.
One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…
Full Text Available The article looks at the importance of innovation in company strategy. It presents paths to a formulating strategy focused on innovation and approaches to value. It also introduces the main barriers to an enterprise’s innovative activities and their types. It gives the key results of research undertaken in the Czech Republic by the Czech Statistical Office on the topic of innovation.
Maier, Maximilian; Brem, Alexander; Kauke, Matthias
into the corporate strategy and its linkages to innovation. On the basis of a systematic literature review, a conceptual framework is developed. This framework categorises socio-political stakeholders and identifies other relevant stakeholders on the basis of a theoretical typology. Finally, dialogue strategies...... are examined regarding their fit within the corporate innovation process. In this regard, stakeholder collaboration is suggested as the appropriate strategy of engaging strategically significant stakeholders. The paper concludes with implications, limitations and further research suggestions.......Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and innovation are common keywords in management research and practice. Both of them are understood in different ways. To discover the boundaries of CSR and innovation, this paper sheds light on the traditional view of CSR, with a focus on its (CSR) integration...
Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.
Alla Vasilevna Cherep
Full Text Available In spite of the fact that works of many scientists are dedicated to researches of innovative strategies’ essence and issues of their formation, there has been no unanimous opinion on determination of the innovative strategy concept up to now. Some authors consider that “an innovative strategy is a plan, in the sense that it covers the entire length of a process, from researches, through production and sales to use, with basic points of "interference" and control being marked, rates of increase in a technological level and methods of finding intellectual labour products necessary for this purpose being determined”. Others understand the definition of an innovative strategy as "timely concentration of management efforts on mastering and using prospective accomplishments of scientific and technical development and timely supply of innovations dynamics with resources" [1, p. 112].DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-54
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the PNPM program and follow the program with SIDA Strengthening Program. The research method used is a qualitative method approach of this research through the evaluation research design that builds on the CIPP evaluation model (Context-Input-Process-Product. Since the failure of theories and models of development are too glorifies growth, makes many people turn to focus on people development, which includes requiring optimization of local resources, participation, and empowerment. Since then, "empowerment" which was introduced in Indonesia has been anesthetized and made many hopes among many parties. In 2007 started the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM which continue Kecamatan Development Program (KDP. PNPM 2014 which is part of the United Indonesia Cabinet Volume 2 is going to end. For that we need to look for an exit strategy program that can maintain sustainability of PNPM. Regional Innovation Systems Strengthening Program (SIDA is a program of the whole process in one system to foster innovation made between government institutions, local governments, research institutions, educational institutions, innovation support institutions, businesses, and communities in areas that have been implemented since the 2012 SIDA program is an empowerment program as well, both to the public and even empowering to all elements such as academia, private industry, government and society.
Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Socio‐Ecological Innovation or SEI is innovation resulting from strategic integration of sustainable innovation and innovation for sustainability. In particular SEI is regarded as critical to organizations intent on progressing toward Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) and, indeed, progressing......, how developed or mature it is, and how future SEI strategy and results can be improved. As an aid to these efforts, non‐prescriptive approaches to SEI are discussed, maturity scale assessment for SEI is developed and discussed, and a simple assessment report that combines graphic and narrative...... feedback is presented. The assessment report is referred to as a SEI News Report and is intended not only to provide feedback to the organization concerning its present SEI performance, but also to deliver significant foresight that will inform future SEI efforts, strengthening the likelihood...
Full Text Available Introduction Health sector management is increasingly complex as new health technologies, treatments, and innovative service delivery strategies are developed. Many of these innovations are implemented prematurely, or fail to be implemented at scale, resulting in substantial wasted resources. Methods A scoping review was conducted to identify articles that described the scale up process conceptually or that described an instance in which a healthcare innovation was scaled up. We define scale up as the expansion and extension of delivery or access to an innovation for all end users in a jurisdiction who will benefit from it. Results Sixty nine articles were eligible for review. Frequently described stages in the innovation process and contextual issues that influence progress through each stage were mapped. 16 stages were identified: 12 deliberation and 4 action stages. Included papers suggest that innovations progress through stages of maturity and the uptake of innovation depends on the innovation aligning with the interests of 3 critical stakeholder groups (innovators, end users and the decision makers and is also influenced by 3 broader contexts (social and physical environment, the health system, and the regulatory, political and economic environment. The 16 stages form the rows of the Nose to Tail Tool (NTT grid and the 6 contingency factors form columns. The resulting stage-by-issue grid consists of 72 cells, each populated with cell-specific questions, prompts and considerations from the reviewed literature. Conclusion We offer a tool that helps stakeholders identify the stage of maturity of their innovation, helps facilitate deliberative discussions on the key considerations for each major stakeholder group and the major contextual barriers that the innovation faces. We believe the NTT will help to identify potential problems that the innovation will face and facilitates early modification, before large investments are made in a
Full Text Available Benchmarking has become a useful tool for companies, enabling better decision-making and improvement of internal practices towards world-class performance. Nevertheless, concerning SMEs’ innovation capabilities from traditional sectors, benchmarking applications have been scarce. This article uses a predefined metric named the “Potential Innovation Index (PII”, based on internal practices of the firms to compare innovation capabilities of two groups of similar SMEs from 2 different geographical, cultural and social contexts. Results were used to analyze similarities and differences, strengths and weaknesses of the groups. Obtained results confirm the difficulties to innovate of this type firms, no matters the sector or country, as over 55% of the companies studied were evaluated as having a low innovative performance. However, regarding the index’s constitutive practices, significant differences were found. Which leads to infer that innovation support strategies to enhance innovation must be adapted to the local context and culture.
Jang, Eun; Park, Mi; Roh, Tae; Han, Ki
Eco-innovation globally emerged as an effort to implement sustainable development. States and firms established and implemented policies and strategies for eco-innovation as one route to achieving sustainable development. Eco-innovation has been facilitated in developed countries, specifically OECD members and European countries, through action plans. Recently, eco-innovation policies have emerged in developing countries. Thus, this study analyzes eco-innovation policies in Asian countries. ...
Putzeist, Michelle; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Gispen-De Wied, Christine C; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G
To assess whether the content of Scientific Advice (SA) questions addressed to a national drug regulatory agency is associated with company size. This may help to increase understanding about the knowledge, strategic, and regulatory gaps companies face during drug development. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of SA provided by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) in 2006-2008. Definition of company size was based on ranking by total revenues (Scrip's Pharmaceutical Company League Tables 2008). The content of each SA question was scored according to predefined domains (quality, nonclinical, clinical, regulatory, and product information), their subdomains (e.g., efficacy), and a selection of additional content variables (e.g., endpoints, choice of active comparator). In total, 201 SA documents including 1,087 questions could be identified. Small, medium-sized, and large companies asked for SA 110 (54.7%), 40 (19.9%), and 51 (25.4%) times, respectively. Clinical questions were asked most often (65.9%), mainly including efficacy (33.2%) and safety questions (24.0%). The most frequent topics were overall efficacy and safety strategy. Small companies asked quality and nonclinical questions more often (P companies (P = 0.004). Small companies asked significantly more clinical questions about pharmacokinetics, including bioequivalence, than medium-sized and large companies (P Company size is associated with the content of SA questions. MEB advice accommodates both innovative and noninnovative drug development.
Leonor Margalef García
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to share knowledge generated through the implementation of “Teaching Innovation Teams” as a strategy for teachers’ professional development and innovation at the University of Alcala (Spain. We analyse the contributions of this strategy to the facilitation of curriculum innovation in higher education and reflect on some of the achievements and results of the activities carried out by these teams, identifying the dilemmas and difficulties that teachers experienced and that hinder the development of curriculum innovations. Finally, we outline some educational contributions of Teaching Innovation Teams understood as a collaborative and formative strategy to facilitate educational change.
The biosimilars sector continues to attract huge interest and controversy. Biosimilars are new biopharmaceuticals that are "similar" but not identical to the innovator product. Characteristics of biopharmaceuticals are closely related to the manufacturing process, which implies that the products cannot be exactly duplicated. Minuscule differences in the product's structure and manufacturing process can result in different clinical outcome. This raises concerns over the safety, efficacy and even pharmacovigilance of biosimilars. Thus, biosimilars are unique - they are not a true chemical generic and are regulated via a distinct regulatory framework. This report discusses the features of Malaysian regulatory oversight of biosimilars and experience acquired in the evaluation of some products from various countries. Ensuring regulatory position adequately reflects scientific advancement, expertise/resources is key. The regulatory situation is an evolving process. Various guidance documents are being prepared with the aim of developing a uniform global framework towards assuring the dual goal of lower costs and patient safety while expediting the availability of important biosimilar products. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Eco-innovation is any form of innovation resulting in or aiming at significant and demonstrable progress towards the goal of sustainable development, through reducing impacts on the environment, enhancing resilience to environmental pressures, or achieving a more efficient and responsible use of natural resources. States and governments of the world, different institutions and organizations actively involved and aware in public policies, strategies and actions, reaffirm their commitments and reassess actions in order to achieve a truly sustainable development. In the common vision and the resolutions and other documents of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, the words "environment", "innovation", "green economy" appear very often and almost always along the same context, to achieve the objectives of the sustainable development. The objectives of EU's Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, are being implemented through a number of Flagship Initiatives addressing the main challenges, like “Innovation for a sustainable Future - The Eco-innovation Action Plan (EcoAP”. Eco-innovation Observatory developed the Eco-Innovation index, the first tool to assess and illustrate eco-innovation performance across the EU Member States. Like in all fields, in textiles and leather field, eco-innovation is present and there are a lot of tools available that measure environmental damage and help manufacturers and brands become more sustainable. Eco-innovation is not just a trendy concept but a reality and a necessity nowadays, a way to achieve a sustainable future for ourselves and future generations.
Steinberger, Jonathan D; Denend, Lyn; Azagury, Dan E; Brinton, Todd J; Makower, Josh; Yock, Paul G
There are many possible mechanisms for innovation and bringing new technology into the marketplace. The Stanford Biodesign innovation process is based in a deep understanding of clinical unmet needs as the basis for focused ideation and development. By identifying and vetting a compelling unmet need, the aspiring innovator can "derisk" a project and maximize chances for successful development in an increasingly challenging regulatory and economic environment. As a specialty founded by tinkerers, with a history of disruptive innovation that has yielded countless new ways of delivering care with minimal invasiveness, lower morbidity, and lower cost, interventional radiologists are uniquely well positioned to identify unmet needs and develop novel solutions free of dogmatic convention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The role of innovation and technology from the view of a global gas and electricity utility. Strategies of VNG in innovation and technology; Rolle von Innovation und Technologie aus der Sicht eines international taetigen Gasversorgungsunternehmens und Energiedienstleisters. Strategien der VNG in den Bereichen Innovation und Technologie
Busack, Volker [VNG - Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)
The contribution reviews the strategy of VNG in the fields of innovation and technology. VNG is a globally active gas utility with partnerships in Russia, Norway, as well as southern, central and eastern Europe to ensure supply and promote further growth and with subsidiaries that offer gas transmission and storage solutions as well as efficient energy services. Concrete measures and projects of VNG are presented. (orig.)
Open-source R&D initiatives are multiplying across biomedical research. Some of them-such as public-private partnerships-have achieved notable success in bringing new drugs to market economically, whereas others reflect the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to retool its R&D model. Is open innovation the answer to the innovation crisis? This Commentary argues that although it may likely be part of the solution, significant cultural, scientific, and regulatory barriers can prevent it from delivering on its promise.
Petrache Alexandru Constantin
Full Text Available The current economic conditions, the rapidity with which the exchange of information, resources and products in the market takes place makes the logistics seem appreciably less significant. However, the importance of logistics has been presented in the military field, through strategies that have led to wining of the great wars that mankind has seen, through the supply of troops with food or moving military equipment. The literature in the field of logistics has numerous works on this topic. But while most focuses on efficient ways of carrying out the component activities of logistics or the strategies of organizations with regard to logistics or its functions, research on dynamics of logistics is underdeveloped. To be able to propose new methods or strategies of logistic activities is necessary to understand the development of this concept, determinant factors and economic and social conditions that gave rise to such developments. Thus, after a presentation of the main landmarks of the historical development of logistics we highlight the importance of the innovation within an organization's value chain innovation, in particular, and how to conduct the business in general. Using generations of innovation identified in the literature, we determine the generation of logistics development, taking into account innovation and how to conduct business. In addition for a better highlight of the own vision over the logistics generations identified, we will present the graphical concept for each generation in part. Last but not least, for each generation identified we try to allocate the chronological landmarks featured in order to reinforce the importance played by innovation in the development of the logistics industry and to give future directions of research within this topic. The study took into account the information presented in articles, books and websites of the relevant specialty in logistics and innovation to be able to build and expose a
Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.
Schlesinger, B.; George, R.
The North American gas pipeline industry is in the process of changing from a highly regulated merchant business to a less-regulated, more competitive, transportation industry. This has changed the risk profiles of many companies. This study examined various innovative approaches to successfully financing major pipeline projects emphasizing pipeline capacity financing, contractual terms between shippers and pipelines, and regulatory developments. Besides suggesting options to enhance prospects for financing major pipeline expansion projects, the study also aimed at creating a better understanding of the regulatory market and commercial changes in the pipeline industry and their financing implications. The study also includes a review of the evolution in gas markets and a record of consultations with lenders, producers, marketers and users. Innovative financing, contracting and regulatory solutions are identified and assessed. 25 refs., 17 tabs., 16 figs
Gaur, Aakanksha; Osella, Michele; Ferro, Enrico
Organizations are increasingly looking to tap into external knowledge sources through open innovation initiatives. Most public sector agencies are in the early stages of adoption of open innovation and are in the process of defining relevant issues. Once such issue concerns how open innovation...... be better aligned with open innovation strategies (in our case crowdsourcing). Our results indicate that in adopting a crowd-based open innovation strategy, the content, structure and governance dimensions of public sector business model need to be aligned accordingly. The content of the business model...
Sheila Serafim da Silva
Full Text Available This study has as its objective to analyze the critical aspects of the innovation management in terms of structure, strategy and processes of innovation of the Natura and Oxiteno companies. In order to do so, the study reviewed the literature about innovation management, strategies and processes of innovation. A multiple case study was adopted for the Natura and Oxiteno cases. As their data, instrument documents were obtained and interviews were made with managers and researchers working with innovation in both companies. A qualitative approach for the proposed problem was also utilized. The result highlighted similarities and differences within the structures and strategies of how innovation is developed inside and outside each company and their own innovation processes. In the case of Natura, the innovation funnel and technology funnel were used, whereas, in the case of Oxiteno, the innovation funnel and technology silos. Natura was distinguished for their model of open innovation, within the network, and for its sustainability culture. On the other hand, Oxiteno stood out for the freedom it gave to researchers to propose innovation projects. The study presented contributions to the organizations and academia by indicating some limitations in their development processes, as well as suggestions for further studies.
Full Text Available What makes a public administration innovative if it is strongly legalistic and profoundly bureaucratic? Are there innovators in such a setting who would be able to elaborate strategies in accordance with public demands? If yes, who are the innovators and what are they like? Are they among the leaders? The article offers an answer to these questions based on an empirical research conducted in Hungary where public administration is not only legalistic but has a strong culture of topdown domination. The current study targets the key element of innovativeness namely: managerial and cultural prerequisites of innovation within central public administration. The empirical research was carried out in the Hungarian central civil service. The article also discusses whether such an environment would have an impact on innovations. According to the fi ndings of the article, certain prerequisites of an innovative environment exist in the given strictly hierarchic, traditionally stiff setting; however, traits of innovativeness can be identifi ed in innovators who are genuine bureaucrats at the same time.
Cederberg, Katie L; Balto, Julia M; Motl, Robert W
To examine self-regulation strategies as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional, or survey, study. University-based research laboratory. Convenience sample of persons with MS (N=68). Not applicable. Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), 12-item Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale (PASR-12), and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Correlation analyses indicated that GLTEQ scores were positively and significantly associated with overall self-regulation (r=.43), self-monitoring (r=.45), goal-setting (r=.27), reinforcement (r=.30), time management (r=.41), and relapse prevention (r=.53) PASR-12 scores. Regression analyses indicated that relapse prevention (B=5.01; SE B=1.74; β=.51) and self-monitoring (B=3.65; SE B=1.71; β=.33) were unique predictors of physical activity behavior, and relapse prevention demonstrated a significant association with physical activity behavior that was accounted for by EXSE. Our results indicate that self-regulatory strategies, particularly relapse prevention, may be important correlates of physical activity behavior that can inform the design of future behavioral interventions in MS. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7
Innovation systems (IS) are taken to be coherent and consistent narratives or discourses. This chapter uses the Group/Grid or Cultural Theory (CT) to distinguish four competing IS narratives, each with their own theory of change, criterion variables, strategies, pathways of innovation and designs
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the highly topical issue of modern publishing business as innovation management. introduction of technological innovation, measured as a promising strategy for the development of a constructive industry. The paper deals with main problems in managing of publishing companies. The reference consider of innovation management tools. In the article are exams the problems of books trend decline which require publishers introducing innovative methods of production and distribution. It was found that while the tools can be used. The process of innovation management with the following basic tools like as marketing innovation bench marketing, franchising, engineering innovation. It was found that while the tools can be used. So, the aim of the article is to analyze the modern tools of innovation management in the publishing field.
Full Text Available This research examines the effect of innovation strategy towards operational performance of manufacturing companies in Sulawesi. Dimensions of innovation strategy are leadership orientation, process innovation, product innovation, and implementation of innovation. Operational performance is measured by using productivity, volume of production defect, warranty claims cost, quality cost, and full on time delivery to consumers. Data collecting was conducted through questionnares, which consisted of 63 respondents. Data is processed with multiple regressions. Results of this research indicate direct significant effect among the dimensions of innovation strategy to the operational performance of manufacturing companies. But not all of them have an effect on operational performance of the manufacturing company. Process innovation, product innovation, and implementation of innovation give significant effect to the operational performance. Leadership orientation does not give significant effect to the operational performance of the manufacturing companies in Sulawesi.
Christine Moorman; Simone Wies; Natalie Mizik; Fredrika J. Spencer
We consider how public firms influence their stock market valuations by timing the introduction of innovative new products. Our focus is on innovation ratchet strategy --firms timing the introduction of innovations in order to demonstrate an improvement in the number of introductions over time. We document that public firms use an innovation ratchet strategy more often than do private firms and that the stock market rewards public firms for doing so. These rewards from the stock market, howev...
Karovic Maricic, Vesna; Danilovic, Dusan; Lekovic, Branko
Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.
Kabir Sanjay Bavikatte and Morten Walløe Tvedt
Full Text Available In the wake of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS, there is unprecedented attention on good Green Governance, which implies the development of resource efficient, rights based and effective domestic frameworks to regulate bioprospecting. India has been pioneering in this regard due to its ABS legislation in 2002 that long preceded the Nagoya Protocol. However much has changed since 2002 and while India has learnt a great deal from its ‘learning by doing’ method, there are valuable lessons that can be learnt from innovations in the ABS frameworks of other countries. The innovations of these countries are a great resource for National Biodiversity Authority (NBA in India that is seeking to make the processing of the bioprospecting applications in India more optimal. The current paper highlights the challenges faced by the NBA in processing the high volumes of bioprospecting applications, analyses the reasons for such challenges and proposes solutions for the same.
Innovation and interorganizational collaboration have been identified as important elements of competitive tourism strategies. This study proposes a model that relates aspects of organizational settings and collaboration to the success of innovation within the organization. In particular, this st......Innovation and interorganizational collaboration have been identified as important elements of competitive tourism strategies. This study proposes a model that relates aspects of organizational settings and collaboration to the success of innovation within the organization. In particular......, this study focuses on destination marketing organizations (DMOs) as they collaborate with destination businesses to assist in the development of new services in marketing the destination. A national survey among American DMOs indicates that partner collaboration is a significant driver of visitor......-orientated innovation. Specifically, innovation success was found to be driven solely by the development of market-oriented rather than strategyoriented new services, indicating that many of the American DMOs respond to visitor changes at the expense of providing new services that somehow do not fit within current...
Full Text Available The sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs is constantly challenged on today’s dynamic operating environment. Evolving regulatory trends, difficult economic conditions, and diminishing natural resources, pose serious questions for all players across the food system. Technological innovation, as a means of ensuring future sustainability in the same in the face of such challenges, has been the focus of significant government investment in Ireland. This paper, aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the motivations and barriers influencing the decision by food SMEs to invest in technological innovation emanating from research conducted in publicly‐funded research institutes.
Mendes, R W B; Pueyo, V; Béguin, P; Duarte, F J C M
This research was conducted in the Brazilian granite mining sector. After epidemiological studies, it was established that professional pneumoconiosis is related to the inhalation of dust. Therefore, the Brazilian mining health and safety regulatory standard made it compulsory to provide humidification throughout the extraction and mineral treatment processes. To develop the concept of systemic appropriation of the technological innovations that aim to protect the worker's health. Until now, appropriation has usually been presented in its individual dimensions. In this article, the focus is placed on the collective and organizational aspects of this appropriation. Two methodological approaches were used: interviews with the different individuals involved in order to report the history of the implementation of technical devices which meet the humidification norm; and ergonomic analysis of the work of the operators who used these devices. The appropriation of the technical devices occurred at two distinct levels: 1) Individual, related to the direct contact of the operator with the instrument; 2) Systemic, as the effects of the innovation propagated through the system affecting interdependent tasks, adaptation of the work organization and new production strategies. The implementation of prevention norms require innovations which are necessarily accompanied by transformations in the companies' techniques, work and management.
Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang; Bhargava, Mukesh
or unusual distribution channels, may lead to new products. However, it is unclear whether they pay off, particularly when the firm follows a dual strategy, that is, investing in both innovative marketing and R&D at the same time. We draw from theory on competence development as well as diffusion......This paper investigates the relationship between investments in marketing innovation, that is, the way in which technologically unchanged products are designed, priced, distributed, and/or promoted, and a firm's new product performance. Marketing innovation, such as calorie-based packaging...... of innovation and argue that pursuing a dual strategy lowers performance, an effect that we attribute to the role of complexity in innovation. Based on a mixed methods study that integrates a data set of 866 firms from a representative set of industries in Germany and extensive interview evidence, we find...
Jeremy de Beer
Full Text Available In this article, we examine the development of biohacker spaces and their impact on innovation systems through the lens of inclusive innovation. Examining issues associated with people, activities, outcomes, and governance, we observe that biohacker spaces offer an alternative approach to biotechnological research outside the orthodox walls of academia, industry, and government. We explain that harnessing the full innovative potential of these spaces depends on flexible legal and regulatory systems, including appropriate biosafety regulations and intellectual property policies and practices, and organic, community-based social and financial networking.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets
Full Text Available SWOT-analysis of the threats and benefits of innovation development strategy of Ivano-Frankivsk region in the context of financial support was сonducted. Methodical approach to determine of public-private partnerships potential that is tool of innovative economic development financing was identified. Cluster analysis of possibilities of forming public-private partnership in a particular region was carried out. Optimal set of problem areas that require urgent solutions and financial security is defined on the basis of cluster approach. It will help to form practical recommendations for the formation of an effective financial mechanism in the regions of Ukraine. Key words: the mechanism of innovation development financial provision, innovation development, public-private partnerships, cluster analysis, innovative development strategy.
Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison
In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.
Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.
Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Keeton, Kathryn E.
This paper describes a new business model for advancing NASA human health and performance innovations and demonstrates how open innovation shaped its development. A 45 percent research and technology development budget reduction drove formulation of a strategic plan grounded in collaboration. We describe the strategy execution, including adoption and results of open innovation initiatives, the challenges of cultural change, and the development of virtual centers and a knowledge management tool to educate and engage the workforce and promote cultural change.
Veugelers, R.; Cincera, M.; Frietsch, R.; Rammer, C.; Schubert, T.; Pelle, A.; Renda, A.; Montalvo Corral, C.; Leijten, J.
The EU’s stagnation on many innovation indicators led to a number of efforts to spur a turnaround. One of most visible projects has been the Horizon 2020 strategy, which devotes unprecedented levels of funding to the promotion of R&D and innovation. But does this strategy address the right issues to
Harafonova Olha I.
Full Text Available The priority activity at an enterprise always is introduction of innovations, but organisation of introduction of innovations is not identified specifically. Under these conditions one of the main components of survival and development of domestic subjects of entrepreneurial activity is the capability to propose, develop, produce, market and promote goods with new consumer properties, which are oriented at satisfaction of existing consumer needs. Many factors influence successful realisation of innovations at an enterprise, including scientific and technical potential, production and technical base, main types of resources, large investments and the relevant management system. That is why there is a problem of correct correlation and use of these factors and also close interrelation through the system of management between innovation, production and marketing activity of the firm, which lead to a positive result of realisation of the innovation strategy. The article offers main directions of innovation development of enterprise organisation under modern conditions.
Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Neogy, P.
Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize the release of radioactivity during a severe accident in a nuclear reactor. The objective is to make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of these strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident, i.e. after the molten core penetrates the reactor vessel. Significant uncertainties exist regarding some of the phenomena involved with this phase of a severe accident. The identification and assessment process for containment and release strategies is described, and some insights derived from its application to a BWR Mark I plant are presented. A station blackout accident for this kind of plant is considered. The challenges encountered are identified and existing emergency guidelines are reviewed, where needed and when possible, new strategies are devised. The feasibility and effectiveness of these new strategies are assessed, making due allowances for the complicated phenomena and associated uncertainties involved. Both beneficial and adverse effects of the suggested strategies are considered. (orig.)
Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren; Rost, Katja
Past innovation research has largely neglected potential effects of corporate governance issues on strategic choices, and thereby on innovation management outcomes. The theory of upper echelon implies that strategic choices result from idiosyncrasies of top management teams (TMT). Building...... show that TMT diversity has a strong impact on the strategic choice of firms to focus on innovation fields. Such focus then drives new product portfolio innovativeness and firm performance. As corporate governance arrangements thus seem relevant in the context of innovation management, we can derive...... on this theory, we hypothesize that TMT diversity enhances firm performance by facilitating an innovation strategy that increases the firm's new product portfolio innovativeness. Our findings support the relevance of considering a corporate governance view for explaining innovation outcomes. Empirically, we can...
Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Peeters, N.
Large diversified companies companies do not have good track records in managing discontinuous change and in turning breakthrough innovations into long-term growth and profit engines. Their existing technological capabilities tend to facilitate cognitive inertia, path dependency and low levels of
Ghosh Amit K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The triad of quality, innovation and economic restraint is as important in health care as it is in the business world. There are many proposals for the assessment of quality and of economic restraints in health care but only a few address assessment of innovations. We propose a strategy and new structures to standardize the description of health care innovations and to quantify them. Discussion Strategy and structure are based on the assumption that in the early phase of an innovation only data on the feasibility and possibly on the efficacy or effectiveness of an innovation can be expected. From the patient's perspective, benefit resulting from an innovation can be confirmed only in a later phase of development. Early indicators of patient's benefit will be surrogate parameters which correlate only weakly with the desired endpoints. After the innovation has been in use, there will be more evidence on correlations between surrogate parameters and the desired endpoints to provide evidence of the patient benefit. From an administrative perspective, this evidence can be considered in decisions about public financing. Different criteria are proposed for the assessment of innovations in prevention, diagnosis and therapy. For decisions on public financing a public fund for innovations may be helpful. Depending on the phase of innovation risk sharing models are proposed between manufacturers, private insurers and public funding. Summary Potential for patient benefit is always uncertain during early stages of innovations. This uncertainty decreases with increasing information on the effects of the innovation. Information about an innovation can be quantified, categorized and integrated into rational economic decisions.
Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar
The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...
Markard, J.; Truffer, B.; Imboden, D.M.
Market liberalization has triggered fundamental changes in the electricity sector with far-reaching economic, technical, organizational and ecological consequences. The paper examines how electricity market liberalization has influenced innovation processes at the level of electric utilities and in the electricity sector as a whole. The results are based on an empirical survey including two case studies, green power and fuel cells, in which utility innovation strategies were analysed. From the similarities in both cases and the aggregated effects of innovation strategies, we identify several indications for a general change of innovation processes in the sector: the innovation activity has increased, there is a greater variety of innovation projects, product innovations and organizational innovations have gained importance, innovation networks have become smaller and more specific, and the professionalism of innovation management is improving. (author)
Emmy Roos; Chuck Vincent; David Knox; Lauretta Kerchma-Olson
Full text of publication follows: What is new in public information in the nuclear industry? With developments such as deregulation in the United States, the ever-changing global energy market, and constant scientific and technological advances, public information programs are more important than ever. Co-sponsored by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Committee, panelists will present news of innovations in a broad spectrum of areas. These include the new research on the views of public opinion leaders about nuclear energy, the new ANS Public Information Web site, volunteer outreach by nuclear professionals at the local level, public information innovations at nuclear utilities, unique international programs, an update on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's strategic plan for public confidence, and recent changes at the U.S. Department of Energy. Invited presentations: New ANS Public Information Web Site International Programs (Emmy Roos (ETCetera)); ANS Teacher Workshops and the Northern Ohio Section's Highly Successful Implementation of Them (Chuck Vincent (ANS)); Innovations at Exelon (David Knox (Exelon)) Innovative Public Information Center Programs (Lauretta Kerchma-Olson (Nucl Mgt, Two Rivers))
to clustering of ideas, a design strategy which seemed to kill unique ideas. The reframing of innovation as a radical endeavor killed learning from others for being not innovative. The findings of this paper supplement theories of deliberate killing of ideas by suggesting framing, design and facilitation......This paper points to seemingly contradicted processes of framing innovation, idea generation and killing ideas. It reports from a yearlong innovation project, where health care professionals explored problems and tested ideas for solutions, regarding a future downsizing of the case hospital....... Theories in various ways describe the opening and closing phases of innovation. Exploration and idea generation opens a field of interest, which is then closed by making choices of ideas to further explore in the next opening phase. These choices deliberately kill a lot of ideas. In the innovation project...
1 oct. 2010 ... Keith Smith, Imperial College, Londres, Royaume-Uni. Ce livre traite des stratégies d'innovation dans une économie mondiale : leur élaboration, leur mise en oeuvre, leur mesure et leur gestion. Au sortir de la crise économique mondiale, les gens s'interrogent sur ses causes. Dans ce volume, Fred Gault ...
The Chinese hotel industry is increasingly integrating into the international market,and marketing awareness has developed quickly in China.Successful marketing can ensure a hotel maintains a competitive edge.The marketing strategy by Argyle Management Group (Australia) focuses on consumer demand and market demand.This innovative strategy has kept the group in an invincible position amid fierce competition.
Neij, Lena; Andersen, Per Dannemand
Wind turbines have become a mainstream technology, a first choice for many when investing in new electricity generation facilities. This comparative case study addresses how governmental policy has been formulated to support the wind turbine innovation and diffusion process. Three innovation stages...... and corresponding innovation strategies are identified. The first stage is the early movers of the 1970s and early 1980s, including pioneer countries such as Denmark, the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands. The second stage is the booming markets of the 1990s, guided by the successful Danish innovation...
Domingos Antonio Giroletti
Full Text Available This article attempts to discuss the Brazilian development in the second decade of the XXI century, its main challenges and bow to overcome them. It is discussed the relationship between education and innovation as well as its linkage with the development process. It departs from the analysis of the world scenario after the economist crisis of 2008 and the implications for Brazil’s economy. The relationship between education and innovation is examined and special attention is given to the role of the educational system and how it can contribute to prepare more innovative people, better adjusted to the present time and to the changes that we are living. Another focus of analysis refers to the need to increase a culture of innovation among us, adopting proper strategies to improve it and to surpass some resistances against its improvement, especially among university students and professors due to the confusion between innovation and globalization and globalization and capitalistic exploration. Finally, it will be necessary to transform globalization as an economic process into a project of civilization.
Tejedor-Escobar, E.; Martinez-Cid, P. M.
Iberdrola's Innovation Network was created as a place where the company shares and promotes ideas and projects with its technological partners. The network consists of multiple nodes each one with its specific scope where the company exposes its vision and strategy related to the node's thematic. It also enables a interchange of opinions, know-how and resources in order to develop R and D projects that solve Iberdrola's needs. Based on the concept of Open Innovation, the network is open for anybody that wants to join and that has interest in the diverse matters treated in the nodes. The Innovation Network is targeted to manufacturers/providers, universities, technological centers and associations. The Innovation Network offers to its member the acquisitions of relevant information and know-how, as well as the possibility of participating in the projects that are generated. Iberdrola's strong commitment with Innovation, together with its definitive internationalization process, make that the available resources provided by Iberdrola itself, as well as the interest areas and the project are very important for any stake holder in the sector. (Author) 4 refs
Broek, T.A. van den; Veenstra, A.F.E. van
Big data is an important driver of disruptive innovation that may increase organizations' competitive advantage. To create innovative data combinations and decrease investments, big data is often shared among organizations, crossing organizational boundaries. However, these big data collaborations
Ricard, Lykke Margot
The thesis focuses on the coordination of technology-intensive innovation activities at both sector and firm levels, supported by the use of the strategic roadmapping method. Investigations combine qualitative and quantitative research methods; using a narrative approach in the form of interviews...... as an interactive process to develop competences among technology users, producers, research institutions, and politicians. As a result, knowledge on how the platforms evolved, and their dynamics, provide new reflections on the innovation systems approach: that connectivity seems to change along the changes...... to uncover innovation and technology barriers, and a social network analysis of stakeholders’ role in relation to two technology platforms: TPWind and ZEP (Zero Emission Platform), during a five-year period when the roadmaps 2020 were developed. In this respect, the thesis emphasizes the view of innovation...
Agboola, Julius Ibukun
Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.
Gălăţanu (Avram, E.; Avasilcăi, S.
Technological changes and need for innovation represents the main concerns for organizational growth and profitability. However the main priority is still about achieving high performance through product development and consumers' engagement activities. As implementation of open innovation applications increased and value co — creation became well known and major process, companies were engaged into value co — innovation activities. From this point of view the need for joint efforts with consumers in product development arose. Thus the primary condition for an organization to be consumer centric is to define clear the vision and mission which reflects the common efforts for co — creation and diffusion of innovation. As Research & Development processes evolved and interest for innovative concepts and products arose, companies started to implement the specific instruments for consumers' attraction and engagement into design and product development. The digitalized innovation became the main source for establishing the direct communication with the consumers. In order to achieve organization growth, profitability and recognition, the companies should be aware of the innovation importance and the need for internal change. From this point of view, there is necessary to assess the organizational structures, to implement new policies and to establish strategic targets. Basically it is justified the need for platform occurrence and development. Based on case study of BMW Group, recognised leader in automotive industry for innovative concepts, there will be analysed main features within organizational context which promotes the innovation implementation. There will be provided the review of the BMW Group experience of innovation activities, main consumers' engagement strategies, the values which promote the consumer — centric product development, new opportunities assessment, major policies and concerns. The foreseen result is to understand how companies are
Station acceptance of the RTS work was completed in early November, 1984. The unit completed a successful integrated leak rate test, hot function test, and 200 hour warranty run in December, 1984 six weeks ahead of the CPUC mandate. Capital expenditures, although greater than the initial forecast, were two million dollars less than the 37.5 million dollar CPUC cap. The unit has run essentially trouble-free at current rated power until the current 1985 outage. Strategies and lessons learned that contributed to a successful RTS (e.g., all regulatory and economic constraints were met) included the use of numerous brainstorm sessions between SCE, Bechtel, and other consultants; innovative state of the art technical criterion (e.g., realistic versus overly conservative engineering); and budget and schedule contingencies consistent with the known and unknown risks
Full Text Available Purpose: At present, the Central Government of China pays more attention to the synergistic innovation, and the national strategy policy of “innovation driven development” are made to implementations. Thus, the university plays an important role in the national innovation system, so that how the university gets involved in innovative activities becomes the primary problem of innovation strategy. This paper utilizes Chinese university spin-offs survey data to identify the influence process from institutional innovation and organizational learning to synergistic effect of organization. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, we found that following the procedural view, each one of these three elements can be divided into two parts. Then, we established structural equation modeling with the connections between these six subdivisions. Secondly, by taking 270 university Spin-offs in China as samples, we verified the fit of the model through statistical data on the questionnaire survey. Thirdly, we analyzed the relationship and influence path of the institutional innovation, organizational learning and synergistic effect. Findings: The results of empirical research show that institutional implementation process is positive correlation on both sides of synergistic effect, and, the intermediary role is obvious that external organizational learning played a regulatory role between institutional innovation synergistic effects. Research limitations/implications: A large-scale questionnaire survey showed that the influence path of “institutions -organization-innovation performance" are existed. Therefore, the system analysis framework should be introduced to the emergence and development of University spin-offs, and further explored the synergistic process of institutional change and organizational evolution. Practical implications: University spin-offs are a mode of university - industry cooperation, and it takes participation in market competition
State of an innovation system: theoretical and empirical advance towards an innovation efficiency index. Or: Walking between ridicule and praise: measuring innovation systems effieciency with a single indicator
Montalvo Corral, C.; Mohammadian Moghayer, S.
Innovation is currently seen as a cornerstone not only for economic development but also as an intrinsic human activity that could help to face the great challenges of human kind. Given the importance of innovation in the new European 2020 Strategy, measuring progress but also monitoring what drives
Snowdon, Anne W
Global health systems are challenged by escalating costs and growing demands for care created by the demands of aging populations and rising rates of chronic illness which place unsustainable pressure on health systems to meet population health needs. To overcome these challenges, transformational change is needed to strengthen health system performance and sustainability. Innovation is widely viewed as the strategy to drive transformational change in health systems; yet to date, innovation has lacked a clearly defined focus or agenda to achieve transformation. An actionable innovation agenda is needed to achieve transformational change for health systems. The key conditions for success as an innovation strategy are examined, including clearly defined innovation objectives, key milestones, and actionable steps every system stakeholder must pursue in order to guide the innovation agenda and ultimately accelerate the transformational changes needed for a sustainable healthcare system that delivers value to populations.
da Silva Rabêlo, Olivan; de Azevedo Melo, Andrea Sales Soares
The study analyses the relationships between the main drivers of eco-innovation introduced by innovative industries, focused on cooperation strategy. Eco-innovation is analysed by means of a multidimensional identification strategy, showing the relationships between the independent variables and the variable of interest. The literature discussing environmental innovation is different from the one discussing other types of innovation inasmuch as it seeks to grasp its determinants and to mostly highlight the relevance of environmental regulation. The key feature of this paper is that it ascribes special relevance to cooperation strategy with external partners and to the propensity of innovative industry introducing eco-innovation. A sample of 35,060 Brazilian industries were analysed, between 2003 and 2011, by means of Binomial, Multinomial and Ordinal logistic regressions with microdata collected with the research and innovation department (PINTEC) from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). The econometric results estimated by the Logit Multinomial method suggest that the cooperation with external partners practiced by innovative industries facilitates the adoption of eco-innovation in dimension 01 with probability of 64.59%, 57.63% in dimension 02 and 81.02% in dimension 03. The data reveal that the higher the degree of eco-innovation complexity, the harder industries seek to obtain cooperation with external partners. When calculating with the Logit Ordinal and Binomial models, cooperation increases the probability that the industry is eco-innovative in 65.09% and 89.34%, respectively. Environmental regulation and innovation in product and information management were also positively correlated as drivers of eco-innovation.
Full Text Available In the context of global economy a dominant role of knowledge is the importance of human resources in the process of innovation and value creation. This paper aims to address Romania’s competitiveness in the context of global change mitigation by analyzing the counties competitiveness and eco-innovation. The efficiency-driven stage of development, which Romania is part of require specific regulatory measure in order to achieve sustainable development and competitive advantage. Analyzing the eco-innovation local needs by focusing on the SME can be seen as a solution, as they are creative in order to compensate for the lack of funding in research, development and innovation (like cluster research which is beneficial for sharing the risk and cost involved in research activities.
Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid
Full Text Available Implementation of knowledge management strategies and administration of intellectual capital defines the effectiveness of national innovation policies. This article analyses the intersection between national policies and organizational strategies to transfer value to the economy and society. It studies the recent scholarship related to this intersection. The article introduces and defines the main concepts that are relevant for the understanding of the topic. The article stresses that democratization of education and knowledge production should be part of the analysis of innovation models. The importance of intellectual capital valuation is highlighted with special emphasis on national and organizational policies regarding human capital, knowledge assets and education.
Qoqiauri Lamara G.
Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.
Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
Firms compete increasingly in an open innovation environment. Search strategies for external knowledge become therefore crucial for firm success. Existing research differentiates between the breadth (diversity) and depth (intensity) with which firms pursue external knowledge source. A consensus exists that resource constrains force firms to balance both dimensions. However, relatively little is known on how managers can selectively strengthen one of these dimensions. We argue conceptually tha...
Hoppe, Thomas; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel
The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and
Chen, Jie; Zhao, Naiqing
As the second largest pharmaceutical market with a great potential for future growth, China has drawn much attention from the global pharmaceutical community. With an increasing government investment in biomedical research, the domestic biopharmaceutical (biotechnological) companies in China are turning their attention to the development of innovative medicines and targeting the global market. To introduce innovative products to Chinese patients sooner, to improve the efficiency of its review and approval processes, and to harmonize its regulatory science with international standards, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) has initiated a series of major changes to its policies and regulations. This paper presents a snapshot of China's pharmaceutical market, and research and development status, and introduces technical guidelines pertaining to clinical trials and new drug applications. The recent wave of ground-breaking reforms in CFDA's regulatory science is discussed. Examples of clinical trials and new drug applications are provided throughout the discussion.
Kiparsky, Michael; Thompson, Barton H; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Tummers, Lars; Truffer, Bernhard
In many regions of the world, urban water systems will need to transition into fundamentally different forms to address current stressors and meet impending challenges-faster innovation will need to be part of these transitions. To assess the innovation deficit in urban water organizations and to identify means for supporting innovation, we surveyed wastewater utility managers in California. Our results reveal insights about the attitudes towards innovation among decision makers, and how perceptions at the level of individual managers might create disincentives for experimentation. Although managers reported feeling relatively unhindered organizationally, they also spend less time on innovation than they feel they should. The most frequently reported barriers to innovation included cost and financing; risk and risk aversion; and regulatory compliance. Considering these results in the context of prior research on innovation systems, we conclude that collective action may be required to address underinvestment in innovation.
Innovation is a difficult phenomenon to evaluate. Innovation impacts the firm in a variety of ways. It is difficult to analyze the full impact of innovation because there is no single set of metrics that can capture its full significance. The metrics that have been traditionally used only capture a fraction of the true benefit derived by the firm. In addition, since the circumstances, values, structure and strategies vary greatly between industries and firms within industries, the efficacy of...
Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.; Farla, J. [Universiteit Utrecht, Copernicus Instituut, Innovatiewetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands)
InnovationNetwork and SIGN want to obtain insight into the changes that are necessary in the greenhouse innovation system to guarantee a vibrant sector in the long term. Accordingly, the primary research question is: What should an effective Dutch greenhouse innovation system look like in 2020? Attention is paid to the greenhouse sector's current stage of development as well as the current focus of innovation within the sector. The analysis showed that the existing innovation system in the greenhouse sector mainly facilitates process innovations, and largely neglects other innovation strategies. Two other innovation strategies that are important in the mature stage of a sectors' development involve (1) initiating new life cycles through product innovation and (2) realizing higher margins through product differentiation based on marketing innovations. Strategy 1 is a niche strategy and can only be pursued successfully by a small number of entrepreneurs. Encouraging this type of innovative behaviour can best take place by building a new innovation system outside of existing institutions and structures. If effective, this new innovation system will help to bring about a cultural change in the entire greenhouse sector. Unlike strategy 1, strategy 2 is suitable for the entire greenhouse sector. It offers a means of shifting away from cost competition towards product competition, both internationally and within the Dutch greenhouse sector. Though challenging, this strategy can be realized by adjusting the current innovation system. Process innovation will always remain important. Both with strategy 1 and strategy 2 the evolution path of process innovations will be influenced by the selected product or marketing innovation strategy. Another vital factor for the innovation system which applies for both strategy 1 and 2, is the reduction of the distance between the primary entrepreneur and end consumer [Dutch] InnovatieNetwerk en SIGN hebben behoefte aan inzicht
LYTNEVA N.A.; GONCHAROV P.V.; KYSHTYMOVA E.A.
In this article reveals the relevance of research to improve the system of strategic planning of innovation and investment activity in the agricultural enterprise, types of planning innovative-investment activity of agrarian enterprises, software-oriented model of strategic planning of innovation and investment activities of AIC, the evaluation criteria of innovation and investment activity of agricultural enterprises.
This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors
Hoppe, T.; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel
The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and
Wakhid Slamet Ciptono
Full Text Available This study extends the prior research (Zahra and Das 1993 by examining the association between a company’s innovation strategy and its non-financial performance in the upstream and downstream strategic business units (SBUs of oil and gas companies. The sequential model suggests a causal sequence among six dimensions of innovation strategy (leadership orientation, process innovation, product/service innovation, external innovation source, internal innovation source, and investment that may lead to higher company non-financial performance (productivity and operational reliability. The study distributed a questionnaire (by mail, e-mailed web system, and focus group discussion to three levels of managers (top, middle, and first-line of 49 oil and gas companies with 140 SBUs in Indonesia. These qualified samples fell into 47 upstream (supply-chain companies with 132 SBUs, and 2 downstream (demand-chain companies with 8 SBUs. A total of 1,332 individual usable questionnaires were returned thus qualified for analysis, representing an effective response rate of 50.19 percent. The researcher conducts structural equation modeling (SEM and hierarchical multiple regression analysis to assess the goodness-of-fit between the research models and the sample data and to test whether innovation strategy mediates the impact of leadership orientation on company non-financial performance. SEM reveals that the models have met goodness-of-fit criteria, thus the interpretation of the sequential models fits with the data. The results of SEM and hierarchical multiple regression: (1 support the importance of innovation strategy as a determinant of company non-financial performance, (2 suggest that the sequential model is appropriate for examining the relationships between six dimensions of innovation strategy and company non-financial performance, and (3 show that the sequential model provides additional insights into the indirect contribution of the individual
Full Text Available The goal of the study is to verify whether there is a relation between a company’s declared innovation strategy and declared problems with access to capital. The research is based on a survey that covers more than 400 companies operating in Poland. Beside the self-assessment approach to evaluation of financial constraints and level of innovativeness of the company, an analysis of financial data was employed in the study. Chi-squared, Welch’s t-test, ANOVA and the ordered logit model were used to test the hypotheses. It was proved that there is relation between innovation strategy and financial constraints. The firms that are moderate innovators are financially constrained more than strong innovators, which can be linked with their better financial condition. Research confirms also that SMEs are still in a worse position compared to large enterprises in the area of access to different sources of capital. Secondly, innovative companies are exposed to additional difficulties in raising funds successfully, which confirms the validity of the used dedicated tools as a subsidy by authorities.
Tarun K. Sen
Full Text Available Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy Abstract Innovation in information technology is a primary driver for growth in developed economies. Research indicates that countries go through three stages in the adoption of innovation strategies: buying innovation through global trade, incremental innovation from other countries by enhancing efficiency, and, at the most developed stage, radically innovating independently for competitive advantage. The first two stages of innovation maturity depend more on cross-border trade than the third stage. In this paper, we find that IT professionals in in an emerging economy such as India believe in radical innovation over incremental innovation (adaptation as a growth strategy, even though competitive advantage may rest in adaptation. The results of the study report the preference for innovation strategies among IT professionals in India and its implications for other rapidly growing emerging economies.
Van Dyke, Aaron R; Gatazka, Daniel H; Hanania, Mariah M
Chemical biology derives intellectual vitality from its scientific interface: applying chemical strategies and perspectives to biological questions. There is a growing need for chemical biologists to synergistically integrate their research programs with their educational activities to become holistic teacher-scholars. This review examines how course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are an innovative method to achieve this integration. Because CUREs are course-based, the review first offers strategies for creating a student-centered learning environment, which can improve students' outcomes. Exemplars of CUREs in chemical biology are then presented and organized to illustrate the five defining characteristics of CUREs: significance, scientific practices, discovery, collaboration, and iteration. Finally, strategies to overcome common barriers in CUREs are considered as well as future innovations in chemical biology education.
Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Neogy, P.
Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize releases during a severe accident. The objective is to make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of these strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident (i.e., after vessel breach) and sizeable uncertainties exist regarding some of the phenomena involved. A majority of the strategies identified go well beyond existing procedures and often depend on the specific containment type. Strategies for all of the five different containments used in the U.S. are being considered: BWR Mark I, Mark II, and Mark III, as well as PWR ice condenser and large dry containments. Accident management strategies related to the in-vessel phase of a severe core melt accident are being dealt with under another NRC program. For each containment type the most likely challenges are identified and existing emergency guidelines and procedures are reviewed as to how they address these challenges
The services sector is increasingly important to the economies of Latin America and ... innovative strategies implemented by various firms and then determining the ... a comparative analysis of private-public intervention in service innovation for ...