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Sample records for innovative electrocoagulation ec

  1. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  2. Factors influencing arsenic and nitrate removal from drinking water in a continuous flow electrocoagulation (EC) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N. Sanjeev [Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Goel, Sudha, E-mail: sudhagoel@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-01-15

    An experimental study was conducted under continuous flow conditions to evaluate some of the factors influencing contaminant removal by electrocoagulation (EC). A bench-scale simulation of drinking water treatment was done by adding a filtration column after a rectangular EC reactor. Contaminant removal efficiency was determined for voltages ranging from 10 to 25 V and a comparative study was done with distilled water and tap water for two contaminants: nitrate and arsenic(V). Maximum removal efficiency was 84% for nitrate at 25 V and 75% for arsenic(V) at 20 V. No significant difference in contaminant removal was observed in tap water versus distilled water. Increase in initial As(V) concentration from 1 ppm to 2 ppm resulted in a 10% increase in removal efficiency. Turbidity in the EC reactor effluent was 52 NTU and had to be filtered to achieve acceptable levels of final turbidity (5 NTU) at steady-state. The flow regime in the continuous flow reactor was also evaluated in a tracer study to determine whether it is a plug flow reactor (PFR) or constantly stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the results show that this reactor was close to an ideal CSTR, i.e., it was fairly well-mixed.

  3. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3).

  4. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  5. Performance evaluation of a bipolar electrolysis/electrocoagulation (EL/EC) reactor to enhance the sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Hamed; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Keshavarz, Morteza; Safari, Mohammad Hossein; Lotfi, Saeedeh; Bahram Abadi, Mahnaz; Alijanzadeh, Azim

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a bipolar electrolysis/electrocoagulation reactor designed to enhance the sludge dewaterability. The reactor was 15 L in volume, with two series of plates used in it; Ti/RuO(2) plates for the electrolysis of the sludge, and also aluminum and iron plates for electrocoagulation process. The dewaterability of the sludge was determined in terms of its capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), while the degree of sludge disintegration was determined based on the value of degree of sludge disintegration (DD(SCOD)). The maximum reduction in CST and SRF was observed at a detention time of 20 min and a voltage of 30 V. However, increasing of both detention time and voltage significantly increased the values of CST and SRF even to an extent that they both exceeded those of the untreated sludge. The optimal degree of sludge disintegration achieved by the present study was 2.5%, which was also achieved at a detention time of 20 min and a voltage of 30V. As reported previously, increased DD(SCOD) values led to increasing CST and SRF values, due primarily to the disruption of the sludge flocs. According to the results from the present study, it can be concluded that simultaneous application of electrocoagulation and electrolysis is effective in enhancing the sludge dewaterability, because electrocoagulation helps to achieve a higher degree of sludge disintegration while maintaining the desired sludge dewaterability.

  6. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Essadki, Abdel Hafid; Gourich, Bouchaib; Vial, Christophe; Delmas, Henri; Bennajah, Mounir

    2009-01-01

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency...

  7. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Sajjad, E-mail: sajjadfarhadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminzadeh, Behnoush, E-mail: bamin@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khatibikamal, Vahid, E-mail: vahidkhatibi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad, E-mail: malizadeh1987@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen peroxide improves the performance of electrocoagulation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV light can be effective on the performance on peroxi-electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide for peroxi-electrocoagulation process for COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater is 300 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal values of pH for electrocoagulation and peroxi-electrocoagulation are 7 and 3, respectively. - Abstract: This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation > electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate.

  8. Dechlorophyllation by Electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Duang Buddhasukh; Weerachai Phutdhawong; Kanlaya Jumpatong

    2006-01-01

    Electrocoagulation was used for dechlorophyllation of alcoholic extracts from five plants. The results showed that for every plant extract studied, electrocoagulation was more efficient than the classical solvent extraction method in removing plant pigments, while not affecting the important secondary metabolites in those extracts.

  9. Dechlorophyllation by Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duang Buddhasukh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation was used for dechlorophyllation of alcoholic extracts from five plants. The results showed that for every plant extract studied, electrocoagulation was more efficient than the classical solvent extraction method in removing plant pigments, while not affecting the important secondary metabolites in those extracts.

  10. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  11. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Sajjad; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Torabian, Ali; Khatibikamal, Vahid; Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad

    2012-06-15

    This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation>electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate.

  12. Electrocoagulation of Quinone Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duang Buddhasukh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Some representative quinones, viz. one naphthoquinone (plumbagin and five anthraquinones (alizarin, purpurin, chrysazin, emodin, and anthrarufin, were subjected to electrocoagulation. It was found that the rate and extent of coagulation of these compounds appears to correlate with the number and relative position of their phenolic substituent groups, and that all of the coagulated quinones could be recovered. Attempts were then made to electrochemically isolate three quinones, namely plumbagin, morindone and erythrolaccin, from natural sources.

  13. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    -arsenate precipitates. This work evaluates the feasibility of EC as a treatment process at various stages during conventional copper smelter wastewater treatment - with a focus on arsenic. The reactor used is a batch airlift electrocoagulator. The results showed that raw copper smelter wastewater was difficult to treat......The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  14. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  15. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M.; Amrose, Susan E.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-01-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment o

  16. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation

  17. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  18. Removal of heavy metals by hybrid electrocoagulation and microfiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi; Vinduja, V; Balasubramanian, N

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation of the performance of electrocoagulation (EC), followed by the microfiltration process for heavy metal removal in synthetic model waste water containing Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions. Effects of initial concentration, current density and pH on metal removal were analysed to optimize the EC process. The optimized EC process was then integrated with dead-end microfiltration (MF) and was found that the hybrid process was capable of 99% removal of heavy metals. The cake layer formed over the membrane by the hybrid process was analysed through scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size analysis of the sludge formed during EC was done to investigate the fouling caused during the process.

  19. Reviewing the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: What do we know about its challenges and potential impact on innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Stefanie; Khedkar, Sukhada; Ciliberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Health claims potentially represent an opportunity for firms to engage in product differentiation and thereby induce investment into R&D and innovation in the food sector. The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (NHCR) aims at protecting and promoting innovation as one of its objectives. However, existing studies indicate that this regulation may create several challenges for innovation in the food sector. To this end, we review the challenges related to the NHCR (Article 13.1) and its impact on innovation. Extant literature suggests that companies face challenges related to changing list of ingredients, missing transparency, wording of claims, limited financial resources, limited R&D resources, switching product categories and abandoning the functional foods sector. Moreover, current studies imply that so far the NHCR (in specific Article 13.1) does not seem to encourage innovation in the EU food sector.

  20. Exploring the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: What is the impact on innovation in the EU food sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Sukhada; Bröring, Stefanie; Ciliberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Literature suggests that despite its positive aim of promoting innovation, the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (NHCR) may bring along several compliance challenges, which might affect innovation in the EU food sector. This study investigates the challenges faced by companies to comply with the NHCR (specifically Article 13.1) and their impact on innovation. To this end, we conducted an online survey with 105 companies involved in the EU food sector. Results indicate that companies perceive wording of claims, missing transparency and limited financial resources as major challenges to comply with the NHCR (Article 13.1). Companies reported not to have increased their R&D expenditure or innovation activities after the NHCR (Article 13.1) was implemented. Thus, this study highlights specific compliance challenges related to the NHCR (Article 13.1) and indicates that currently, the regulation does not seem to have fostered innovation in the EU food sector.

  1. Arsenic removal by electrocoagulation process: Recent trends and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, P V; Singh, T S Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a major issue in the present world. Arsenicosis is the disease caused by the regular consumption of arsenic contaminated water, even at a lesser contaminated level. The number of arsenicosis patients is increasing day-by-day. Decontamination of arsenic from the water medium is the only one way to regulate this and the arsenic removal can be fulfilled by water treatment methods based on separation techniques. Electrocoagulation (EC) process is a promising technology for the effective removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. The present review article analyzes the performance of the EC process for arsenic removal. Electrocoagulation using various sacrificial metal anodes such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, etc. is found to be very effective for arsenic decontamination. The performances of each anode are described in detail. A special focus has been made on the mechanism behind the arsenite and arsenate removal by EC process. Main trends in the disposal methods of sludge containing arsenic are also included. Comparison of arsenic decontamination efficiencies of chemical coagulation and EC is also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of Diazinon from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amooey, Ali Akbar; Ghasemi, Shahram; Mirsoleimani-azizi, Seyed Mohammad; Gholaminezhad, Zohreh; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad [University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method to treat polluted wastewaters and aqueous solutions. In this paper, the removal of Diazinon was studied by EC on aluminum electrode. The effect of several parameters such as initial concentration of Diazinon, current density, solution conductivity, effect of pH, and electrolysis time were investigated on EC performance. The obtained results showed that the removal efficiency of EC depends on the current density, initial concentration of Diazinon and electrolysis time. The optimum pH is 3 and also the solution conductivity has no significant effect on removal efficiency.

  3. EC MoDeRn Project: In-situ Demonstration of Innovative Monitoring Technologies for Geological Disposal - 12053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.J. [NDA, Herdus House, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3HU (United Kingdom); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [AITEMIN, c/Margarita Salas 14-Parque Leganes Tecnologico-Leganes, ES-28918, Madrid (Spain); Maurer, H. [ETH Zurich, ETH Honggerberg, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, S. [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean-Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Schroeder, T.J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Verstricht, J. [EURIDICE EIG, c/o SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    Monitoring to provide information on the evolution of geological disposal presents several challenges. The 4-year, euros M 5, EC MoDeRn Project (http://www.modern-fp7.eu/), which commenced in 2009, addresses monitoring processes, state-of-the-art technology and innovative research and development of monitoring techniques. This paper discusses some of the key drivers for the development of innovative monitoring techniques and provides outlines of the demonstration programmes being conducted within MoDeRn. The aim is to develop these innovative monitoring techniques and to demonstrate them under realistic conditions present in underground laboratories. These demonstration projects, applying a range of different monitoring techniques, are being carried out at underground research facilities in different geological environments at HADES URL in Belgium (plastic clay), Bure in France (indurated clay) and at Grimsel Test Site (granite) in Switzerland. These are either built upon existing infrastructure (EC ESDRED Low pH shotcrete and TEM experiments at Grimsel; and PRACLAY experiment and underground galleries in HADES) or will be attached to infrastructure that is being developed and financed by resources outside of this project (mock-up disposal cell in Bure). At Grimsel Test Site, cross-hole and hole-to-tunnel seismic methods are being employed as a means to monitor induced changes in an artificially saturated bentonite wall confined behind a shotcrete plug. Recognising the limitations for travel-time tomography for monitoring a disposal cell, full waveform inversion techniques are being employed to enhance the capacity to monitor remote from the excavation. At the same Grimsel location, an investigation will be conducted of the potential for using a high frequency wireless (HFW) sensor network embedded within the barrier system; this will include the possibility of providing energy remotely to isolated sensors. At the HADES URL, the monitoring programme will utilise

  4. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Characterization of electrocoagulation for removal of chromium and arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parga, J.R.; Valverde, V. [Institute of Technology of Saltillo, Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science, V. Carranza 2400, Saltillo Coah., C.P. 25280 (Mexico); Cocke, D.L.; Gomes, J.A.G.; Kesmez, M.; Moreno, H. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Weir, M.; Mencer, D. [Wilkes University, Dept. of Chemistry, Wilkes-Barre, PA 18766 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Protection of the global environment and, in particular, providing a sustainable source of clean water is a necessity for human survival. The wide use of heavy metals by modern industries has generated by-products containing heavy metals. Specifically, large quantities of chromium and arsenic containing compounds are being discharged into the environment. This study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of an electrocoagulation (EC) process using air injection to remove these inorganic elements with iron electrodes. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed at iron electrodes during EC. The results of this study suggest that magnetite particles and amorphous iron oxyhydroxides are present in the examined EC products. The field pilot-scale study demonstrated the removal of Cr(VI)/Cr(III) and As(III)/As(V) with an efficiency of more than 99 % from both wastewater and wells. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Grey water treatment by a continuous process of an electrocoagulation unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Bani-Melhem, Khalid

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the performance of an integrated process consisting of an electro-coagulation (EC) unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) technology for grey water treatment. For comparison purposes, another SMBR process without electrocoagulation (EC) was operated in parallel with both processes operated under constant transmembrane pressure for 24. days in continuous operation mode. It was found that integrating EC process with SMBR (EC-SMBR) was not only an effective method for grey water treatment but also for improving the overall performance of the membrane filtration process. EC-SMBR process achieved up to 13% reduction in membrane fouling compared to SMBR without electrocoagulation. High average percent removals were attained by both processes for most wastewater parameters studied. The results demonstrated that EC-SMBR performance slightly exceeded that of SMBR for COD, turbidity, and colour. Both processes produced effluent free of suspended solids, and faecal coliforms were nearly (100%) removed in both processes. A substantial improvement was achieved in removal of phosphate in the EC-SMBR process. However, ammonia nitrogen was removed more effectively by the SMBR only. Accordingly, the electrolysis condition in the EC-SMBR process should be optimized so as not to impede biological treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  8. Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadok, K; Benammar, S; Lapicque, F; Nezzal, G

    2008-03-21

    The treatment of very concentrated oil-water emulsions by electrocoagulation (EC) was experimentally investigated as a pre-treatment step prior to a membrane process. The oil-water emulsion was prepared from a cutting mineral oil B22 currently used for drilling and machining operations. The electrocoagulation progress was followed by the measurement of COD, turbidity and pH in a batch process with recirculation of the liquid. This study is mainly focused on the effects of operating parameters such as initial pH, current density, oil concentration and recirculation rate, on the de-emulsification efficiency. Kinetic curves showed that the EC process exhibits two phases: a "reactive phase" during which the COD and the turbidity removals increase with electrolysis, and a stationary phase for which further aluminium dissolution is useless in the pollution abatement. The results showed that the treatment efficiency increases with increasing current density, but decreases with oil concentration. It appears that treatment of the considered cutting oil is completed through dissolution of around 10mgAl/g oil, with a slight positive effect of the liquid flow rate. Best results are also obtained with initial pH near 7.

  9. A comparative study of pulsed 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser and electrocoagulation in the treatment of spider nevi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erceg, A.; Greebe, R.J.; Bovenschen, H.J.; Seijger, M.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser treatment and electrocoagulation (EC) for the treatment of spider nevi (SN). METHOD: A randomized single-blind intrapatient comparison study was performed. A blinded observer and patients reported the cl

  10. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Paluluoglu, Cihan [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  11. DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER BY ELECTROCOAGULATION/ELECTROFLOTATION - KINETIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennajah Mounir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A variable order kinetic (VOK model derived from the langmuir-freundlish equation was applied to determine the kinetics of fluoride removal reaction by electrocoagulation (EC. Synthetic solutions were employed to elucidate the effects of the initial fluoride concentration, the applied current and the initial acidity on the simulation results of the model. The proposed model successfully describes the fluoride removal in Airlift reactor in comparison with the experimental results. In this study two EC cells with the same capacity (V = 20 L were used to carry out fluoride removal with aluminum electrodes, the first is a stirred tank reactor (STR the second is an airlift reactor (ALR. The comparison of energy consumption demonstrates that the (ALR is advantageous for carrying out the defluoridation removal process.

  12. DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER BY ELECTROCOAGULATION/ELECTROFLOTATION: KINETIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Bennajah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variable order kinetic (VOK model derived from the langmuir-freundlish equation was applied to determine the kinetics of fluoride removal reaction by electrocoagulation (EC. Synthetic solutions were employed to elucidate the effects of the initial fluoride concentration, the applied current and the initial acidity on the simulation results of the model. The proposed model successfully describes the fluoride removal in Airlift reactor in comparison with the experimental results. In this study two EC cells with the same capacity (V = 20 L were used to carry out fluoride removal with aluminum electrodes, the first is a stirred tank reactor (STR the second is an airlift reactor (ALR. The comparison of energy consumption demonstrates that the (ALR is advantageous for carrying out the defluoridation removal process.

  13. Toxicity assessment from electro-coagulation treated-textile dye wastewaters by bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Soraya M; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Borba, Fernando H; Silva, Fernando G

    2009-12-15

    In this study the pollutant removal from a textile dyeing wastewater has been investigated by using the electro-coagulation technique with iron electrodes. In order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables, a 3(3) full factorial experimental design was applied. The electro-coagulation (EC) process response was evaluated on the basis of COD removal and decolourization values. The electrolysis time and density current were statistically significant for the COD removal and decolourization. Based on the lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the lowest toxicity level was achieved in 5 min of electrolysis time. Due to the remaining high toxicity level above 30 min of electrolysis time, the EC process is not adequate to be used in a single effluent treatment, suggesting that this electrochemical process of up to 5 min could be used as part of a complete effluent treatment system.

  14. Efficiency of Aluminum and Iron Electrodes for the Removal of Heavy Metals [(Ni (II), Pb (II), Cd (II)] by Electrocoagulation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem; Jamal, Muhammad Asghar; Hussain, Amira; Muneer, Majid; Zia, Khalid Mahmood [Government College Univ., Faisalabad (Pakistan); Hafeez, Samia [Bahaud-din-Zakariya Univ., Multan (Pakistan)

    2013-06-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) technique is applied for the treatment of wastewater containing heavy metals ions such as nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) by using sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant flocs usually aluminium or iron cations into the solution. During electrolytic reactions hydrogen gas evolve at the cathode. All the experiments were carried out in Batch mode. The tank was filled with synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals and efficiency of electrocoagulation in combination with aluminum and iron electrodes were investigated for removal of such metals. Several parameters, such as contact time, pH, electro-coagulant concentration, and current density were optimized to achieve maximum removal efficiency (%). The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). It is found that the electro-coagulation process has potential to be utilized for the cost-effective removal of heavy metals from wastewater specially using iron electrodes in terms of high removal efficiencies and operating cost.

  15. Linking satellite ICT application businesses with regional innovation centers and investors: The EC “INVESaT” project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiron, Florence; Kreisel, Joerg

    2009-09-01

    In the sector of information and communication technologies (ICT), whether in the USA, Japan, or Europe, innovative services are already in use, based on large-scale space-based infrastructure investments. Such systems are e.g. earth observation, telecommunication, and navigation, timing and positioning satellites. In combination with the advent of powerful handheld terminals and the demand for ubiquitous services, it is expected that info-mobility applications will reveal new sources of business in the years ahead, using in particular the Earth observation and future GALILEO systems to position any feature or user anywhere in the world within a few meter accuracy. Hence, satellite-based capabilities provide new and unique opportunities for economic stimulation and development. Many incubators and innovation centers in Europe have already grasped this growth potential. Yet, for many European players business growth appears below expectations compared to developments in the USA following the launch of GPS (Global Positioning System). Europe still has to overcome intrinsic barriers to seize these new business opportunities faster and with more visible economic impact by leveraging on SMEs and regional innovation centers to expand the commercial utilization of satellite capabilities and mobilization of appropriate financial resources. The paper elaborates on the INVESat project (funded by the EuropeInnova—European Commission), which aims at bridging the gap between Innovative enterprises and financial In VEstors in the emerging markets of SaTellite applications. The critical success factors required to stimulate and support more efficiently investments in this bread of innovative services will also be highlighted.

  16. Soft drink wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation-electrooxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares Hernández, Ivonne; Barrera Díaz, Carlos; Valdés Cerecero, Mario; Almazán Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Castañeda Juárez, Monserrat; Lugo Lugo, Violeta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a coupled system, a monopolar Electrocoagulation (EC)-Electrooxidation (EO) processes, for the treatment of soft drink wastewater. For the EC test, Cu-Cu, anode-cathode were used at current densities of 17, 51 and 68 mA cm(-2). Only 37.67% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 27% of total organic carbon (TOC) were removed at 20 min with an optimum pH of 8, this low efficiency can be associated with the high concentration of inorganic ions which inhibit the oxidation of organic matter due to their complexation with copper ions. Later EO treatment was performed with boron-doped diamond-Cu electrodes and a current density of 30 Am(-2). The coupled EC-EO system was efficient to reduce organic pollutants from initial values of 1875 mg L(-1) TOC and 4300 mg L(-1) COD, the removal efficiencies were 75% and 85%, respectively. Electric energy consumption to degrade a kilogram of a pollutant in the soft drink wastewater using EC was 3.19 kWh kg(-1) TOC and 6.66 kWh kg(-1) COD. It was concluded that the coupled system EC-EO was effective for the soft drink wastewater treatment, reducing operating costs and residence time, and allowing its reuse in indirect contact with humans, thus contributing to the sustainable reuse as an effluent of industrial wastewater.

  17. Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    PRETREATMENT CAPABILITIES AND BENEFITS OF ELECTROCOAGULATION Michael Mickley Mickley & Associates Boulder, Colorado...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...4 2.1 Background for Electrocoagulation Technology ………………………. 4 2.1.1 Applications ……………………………………………………. 4 2.1.2

  18. Removal of organic load and suspended solids from water by electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Pisoi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique involving in-situ generation ofcoagulation agents from sacrificial anodes by type of aluminium and iron. In the present study EC hasbeen evaluated as a treatment technology for organic load and suspended solids removal from a realwastewater proceeded from pulp and paper industry, which was characterized by high content of organicload and suspended solids. The efficiency of the electrocoagulation process was assessed by monitoringChemical Oxygen Demand (COD and suspended solids (s.s. parameters. Laboratory- scale experimentswere conducted with aluminum anode to assess its efficiency under galvanostatic regime. To establishthe optimum operational parameter selected as current density, the electrolysis was carried out at 50,100 and 200 Am-2. The electrocoagulation process performance was assessed based on the efficiencies ofCOD and s.s. removal correlated with the specific electrical energy consumption. Applying EC processallowed to achieve the COD removal efficiencies ranged between 83.80 and 94.00 % and s.s. removalefficiencies between 87.77 and 95.47 %.

  19. Dynamics of Chromium(VI) Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Troyer, Lyndsay D; Catalano, Jeffrey G; Giammar, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    The potential for new U.S. regulations for Cr(VI) in drinking water have spurred strong interests in improving technologies for Cr(VI) removal. This study examined iron electrocoagulation for Cr(VI) removal at conditions directly relevant to drinking water treatment. Cr(VI) is chemically reduced to less soluble Cr(III) species by the Fe(II) produced from an iron anode, and XANES spectra indicate that the Cr is entirely Cr(III) in solid-phases produced in electrocoagulation. The dynamics of Cr(VI) removal in electrocoagulation at pH 6 and pH 8 at both oxic and anoxic conditions can be described by a new model that incorporates Fe(II) release from the anode and heterogeneous and homogeneous reduction of Cr(VI) by Fe(II). Heterogeneous Cr(VI) reduction by adsorbed Fe(II) was critical to interpreting Cr(VI) removal at pH 6, and the Fe- and Cr-containing EC product was found to catalyze the redox reaction. Dissolved oxygen (DO) did not observably inhibit Cr(VI) removal because Fe(II) reacts with DO more slowly than it does with Cr(VI), and Cr(VI) removal was faster at higher pH. Even in the presence of common groundwater solutes, iron electrocoagulation lowered Cr(VI) concentrations to levels well below California's 10 μg/L.

  20. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@hotmail.com [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Vial, Ch. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, LGCB-UBP/ENSCCF, 24 avenue des Landais, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France); Delmas, H. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bennajah, M. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15 min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H{sub 2} microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  1. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Vial, Ch; Delmas, H; Bennajah, M

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12mA/cm(2), but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H(2) microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  2. Removal of dexamethasone from aqueous solution and hospital wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsand, Daniel R., E-mail: danielarsand@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.kuemmerer@leuphana.de [Institute for Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University Lüneburg (Germany); Martins, Ayrton F., E-mail: martins@quimica.ufsm.br [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This study is concerned with the removal of the anti-inflammatory dexamethasone from aqueous solution and hospital wastewater by electrocoagulation. The variation of the toxicity during the electrocoagulation was also studied through experiments that were designed and optimized by means of response surface methodology. The coagulation efficiency was evaluated by measuring the dexamethasone concentration by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. In addition, variation was evaluated through a Vibrio fischeri test. The results showed an increase in the removal of dexamethasone (up to 38.1%) with a rise of the current applied and a decrease of the inter-electrode distance, in aqueous solutions. The application to hospital effluent showed similar results for the removal of dexamethasone. The main effect of the electrocoagulation was that it removed colloids and reduced the organic load of the hospital wastewater. Regarding the current applied, the calculated energy efficiency was 100%. Without pH adjustment of the aqueous solution or hospital wastewater, the residual aluminum concentration always remained lower than 10 mg L{sup −1}, and, with adjustment (to pH 6.5), lower than 0.30 mg L{sup −1}, at the final stage. No toxicity variation was observed during the electrocoagulation process in aqueous solution, either in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. - Highlights: ► Removal of DEX and organic load from aqueous solution and hospital wastewater by EC ► Evaluation of the toxicity during the removal of DEX by EC ► Suggestion of the EC process as a pretreatment for subsequent processes.

  3. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Purkait, M.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)], E-mail: mihir@iitg.ernet.in

    2008-06-30

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m{sup 2}. It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m{sup 3}. The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use.

  4. Electrocoagulation of a synthetic textile effluent powered by photovoltaic energy without batteries: Direct connection behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M.; Exposito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio [Grupo de Electroquimica Aplicada y Electrocatalisis, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, Alicante 03080 (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    The feasibility of the use of an electrocoagulation system (EC) directly powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array has been demonstrated. The model pollutant used was a reactive textile dye Remazol Red RB 133. It has been proved that PV array configuration is a factor of great influence on the use of the generated power. The optimum PV array configuration must be reshaped depending on the instantaneous solar irradiation. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EC-PV system operation conditions depending on solar irradiation has been proposed. The current flow ratio, J{sub v}, is established as the control parameter. (author)

  5. Feasibility assessment of electrocoagulation towards a new sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jackson; Stopić, Srećko; Krause, Gregor; Friedrich, Bernd

    2007-11-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) may be a potential answer to environmental problems dealing with water reuse and rational waste management. The aim of this research was to assess the feasibility of EC-process for industrial contaminated effluents from copper production, taking into consideration technical and economical factors. EC-technology claims to offer efficient removal rates for most types of wastewater impurities at low power consumption and without adding any precipitating agents. Real wastewater from Saraka stream with high concentrations of heavy metals was provided by RTB-BOR, a Serbian copper mining and smelting complex. Runs were performed on a 10 l EC-reactor using aluminum plates as sacrificial electrodes and powered by a 40 A supply unit. Results concerning key factors like pH, conductivity and power consumption were measured in real time. Analysis of dissolved metal concentrations before and after treatment were carried out via ICP-OES and confirmed by an independent test via AAS. Several aspects were taken into account, including current density, conductivity, interfacial resistivity and reactor settings throughout the runs, in order to analyze all possible factors playing a role in neutralization and metal removal in real industrial wastewater. Electrode configurations and their effects on energy demand were discussed and exemplified based on fundamentals of colloidal and physical chemistry. Based on experimental data and since no precipitating agents were applied, the EC-process proved to be not only feasible and environmentally-friendly, but also a cost-effective technology The EC-technology provides strategic guidelines for further research and development of sustainable water management processes. However, additional test series concerning continuous operation must be still performed in order to get this concept ready for future large-scale applications.

  6. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency.

  7. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique.

  8. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent as wastewater treatment and hydrogen production using electrode aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M Ansori; Yaakob, Z; Ali, Ehsan; Tasirin, S M; Abdullah, S R S

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluting wastewater generated from the palm oil milling process. Palm oil mill effluent was used as an electrolyte without any additive or pretreatment to perform electrocoagulation (EC) using electricity (direct current) ranging from 2 to 4 volts in the presence of aluminum electrodes with a reactor volume of 20 L. The production of hydrogen gas, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity as a result of electrocoagulation of POME were determined. The results show that EC can reduce the COD and turbidity of POME by 57 and 62%, respectively, in addition to the 42% hydrogen production. Hydrogen production was also helpful to remove the lighter suspended solids toward the surface. The production of Al(OH)XHO at the aluminum electrode (anode) was responsible for the flocculation-coagulation process of suspended solids followed by sedimentation under gravity. The production of hydrogen gas from POME during EC was also compared with hydrogen gas production by electrolysis of tap water at pH 4 and tap water without pH adjustment under the same conditions. The main advantage of this study is to produce hydrogen gas while treating POME with EC to reduce COD and turbidity effectively.

  9. Color removal from acid and reactive dye solutions by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/adsorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebia, S; Kacha, S; Bouberka, Z; Bouyakoub, A Z; Derriche, Z

    2009-04-01

    In this study, electrocoagulation of Marine Blue Erionyl MR (acid dye) and electrocoagulation followed by adsorption of Brilliant Blue Levafix E-BRA (reactive dye) from aqueous solutions were investigated, using aluminum electrodes and granular activated carbon (GAC). In the electrocoagulation and adsorption of dyestuff solutions, the effects of current density, loading charge, pH, conductivity, stirring velocity, contact time, and GAC concentration were examined. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as loading charges 7.46 and 1.49 F/m3, for a maximum abatement of 200 mg/L reactive and acid dye, respectively. The residual reactive dye concentration was completely removed with 700 mg/L GAC. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of a combined process to remove significant concentrations of recalcitrant dyes from water, using moderate activated carbon energy and aluminum consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment.

  10. Treatment of highly concentrated tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation: Influence of the quality of aluminium used for the electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elabbas, S.; Ouazzani, N.; Mandi, L. [Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie, Ecotoxicologie et Assainissement (LHEA, URAC 33), Faculté de Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Centre National d’Etude et de Recherche sur l’Eau et l’Energie (CNEREE), Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 511, Marrakech (Morocco); Berrekhis, F. [Equipe de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 2400, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Perdicakis, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, Université de Lorraine—CNRS, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54602 Villers-lès Nancy Cedex (France); Pontvianne, S.; Pons, M-N.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP) UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex (France); Leclerc, J-P, E-mail: jean-pierre.leclerc@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP) UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex (France)

    2016-12-05

    Highlights: • COD and Cr(III) species can be simultaneously removed by electrocoagulation. • Cu-containing Al alloy is more efficient than pure Al as electrodes. • Dilution of too concentrated tannery wastewater is required for efficient treatment. - Abstract: This paper deals with the ability of electrocoagulation (EC) to remove simultaneously COD and chromium from a real chrome tanning wastewater in a batch stirred electro-coagulation cell provided with two aluminium-based electrodes (aluminium/copper/magnesium alloy and pure aluminium). Effects of operating time, current density and initial concentration of Cr(III) and COD have been investigated. The concentrations of pollutants have been successfully reduced to environmentally acceptable levels even if the concentrated effluent requires a long time of treatment of around 6 h with a 400 A/m{sup 2} current density. The aluminium alloy was found to be more efficient than pure aluminium for removal of COD and chromium. Dilution of the waste has been tested for treatment: high abatement levels could be obtained with shorter time of treatment and lower current densities. Energy consumption of the electrocoagulation process was also discussed. The dilution by half of the concentrated waste leads to a higher abatement performance of both COD and chromium with the best energy efficiency.

  11. Electrocoagulation versus the Endo GIA in LAVH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp; Dorsey; Holtz; Melick

    1996-08-01

    We compared the operating room time using bipolar electrocoagulation and Endo GIA staples in 11 women undergoing laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH). Electrocoagulation was used on one side of the uterine pedicles and the Endo GIA stapling device on the contralateral pedicles. Each patient was randomized to the method used on each side and which method was used first. All procedures were symmetric, with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Data were compared using the paired t test. Normal distribution was assessed by the Shapiro-Wilks test and the K-S (Lilliefors) test. The mean (± SD) procedure times for electrocoagulation and Endo GIA were 13.03 ± 1.34 minutes and 4.4 ± 0.33 minutes, respectively. This resulted in a mean difference of 8.66 ± 3.62 minutes (p GIA stapling times (p = 0.034). The Endo GIA stapling device required significantly less time to perform LAVH compared with electrocoagulation. The difference of 8.66 minutes, if multiplied by 2 (to account for a bilateral procedure), may or may not be clinically or economically significant, depending on hospital costs and charges for instruments, operating room time, and anesthesia.

  12. Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation with low cell current (≤ 1A) and soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes) was studied. Compared with aluminum electrodes, mild steel electrodes were more effective for the removal of sulfide, with a removal efficiency of over 90%. But during the treatment process, black color precipitate typical to iron(II) sulfides was produced. While aluminum electrodes were effective to eliminate the colority of the effluent, the removal efficiency of sulfide was lower than 12%. The mechanisms of the removal of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total organic carbon, sulfide and colority with different soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes) were discussed in detail. In order to exert the predominance of diffenent types of electrodes, the tannery wastewater was treated using mild steel electrodes first (electrocoagulation time: 20 min, cell current: 1 A) followed by the filter and finally by the aluminum electrodes (electrocoagulation time: 20 min, cell current: 1 A), the elimination rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total organic carbon, sulfide and colority were 68.0%, 43.1%, 55.1%, 96.7% and 84.3%, respectively, with the initial concentrations 2413.1 mg/L, 223.4 mg/L, 1000.4 mg/L, 112.3 mg/L and 256 dilution times, respectively. The absorbance spectra and energy consumption during electrocoagulation process were also discussed.

  13. Cyanide detoxification of mining wastewaters with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and its recovery by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, V.; Casillas, H.M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Institute of Technology of Saltillo, Saltillo Coahuila (Mexico); Valenzuela, J.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy, University of Sonora, Hermosillo Sonora (Mexico); Parga, J.R.

    2009-12-15

    Due to the widespread use of cyanide in mining operations, its recovery and destruction is important for both the environmental aspects of wastewater and its treatment, and the economic aspects associated with the high consumption of chemicals by the process itself. A photoelectrocatalytic detoxification technique with titanium dioxide microelectrodes is one of the most innovative ways for the treatment of wastewater containing cyanide. However, this technique has a disadvantage for industrial application in that the separation of titanium dioxide after the photocatalytic degradation of cyanide is rather difficult due to the fineness of the particles, and therefore, the reuse of the titanium dioxide has not been attained for the treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater. To overcome this weak point, an electrocoagulation (EC) technique is used to recover the titanium dioxide from its aqueous suspensions. The results show that photodegradation of cyanide is 93 % in 30 min using a 450 W halogen lamp. The recovery of anatase with the EC process is 98 %. The results indicate that this technique has the potential to serve as a reliable and economical method because sunlight can be used efficiently as the power source. The Langmuir isotherm is used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters, i.e., free energy, enthalpy and entropy. The evaluation of these parameters, i.e., {delta}G =-37 kJ/mol, {delta}H =-54 kJ/mol and {delta}S =0.524 kJ/mol K, indicates the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the adsorption of the anatase particles on the iron species. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Optimization of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, N.; Raman, A. A.; Ramesh, S.

    2017-06-01

    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. In this study, the treatment of leachate using electrocoagulation (EC) was investigated. Iron was used as both the anode and cathode. Response surface methodology was used for experimental design and to study the effects of operational parameters. Central Composite Design was used to study the effects of initial pH, inter-electrode distance, and electrolyte concentration on color, and COD removals. The process could remove up to 84 % color and 49.5 % COD. The experimental data was fitted onto second order polynomial equations. All three factors were found to be significantly affect the color removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Further work will be conducted towards integrating EC with other wastewater treatment processes such as electro-Fenton.

  15. Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater by Intermittent Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Marie B. Ensano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous release of emerging contaminants (ECs in the aquatic environment, as a result of the inadequate removal by conventional treatment methods, has prompted research to explore viable solutions to this rising global problem. One promising alternative is the use of electrochemical processes since they represent a simple and highly efficient technology with less footprint. In this paper, the feasibility of treating ECs (i.e., pharmaceuticals using an intermittent electrocoagulation process, a known electrochemical technology, has been investigated. Diclofenac (DCF, carbamazepine (CBZ and amoxicillin (AMX were chosen as being representative of highly consumed drugs that are frequently detected in our water resources and were added in synthetic municipal wastewater. The removal efficiencies of both individual and combined pharmaceuticals were determined under different experimental conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT (6, 19 and 38 h, initial concentration (0.01, 4 and 10 mg/L and intermittent application (5 min ON/20 min OFF of current density (0.5, 1.15 and 1.8 mA/cm2. Results have shown that these parameters have significant effects on pharmaceutical degradation. Maximum removals (DCF = 90%, CBZ = 70% and AMX = 77% were obtained at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, an initial concentration of 10 mg/L and HRT of 38 h.

  16. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbal, F.; Camci, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. By chemical coagulation, Cu-, Cr-, and Ni-removal of 99.9 % was achieved with aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride dosages of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Removal of metals by electrocoagulation was affected by the electrode material, wastewater pH, current density, number of electrodes, and electrocoagulation time. Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}, electrocoagulation time of 20 min, and pH 3.0 resulted in 99.9 % Cu-, 99.9 % Cr-, and 98 % Ni-removal. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Low-energy hydraulic fracturing wastewater treatment via AC powered electrocoagulation with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Huggins, Tyler; Rosenblum, James; Linden, Karl G; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-05-15

    Produced and flowback waters are the largest byproducts associated with unconventional oil and gas exploration and production. Sustainable and low cost technologies are needed to treat and reuse this wastewater to avoid the environmental problems associated with current management practices (i.e., deep well injection). This study presents a new process to integrate AC-powered electrocoagulation (EC) with granular biochar to dramatically reduce energy use and electrode passivation while achieving high treatment efficiency. Results show achieving a 99% turbidity and TSS removal for the AC-EC-biochar system only used 0.079 kWh/m(3) or 0.15 kWh/kg TSS, which is 70% lower than traditional DC-EC systems and orders of magnitude lower than previous studies. The amount of biochar added positively correlates with energy saving, and further studies are needed to improve organic carbon and salt removal through system integration.

  18. Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution using electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, N; Kojima, Toshinori; Basha, C Ahmed; Srinivasakannan, C

    2009-08-15

    Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution was carried out using electrocoagulation. Experiments were conducted using mild steel sacrificial anode covering wide range in operating conditions to assess the removal efficiency. The maximum arsenic removal efficiency was recorded as 94% under optimum condition. The electrocoagulation mechanism of arsenic removal has been developed to understand the effect of applied charge and electrolyte pH on arsenic removal efficiency. Further the experimental data were tested with different adsorption isotherm model to describe the electrocoagulation process.

  19. Electrocoagulation versus chemical coagulation: coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and resulting floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harif, Tali; Khai, Moti; Adin, Avner

    2012-06-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) and chemical coagulation (CC) are employed in water treatment for particle removal. Although both are used for similar purposes, they differ in their dosing method - in EC the coagulant is added by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material, while in CC dissolution of a chemical coagulant is used. These different methods in fact induce different chemical environments, which should impact coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and subsequent floc formation. Hence, the process implications when choosing which to apply should be significant. This study elucidates differences in coagulation/flocculation mechanisms in EC versus CC and their subsequent effect on floc growth kinetics and structural evolution. A buffered kaolin suspension served as a representative solution that underwent EC and CC by applying aluminum via additive dosing regime in batch mode. In EC an aluminum anode generated the active species while in CC, commercial alum was used. Aluminum equivalent doses were applied, at initial pH values of 5, 6.5 and 8, while samples were taken over pre-determined time intervals, and analyzed for pH, particle size distribution, ζ potential, and structural properties. EC generated fragile flocs, compared to CC, over a wider pH range, at a substantially higher growth rate, that were prone to restructuring and compaction. The results suggest that the flocculation mechanism governing EC in sweep floc conditions is of Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation (DCLA) nature, versus a Reaction Limited Cluster Aggregation (RLCA) type in CC. The implications of these differences are discussed.

  20. Electrocoagulation Process for Treatment of Detergent and Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Detergent and phosphate are one of the main and vital threats (eutrophication phenomenon and production of synthetic foam for the source of drinking water, agriculture and industrial uses in the Ahvaz, Iran that threaten human health. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the efficiency of the electrocoagulation (EC process in the removal of detergent and phosphate from car wash effluent. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we used a glass tank with a volume of 2-4 liters (effective volume of 2 liters containing 4 electrode-plate iron and aluminum (AL-AL, AL-Fe, Fe-Fe. Bipolar method was used to convert alternative electricity to direct; electrodes were connected to a power supply. Daily samples were collected from different car washes sewage. Initial PHs of samples was from 7 to 9. At first, different tests were performed on primary samples. Reaction times were set for 90, 60 and 30 minutes with middle intervals of 2 cm. Results: According to the result of this study, percentage of phosphate removal in the EC with Al-Fe electrode, with an optimum pH = 7, has been from 34 % (in the 10 Volt to 78% (in the 30 Volt. Percentage of detergent removal in the EC with AL electrode, with an optimum pH = 7, has been from 68 % (in the 10 Volt to 94% (in the 30 Volt. Conclusions: Altogether, it was found that this method can be used as a confident and convenient method for treating car wash effluent and according to the highest removal efficiency of the process, effluent can be discharged safely into the environment.

  1. Removal of Reactive Red 141 Dye from Synthetic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process: Investigation of Operational Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rahmanpour Salmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of textile industries waste especially their dying effluent impose a serious pollution on the environment. Reactive dyes are one of the most used dyes which are recalcitrant to conventional treatment processes. In the performed project, the effectiveness of electrocoagulation process was studied on decolorization. RR141 was selected as model dye and treatment process was performed in a simple batch of electrocoagulation (EC cell using iron electrodes. Central Composite Design (CCD was used to plan study runs. Experiments were done under 5 levels of various operational parameters at bench scale. Initial concentration of dye was varied among 50 and 500ppm, pH ranging from 4-12; retention time was ranged between 3-30 minutes, 1-3cm was selected as the distance between electrodes, and current intensity studied under the range of 5-30 mA/cm2. EC treatment process of dyestuff wastewater was satisfactory at high levels of current density, pH, and retention time. While increasing the initial dye concentration and electrodes gap had a negative effect on decolorization performance. Determined optimal conditions to treat 200ml of sample were including pH: 9.68, electrode gap: 1.58cm, dye concentration: 180ppm, retention time: 10.82 minutes, and current intensity: 22.76mA/cm2. Successful removal of the model dye about 99.88% was recorded in the mentioned values of variables. Simple design and operation of the experiments can be an interesting option for implementation and applying of inexpensive electrocoagulation treatment process which was successful to reach nearly a complete decolorization.

  2. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: Fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes-Characteristics of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria); Aoudj, S.; Hecini, M. [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Ghaffour, N. [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C.133, Muscat (Oman); Lounici, H.; Mameri, N. [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria)

    2009-09-30

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100 mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al{sup 3+} dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  3. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes--characteristics of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouiche, N; Aoudj, S; Hecini, M; Ghaffour, N; Lounici, H; Mameri, N

    2009-09-30

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al(3+) dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  4. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  5. Influence of operating parameters on electrocoagulation of C.I. disperse yellow 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Ghernaout

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the electrocoagulation (EC process for an organic dye removal. The chosen organic dye is C.I. disperse yellow 3 (DY which is used in textile industry. Experiments were performed in batch mode using Al electrodes and for comparison purposes Fe electrodes. The experimental set-up was composed of 1 L beaker, two identical electrodes which are separated 2 cm from each other. The main operating parameters influencing EC process were examined such as pH, supporting electrolyte concentration CNaCl, current density i, and DY concentration. High performance EC process was shown during 45 min for 200 mg/L dye concentration at i = 350 A m-2 (applied voltage 12 V and CNaCl = 1 g L-1 reaching 98 % for pHs 3 and 10 and 99 % for pH 6. After 10 min, DY was also efficiently removed (86 % showing that EC process may be conveniently applied for textile industry wastewater treatment. EC using Fe electrodes exhibited slightly lower performance comparing EC using Al electrodes.

  6. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  7. Thermodynamic studies of chromium adsorption on iron species generated by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parga, J.R.; Vazquez, V.; Gonzalez, G.; Cisneros, M.M. [Metallurgy and Materials Science Department, Institute Technology of Saltillo (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The protection of the global environment and in particular, the provision of a sustainable source of clean water is a necessity for human survival. Specifically, large quantities of chromium containing compounds are being discharged into the environment. This study has been carried out to determine the feasibility of chromium adsorption on iron species by an Electrocoagulation (EC) process using the Langmuir Isotherm. The full potential of EC with air injection as an alternative wastewater treatment technique to remove chromium from well water shows more than 99 % removal without the addition of any chemical reagents. In this study, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy are used to characterize the solid products that reveal the expected crystalline iron oxides, i.e., lepidocrocite, magnetite, gohetite, and iron oxide. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water.

  9. The Use of Al, Cu, and Fe in an Integrated Electrocoagulation-Ozonation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Barrera Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of supplying electrochemically generated metallic ions (Al, Cu, and Fe during an ozonation process for treating industrial wastewater. The pollutant removal efficiencies of the electrocoagulation (EC, ozonation, and coupled EC-ozonation processes were examined by the decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD as a function of treatment time. The EC was performed in a raw industrial wastewater, which has contributions from 39 chemical, 34 metal finishing, 22 textile, 11 leather, and 5 automotive plants, at pH (7.3 using a current density of 150 A/m2 for 60 min, giving a 45% reduction in COD. The ozonation process was more effective with the same wastewater, reducing the COD by 52% after 60 min of treatment. Combining the EC and ozonation methods resulted in a synergistic process that improves the reduction of COD in a shorter time. In just 12 min the integrated process reduced the COD by 88%. Thus, the combination of EC and ozonation processes improves noticeably the wastewater quality, decreasing the treatment time and also reducing the sludge production.

  10. Removal and transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during electrocoagulation treatment of an industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenhao; Shen, Gang; Huang, Haiou; He, Peiran; Zhang, Zhongguo; Ma, Baoqing

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of water pollutants because of their known ecological and human toxicity. Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising technology for mitigating industrial wastewater pollution, but the removal and transformation of PAHs during EC treatment has not yet been understood. Therefore, a paper-making wastewater effluent (PMWW) was employed in this study to investigate the relationship between PAHs' removal and transformation during EC treatment. The results show that 86% of PAHs were effectively removed not only by the electro-oxidation reactions, but also by adsorption onto Fe hydroxide flocs. The removal and transformation of PAHs were related to the number of rings in their structures. Some PAHs composed of two aromatic rings (e.g., naphthaline and dimethylnaphthalene) were produced from humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like organics in PMWW, while PAHs with three to four rings were degraded, thus being removed efficiently. Therefore, PAH transformation during EC treatment exerted double-sided effects on the removal of PAHs; the net effect appeared to be positive. Overall, this study revealed the existence and importance of PAH transformation during EC treatment and provided useful guidance for pulp and paper mills to improve the design and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic and fluoride removal from groundwater by electrocoagulation using a continuous filter-press reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Athziri; Nava, José L; Coreño, Oscar; Rodríguez, Israel; Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated simultaneous arsenic and fluoride removal from ground water by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum as the sacrificial anode in a continuous filter-press reactor. The groundwater was collected at a depth of 320 m in the Bajío region in Guanajuato Mexico (arsenic 43 µg L(-1), fluoride 2.5 mg L(-1), sulfate 89.6 mg L(-1), phosphate 1.8 mg L(-1), hydrated silica 112.4 mg L(-1), hardness 9.8 mg L(-1), alkalinity 31.3 mg L(-1), pH 7.6 and conductivity 993 µS cm(-1)). EC was performed after arsenite was oxidized to arsenate by addition of 1 mg L(-1) hypochlorite. The EC tests revealed that at current densities of 4, 5 and 6 mA cm(-2) and flow velocities of 0.91 and 1.82 cm s(-1), arsenate was abated and residual fluoride concentration satisfies the WHO standard (CF < 1.5 mg L(-1)). Spectrometric analyses performed on aluminum flocs indicated that these are mainly composed of aluminum-silicates of calcium and magnesium. Arsenate removal by EC involves adsorption on aluminum flocs, while fluoride replaces a hydroxyl group from aluminum aggregates. The best EC was obtained at 4 mA cm(-2) and 1.82 cm s(-1) with electrolytic energy consumption of 0.34 KWh m(-3).

  12. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  13. Electrocoagulation: an electrochemical process for water clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Fekete

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is a group of various procedures used for removing contaminants from water by electrochemically dissolving aluminum or iron. The contaminants of the solution may be incorporated in the in situ forming metal hydroxide flocs, which can be filtered as a precipitate or skimmed as a float. The main features of the procedure are highlighted on the example of cleaning of an oily waste-water. Design parameters of a 1 m3/h waste-water cleaning system are calculated from the results of small-scale experiments.

  14. Iron removal, energy consumption and operating cost of electrocoagulation of drinking water using a new flow column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-03-15

    The goal of this project was to remove iron from drinking water using a new electrocoagulation (EC) cell. In this research, a flow column has been employed in the designing of a new electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) to achieve the planned target. Where, the water being treated flows through the perforated disc electrodes, thereby effectively mixing and aerating the water being treated. As a result, the stirring and aerating devices that until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors are unnecessary. The obtained results indicated that FCER reduced the iron concentration from 20 to 0.3 mg/L within 20 min of electrolysis at initial pH of 6, inter-electrode distance (ID) of 5 mm, current density (CD) of 1.5 mA/cm(2), and minimum operating cost of 0.22 US $/m(3). Additionally, it was found that FCER produces H2 gas enough to generate energy of 10.14 kW/m(3). Statistically, it was found that the relationship between iron removal and operating parameters could be modelled with R(2) of 0.86, and the influence of operating parameters on iron removal followed the order: C0>t>CD>pH. Finally, the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images showed a large number of irregularities on the surface of anode due to the generation of aluminium hydroxides.

  15. Kinetic Isotherm of Amoxicillin Antibiotic through Adsorption and its Removal by Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Chatterjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment because they have adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has a significant effect on the quality of surface and groundwater. The relevance of an electrocoagulation (EC process for the removal of an antibiotic was selected because of its wide application, high solubility in water, high residual toxicity and an absence of biodegradability, was examined in this study. Metal hydroxides generated during EC were used to remove Amoxicillin (AMX from aqueous solution. The knowledge regarding the removal mechanism of this substance has not yet been investigated till now. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using aluminum electrodes. The removal of AMX was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached within 20 min. The effects of the main operating parameters were examined and showed that irrespective of the initial concentration and for pH ranging from 3 to 10, maximum removal efficiency remained close to 95%; while a sharp decrease was recorded at pH 2 (8 % removal. The results of this study also showed that the removal of AMX from water was strongly affected by the current intensity. The mechanism of electrocoagulation was modeled using isotherm models and showed that the Sips isotherm matched satisfactorily the experimental data, suggesting monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules and assumed a quasi-Gaussian distribution energy owing to the high correlation also found for the Toth model. In addition, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities, as when the pH and initial antibiotic concentrations were considered.

  16. comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    In this study, the treatment of the effluents of an artisanal tannery by electrocoagulation with iron electrodes was carried out. .... of treatment of the aqueous wastes, the passage of the ..... electrocoagulation”, Journal of Hazardous Materials,.

  17. The efficiency of electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodesin treating wastewater from a dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson de Freitas Silva Valente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the investigation of electrocoagulation (EC treatment of wastewater from a dairy plant using aluminum electrodes. Electrolysis time, pH, current density and distance between electrodes were considered to assess the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS and their fractions and turbidity. Samples were collected from the effluent of a dairy plant using a sampling methodology proportional to the flow. The treatments were applied according to design factorial of half fraction with two levels of treatments and 3 repetitions at the central point. The optimization of parameters for treating dairy industry effluent by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes showed that electric current application for 21 minutes, an initial sample pH near 5.0 and a current density of 61.6A m-2 resulted in a significant reduction in COD by 57%; removal of turbidity by 99%, removal of total suspended solids by 92% and volatile suspended solids by 97%; and a final treated effluent pH of approximately 10. Optimum operating condition was used for cost calculations show that operating cost is approximately 3.48R$ m-3.

  18. Removal turbidity and separation of heavy metals using electrocoagulation-electroflotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzouk, B. [Departement d' Hydraulique, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf de M' sila (Algeria)], E-mail: mbelkov@yahoo.fr; Gourich, B. [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, B.P. 8012, Oasis (Morocco); Sekki, A. [Departement de Genie des Procedes, Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria); Madani, K.; Chibane, M. [Faculte des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Universite A - Mira de Bejaia (Algeria)

    2009-05-15

    The electrocoagulation (EC) process was developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. This process is very effective in removing organic pollutants including dyestuff wastewater and allows for the reduction of sludge generation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the operating parameters, such as pH, initial concentration (C{sub 0}), duration of treatment (t), current density (j), interelectrode distance (d) and conductivity ({kappa}) on a synthetic wastewater in the batch electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EF) process. The optimal operating conditions were determined and applied to a textile wastewater and separation of some heavy metals. Initially a batch-type EC-EF reactor was operated at various current densities (11.55, 18.6, 35.94, 56.64, 74.07 and 91.5 mA/cm{sup 2}) and various interelectrode distance (1, 2 and 3 cm). For solutions with 300 mg/L of silica gel, high turbidity removal (89.54%) was obtained without any coagulants when the current density was 11.55 mA/cm{sup 2}, initial pH was 7.6, conductivity was 2.1 mS/cm, duration of treatment was 10 min and interelectrode distance was 1 cm. The application of the optimal operating parameters on a textile wastewater showed a high removal efficiency for various items: suspended solid (SS) 86.5%, turbidity 81.56%, biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) 83%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 68%, and color over 92.5%. During the EC process under these conditions, we have studied the separation of some heavy metal ions such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) with different initial concentrations in the range of 50-600 mg/L and initial pH between 7.5 and 7.8. This allowed us to show that the kinetics of electrocoagulation-electroflotation is very quick (<15 min), and the removal rate reaches 95%.

  19. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  20. Improved Electrocoagulation Reactor for Rapid Removal of Phosphate from Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yushi

    2016-11-01

    A new three-electrode electrocoagulation reactor was investigated to increase the rate of removal of phosphate from domestic wastewater. Initially, two electrodes (graphite plate and air cathode) were connected with 0.5 V of voltage applied for a short charging time (∼10 s). The direction of the electric field was then reversed, by switching the power supply lead from the anode to the cathode, and connecting the other lead to a sacrificial aluminum mesh anode for removal of phosphate by electrocoagulation. The performance of this process, called a reverse-electric field, air cathode electrocoagulation (REAEC) reactor, was tested using domestic wastewater as a function of charging time and electrocoagulation time. REAEC wastewater treatment removed up to 98% of phosphate in 15 min (inert electrode working time of 10 s, current density of 1 mA/cm2, and 15 min total electrocoagulation time), which was 6% higher than that of the control (no inert electrode). The energy demand varied from 0.05 kWh/m3 for 85% removal in 5 min, to 0.14 kwh/m3 for 98% removal in 15 min. These results indicate that the REAEC can reduce the energy demands and treatment times compared to conventional electrocoagulation processes for phosphate removal from wastewater.

  1. Arsenic removal via electrocoagulation from heavy metal contaminated groundwater in La Comarca Lagunera Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parga, Jose R. [Institute Technology of Saltillo, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, V. Carranza 2400, C.P. 25280, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: drjrparga@hotmail.com; Cocke, David L. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Valenzuela, Jesus L. [University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (Mexico); Gomes, Jewel A. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Kesmez, Mehmet [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Irwin, George [Lamar University, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Moreno, Hector [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Weir, Michael [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States)

    2005-09-30

    Arsenic contamination is an enormous worldwide problem. A large number of people dwelling in Comarca Lagunera, situated in the central part of northern Mexico, use well water with arsenic in excess of the water standard regulated by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico (SEMARNAT), to be suitable for human health. Individuals with lifetime exposure to arsenic develop the classic symptoms of arsenic poisoning. Among several options available for removal of arsenic from well water, electrocoagulation (EC) is a very promising electrochemical treatment technique that does not require the addition of chemicals or regeneration. First, this study will provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the EC method. In this study, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed at iron electrodes during the EC process. The results suggest that magnetite particles and amorphous iron oxyhydroxides present in the EC products remove arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with an efficiency of more than 99% from groundwater in a field pilot scale study.

  2. Arsenic removal via electrocoagulation from heavy metal contaminated groundwater in La Comarca Lagunera México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, Jose R; Cocke, David L; Valenzuela, Jesus L; Gomes, Jewel A; Kesmez, Mehmet; Irwin, George; Moreno, Hector; Weir, Michael

    2005-09-30

    Arsenic contamination is an enormous worldwide problem. A large number of people dwelling in Comarca Lagunera, situated in the central part of northern México, use well water with arsenic in excess of the water standard regulated by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources of México (SEMARNAT), to be suitable for human health. Individuals with lifetime exposure to arsenic develop the classic symptoms of arsenic poisoning. Among several options available for removal of arsenic from well water, electrocoagulation (EC) is a very promising electrochemical treatment technique that does not require the addition of chemicals or regeneration. First, this study will provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the EC method. In this study, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed at iron electrodes during the EC process. The results suggest that magnetite particles and amorphous iron oxyhydroxides present in the EC products remove arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with an efficiency of more than 99% from groundwater in a field pilot scale study.

  3. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density (j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  4. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  5. Optimization and modelling using the response surface methodology (RSM) for ciprofloxacin removal by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barışçı, Sibel; Turkay, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effects of different operating conditions on the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by the electrocoagulation (EC) with pure iron electrodes. Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of the EC process and to evaluate the effects and interactions of process variables such as applied current density, process time, initial CIP concentration and pH on the removal of CIP by the EC process. The optimum conditions for maximum CIP removal (86.6%) were found as pH = 4; Co = 5 mg.L(1-); Id = 4.325 mA.cm(2-); tprocess = 10 min. The model adequacy and the validity of the optimization step were confirmed with additional experiments which were performed under the proposed optimum conditions. The predicted CIP removal as 86.6% was achieved at each experiment by using the optimum conditions. These results specify that the RSM is a useful tool for optimizing the operational conditions for CIP removal by the EC process.

  6. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density ( j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  7. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  8. Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA frames innovation as critical to the protection of human health and the environment through initiatives such as sustainable practices, innovative research, prize competitions, innovation awards, partnerships, and community activities.

  9. Study on Treatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Electro-coagulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-coagulation (EC is well known as a technique for removing suspended solids as well as oils and greases from wastewater. The aims of this research are to study the performance of the EC technique to treat a high strength wastewater from slaughterhouse in batchwise mode. The effect of various process variables such as number and electrode material, initial pH, suspended solid (SS content, and operating time was investigated The electrolytic cell (electro-coagulator used was a 600 ml cylinder glass reactor with working volume 400 ml and equipped by magnetic stirrer without temperature control. Cast iron (Fe and aluminum (Al cylinder were used as anode/cathode pair. The number of electrode was varied 1 and 2 pairs. The effective area of the electrode pair was 6.28 cm2. The DC power supply was controlled by a voltmeter and be adjusted constant at 125 A/m2 for each test runs. The initial SS concentration were varied from 1250, 2100, 3000, and 4000 mg/L by diluting wastewater. It is found that effluent temperature depends on SS and increases up to 98 °C when SS content was 4000 mg/L. One and two pairs of Fe-Al electrode will give SS removal efficiency are 97.2 and 99.6 %, respectively. However, the higher electrode number will need the shorter time to get certain removal efficiency of SS.  Number of electrodes didn’t give the significant impact to the final pHs. With initial pH 7.05 both two pair of electrode will give the final pH relatively constant to 7.80. Further work will be conducted to optimize the CD and charge loading to avoid the excessive temperature increase

  10. Treatment of dairy effluents by electrocoagulation using aluminium electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamango, Serge; Nanseu-Njiki, Charles P; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Hadjiev, Dimiter; Darchen, André

    2010-01-15

    This work sets out to examine the efficiency of an electrolytic treatment: electrocoagulation, applied to dairy effluents. The experiments were carried out using a soluble aluminium anode on artificial wastewater derived from solutions of milk powder. The flocks generated during this treatment were separated by filtration. The analysis of the filtrates showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced by up to 61% while the removal of phosphorus, nitrogen contents, and turbidity were 89, 81 and 100%, respectively. An analogous treatment applied to phosphate and lactose solutions revealed that lactose was not eliminated, a fact that could account for the rather poor lowering of the COD. Compared to the chemical coagulation treatment with aluminium sulphate, the efficiency of the electrocoagulation technique was almost identical. However the wastewaters treated by electrocoagulation differed by the fact that they exhibited a lower conductivity and a neutral pH value (by contrast to the acid nature of the solution treated by the chemical coagulation). This result (low conductivity, neutral pH) tends to show that it may be possible to recycle the treated water for some industrial uses. Moreover, the electrocoagulation process uses fewer reagents: the mass of the aluminium anode dissolved during the treatment is lower compared to the quantity of the aluminium salt used in chemical coagulation. These two observations clearly show that the electrocoagulation technique is more performing.

  11. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure.

  12. Removal and adsorption characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol from aqueous solutions using electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    The study was to investigate the performance of electrocoagulation (EC) for the efficient removal of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from aqueous solutions. Several parameters were evaluated to characterize the PVA removal efficiency, such as various electrode pairs, current densities, supporting electrolytes, temperatures, and initial electrolyte concentrations. The effects of the current density, supporting electrolyte, and temperature on the electrical energy consumption were also investigated. The experimental results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the optimum choice out of four different electrode pair combinations. The optimum current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be 5 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.008N NaCl, and 298 K, respectively. The PVA removal efficiency decreased with increasing in the initial concentrations. The kinetic studies indicated that the EC process was best described using pseudo-second-order kinetics. The experimental data were also compared to different adsorption isotherm models in order to describe the EC process. The adsorption of PVA was best fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicated that the adsorption of PVA on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  13. Arsenic removal from groundwater using iron electrocoagulation: effect of charge dosage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Srinivasan, Venkat; Kowolik, Kristin; Muller, Marc; Huang, Jessica; Kostecki, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes can reduce arsenic below 10 μg/L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater and in real groundwater from Bangladesh and Cambodia, while investigating the effect of operating parameters that are often overlooked, such as charge dosage rate. We measure arsenic removal performance over a larger range of current density than in any other single previous EC study (5000-fold: 0.02 - 100 mA/cm(2)) and over a wide range of charge dosage rates (0.060 - 18 Coulombs/L/min). We find that charge dosage rate has significant effects on both removal capacity (μg-As removed/Coulomb) and treatment time and is the appropriate parameter to maintain performance when scaling to different active areas and volumes. We estimate the operating costs of EC treatment in Bangladesh groundwater to be $0.22/m(3). Waste sludge (~80 - 120 mg/L), when tested with the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Protocol (TCLP), is characterized as non-hazardous. Although our focus is on developing a practical device, our results suggest that As[III] is mostly oxidized via a chemical pathway and does not rely on processes occurring at the anode. Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the free supplemental file.

  14. Removal and adsorption characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol from aqueous solutions using electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung

    2010-05-15

    The study was to investigate the performance of electrocoagulation (EC) for the efficient removal of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from aqueous solutions. Several parameters were evaluated to characterize the PVA removal efficiency, such as various electrode pairs, current densities, supporting electrolytes, temperatures, and initial electrolyte concentrations. The effects of the current density, supporting electrolyte, and temperature on the electrical energy consumption were also investigated. The experimental results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the optimum choice out of four different electrode pair combinations. The optimum current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be 5 mA cm(-2), 0.008 N NaCl, and 298 K, respectively. The PVA removal efficiency decreased with increasing in the initial concentrations. The kinetic studies indicated that the EC process was best described using pseudo-second-order kinetics. The experimental data were also compared to different adsorption isotherm models in order to describe the EC process. The adsorption of PVA was best fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicated that the adsorption of PVA on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  15. Optimizing electrocoagulation process for the treatment of biodiesel wastewater using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orathai Chavalparit; Maneerat Ongwandee

    2009-01-01

    The production of biodiesel through a transesterification method produces a large amount of wastewater that contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G).Currently,flotation is the conventional primary treatment for O&G removal prior to biological treatments.In this study,electrocoagulation (EC) was adopted to treat the biodiesel wastewater.The effects of initial pH,applied voltage,and reaction time on the EC process for the removal of COD,O&G,and suspended solids (SS) were investigated using one factor at a time experiments.Furthermore,the Box-Behnken design,an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM),was used to create a set of 15 experimental runs needed for optimization of the operating conditions.Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals.The experimental results show that EC was effective at reducing COD,O&G,and SS by 55.43%,98.42%,and 96.59%,respectively,at the optimum conditions of pH 6.06,applied voltage 18.2 V,and reaction time 23.5 min.The experimental observations were in reasonable agreement with the modeled values.

  16. Thermodynamic Studies of the Arsenic Adsorption on Iron Species Generated by Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Parga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of global environment and sustainable sources of clean water are a necessity for human survival. The wide use of heavy metals by modern industries has generated heavy metals containing wastes and by-products. Specifically, large quantities of arsenic compounds are being discharged into the environment. The full potential of Electrocoagulation (EC with air injection as an alternative wastewater treatment technique to remove arsenic from water showed more than 99 percent of removal without adding any chemicals. This study has been carried out to determine the feasibility of arsenic adsorption on iron species by EC process using the Langmuir’s Isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° were calculated. It was found that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. Some experiments were conducted to determine the optimum operating conditions such as current density, pH, and residence time. Also in this study, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the EC solid products that revealed the expected crystalline iron oxides (lepidocrocite, magnetite, gohetite, and iron oxide.

  17. Highly efficient removal of perfluorooctanoic acid from aqueous solution by H2O2-enhanced electrocoagulation-electroflotation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC technique was used to investigate the removal performance of aqueous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA with relatively high concentration as simulating the wastewater from organic fluorine industry. A comparison was done with the similar amount of coagulant between EC and chemical coagulation process. PFOA removal obtained was higher with EC process, especially for Fe anode. Several factors were studied to optimize the EC process. At the optimal operating parameters including 37.5 mA/cm2 of current density, initial pH 3.77, and 180 rpm of mixing speed, 93% of PFOA could be removed with 100 mg/L of initial concentration after 90-min electrolysis. Furthermore, the remove efficiency could be obviously improved by H2O2 intermittent addition, which removed more than 99% of PFOA within 40-min EC. It could be attributed to that H2O2 facilitated the oxidative transformation from ferrous to ferric ion. In addition, the adsorptive removal of aqueous PFOA on Fe flocs during EC was also verified by fourier transform infrared spectra.

  18. Combined electrocoagulation and TiO{sub 2} photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: nhioka2@yahoo.com.br

    2009-02-15

    The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO{sub 2}) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cm x 2.50 cm x 0.10 cm), current density 763 A m{sup -2}, 90 min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4 h irradiation, 0.25 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} and 10 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753 mg L{sup -1} for the sample from the factory, 160 mg L{sup -1} after EC and 50 mg L{sup -1} after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification.

  19. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  20. [Osteoid osteoma in children: 5 cases treated with electrocoagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, O; de Wispelaere, J-F; Charlier, H; Bodart, E

    2012-11-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor. Its diagnosis is often delayed despite typical symptoms: severe pain mainly situated on the lower limbs and characteristically worse at night. Once diagnosed, an antalgic treatment by aspirin is well known to be very effective in relieving pain. Osteoid osteoma will resolve spontaneously. If symptoms persist despite the use of aspirin, surgery can be performed to remove the tumor. Percutaneous electrocoagulation can be performed instead of surgical resection as a less invasive procedure. The success rate of surgery and percutaneous electrocoagulation is comparable. We reviewed the cases of 5 patients who were hospitalized in our institution for percutaneous electrocoagulation of an osteoid osteoma. We compared them to the literature.

  1. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yaganeh, Suzanne; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to a theoretical discussion of creation of innovation with participants in, or outside, organisations. We address the creation of innovation with a complex theoretical understanding drawing on the Scandinavian and the Participatory Design tradition introducing two approaches...... to the processes of innovation. We ask if innovation can be initiated and enhanced looking at two collaborative approaches; participatory innovation (PIN) and cooperative innovation (COIN). We invite to dialogue and reflections on PIN’s conflict and creative frictions on one side and COIN’s complexity......, complementarity in diversity and the didactic scaffolding of the innovation process on the other side. Our contribution focuses on the methods and practices for facilitation of co-creating activities between different groups leading to cooperation, and innovation in thinking....

  2. Optimizing electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton process for treating car wash wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedali Mirshahghassemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Car wash wastewater contains several contaminants such as organic matter, oil, grease, detergents and phosphates, all of which are harmful for the environment. In this study, the application of electrocoagulation (EC to treat car wash wastewater has been studied, and the operating parameters optimized. The electro-Fenton (EF for further contaminant removal was also investigated. Methods: In EC process, the effect of pH, current density, and the reaction time of the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, and turbidity were investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM. The electrochemical cell consisted of four iron electrodes that were connected to a power supply using a monopolar arrangement. In the EF process, the effect of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on COD removal efficiency were probed. Results: The optimum pH, current density, and the reaction time for the EC process were 7.3, 4.2 mA cm-2 and 20.3 minutes, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD, phosphate, and turbidity removal percentages were 80.8%, 94.9% and 85.5%, respectively, and the specific energy consumption was 1.5 kWh m-3. For the EF process, the optimum pH, reaction time, current and hydrogen peroxide dosage were 3, 10 minutes, 2 A and 500 mg L-1, respectively. The EF showed higher COD removal efficiency (85.6% with a lower specific energy consumption (0.5 kWh m-3 and reaction time compared to the EC. Conclusion: This study shows that both EC and EF can effectively treat car wash wastewater with high removal efficiency within a short reaction time.

  3. Iron Polymerization and Arsenic Removal During In-Situ Iron Electrocoagulation in Synthetic Bangladeshi Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, C. M.; Pena, J.; Addy, S.; Gadgil, A.

    2010-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contamination in groundwater drinking supplies. The majority of affected people live in rural Bangladesh. Electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes is a promising arsenic removal strategy that is based on the generation of iron precipitates with a high affinity for arsenic through the electrochemical dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Many studies of iron hydrolysis in the presence of co-occurring ions in groundwater such as PO43-, SiO44-, and AsO43- suggest that these ions influence the polymerization and formation of iron oxide phases. However, the combined impact of these ions on precipitates generated by EC is not well understood. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to examine EC precipitates generated in synthetic Bangladeshi groundwater (SBGW). The iron oxide structure and arsenic binding geometry were investigated as a function of EC operating conditions. As and Fe k-edge spectra were similar between samples regardless of the large range of current density (0.02, 1.1, 5.0, 100 mA/cm2) used during sample generation. This result suggests that current density does not play a large role in the formation EC precipitates in SBGW. Shell-by-shell fits of Fe K-edge data revealed the presence of a single Fe-Fe interatomic distance at approximately 3.06 Å. The absence of longer ranged Fe-Fe correlations suggests that EC precipitates consist of nano-scale chains (polymers) of FeO6 octahedra sharing equatorial edges. Shell-by-shell fits of As K-edge spectra show arsenic bound in primarily bidentate, binuclear corner sharing complexes. In this coordination geometry, arsenic prevents the formation of FeO6 corner-sharing linkages, which are necessary for 3-dimensional crystal growth. The individual and combined effects of other anions, such as PO43- and SiO44- present in SBGW are currently being investigated to determine the role of these ions in stunting crystal growth. The results provided by this

  4. EC declaration of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, M E

    1996-05-01

    The CE-marking procedure requires that manufacturers draw up a written declaration of conformity before placing their products on the market. However, some companies do not realize that this is a requirement for all devices. Also, there is no detailed information concerning the contents and format of the EC declaration of conformity in the medical device Directives or in EC guidance documentation. This article will discuss some important aspects of the EC declaration of conformity and some of the guidance that is available on its contents and format.

  5. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul; Voxted, Søren

    Bogen diskuterer medarbejder- og brugerdreven innovation i den private og offentlige sektor, med fokus på medarbejderdreven innovation. Bogen har som ambition at lægge teoretiske begreber ned over disse innovationsformer, og udfolde dem på baggrunbd af en række case studier......Bogen diskuterer medarbejder- og brugerdreven innovation i den private og offentlige sektor, med fokus på medarbejderdreven innovation. Bogen har som ambition at lægge teoretiske begreber ned over disse innovationsformer, og udfolde dem på baggrunbd af en række case studier...

  6. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by the electrocoagulation using Fe and Al electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobya, M., E-mail: kobya@gyte.edu.tr [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, 41400 Gebze (Turkey); Gebologlu, U.; Ulu, F.; Oncel, S. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, 41400 Gebze (Turkey); Demirbas, E. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > Removal percentages of arsenic from drinking water at optimum operating conditions in electrocoagulation process were 93.5% for Fe electrode and 95.7% for Al electrode. > Operating costs at the optimum conditions were 0.020 Euro m{sup -3} for Fe and 0.017 Euro m{sup -3} for Al electrodes. > Surface topography of the solid particles at Fe/Al electrodes was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. > The adsorption of arsenic followed pseudo second-order adsorption model. - Abstract: A novel technique of electrocoagulation (EC) was attempted in the present investigation to remove arsenic from drinking waters. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using Al and Fe electrodes with monopolar parallel electrode connection mode to assess their efficiency. The effects of several operating parameters on arsenic removal such as pH (4-9), current density (2.5-7.5 A m{sup -2}), initial concentration (75-500 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and operating time (0-15 min) were examined. Optimum operating conditions were determined as an operating time of 12.5 min and pH 6.5 for Fe electrode (93.5%) and 15 min and pH 7 for Al electrode (95.7%) at 2.5 A m{sup -2}, respectively. Arsenic removal obtained was highest with Al electrodes. Operating costs at the optimum conditions were calculated as 0.020 Euro m{sup -3} for Fe and 0.017 Euro m{sup -3} for Al electrodes. EC was able to bring down aqueous phase arsenic concentration to less than 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} with Fe and Al electrodes. The adsorption of arsenic over electrochemically produced hydroxides and metal oxide complexes was found to follow pseudo second-order adsorption model. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze surface topography of the solid particles at Fe/Al electrodes during the EC process.

  7. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and TSS increased with increasing the applied voltage and the reaction time. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is efficient and able to achieve 98.84% COD removal, 97.95% BOD5 removal, 97.75% TSS removal, and >99.9% bacterial indicators at 60 V during 60 min. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Finally, the results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes as a reliable technique for removal of pollutants from dairy wastewaters.

  8. A combined electrocoagulation-electrooxidation treatment for industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Hernández, Ivonne; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Bilyeu, Bryan; Juárez-GarcíaRojas, Pablo; Campos-Medina, Eduardo

    2010-03-15

    This study addresses the elimination of persistent organic compounds in industrial wastewater using a synergistic combination of electrocoagulation and electrooxidation. Electrocoagulation is a relatively quick process (30 min), which is very effective in removing colloidal and suspended particles, as seen in changes in coliforms, turbidity, and color and in the general absorbance by UV-vis spectroscopy. However, it is relatively ineffective in eliminating stable persistent organic compounds--in this work, only half of the COD was eliminated from wastewater and an oxidation peak in the cyclic voltammetry scan remained. Electrooxidation is very effective in breaking down organic compounds through oxidation as reflected in the elimination of COD, BOD(5), and oxidative peak in cyclic voltammetry, but requires so much time (21 h) that it has very limited practicality, especially when colloidal and suspended particles are present. Electrooxidative mineralization of electrocoagulated wastewater, in which most of the colloids and charged species have been removed, takes less than 2h. In the coupled technique, electrocoagulation quickly coagulates and removes the colloidal and suspended particles, as well as many charged species, then electrooxidation oxidizes the remaining organics. The coupled process eliminates COD, BOD(5), color, turbidity, and coliforms in a practical amount of time (2h).

  9. Organics removal in oily bilgewater by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Mélanie; Drogui, Patrick; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Benmoussa, Hamel; Blais, Jean-François

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the treatment of oily bilgewater using an electrocoagulation technique. Electrocoagulation process was evaluated at laboratory scale (1.7 l electrolytic cell) and involved utilization of two kinds of electrodes (iron and aluminium) arranged either in bipolar (BP) or monopolar (MP) configuration. Results showed that the best performance was obtained using mild steel MP electrode system operated at a current intensity of 1.5A, through 60 or 90 min of treatment. Under these conditions, removal yields of 93.0+/-3.3% and 95.6+/-0.2% were measured for BOD and O&G, respectively, whereas CODs and CODt were removed by 61.3+/-3.6% and 78.1+/-0.1%, respectively. Likewise, 99.4+/-0.1% of n-C10 to n-C50 hydrocarbons was removed from oily bilgewater. Electrocoagulation was also efficient for clarification of OBW. Removal yields of 99.8+/-0.4% and 98.4+/-0.5% have been measured for TSS and turbidity, respectively. Electrocoagulation process operated under the optimal conditions involves a total cost of 0.46 US$ per cubic meter of treated OBW. This cost only includes energy and electrode consumptions, chemicals, and sludge disposal.

  10. Electrocoagulation in wastewater containing arsenic: Comparing different process designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Henrik K. [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: henrik.hansen@usm.cl; Nunez, Patricio [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Raboy, Deborah [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Schippacasse, Italo [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Grandon, Rodrigo [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2007-02-25

    Arsenic removal from wastewater is a key problem for copper smelters. This work shows results of electrocoagulation of aqueous solutions containing arsenic with three different process designs and operating parameters. Three types of electrocoagulation reactors were tested and compared: (a) a modified flow continuous reactor, (b) a turbulent flow reactor and (c) an airlift reactor. All used iron as sacrificial anodes. The results showed that the electrocoagulation process of a 100 mg/L As(V) solution could decrease the arsenic concentration to less than 2 mg/L in the effluent with a current density of 1.2 A/dm{sup 2} with both the modified flow and the airlift reactor. The removal of arsenic with the turbulent flow reactor did not reach the same level but the Fe-to-As ratio (mol/mol) achieved in the coagulation process was in this case lower (approximately 7) than with the other two reactors. In addition, it seems that increasing the current density beyond a maximum value, the electrocoagulation process would not improve any further. This could probably be explained by passivation of the anode.

  11. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2016-08-22

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m(-2) current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min(-1) constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  12. Treatment of bio-digester effluent by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mayank; Ponselvan, F. Infant Anto; Malviya, Jodha Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Srivastava, Vimal Chandra, E-mail: vimalcsr@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Mall, Indra Deo, E-mail: id_mall2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-06-15

    The present paper deals with chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of a bio-digester effluent (BDE) in a batch electrocoagulation (EC) reactor using iron electrode. A central composite (CC) experimental design has been employed to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of four independent parameters on the COD removal efficiency. The parameters studied are current density (j): 44.65-223.25 A/m{sup 2}; initial pH (pH{sub 0}): 2-8; inter-electrode distance (g): 1-3 cm and electrolysis time (t): 30-150 min. The results have been analyzed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis showed a high coefficient of determination value (R{sup 2} = 0.8547) and satisfactory prediction for second-order regression model. Graphical response surface and contour plots have been used to locate the optimum values of studied parameters. Maximum COD and color reduction of 50.5% and 95.2%, respectively, was observed at optimum conditions. Present study shows that EC technique can be employed in distilleries to reduce the pollution load before treatment in aerobic treatment plants to meet the discharge standards.

  13. Optimisation of Reactive Black 5 dye removal by electrocoagulation process using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, W T; Aroua, M K; Szlachta, M; Lee, C S

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a regression model obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) was proposed for the electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of textile wastewater. The Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) was used as a model dye to evaluate the performance of the model design. The effect of initial solution pH, applied current and treatment time on RB5 removal was investigated. The total number of experiments designed by RSM amounted to 27 runs, including three repeated experimental runs at the central point. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the F-test, coefficient of determination (R(2)), adjusted R(2) and standard deviation. The optimum conditions for RB5 removal were as follows: initial pH of 6.63, current of 0.075 A, electrolyte dose of 0.11 g/L and EC time of 50.3 min. The predicted RB5 removal was 83.3% and the percentage error between experimental and predicted results was only 3-5%. The obtained data confirm that the proposed model can be used for accurate prediction of RB5 removal. The value of the zeta potential increased with treatment time, and the X-ray diffraction pattern shows that iron complexes were found in the sludge.

  14. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  15. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed...... innovative, netop er det, vi endnu ikke kender...

  16. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed...... innovative, netop er det, vi endnu ikke kender...

  17. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  18. Transformation and removal of arsenic in groundwater by sequential anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) is generally essential for the efficient remediation of As(III)-contaminated groundwater. The performance and mechanisms of As(III) oxidation by an as-synthesized active anode, SnO2 loaded onto Ti-based TiO2 nanotubes (Ti/TiO2NTs/Sb-SnO2), were investigated. The subsequent removal of total arsenic by electrocoagulation (EC) was further tested. The Ti/TiO2NTs/Sb-SnO2 anode showed a high and lasting electrochemical activity for As(III) oxidation. 6.67 μM As(III) in synthetic groundwater was completely oxidized to As(V) within 60 min at 50 mA. Direct electron transfer was mainly responsible at the current below 30 mA, while hydroxyl radicals contributed increasingly with the increase in the current above 30 mA. As(III) oxidation was moderately inhibited by the presence of bicarbonate (20 mM), while was dramatically increased with increasing the concentration of chloride (0-10 mM). After the complete oxidation of As(III) to As(V), total arsenic was efficiently removed by EC in the same reactor by reversing electrode polarity. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the current but decreased by the presence of phosphate and silica. Anodic oxidation represents an effective pretreatment approach to increasing EC removal of As(III) in groundwater under O2-limited conditions.

  19. Energy efficient electrocoagulation using a new flow column reactor to remove nitrate from drinking water - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-03-09

    In this investigation, a new bench-scale electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) has been applied for drinking water denitrification. FCER utilises the concepts of flow column to mix and aerate the water. The water being treated flows through the perforated aluminium disks electrodes, thereby efficiently mixing and aerating the water. As a result, FCER reduces the need for external stirring and aerating devices, which until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors. Therefore, FCER could be a promising cost-effective alternative to the traditional lab-scale EC reactors. A comprehensive study has been commenced to investigate the performance of the new reactor. This includes the application of FCER to remove nitrate from drinking water. Estimation of the produced amount of H2 gas and the yieldable energy from it, an estimation of its preliminary operating cost, and a SEM (scanning electron microscope) investigation of the influence of the EC process on the morphology of the surface of electrodes. Additionally, an empirical model was developed to reproduce the nitrate removal performance of the FCER. The results obtained indicated that the FCER reduced the nitrate concentration from 100 to 15 mg/L (World Health Organization limitations for infants) after 55 min of electrolysing at initial pH of 7, GBE of 5 mm, CD of 2 mA/cm(2), and at operating cost of 0.455 US $/m(3). Additionally, it was found that FCER emits H2 gas enough to generate a power of 1.36 kW/m(3). Statistically, the relationship between the operating parameters and nitrate removal could be modelled with R(2) of 0.848. The obtained SEM images showed a large number dents on anode's surface due to the production of aluminium hydroxides.

  20. Removal of Humic Acid from Groundwater by Electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With this study, we investigated an approach of applying an electrocoagulation method for the removal of humic acid from groundwater.Aluminium electrodes were selected in the experiment.Some major experimental factors, such as electrode distance, current densities and pH values were explored.Results suggest that, given a small electrode interval and/or a high current density, a lower pH value leads to an improved removal rate of humic acid.Under acid conditions with a current density 47.6 A/m2, for instance, humic acid concentrations were reduced from 20 mg/L to 0.43 mg/L which resulted in the removal of 97.8% of the humic acid.This encouraging result demonstrated that our electrocoagulation method is effective in the removal of humic acid from groundwater.

  1. Enhanced electrocoagulation: New approaches to improve the electrochemical process (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Barrera-Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is a promising technology for the removal of colloids from different types of wastewater and it has also demonstrated good efficiencies for the breaking-up of emulsions. It consists of the dissolution ofaluminum or iron anodes, promoting the formation of coagulant reagents in wastewater that helps to coagulate pollutants and the formation of bubbles that favors the mixing (electroflocculation and the removal of suspended solids by flotation (electroflotation. During the recent years, the combination of this technology with other treatment technologies has become a hot topic looking for a synergistic improvement in the efficiencies. This work aims to review some of the more recent works regarding this topic, in particular the combination of electrocoagulation withozonation, adsorption and ultrasound irradiation.

  2. A Prototype of Industrial Waste Water Treatment Using Electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Boriboonsuksri Phonnipha; Jun-krob Natth

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a construct of electrocoagulation waste water treatment system. The system consists of reactor tank, skimmer, cyclone tank and sediment tank. Waste water is feed into reactor tank. The electrochemical reaction is made emulsification to waste water. The contaminants are removed from waste water and can be divided to two kinds: light weight suspensions be floating up and another be sediment. The flocculants are skim out and the sediments are pumped out to sludge container. A...

  3. EC Bananarama 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent; Maw-Cheng Yang

    1990-01-01

    The disparate banana import policies currently operating in member states of the European Community (EC) are inconsistent with the Community's objective of full economic integration in 1992. Under separate national legislation, widely varying banana prices apply across different member states, varying duties and import quotas apply to the external (world) market, and internal trade is virtually excluded. The inconsistencies are obvious and politically they are highly transparent. Community im...

  4. Formation of macroscopic surface layers on Fe(0) electrocoagulation electrodes during an extended field trial of arsenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, Case M; Bandaru, Siva R S; Surorova, Elena; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-06-01

    Extended field trials to remove arsenic (As) via Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) have demonstrated consistent As removal from groundwater to concentrations below 10 μg L(-1). However, the coulombic performance of long-term EC field operation is lower than that of laboratory-based systems. Although EC electrodes used over prolonged periods show distinct passivation layers, which have been linked to decreased treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution and mineralogy of such surface layers have not been investigated. In this work, we combine wet chemical measurements with sub-micron-scale chemical maps and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the chemical composition and mineral phase of surface layers formed during long-term Fe(0) EC treatment. We analyzed Fe(0) EC electrodes used for 3.5 months of daily treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural West Bengal, India. We found that the several mm thick layer that formed on cathodes and anodes consisted of primarily magnetite, with minor fractions of goethite. Spatially-resolved SAED patterns also revealed small quantities of CaCO3, Mn oxides, and SiO2, the source of which was the groundwater electrolyte. We propose that the formation of the surface layer contributes to decreased treatment performance by preventing the migration of EC-generated Fe(II) to the bulk electrolyte, where As removal occurs. The trapped Fe(II) subsequently increases the surface layer size at the expense of treatment efficiency. Based on these findings, we discuss several simple and affordable methods to prevent the efficiency loss due to the surface layer, including alternating polarity cycles and cleaning the Fe(0) surface mechanically or via electrolyte scouring.

  5. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  6. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  7. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  8. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  9. A parametric comparative study of electrocoagulation and coagulation using ultrafine quartz suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Mehtap Gülsün; Hoşten, Cetin; Demirci, Sahinde

    2009-11-15

    This paper attempts to compare electrocoagulation using aluminum anodes and stainless steel cathodes with conventional coagulation by aluminum sulfate dosing on aqueous suspensions of ultrafine quartz. Several key parameters affecting the efficiency of electrocoagulation and coagulation were investigated with laboratory scale experiments in search of optimal parameter values. Optimal values of the parameters were determined on the basis of the efficiency of turbidity removal from ultrafine quartz suspensions. The parameters investigated in the study were suspension pH, electrical potential, current density, electrocoagulation time, and aluminum dosage. A comparison between electrocoagulation and coagulation was made on the basis of total dissolved aluminum, revealing that electrocoagulation and coagulation were equally effective at the same aluminum dosage for the removal of quartz particles from suspensions. Coagulation, however, was more effective in a wider pH range (pH 6-9) than electrocoagulation which yielded optimum effectiveness in a relatively narrower pH range around 9, where, in both methods, these pH values corresponded to near-zero zeta potentials of quartz particles. Furthermore, experimental results confirmed that electrocoagulation could display some pH buffering capacity. The kinetics of electrocoagulation was very fast (<10 min) in approaching a residual turbidity, which could be modeled with a second-order rate equation.

  10. Workplace innovation, social innovation and social quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Korver, T.

    2011-01-01

    Social innovation is becoming a core value of the EU flagship initiative Innovation Union, but it is not clearly demarcated as it covers a wide field of topics. To understand social innovation within European policymaking a brief outline is given of EC policy developments on innovation and on

  11. Performance and Mechanisms of Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling Mitigation by Coupling Coagulation and Applied Electric Field in a Novel Electrocoagulation Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingqiu; Hu, Chengzhi; Tong, Tiezheng; Zhao, Kai; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-08-01

    A novel electrocoagulation membrane reactor (ECMR) was developed, in which ultrafiltration (UF) membrane modules are placed between electrodes to improve effluent water quality and reduce membrane fouling. Experiments with feedwater containing clays (kaolinite) and natural organic matter (humic acid) revealed that the combined effect of coagulation and electric field mitigated membrane fouling in the ECMR, resulting in higher water flux than the conventional combination of electrocoagulation and UF in separate units (EC-UF). Higher current densities and weakly acidic pH in the EMCR favored faster generation of large flocs and effectively reduced membrane pore blocking. The hydraulic resistance of the formed cake layers on the membrane surface in ECMR was reduced due to an increase in cake layer porosity and polarity, induced by both coagulation and the applied electric field. The formation of a polarized cake layer was controlled by the applied current density and voltage, with cake layers formed under higher electric field strengths showing higher porosity and hydrophilicity. Compared to EC-UF, ECMR has a smaller footprint and could achieve significant energy savings due to improved fouling resistance and a more compact reactor design.

  12. Hydrogen recovery from the electrocoagulation treatment of dye-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn [The Research and Technology Center for Renewable Products and Energy, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sukkasem, Pisut; Mutchimsattha, Chinnarat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a technique of hydrogen recovery from an electrocoagulation process treating dye-containing wastewater is presented. The electrocoagulation system used consists of a continuous-mode electrocoagulator connected with a gas separation tank and two sedimenters. It is shown that a significant amount of hydrogen can be harvested using the gas separation tank whose configuration follows that of a conventional upflow anaerobic sludge bed. The experimental hydrogen yields obtained were comparable with those calculated from theory. The electrical energy demand of the electrocoagulation process for treating Reactive Blue 140 and Direct Red 23 was 1.42 and 0.69 kWh{sub e} m{sup -3}, respectively, while the energy yield of harvested hydrogen was 0.2 kWh m{sup -3}. The quality of water treated by the electrocoagulation system was satisfactory, i.e., the color, COD and TS removal were 99%, 93% and 89%, respectively. (author)

  13. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  14. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  15. INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed tidligere...... kunne begrundes med, at skolen eller uddannelsen vidste bedre, så er det ikke længere tilfældet. Skolen skal sørge for, at vi lærer noget – og ikke noget andet. Men det kan ikke længere med bestemthed afgøres, hvad det er vi skal lære i skolen, fordi det nye, det kreative og ikke mindst innovative...

  16. INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed tidligere...... kunne begrundes med, at skolen eller uddannelsen vidste bedre, så er det ikke længere tilfældet. Skolen skal sørge for, at vi lærer noget – og ikke noget andet. Men det kan ikke længere med bestemthed afgøres, hvad det er vi skal lære i skolen, fordi det nye, det kreative og ikke mindst innovative...

  17. Synthetic wastewaters treatment by electrocoagulation to remove silver nanoparticles produced by different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, M S; Melegari, S P; Vicentini, D S; Matias, W G; Ricordel, C; Hauchard, D

    2015-08-15

    Nanoscience is a field that has stood out in recent years. The accurate long-term health and environmental risks associated with these emerging materials are unknown. Therefore, this work investigated how to eliminate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from synthetic effluents by electrocoagulation (EC) due to the widespread use of this type of nanoparticle (NP) in industry and its potential inhibition power over microorganisms responsible for biological treatment in effluent treatment plants. Synthesized AgNPs were studied via four different routes by chemical reduction in aqueous solutions to simulate the chemical variations of a hypothetical industrial effluent, and efficiency conditions of the EC treatment were determined. All routes used silver nitrate as the source of silver ions, and two synthesis routes were studied with sodium citrate as a stabilizer. In route I, sodium citrate functioned simultaneously as the reducing agent and stabilizing agent, whereas route II used sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Route III used D-glucose as the reducing agent and sodium pyrophosphate as the stabilizer; route IV used sodium pyrophosphate as the stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. The efficiency of the EC process of the different synthesized solutions was studied. For route I, after 85 min of treatment, a significant decrease in the plasmon resonance peak of the sample was observed, which reflects the efficiency in the mass reduction of AgNPs in the solution by 98.6%. In route II, after 12 min of EC, the absorbance results reached the detection limit of the measurement instrument, which indicates a minimum reduction of 99.9% of AgNPs in the solution. During the 4 min of treatment in route III, the absorbance intensities again reached the detection limit, which indicates a minimum reduction of 99.8%. In route IV, after 10 min of treatment, a minimum AgNP reduction of 99.9% was observed. Based on these results, it was possible to verify that

  18. Treatment of the baker's yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobya, M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)], E-mail: kobya@gyte.edu.tr; Delipinar, S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In the laboratory-scale experiments, treatment of baker's yeast production wastewater has been investigated by electrocoagulation (EC) using a batch reactor. Effects of the process variables such as pH, electrode material (Fe and Al), current density, and operating time are investigated in terms of removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, and operating cost, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TOC and turbidity under optimal operating conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 for Al electrode and pH 7 for Fe electrode, current density of 70 A/m{sup 2} and operating time of 50 min were 71, 53 and 90% for Al electrode and 69, 52 and 56% for Fe electrode, respectively. Al electrode gave 4.4 times higher removal efficiency of turbidity than Fe electrode due to interference from color of dissolved iron. The operating costs for Al and Fe electrodes in terms of $/m{sup 3} or $/kg COD were 1.54 and 0.82, 0.51 and 0.27, respectively.

  19. Process optimization via response surface methodology in the treatment of metal working industry wastewater with electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Senem Yazici; Okut, Yusuf; Ozak, Mert; Haktanir, Birsu; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, process parameters in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal from metal working industry (MWI) wastewater were optimized by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum, iron and steel electrodes. The effects of process variables on COD and turbidity were investigated by developing a mathematical model using central composite design method, which is one of the response surface methodologies. Variance analysis was conducted to identify the interaction between process variables and model responses and the optimum conditions for the COD and turbidity removal. Second-order regression models were developed via the Statgraphics Centurion XVI.I software program to predict COD and turbidity removal efficiencies. Under the optimum conditions, removal efficiencies obtained from aluminum electrodes were found to be 76.72% for COD and 99.97% for turbidity, while the removal efficiencies obtained from iron electrodes were found to be 76.55% for COD and 99.9% for turbidity and the removal efficiencies obtained from steel electrodes were found to be 65.75% for COD and 99.25% for turbidity. Operational costs at optimum conditions were found to be 4.83, 1.91 and 2.91 €/m(3) for aluminum, iron and steel electrodes, respectively. Iron electrode was found to be more suitable for MWI wastewater treatment in terms of operational cost and treatment efficiency.

  20. Arsenic Removal from Natural Groundwater by Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. García-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of natural groundwater by arsenic (As is a serious problem that appears in some areas of Northern Central Mexico (NCM. In this research, As was removed from NCM wells groundwater by the electrocoagulation (EC technique. Laboratory-scale arsenic electroremoval experiments were carried out at continuous flow rates between 0.25 and 1.00 L min−1 using current densities of 5, 10, and 20 A m−2. Experiments were performed under galvanostatic conditions during 5 min, at constant temperature and pH. The response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of the processing variables (flow rate and current density, response modeling, and predictions. The highest arsenic removal efficiency from underground water (99% was achieved at low flow rates (0.25 L min−1 and high current densities (20 A m−2. The response models developed explained 93.7% variability for As removal efficiency.

  1. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: Comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solak, Murat [Duezce University, Kaynasli Vocational School, Environmental Protection and Control Department, 81900 Duezce (Turkey); Kilic, Mehmet, E-mail: kavi@mmf.sdu.edu.tr [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Hueseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m{sup 2}, and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m{sup 2}, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  2. In-situ identification of iron electrocoagulation speciation and application for natural organic matter (NOM) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrawski, Kristian L; Mohseni, Madjid

    2013-09-15

    In this work, iron speciation in electrocoagulation (EC) was studied to determine the impact of operating parameters on natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural water. Two electrochemical EC parameters, current density (i) and charge loading rate (CLR), were investigated. Variation of these parameters led to a near unity current efficiency (φ = 0.957 ± 0.03), at any combination of i in a range of 1-25 mA/cm(2) and CLR in a range of 12-300 C/L/min. Higher i and CLR led to a higher bulk pH and limited the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) reduced at the cathode surface due to mass transfer limitations. A low i (1 mA/cm(2)) and intermediate CLR (60 C/L/min) resulted in low bulk DO (<2.5 mg/L), where green rust (GR) was identified by in-situ Raman spectroscopy as the primary crystalline electrochemical product. Longer electrolysis times at higher i led to magnetite (Fe3O4) formation. Both higher (300 C/L/min) and lower (12 C/L/min) CLR values led to increased DO and/or increased pH, with lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) as the only crystalline species observed. The NOM removal of the three identified species was compared, with conditions leading to GR formation showing the greatest dissolved organic carbon removal, and highest removal of the low apparent molecular weight (<550 Da) chromophoric NOM fraction, determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography.

  3. Treatment of Traditional Cloth Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Using Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the textile industry in Indonesia is not only included in the category of large and medium scale industries, but also in small-scale and some even in the household (home industry. This led to the pollution caused by the textile industry, especially as a result of the presence of the textile dyeing not only occur in industrial areas but also occurs in densely populated settlements. To overcome the problem of environmental pollution that occurs, it needs treatment of the textile wastewater. Treatment of traditional cloth wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material has been investigated in this paper. The effect of relevant wastewater characteristics such as pH and conductivity, and important process variables such as applied voltage and operating time on the chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, turbidity, total suspended solid (TSS and total dissolved solid (TDS.  The processing time is used 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 minutes and for the variation of the applied voltage is 6 V, 12 V, 18 V, and 24 V. The best conditions and the effectiveness of electrocoagulation for each parameter varies with the voltage is in the range between 6 V– 18 V with the processing time between 90-120 minutes. The effectiveness of electrocoagulation method to decrease the turbidity value 99.634%; TSS 49.679%; TDS 17.243%; BOD 91.778%; COD 97.260% and to decrease the conductivity value of 23.631% and the increase in pH from 6.34 to 7.79.

  4. 电絮凝技术在水处理中的研究进展综述%Review of Research Development in Electrocoagulation Technology in Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振; 姚吉伦; 庞治邦; 刘波

    2015-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC)is an eco-friendly water treatment technique which is becoming a research focus due to its advantages. Firstly,the basic theory related to electrocoagulation was introduced from the electrode reaction principle,water purification mechanism and technical characteristic;secondly,detailed application status of electrocoagulation technology were discussed in the light of wastewater treatment,sewage treatment,water treatment and micro-polluted seawater treatment;Finally,a conceptual framework was presented for future research directed towards improving power source and electrode configuration,optimizing cell form and combined process on the basis of minimizing electrical power consumption and reducing electrode passivation.%作为一种环境友好型技术,电絮凝凭借诸多优点逐渐成为研究热点。该文从电极反应原理、净水机理、技术特征三个方面,介绍了与电絮凝相关的基本理论。再从废水处理、污水处理、给水处理及微污染海水处理四个方面详细论述了电絮凝技术的应用现状。最后针对电絮凝能耗较高和电极易钝化的问题,提出改进电源和电极、优化电解槽形式及与其他工艺相组合的发展方向。

  5. Alternating Pulse Current in Electrocoagulation for Wastewater Treatment to Prevent the Passivation or Al Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xuhui; HONG Song; ZHU Hua; LIN Hui; WEI Lin; GAN Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    A novel current feed style, alternating pulse current, was proposed in electrocoagulation aiming at preventing the passivation of electrode materials. The open circuit potential (OCP) measurements after anodic and cathodic potentiodynamic polarization showed that cathodic polarization could activate Al electrode. The surface of Al electrode after alternating pulse current electrocoagulation was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the results indicate that passivation of Al is not observed. Furthermore, the simulated wastewater treatment tests show that alternating pulse current electrocoagulation has a visible energy saving effect and is worthy of generalization.

  6. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  7. Effectiveness of electrocoagulation process in removing organic compounds from slaughterhouse wastewater using monopolar and bipolar electrolytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Mélanie; Drogui, Patrick; Benmoussa, Hamel; Blais, Jean-François

    2008-08-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewaters contain varied and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, electrochemical techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from poultry slaughterhouse (PS) effluent. Electrocoagulation (EC) process was tested using either mild steel or aluminium electrodes arranged in bipolar (BP) or monopolar configuration system. Results showed that the best performance was obtained using mild steel BP electrode system operated at a current intensity of 0.3A, through 60 or 90 min of treatment. Under these conditions, removals of 86+/-1% and 99+/-1% were measured for BOD and oil and grease, respectively, whereas soluble COD and total COD were removed by 50+/-4% and 82+/-2%, respectively. EC is also efficient for decolorization (red-color) and clarification of the PS effluent. Removals of 89+/-4% and 90+/-4% have been measured for total suspended solids and turbidity, respectively. Electrochemical coagulation operated under the optimal conditions involves a total cost of 0.71 USD $ per cubic meter of treated PS effluent. This cost includes energy and electrode consumptions, chemicals, and sludge disposal.

  8. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  9. Removal of arsenic and COD from industrial wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. POIROT

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the treatment of arsenic-containing industrial wastewaters by electrocoagulation. The waste issued from a paper mill industry downstream of the biological treatment by activated sludge was enriched with arsenic salts for the purpose of investigation of the treatment of mixed pollution. First, the treatment of single polluted waters, i.e. containing either the regular organic charge from the industrial waste or arsenic salts only, was studied. In the case of arsenic-containing waters, a broad selection of experimental data available in the literature was compiled and interpreted using an adsorption model developed previously. The same technique was used in the case of industrial waste. Arsenic-enriched paper mill wastewaters with various amounts of As salts were then treated by electrocoagulation with Fe electrodes. The set of data obtained were interpreted by a model developed on the basis of the separate models. The agreement between predicted and experimental variations of the As concentrations ranging from 0.3 µg/L to 730 µg/L showed that both the organic matter and As salt can be removed from the liquid independently from each other.

  10. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering Erzurum (Turkey); Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze/Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2005-10-17

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl{sub 2}. Added CaCl{sub 2} increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions.

  11. Removal of clomazone herbicide from a synthetic effluent by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincá, Cristina; Vargas, Fernanda T; Martins, Manoel L; Gonçalves, Fábio F; Vargas, Rodrigo P; Freire, Flavio B; Zanoelo, Everton F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the kinetics of removal of clomazone herbicide from an aqueous solution by electrocoagulation. The experiments were performed in a cylindrical batch reactor with six aluminum electrodes in monopolar mode, arranged in series and connected to a digital DC power. The aqueous solution (tap water + clomazone) with initial pH close to 7.9 was always treated at ambient temperature (≈20 °C) and atmospheric pressure for 5,400 s. For a confidence level of 95% the rate constant of electrocoagulation and the efficiency of removal of clomazone at equilibrium were 2.1 × 10(-3) ± 0.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) and 97.7 ± 2.2%, respectively. The final chemical oxygen demand was 88% lower than that measured initially, while turbidity and apparent color were totally removed from the synthetic solution at a rate close to that of formation of aluminum hydroxides. Some reaction intermediates, such as benzonitrile-2-chloro and 2-chloro-hex-2,4-diene-1,6-dioic-acid determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, explain the ratio of equilibrium to initial total organic carbon approximately between 0.6 and 0.8 at a probability of 95%.

  12. Electro-Coagulation: A Step towards Chemical-Free Water Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Tito, Duarte Novaes

    2016-01-01

    This work will focus on presenting the principles of electro-coagulation, clarifying what are the key process parameters and demonstrating the applicability of the technology by showcasing large-scale case studies and process performance data.

  13. ETV REPORT AND VERIFICATION STATEMENT - KASELCO POSI-FLO ELECTROCOAGULATION TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kaselco Electrocoagulation Treatment System (Kaselco system) in combination with an ion exchange polishing system was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metal finishing wastewater at Gull Industries in Houston, Texas. The verification test evaluated the a...

  14. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, J L; Vergnes, H

    2009-04-30

    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ions were particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were observed to have a neutral role. The results indicate that electrocoagulation can be realized at low anodic potential even in the presence of sulfate ions when the [Cl(-)]/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio is around or greater than 1/10. The detrimental effect of sulfates on electrocoagulation efficiency can be thwarted by the use of the ammonium salt thanks to its related buffer effect.

  15. Summary of ECE Presentations at EC-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    At the EC-19 workshop there were ten presentations in the topic of diagnosing and heating plasmas with Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW). Innovations continue in designs of ECE systems while tried-and-true instruments still provide adequate data to explore new areas of research. Heterodyne radiometers and Michelson interferometers carry on as the bedrock of ECE electron temperature (Te) measurements while ECE imaging systems continue expanding their capabilities. The design of the ITER-ECE diagnostic system is in its advanced stages; solutions are being found for challenges in the transmission lines and front-end calibration sources.

  16. Removal of Sulfide and COD from a Crude Oil Wastewater Model by Aluminum and Iron Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Dermentzis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of petroleum wastewater was studied using the electrocoagulation process with aluminum and iron electrodes aiming to simultaneous removal of sulfide and COD. All affecting parameters, such as solution pH, applied current density, time of electroprocessing, electrode material and addition of surfactant, were investigated. Sulfide was rapidly and effectively removed using iron electrodes. The removal of COD was effectively effectively enhanced by performing the electrocoagulation process after addition of the surfactant polyethylene glycol oleate.

  17. Removal of Sulfide and COD from a Crude Oil Wastewater Model by Aluminum and Iron Electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    K. I. Dermentzis

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of petroleum wastewater was studied using the electrocoagulation process with aluminum and iron electrodes aiming to simultaneous removal of sulfide and COD. All affecting parameters, such as solution pH, applied current density, time of electroprocessing, electrode material and addition of surfactant, were investigated. Sulfide was rapidly and effectively removed using iron electrodes. The removal of COD was effectively effectively enhanced by performing the electrocoagulation ...

  18. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Trompette, Jean-Luc; Vergnes, Hugues

    2009-01-01

    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ionswere particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were o...

  19. Removal of Acid Black 1 and Basic Red 2 from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation/Moringa oleifera seed adsorption coupling in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Ni, Jiaheng; Zhao, Meixia; Yang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The removal of Acid Black 1 (AB1) and Basic Red 2 (BR2) from aqueous solutions via an electrocoagulation (EC)/Moringa oleifera seeds (MOS) adsorption coupling process by using aluminum and stainless steel electrode in a batch reactor is described in this study. The influences of the operational parameters, i.e. current density, MOS dosage, and dye initial concentration, on degree of color removal were studied, and the unit energy demand, the unit electrode material demand, and the charge loading were calculated and discussed. The amounts of adsorbent and energy consumption were considered as main criteria of process evaluation, and ideal conditions were chosen. The addition of an appropriate MOS dosage (0.6 g/L for AB1 and 5 g/L for BR2) resulted in faster decolorization of dyes especially at lower current densities and was simultaneously accompanied by a significant reduction in contact time compared to the conventional simple EC process. The coupling process achieved degree of removals above 99.3% and 94% for AB1 and BR2, respectively. The EC/MOS coupling technique could be recommended to replace the conventional simple EC because of its high degree of removal, short contact time, and low energy consumption.

  20. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  1. Electrocoagulation using a rotated anode: A novel reactor design for textile wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naje, Ahmed Samir; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Zakaria, Zuriati; Abbas, Saad A

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the optimum operational conditions of a novel rotated bed electrocoagulation (EC) reactor for the treatment of textile wastewater. The effect of various operational parameters such as rotational speed, current density (CD), operational time (RT), pH, temperature, and inter-electrode distance (IED) on the pollutant removal efficiency were examined. In addition, the consumption of aluminum (Al) and electrical energy, as well as operating costs at optimum conditions were also calculated. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the treatment of textile wastewater were achieved at CD = 4 mA/cm(2), RT = 10 min, rotational speed = 150 rpm, pH = 4.57, temperature = 25 °C, and IED = 1 cm. The electrode consumption, energy consumption, and operating costs were 0.038 kg/m(3), 4.66 kWh/m(3) and 0.44 US$/m(3), respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity and color were 97.10%, 95.55%, 98%, 96% and 98.50%, respectively, at the first 10 min of reaction time, while the phenol compound of the wastewater was almost entirely removed (99.99%). The experimental results confirm that the new reactor design with rotated anode impellers and cathode rings provided high treatment efficiency at a reduced reaction time and with lower energy consumption.

  2. EC motors for blowers; EC-Motoren fuer Luefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Thomas; Reiff, Ellen-Christine

    2009-10-15

    There are highly flexible commercial ventilation and air conditioning systems for server rooms which combine energy savings with optimum room air quality. EC blowers contribute to this and reduce also body sound. (orig./GL)

  3. Postpolypectomy Electrocoagulation Syndrome: A Mimicker of Colonic Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Benson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpolypectomy electrocoagulation syndrome is a rare complication of polypectomy with electrocautery and is characterized by a transmural burn of the colon wall. Patients typically present within 12 hours after the procedure with symptoms mimicking colonic perforation. Presented is the case of a 56-year-old man who developed abdominal pain six hours after colonoscopy during which polypectomy was performed using snare cautery. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed circumferential thickening of the wall of the transverse colon without evidence of free air. The patient was treated conservatively as an outpatient and had resolution of his pain over the following four days. Recognition of the diagnosis and understanding of the treatment are important to avoid unnecessary exploratory laparotomy or hospitalization.

  4. Surface and Electrical Properties of Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilkaya, S. S.; Okutan, M.; Içelli, O.; Yalçın, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste (ECTW) sample of the impedance spectroscopy investigation for electrical modulus and conductivity are presented. Electrical properties via temperature and frequency dependent impedance spectroscopy were investigated. Real and imaginary parts of electrical modulus were measured at various frequencies and a related Cole-Cole plot was acquired as well. The surface resistivity of the ECTW was measured by the four-point probe measurement technique, yielding a relatively high surface resistivity. As a result of this study, an effective building shielding material, which is a cost effective alternative, is proposed. The activation energy values were calculated from the Arrhenius plots at different frequencies. The transition region in this plot may be attributed to activation of ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.

  5. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  6. Decolorization of C.I. Acid Blue 9 solution by UV/Nano-TiO{sub 2}, Fenton, Fenton-like, electro-Fenton and electrocoagulation processes: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, A.R. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: a_khataee@tabrizu.ac.ir; Vatanpour, V. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: vahidvatanpoor@yahoo.com; Amani Ghadim, A.R. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: a.r_amani@yahoo.com

    2009-01-30

    This study makes a comparison between UV/Nano-TiO{sub 2}, Fenton, Fenton-like, electro-Fenton (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC) treatment methods to investigate the removal of C.I. Acid Blue 9 (AB9), which was chosen as the model organic contaminant. Results indicated that the decolorization efficiency was in order of Fenton > EC > UV/Nano-TiO{sub 2} > Fenton-like > EF. Desired concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for the abatement of AB9 in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 10{sup -4} M and 2 x 10{sup -3} M, respectively. In the case of UV/Nano-TiO{sub 2} process, we have studied the influence of the basic photocatalytic parameters such as the irradiation time, pH of the solution and amount of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the photocatalytic decolorization efficiency of AB9. Accordingly, it could be stated that the complete removal of color, after selecting desired operational parameters could be achieved in a relatively short time, about 25 min. Our results also revealed that the most effective decomposition of AB9 was observed with 150 mg/l of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in acidic condition. The effect of operational parameters including current density, initial pH and time of electrolysis were studied in electrocoagulation process. The results indicated that for a solution of 20 mg/l AB9, almost 98% color were removed, when the pH was about 6, the time of electrolysis was 8 min and the current density was approximately 25 A/m{sup 2} in electrocoagulation process.

  7. The effect of operational parameters on electrocoagulation-flotation process followed by photocatalysis applied to the decontamination of water effluents from cellulose and paper factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Passarella Gerola, Adriana; Nozaki, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: nhioka@uem.br

    2008-12-15

    Cellulose and paper pulp factories utilize a large amount of water generating several undesirable contaminants. The present work is a preliminary investigation that associates the electrocoagulation-flotation (EC) method followed by photocatalysis to treat such wastewater. For EC, the experiment with aluminium and iron electrodes showed similar efficiency. Iron electrodes (anode and cathode) were chosen. By applying 30 min of EC/Fe{sup 0}, 153 A m{sup -2} and pH 6.0, the COD values, UV-vis absorbance and turbidity underwent an intense decrease. For the subsequent UV photocatalysis (mercury lamps) TiO{sub 2} was employed and the favourable operational conditions found were 0.25 g L{sup -1} of the catalyst and solution pH 3.0. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (50 mmol L{sup -1}) highly increased the photo-process performance. By employing the UV/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system, the COD reduction was 88% compared to pre-treated effluents and complete sample photobleaching was verified. The salt concentration on EC (iron electrodes) showed that the electrolysis duration can be reduced from 30 to 10 min by the addition of 5.0 g L{sup -1} of NaCl. The biodegradability index (BOD/COD) increased from 0.15 (pre-treated) to 0.48 (after EC) and to 0.89 (after EC/photocatalysis irradiated for 6 h), showing that the employed sequence is very helpful to improve the water quality. This result was confirmed by biotoxicity tests performed with microcrustaceous Artemia salina.

  8. Structure of Fe(III) precipitates generated by Fe(0) electrocoagulation in the presence of groundwater ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, C. M.; Pena, J.; Addy, S. E.; Gadgil, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) using Fe(0) electrodes is an inexpensive and efficient technology capable of removing a variety of contaminants from water supplies. Because of its ease of use and modest electricity and Fe(0) requirements, EC has potential as an arsenic-removal technology for rural South Asia, where millions drink groundwater contaminated by arsenic. In EC, a small external voltage applied to a sacrificial Fe(0) anode in contact with an electrolyte (e.g. pumped groundwater containing arsenic) promotes the oxidative dissolution of Fe ions, which polymerize and create reactive hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) in-situ with a high affinity for binding contaminants. The chemical composition of the electrolyte influences EC performance. For example, major inorganic ions present in groundwater (e.g. Ca, Mg, P, As(V), Si) alter the pathway by which FeO6 oligomers polymerize to form crystalline Fe (oxyhydr)oxide minerals. Because the precipitate structure largely determines properties that govern the efficiency of EC systems (e.g. precipitate reactivity and colloidal stability), it is essential to understand the individual and interdependent structural effects of common groundwater ions. In this work, we integrate Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy with the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique to create a detailed description of EC precipitate structure as a function of electrolyte chemistry. EC precipitate samples were generated in a range of individual and combined concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, As(V), and Si, encompassing most of the typical levels found in natural groundwater. Combining complementary EXAFS and PDF techniques with batch uptake experiments and general chemical reasoning, we obtain structural representations of EC precipitates that are inaccessible with any single characterization technique. Our results indicate that the presence of As(V), P, and Si oxyanions promote the formation of nanoscale material bearing similar, but not identical, intermediate

  9. Enhanced Mitigation of Membrane Fouling by Regulations on Floc Morphology in Electrocoagulation%调控絮体形态强化电絮凝减缓膜污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 杨春风; 孙境求; 李静; 胡承志

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the electro chemical parameters were regulated to control the floc morphology in order to mitigate membrane fouling. The main effects of current density, initial pH and conductivity on the floc characteristics and flux were studied, and the mechanisms of interaction between flocs with different morphology structures and ultrafiltration membranes were analyzed. The results showed that the key to mitigate the membrane fouling by electrocoagulation was to form a loose and porous cake layer on the membrane surface. The electrocoagulation-ultrafiltration (EC-UF) technology could not only effectively mitigate the membrane fouling, but also greatly enhance the water quality of the effluent. By increasing the current density and keeping water quality conditions at neutral pH, the EC-UF technology could maintain a higher flux. Under conditions of j = 20 A•m - 2 , initial pH = 7 and initial conductivity = 1 000μS•cm - 1 , the removal rate of humic acid (HA) was 97% , and the normalized specific flux of J/ J0 was 81% .%本研究通过调节电絮凝工艺参数来实现对絮体形态的调控,进而达到减缓膜污染的目的。主要考察了电流密度、初始pH、初始电导率对絮体性质以及膜通量的影响,并解析了超滤膜对不同形貌结构絮体的膜污染响应机制。结果表明,电絮凝减缓膜污染的关键是在膜表面形成疏松多孔的滤饼层,电絮凝-超滤(electrocoagulation-ultrafiltration,EC-UF)工艺不但能够有效地减缓膜污染,而且还极大提升了出水水质。增加电流密度,以及在 pH 中性水质条件下,EC-UF 工艺中膜通量保持更高。 j =20 A•m -2、初始 pH =7、初始电导率=1000μS•cm -1,EC-UF 工艺对水中的腐殖酸(humic acid,HA)去除率为97%,平衡阶段归一化通量 J/ J

  10. A new hybrid treatment system of bioreactors and electrocoagulation for superior removal of organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo

    2014-02-01

    This paper evaluated a novel pilot scale hybrid treatment system which combines rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR), submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) along with electrocoagulation (EC) as post treatment to treat organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater. The results indicated that the highest removal efficiency was achieved at the internal recycling ratio as 400% of the influent flow rate which produced a superior effluent quality with 0.26mgBOD5L(-1), 11.46mgCODCrL(-1), 0.00mgNH4(+)-NL(-1), and 3.81mgT-NL(-1), 0.03mgT-PL(-1). During 16months of operation, NH4(+)-N was completely eliminated and T-P removal efficiency was also up to 100%. It was found that increasing in internal recycling ratio could improve the nitrate and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Moreover, the TSS and coliform bacteria concentration after treatment was less than 5mgL(-1) and 30MPNmL(-1), respectively, regardless of internal recycling ratios and its influent concentration.

  11. Fluoride Removal from pretreated Photovoltaic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation: An Investigation of The Effect of Operational Parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-03-20

    In this paper, application of electrocoagulation using common iron electrode to a simulated photovoltaic wastewater after precipitation with lime (Ca(OH)2) was investigated. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows pollutant removal by flotation. Several working parameters, such as initial pH, applied potential and distance between the electrodes, were studied in an attempt to achieve higher fluoride removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as pH = 6, the distance between electrodes = 1 and an applied potential of 30 V. Furthermore fluoride removal is under the direct discharge standards.Results showed high effectivenessof the electrocoagulation method in removing fluoride from aqueous solutions.

  12. Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticle Assisted Electrocoagulation of Arsenic with electromagnetic Separation of Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new arsenic removal process was designed combining: 1 iron nanoparticle addition, b electrocoagulation, and c electromagnetic separation. Results showed that arsenic could be removed with more than 99 % efficiency from liquid waste samples. Parameters that were found to have importance on the process were: a nanoparticle dosage, b electric voltage drop during electrocoagulation, b pH of the solution, d arsenic concentration, and e electromagnetic field distribution during solid separation. Arsenic could efficiently be removed by iron nanoparticles during electrocoagulation. Afterwards the arsenic containing particles were separated from the solution by electromagnetic fields. This new process could be a feasible alternative to conventional arsenic treatment in liquid waste streams.

  13. Defluoridation of drinking water using a new flow column-electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Ortoneda Pedrola, Montserrat; Phipps, David

    2017-07-15

    A new batch, flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) that utilises a perforated plate flow column as a mixer has been used to remove fluoride from drinking water. A comprehensive study has been carried out to assess its performance. The efficiency of fluoride removal (R%) as a function of key operational parameters such as initial pH, detention time (t), current density (CD), inter-electrode distance (ID) and initial concentration (C0) has been examined and an empirical model has been developed. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the influence of the EC process on morphology of the surface of the aluminium electrodes, showed the erosion caused by aluminium loss. A preliminary estimation of the reactor's operating cost is suggested, allowing for the energy from recycling of hydrogen gas hydrogen gas produced amount. The results obtained showed that 98% of fluoride was removed within 25 min of electrolysis at pH of 6, ID of 5 mm, and CD of 2 mA/cm(2). The general relationship between fluoride removal and operating parameters could be described by a linear model with R(2) of 0.823. The contribution of the operating parameters to the suggested model followed the order: t > CD > C0 > ID > pH. The SEM images obtained showed that, after the EC process, the surface of the anodes, became non-uniform with a large number of irregularities due to the generation of aluminium hydroxides. It is suggested that these do not materially affect the performance. A provisional estimate of the operating cost was 0.379 US $/m(3). Additionally, it has been found that 0.6 kW/m(3) is potentially recoverable from the H2 gas. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical precipitation for metals removal from acidic soil leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Nathalie; Drogui, Patrick; Montané, Camille; Hausler, Robert; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical precipitation based on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) removal from acidic soil leachate (ASL) at the laboratory pilot scale. Chemical precipitation was evaluated using either calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide, whereas electrocoagulation was evaluated via an electrolytic cell using mild steel electrodes. Chemical precipitation was as effective as electrocoagulation in removing metals from ASL having low contamination levels (30 mg Pbl(-1) and 18 mg Znl(-1)). For ASL enriched with different metals (each concentration of metals was initially adjusted to 100 mg l(-1)), the residual Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations at the end of the experiments were below the acceptable level recommended for discharge in sewage urban works (more than 99.8% of metal was removed) using either electrocoagulation or chemical precipitation. Cd was more effectively removed by electrochemical treatment, whereas Ni was easily removed by chemical treatment. The cost for energy, chemicals and disposal of metallic residue of electrocoagulation process ranged from USD 8.83 to 13.95 tds(-1), which was up to five times lower than that recorded using chemical precipitation. Highly effective electrocoagulation was observed as the ASL was specifically enriched with high concentration of Pb (250-2000 mg Pbl(-1)). More than 99.5% of Pb was removed regardless of the initial Pb concentration imposed in ASL and, in all cases, the residual Pb concentrations (0.0-1.44 mg l(-1)) were below the limiting value (2.0 mg l(-1)) for effluent discharge in sewage works.

  15. Electrocoagulation of simulated reactive dyebath effluent with aluminum and stainless steel electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Kabdaşli, Işik; Vardar, Burcu; Tünay, Olcay

    2009-05-30

    Reactive dyebath effluents are ideal candidates for electrocoagulation due to their intensive color, medium strength, recalcitrant COD and high electrolyte (NaCl) content. The present study focused on the treatability of simulated reactive dyebath effluent (COD(o)=300 mg/L; color in terms of absorbance values A(o,436)=0.532 cm(-1), A(o,525)=0.693 cm(-1) and A(o,620)=0.808 cm(-1)) employing electrocoagulation with aluminum and stainless steel electrodes. Optimization of critical operating parameters such as initial pH (pH(o) 3-11), applied current density (J(c)=22-87 mA/cm(2)) and electrolyte type (NaCl or Na(2)SO(4)) improved the overall treatment efficiencies resulting in effective decolorization (99% using stainless steel electrodes after 60 min, 95% using aluminum electrodes after 90 min electrocoagulation) and COD abatement (93% with stainless steel electrodes after 60 min, 86% with aluminum electrodes after 90 min of reaction time). Optimum electrocoagulation conditions were established as pH(o) 5 and J(c)=22 mA/cm(2) for both electrode materials. The COD and color removal efficiencies also depended on the electrolyte type. No in situ, surplus adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX) formation associated with the use of NaCl as the electrolyte during electrocoagulation was detected. An economical evaluation was also carried out within the frame of the study. It was demonstrated that electrocoagulation of reactive dyebath effluent with aluminum and stainless steel electrodes was a considerably less electrical energy-intensive, alternative treatment method as compared with advanced chemical oxidation techniques.

  16. Radio frequency leakage current from unipolar laparoscopic electrocoagulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNovo, J A

    1983-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) leakage current has been suspected of causing accidental tissue burns associated with laparoscopic electrocoagulation used for tubal sterilization. A study was done to determine the levels of capacitively coupled RF leakage current from six unipolar laparoscopes manufactured by five companies. Leakage current values ranging from less than 100 mA to over 550 mA were measured at electrosurgical unit power settings of up to 150 w into 1,000 ohms. These levels represent 24-62% of the total electrosurgical current generated by the electrosurgical units. Using a criterion for tissue injury of 100 mA/sq cm applied for ten seconds, leakage current levels exceeding 400 mA are capable of producing burns either at the abdominal wall or to internal organs that accidentally come into contact with the body of the laparoscope. One of the six devices tested had leakage current levels higher than 400 mA at power settings lower than 100 w. Capacitance measurements between the unipolar laparoscope body and the forceps ranged from 53 to 140 picofarads.

  17. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  18. Removal of fluoride from semiconductor wastewater by electrocoagulation-flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Y; Lo, S L; Kuan, W H; Lee, Y D

    2005-03-01

    This work employs an anodic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), to improve the flotation performance of the electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) process to treated fluoride containing semiconductor wastewater following calcium precipitation. The dissolved fluoride ions and CaF(2) particles in the wastewater after calcium precipitation were effectively removed in the ECF process simultaneously. The dosage of SDS required for ECF was much less than those for dispersed air flotation (DiAF) or dissolved air flotation (DAF) processes because the CaF(2) particles can be collected by hydro-fluoro-aluminum flocs in ECF. Thus, SDS only served as a frother to make the bubbles tiny and stable in the ECF defluoridation process. The interference of co-existing anions can be overcome by increasing the dosage of calcium ions and SDS. The optimum initial acidity for ECF is close to the initial fluoride concentration after calcium precipitation; the amount of SS removed dropped rapidly if the initial acidity exceeded the optimal value because the surface charge of the hydro-fluoro-aluminum particles increased. The initial acidity of the wastewater after calcium precipitation can be modified by changing the [Ca(OH)(2)]/[Ca(2+)](T) ratio and the appropriate ratio is approximately given by the acid dissociation constant of hydrofluoric acid and the initial pH of the wastewater before calcium precipitation.

  19. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world.

  20. Complexing agent and heavy metal removals from metal plating effluent by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabdaşli, Işik; Arslan, Tülin; Olmez-Hanci, Tuğba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Tünay, Olcay

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the treatability of a metal plating wastewater containing complexed metals originating from the nickel and zinc plating process by electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The study focused on the effect of important operation parameters on electrocoagulation process performance in terms of organic complex former, nickel and zinc removals as well as sludge production and specific energy consumption. The results indicated that increasing the applied current density from 2.25 to 9.0 mA/cm(2) appreciably enhanced TOC removal efficiency from 20% to 66%, but a further increase in the applied current density to 56.25 mA/cm(2) did not accelerate TOC removal rates. Electrolyte concentration did not affect the process performance significantly and the highest TOC reduction (66%) accompanied with complete heavy metal removals were achieved at the original chloride content ( approximately 1500 mg Cl/L) of the wastewater sample. Nickel removal performance was adversely affected by the decrease of initial pH from its original value of 6. Optimum working conditions for electrocoagulation of metal plating effluent were established as follows: an applied current density of 9 mA/cm(2), the effluent's original electrolyte concentration and pH of the composite sample. TOC removal rates obtained for all electrocoagulation runs fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well (R(2)>92-99).

  1. Effects of alternating and direct current in electrocoagulation process on the removal of cadmium from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan, E-mail: vasudevan65@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Very high removal efficiency of cadmium was achieved by electrocoagulation. {yields} Alternating current (AC) avoids oxide layer and corrosion on anode surface. {yields} Good current transfer between anode and cathode results more removal efficiency. {yields} Compact treatment facility and complete automation. {yields} Aluminum alloy anode prevents residual aluminum in treated water. - Abstract: In practice, direct current (DC) is used in an electrocoagulation processes. In this case, an impermeable oxide layer may form on the cathode as well as corrosion formation on the anode due to oxidation. This prevents the effective current transfer between the anode and cathode, so the efficiency of electrocoagulation processes declines. These disadvantages of DC have been diminished by adopting alternating current (AC) in electrocoagulation processes. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of AC and DC on the removal of cadmium from water using aluminum alloy as anode and cathode. The results showed that the removal efficiency of 97.5 and 96.2% with the energy consumption of 0.454 and 1.002 kWh kl{sup -1} was achieved at a current density of 0.2 A/dm{sup 2} and pH of 7.0 using aluminum alloy as electrodes using AC and DC, respectively. For both AC and DC, the adsorption of cadmium was preferably fitting Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the adsorption process follows second order kinetics and the temperature studies showed that adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  2. Inflammatory cytokine expression following the use of bipolar electrocoagulation, ultracision harmonic scalpel and cold knife biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litta, Pietro; Saccardi, Carlo; Gizzo, Salvatore; Conte, Lorena; Ambrosi, Giulia; Sissi, Claudia; Palumbo, Manlio

    2015-08-01

    Electrical surgical devices may determine tissue damage through lateral thermal spread and activation of inflammatory processes. Several tissue effects are associated with the use of different surgical instruments. The aim of the present study was to compare tissue damage following the application of cold knife biopsy, bipolar electrocoagulation and the ultracision harmonic scalpel, through the analysis of inflammatory gene mediator expression. Three fragments of the round ligament (length 0.5 cm) were obtained from 22 females who had undergone total or subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy using three different modes of resection: Cold knife biopsy, bipolar electrocoagulation and ultracision harmonic scalpel. The tissue fragments were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of selected cytokines. Gene expression analysis demonstrated large standard deviations due to individual variability among patients and indicated variability in the concentrations of cytokines in the three different samples. The quantity of cytokine mRNA in the cold knife biopsy samples was generally greater than those obtained by other techniques. Tumor necrosis factor-α expression was significantly higher in the sample obtained with the ultracision harmonic scalpel and bipolar electrocoagulation (P=0.033) when compared with cold knife biopsy. The inflammatory response was analyzed by the quantification of gene expression through the use of qPCR. The ultracision harmonic scalpel and bipolar electrocoagulation triggered the inflammatory cascade and resulted in an increased production of cytokines compared with cold knife biopsy.

  3. Fluoride Removal From Drinking Water by Electrocoagulation Using Iron and Aluminum Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Takdastan; Emami Tabar; Neisi; Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Background Existence of fluoride in drinking water above the permissible level causes human skeletal fluorosis. Objectives Electrocoagulation by iron and aluminum electrodes was proposed for removing fluoride from drinking water. Materials and Methods Effects of different operating conditions such as treatment time, initial pH, applied voltage, type and number of electrodes, the sp...

  4. Theoretical Study of Amplitude Modulation Application during Radio Frequency Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karpuhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the investigation results of influence of the amplitude-modulated acting signal parameters on the thermoelectric characteristics of biological tissues for a specified geometry of the working electrode section during RF mono-polar electrocoagulation. The geometric model ‘electrode - a biological tissue’ was suggested to study the distribution of power and temperature fields in biological tissue during mono-polar coagulation. The model of biological tissue is represented as a cylinder and the needle electrode is an ellipsoid immersed in the biological tissue. The heat and quasi-electrostatics equations are used as a mathematical model. These equations are solved in Comsol Multiphysics environment.As a result, we have got the following findings: the technique of calculating parameters of the PAM acting signal which has a fixed carrier frequency for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and the immersion depth in biological tissues is suggested. Parameters of PAM signal are determined for this electrode geometry. These parameters provide a 60 ... 80°C heating range of biological tissues near the working part of the tool for different amplitudes of acting signal during RF coagulation. It has been found out that both the temperature and the relaxation frequency of biological tissue depend on exposure time for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and immersion depth of the working part of tool into biological tissue.It is shown that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue, subjected to the radiofrequency pulses, linearly depends on its heating temperature and can be used as a numerical criterion for maintaining the specified temperature conditions. It is found that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue depends on the contact area of the tool working part and biological tissues. To reduce this dependence it is necessary to provide automatic current control of the output action.

  5. Effects of water chemistry on arsenic removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei; Pepping, Troy J; Banerji, Tuhin; Chaudhari, Sanjeev; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic through drinking water poses a threat to human health. Electrocoagulation is a water treatment technology that involves electrolytic oxidation of anode materials and in-situ generation of coagulant. The electrochemical generation of coagulant is an alternative to using chemical coagulants, and the process can also oxidize As(III) to As(V). Batch electrocoagulation experiments were performed in the laboratory using iron electrodes. The experiments quantified the effects of pH, initial arsenic concentration and oxidation state, and concentrations of dissolved phosphate, silica and sulfate on the rate and extent of arsenic removal. The iron generated during electrocoagulation precipitated as lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), except when dissolved silica was present, and arsenic was removed by adsorption to the lepidocrocite. Arsenic removal was slower at higher pH. When solutions initially contained As(III), a portion of the As(III) was oxidized to As(V) during electrocoagulation. As(V) removal was faster than As(III) removal. The presence of 1 and 4 mg/L phosphate inhibited arsenic removal, while the presence of 5 and 20 mg/L silica or 10 and 50 mg/L sulfate had no significant effect on arsenic removal. For most conditions examined in this study, over 99.9% arsenic removal efficiency was achieved. Electrocoagulation was also highly effective at removing arsenic from drinking water in field trials conducted in a village in Eastern India. By using operation times long enough to produce sufficient iron oxide for removal of both phosphate and arsenate, the performance of the systems in field trials was not inhibited by high phosphate concentrations.

  6. Algae Removal by Electro-coagulation Process, Application for Treatment of the Effluent from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GH Azarian; AR Mesdaghinia; F Vaezi; R Nabizadeh; D Nematollahi

    2007-01-01

    .... In this study, an electro-coagulation reactor was examined to re­move algae from the final effluent of the wastewater treatment plant belong to Bu-Ali Industrial Estates (Hamadan City).  Methods...

  7. Efficacy and satisfaction rate comparing endometrial ablation by rollerball electrocoagulation to uterine balloon thermal ablation in a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon-Rabelink, I.A.A. van; Vleugels, M.P.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Graaf, R.M. de

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods of endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic rollerball electrocoagulation (RBE) and non-hysteroscopic uterine balloon thermal ablation (Thermachoice trade mark ), regarding efficacy for reducing dysfunctional uterine bleeding and patients satisfaction rate. METHODS: A ra

  8. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  9. Electrocoagulation mechanism of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on a zinc anode: Influence of cathodes and anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Lin, Hui; Jin, Fangyuan; Niu, Junfeng; Zhao, Jinbo; Bi, Ying; Li, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of cathode materials and anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), and CO3(2-)/HCO3(-)) on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) removal in electrocoagulation process using zinc anode. The results indicated that the hydroxide flocs generated in-situ in the electrocoagulation process using the stainless steel rod as cathode were more effective than those using aluminum rod as cathode for the removal of PFOA after 20min of electrocoagulation at a current density of 0.5mAcm(-2). Hydroxide flocs generated in-situ in the electrocoagulation in the presence of Cl(-)/NO3(-) could effectively remove PFOA from aqueous solution with the removal ratios of 99.7%/98.1% and 98.9%/97.3% using stainless steel rod and aluminum rod as cathode, respectively. However, the PFOA removal ratios were 96.2%/4.1% and 7.4%/4.6% using stainless steel rod and aluminum rod as cathode, respectively, in the presence of SO4(2-) and CO3(2-)/HCO3(-). The different removal ratios of PFOA during the electrocoagulation process were primarily due to the fact that the hydroxide flocs generated in-situ were different in the presence of diverse cathodes and anions. We firstly demonstrated that Zn0.70Al0.30(OH)2(CO3)0.15·xH2O and ZnO generated in-situ in the electrocoagulation process (except for CO3(2-)/HCO3(-)) using zinc anode and aluminum/stainless steel rod cathode governed the sorption of PFOA. The adsorbent hydroxide flocs in-situ generated in the presence of Cl(-) could effectively remove PFOA from aqueous solution containing CO3(2-)/HCO3(-) anion at the initial hydroxide flocs concentration of 2000mgL(-1). These results provided an effective and alternative method to remove PFOA from aqueous solution containing CO3(2-)/HCO3(-) anion.

  10. Design development of an electrocoagulation reactor for molasses process wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, A S; Ryan, D R; Kavanagh, J M; Barton, G W

    2010-01-01

    The impact of electrode corrosion behaviour, reactor geometry and current density on electrocoagulation efficiency were investigated for the treatment of molasses process wastewater. Two laboratory-scale vertical plate electrocoagulation reactors were used for this investigation: the first being a low aspect ratio bath reactor with a low specific electrode area, while the other was a high aspect ratio column reactor with a high specific electrode area. Anomalous anodic dissolution and cathodic corrosion of the aluminium electrodes both contributed significantly to overall metal consumption. Increasing specific electrode area and aspect ratio each led to improved treatment efficiency, whereas the impact of current density was more complicated involving the combined influences of several competing effects. The space-time yields of coagulant and bubbles (both functions of specific electrode area, current density and current efficiency) were found to influence mixing within the reactor and thus treatment efficiency.

  11. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Cui; Guo-Ming Luan; Jian Zhou; Feng Zhai; Yu-Guang Guan; Min Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection.However,the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known.We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.Methods:Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled,and divided into three groups according to the date of admission.The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF),electrocorticography,the depth of cortex damage,and acute histological changes (H and E staining,neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF) staining) were analyzed before and after the operation.The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation.Results:The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05).The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation.For the temporal cortex,the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2-9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03,0.48 ± 0.06,0.69 ± 0.06,0.84 ± 0.09,0.98 ± 0.08,1.10 ± 0.1 l,1.11 ± 0.09,and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm,respectively.Coagulation with output power of 4-5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer,external granular layer,and external pyramidal layer.Conclusions:The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein,but also reduced the rCBF.We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges,and partially destroy the epileptic focus.

  12. Optimization of nitrate removal from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology method

    OpenAIRE

    HA. Jamali; Moradnia M; MM. Emamjomeh; Panahifard M

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in nature that makes serious threats to health and quality of water resources. Electrocoagulation is one of the most efficient methods to remove this pollutant. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in a pilot scale. The samples were prepared using synthetic water at 100-300 mg/l initial concentration of nitrate. The independent variables were reaction time, electrical difference potential and pH. The process p...

  13. Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment: Electrocoagulation of Oily Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Takimoto, Martha M.; Vasquez, Ruben C.; Basak, Sanjay; Myung, Noseung; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    1995-11-01

    A laboratory experiment illustrating the principle and application of electrocoagulation is described using oil-water emulsions as the medium to be treated and iron as the anode. The destabilized oil droplets are shown to be separated from the aqueous phase via electrolysis and iron hydrooxide coagulant formation. This simple experiment is shown to afford opportunities for exploring concepts related to colloid chemistry, electrochemistry, corrosion, and analytical chemistry.

  14. Effect of electrolyte nature on kinetics of remazol yellow G removal by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, M.; Bagheri-Roochi, M.; Asghari, A.

    2011-10-01

    The present study describes an electrocoagulation process for the removal of remazol yellow G from dye solutions using Iron as the anode and Steel as the cathode. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to analyze the kinetic data obtained at different concentrations in different conditions. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  15. Effects of monopolar electrocoagulation and bipolar electrocoagulation in laparoscopy for infertility on ovarian function%腹腔镜不孕症手术使用单、双极电凝对卵巢功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨腹腔镜不孕症手术中使用单、双极电凝对卵巢功能的影响.方法:选择100例因输卵管因素导致的不孕症患者,均行腹腔镜下输卵管的修复整形手术,使用不同的止血方法随机分为单极电凝组50例、双极电凝组50例.分别于术前、术后1、3个月抽血检测促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2),月经第11天开始B超监测排卵情况,术后随访1年.结果:两组病例术后1、3个月较术前均出现不同程度的FSH、LH增高和E2下降,单极电凝组与术前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),双极电凝组与术前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:腹腔镜下不孕症手术中使用单、双极电凝止血会引起对卵巢功能的损害,而使用单极电凝止血对卵巢功能的损害较使用双极电凝止血大.单极电凝组术后发生月经改变明显多于双极电凝组(P<0.05).双极电凝组术后妊娠率较单极电凝组高.%Objective: To explore the effects of monopolar electrocoagulation and bipolar electrocoagulation in laparoscopy for infertility on ovarian function. Methods: 100 infertile patients because of tubal factor were selected, and all the patients received fallopian tube surgery under laparoscope, then they were divided into monopolar electrocoagulation group ( 50 women) and bipolar electrocoagulation group (50 women) according to different hemostatic methods. Their blood samples were obtained to detect the levels of follicle - stimulating hormone ( FSH) , luteinizing hormone ( LH ) and estradiol before surgery, at one and three months after surgery, B ultrasound was used to monitor the ovulation situation from the eleventh day of menstrual cycle, all the patients were followed up for one year after surgery. Results: Compared with before surgery, the levels of FSH and LH at one and three months after surgery increased, the level of estradiol decreased, there was significant difference in monopolar

  16. Optimizing Electrocoagulation Process for the Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background High levels of nitrate anion are frequently detected in many groundwater resources in Fars province. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of nitrate from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Materials and Methods A laboratory-scale batch reactor was conducted to determine nitrate removal efficiency using the electrocoagulation method. The removal of nitrate was determined at pH levels of 3, 7, and 11, different voltages (15, 20, and 30 V, and operation times of 30, 60, and 75 min, respectively. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (Chicago, Illinois, USA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the parameters. Results Results of the present study showed that the removal efficiency was increased from 27% to 86% as pH increased from 3 to 11 at the optimal condition of 30 V and 75 min operation time. Moreover, by increasing the reaction time from 30 V to 75 min the removal efficiency was increased from 63% to 86%, respectively (30 V and pH = 11. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between removal efficiency and voltage and reaction time as well (P < 0.01. Conclusions In conclusion, the electrocoagulation process can be used for removing nitrate from water resources because of high efficiency, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  17. Recovery of hydrogen and removal of nitrate from water by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy; Vasudevan, Subramanyan

    2013-04-01

    The present study provides an optimization of electrocoagulation process for the recovery of hydrogen and removal of nitrate from water. In doing so, the thermodynamic, adsorption isotherm, and kinetic studies were also carried out. Aluminum alloy of size 2 dm(2) was used as anode and as cathode. To optimize the maximum removal efficiency, different parameters like effect of initial concentration, effect of temperature, pH, and effect of current density were studied. The results show that a significant amount of hydrogen can be generated by this process during the removal of nitrate from water. The energy yield calculated from the hydrogen generated is 3.3778 kWh/m(3). The results also showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 95.9% was achieved at a current density of 0.25 A/dm(2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process followed second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of NO3(-) preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. Thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The energy yield of generated hydrogen was ~54% of the electrical energy demand of the electrocoagulation process. With the reduction of the net energy demand, electrocoagulation may become a useful technology to treat water associated with power production. The aluminum hydroxide generated in the cell removes the nitrate present in the water and reduced it to a permissible level making the water drinkable.

  18. Heavy metals removal from aqueous environments by electrocoagulation process- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Mohammadi, Leili; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades as a result releasing toxic materials into the environment. Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical processes were used for the treatment of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents. The commonly used conventional biological treatments processes are not only time consuming but also need large operational area. Accordingly, it seems that these methods are not cost-effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical technique with many applications. This process has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial wastewater due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This process has been applied for the treatment of many kinds of wastewater such as landfill leachate, restaurant, carwash, slaughterhouse, textile, laundry, tannery, petroleum refinery wastewater and for removal of bacteria, arsenic, fluoride, pesticides and heavy metals from aqueous environments. The objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents, especially removal of heavy metals from aqueous environments. About 100 published studies (1977-2016) are reviewed in this paper. It is evident from the literature survey articles that electrocoagulation are the most frequently studied for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater.

  19. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor.

  20. Fluoride Removal From Drinking Water by Electrocoagulation Using Iron and Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takdastan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Existence of fluoride in drinking water above the permissible level causes human skeletal fluorosis. Objectives Electrocoagulation by iron and aluminum electrodes was proposed for removing fluoride from drinking water. Materials and Methods Effects of different operating conditions such as treatment time, initial pH, applied voltage, type and number of electrodes, the spaces between aluminum and iron electrodes, and energy consumption during electrocoagulation were investigated in the batch reactor. Variable concentrations of fluoride solution were prepared by mixing proper amounts of sodium fluoride with deionized water. Results Experimental results showed that aluminum electrode is more effective in fluoride removal than iron, as in 40 minutes and initial pH of 7.5 at 20 V, the fluoride removal process reached to 97.86%. The final recommendable limit of fluoride (1.5 mg/L was obtained in 10 minutes at 20 V with the aluminum electrode. Conclusions In electrocoagulation with iron and aluminum electrodes, increase of voltage, number of electrodes and reaction time as well as decrease of the spaces between electrodes, enhanced the fluoride removal efficiency from drinking water. In addition the effect of pH and initial concentration of fluoride varied with types of electrodes.

  1. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Fractional Factorial Design Study on the Performance of GAC-Enhanced Electrocoagulation Process Involved in Color Removal from Dye Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Gabriela Breaban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of main factors and interactions on the color removal performance from dye solutions using the electrocoagulation process enhanced by adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC. In this study, a mathematical approach was conducted using a two-level fractional factorial design (FFD for a given dye solution. Three textile dyes: Acid Blue 74, Basic Red 1, and Reactive Black 5 were used. Experimental factors used and their respective levels were: current density (2.73 or 27.32 A/m2, initial pH of aqueous dye solution (3 or 9, electrocoagulation time (20 or 180 min, GAC dose (0.1 or 0.5 g/L, support electrolyte (2 or 50 mM, initial dye concentration (0.05 or 0.25 g/L and current type (Direct Current—DC or Alternative Pulsed Current—APC. GAC-enhanced electrocoagulation performance was analyzed statistically in terms of removal efficiency, electrical energy, and electrode material consumptions, using modeling polynomial equations. The statistical significance of GAC dose level on the performance of GAC enhanced electrocoagulation and the experimental conditions that favor the process operation of electrocoagulation in APC regime were determined. The local optimal experimental conditions were established using a multi-objective desirability function method.

  3. Effect of operational parameters on the decolorization of C.I. Reactive Blue 19 in aqueous solution by ozone-enhanced electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Shuang; Yao Jie [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); He Zhiqiao [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: zqhe@zjut.edu.cn; Qiu Jianping; Chen Jianmeng [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2008-03-21

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the efficiency of the ozone-enhanced electrocoagulation (EC) process in the decolorization of C.I. Reactive Blue 19 in water using iron electrodes. We determined the effects of various operating parameters such as initial pH, initial dye concentration, current density, salt concentration, temperature, ozone flow rate, and distance between electrodes on decolorization efficiency in a laboratory-scale reactor. Increasing the initial dye concentration decreased the decolorization efficiency, whereas increasing the distance between electrodes increased it. The other operating factors had both positive and negative effects. With an initial pH of 10.0, an initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, salt concentration of 3000 mg/L, temperature of 30 deg. C, ozone flow rate of 20 mL/min, and distance between electrodes of 3 cm, over 96% of the color was removed after 10 min. As a consequence, removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was over 80%.

  4. The use of artificial neural networks (ANN) for modeling of decolorization of textile dye solution containing C. I. Basic Yellow 28 by electrocoagulation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshvar, N. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: nezam_daneshvar@yahoo.com; Khataee, A.R. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com; Djafarzadeh, N. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: n.jafarzadeh@gmail.com

    2006-10-11

    In this paper, electrocoagulation has been used for removal of color from solution containing C. I. Basic Yellow 28. The effect of operational parameters such as current density, initial pH of the solution, time of electrolysis, initial dye concentration, distance between the electrodes, retention time and solution conductivity were studied in an attempt to reach higher removal efficiency. Our results showed that the increase of current density up to 80 A m{sup -2} enhanced the color removal efficiency, the electrolysis time was 7 min and the range of pH was determined 5-8. It was found that for achieving a high color removal percent, the conductivity of the solution and the initial concentration of dye should be 10 mS cm{sup -1} and 50 mg l{sup -1}, respectively. An artificial neural networks (ANN) model was developed to predict the performance of decolorization efficiency by EC process based on experimental data obtained in a laboratory batch reactor. A comparison between the predicted results of the designed ANN model and experimental data was also conducted. The model can describe the color removal percent under different conditions.

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

  6. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology.

  7. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  8. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  9. Removal of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn Present in Aqueous Solution Using Coupled Electrocoagulation-Phytoremediation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferniza-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a coupled electrocoagulation-phytoremediation treatment for the reduction of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, present in aqueous solution. The electrocoagulation was carried out in a batch reactor using aluminum electrodes in parallel arrangement; the optimal conditions were current density of 8 mA/cm2 and operating time of 180 minutes. For phytoremediation the macrophytes, Typha latifolia L., were used during seven days of treatment. The results indicated that the coupled treatment reduced metal concentrations by 99.2% Cu, 81.3% Cd, and 99.4% Pb, while Zn increased due to the natural concentrations of the plant used.

  10. Decolorization of distillery spent wash effluent by electro oxidation (EC and EF) and Fenton processes: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Charles; Arivazhagan, M; Tuvakara, Fazaludeen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, laboratory scale experiments were performed to degrade highly concentrated organic matter in the form of color in the distillery spent wash through batch oxidative methods such as electrocoagulation (EC), electrofenton (EF) and Fenton process. The effect of corresponding operating parameters, namely initial pH: 2-10; current intensity: 1-5A; electrolysis time: 0.5-4h; agitation speed: 100-500rpm; inter-electrode distance: 0.5-4cm and Fenton's reagent dosage: 5-40mg/L was employed for optimizing the process of spent wash color removal. The performance of all the three processes was compared and assessed in terms of percentage color removal. For EC, 79% color removal was achieved using iron electrodes arranged with 0.5cm of inter-electrode space and at optimum conditions of pH 7, 5A current intensity, 300rpm agitation speed and in 2h of electrolysis time. In EF, 44% spent wash decolorization was observed using carbon (graphite) electrodes with an optimum conditions of 0.5cm inter-electrode distance, pH 3, 4A current intensity, 20mg/L FeSO4 and agitation speed of 400rpm for 3h of electrolysis time. By Fenton process, 66% decolorization was attained by Fenton process at optimized conditions of pH 3, 40mg/L of Fenton's reagent and at 500rpm of agitation speed for 4h of treatment time.

  11. Strategizing on innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jofre, Sergio

    opportunities and challenges. This new economic order, demands countries to strengthen their inventiveness and capability to adapt to changing environments, and to quickly react to emerging social needs and preferences, and therefore to innovate more (EC, 2006a). Although the European Union (EU) has already...... of Europe’s current (and mostly national) education, research and business innovation systems. This impasse remarks the challenge of redefining and reinforcing a supranational innovation system in line with national demands and their particular environments, and calls for new theoretical and empirical...... developments enabling proper policy actions. The concept of innovation systems assumes that flows of technology and information among people, companies and institutions are crucial to the innovative process. At national level, innovation and technical development are the result of a complex set of interactions...

  12. Treatment of hospital wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum and iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main goal of this study was to determine of the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD from educational hospital waste-water using electrocoagulation process by using iron and aluminum electrodes. Materials and Methods: A laboratory-scale batch reactor was conducted to determine the removal efficiency by the electrocoagulation method. Fifty-five samples of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital waste-water in Bandar Abbas were collected for the periods of 6 months according to standard methods. The removal of COD from the waste-water was determined at pH 3, 7, and 11 in the voltage range of 10, 20, and 30 V at the operation time of 30, 45, and 60 min. Data were analyzed in SPSS (version 16 using Pearson′s correlation coefficient to analyze the relationship between these parameters. Results: The removal efficiency is increased by 6.2% with decreasing pH from 11 to 3 at the optimal condition of 30 V and 60 min operation time. By increasing the reaction time from 30 min to 60 min at voltages (10, 20, and 30 V, the removal efficiency was increased from 32.3% to 87.1%. The maximum COD removal efficiency was observed at pH 3 and voltage of 30 V and 60 min reaction time using four iron electrodes. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between voltage and the reaction time with the removal efficiencies (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Due to the high efficiency of the electrocoagulation process and also the simplicity and relatively low-cost, it can be used for removing COD from hospital waste-water.

  13. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M Mahmoodi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing C.I. Reactive Red 198 in batch reactor was studied."nMaterial and Methods: The experiment conducted in a Plexiglas reactor with a working volume of 2L that equipped with 4 aluminum electrodes. The effects of operating parameters such as voltage, time of reaction, initial dye concentration and interelectrode distance on the color removal efficiency, electrical energy consumption and electrode consumption were investigated."nResults: in the optimum operational condition electrocoagulation, is able to remove color and COD as high as 99.1 and 84.3% in aluminum electrode in 75 minutes at 20 volt and 2 cm interelectrode distance, respectively. Under this condition, operating cost was 2986 rails per cubic meter of treated wastewater. Increase in the interelectrode distance and initial dye concentration,lead to the decrease in efficiency of dye and COD removal.While as the voltage and time of reaction increased, energy consumption, electrode consumption, final pH and color removal, increased too."nConclusion: electrocoagulation process by aluminum electrode is an efficient and suitable method for reactive dye removal from colored wastewater.

  14. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  15. The EC-ASEAN COGEN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M.; Lacrosse, L. [Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Schenkel, Y. [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme is a co-operation programme between the European Commission (EC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) co-ordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. Its aim is to accelerate the implementation of proven technologies generating heat and/or power from wood and agroindustrial residues through partnerships between European and ASEAN companies. (orig.)

  16. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  17. Treatment of Reactive Black 5 by combined electrocoagulation-granular activated carbon adsorption-microwave regeneration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: shchang@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, Chung-Shan Medical University, 110 Chen-Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, Kai-Sung; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Li, Heng-Ching; Peng, Tzu-Huan [Department of Public Health, Chung-Shan Medical University, 110 Chen-Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Su, Yu-Chun; Chang, Chih-Yuan [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Treatment of an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by combined electrocoagulation-activated carbon adsorption-microwave regeneration process was evaluated. The toxicity was also monitored by the Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. GAC of 100 g L{sup -1} sorbed 82% of RB5 (100 mg L{sup -1}) within 4 h. RB5-loaded GAC was not effectively regenerated by microwave irradiation (800 W, 30 s). Electrocoagulation showed high decolorization of RB5 within 8 min at pH{sub 0} of 7, current density of 277 A m{sup -2}, and NaCl of 1 g L{sup -1}. However, 61% COD residue remained after treatment and toxicity was high (100% light inhibition). GAC of 20 g L{sup -1} effectively removed COD and toxicity of electrocoagulation-treated solution within 4 h. Microwave irradiation effectively regenerated intermediate-loaded GAC within 30 s at power of 800 W, GAC/water ratio of 20 g L{sup -1}, and pH of 7.8. The adsorption capacity of GAC for COD removal from the electrocoagulation-treated solution did not significantly decrease at the first 7 cycles of adsorption/regeneration. The adsorption capacity of GAC for removal of both A{sub 265} (benzene-related groups) and toxicity slightly decreased after the 6th cycle.

  18. Treatment of Reactive Black 5 by combined electrocoagulation-granular activated carbon adsorption-microwave regeneration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Wang, Kai-Sung; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Li, Heng-Ching; Peng, Tzu-Huan; Su, Yu-Chun; Chang, Chih-Yuan

    2010-03-15

    Treatment of an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by combined electrocoagulation-activated carbon adsorption-microwave regeneration process was evaluated. The toxicity was also monitored by the Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. GAC of 100 g L(-1) sorbed 82% of RB5 (100 mg L(-1)) within 4h. RB5-loaded GAC was not effectively regenerated by microwave irradiation (800 W, 30s). Electrocoagulation showed high decolorization of RB5 within 8 min at pH(0) of 7, current density of 277 A m(-2), and NaCl of 1 g L(-1). However, 61% COD residue remained after treatment and toxicity was high (100% light inhibition). GAC of 20 g L(-1) effectively removed COD and toxicity of electrocoagulation-treated solution within 4h. Microwave irradiation effectively regenerated intermediate-loaded GAC within 30s at power of 800 W, GAC/water ratio of 20 g L(-1), and pH of 7.8. The adsorption capacity of GAC for COD removal from the electrocoagulation-treated solution did not significantly decrease at the first 7 cycles of adsorption/regeneration. The adsorption capacity of GAC for removal of both A(265) (benzene-related groups) and toxicity slightly decreased after the 6th cycle.

  19. Parameter optimization and design aspect for electrocoagulation of silica nano-particles in wafer polishing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, W; Huang, C

    2006-01-01

    A systematic procedure has been proposed for the design of a multi-channel, continuous-flow electrocoagulation reactor of mono-polar configuration for the removal of sub-micron particles from wastewater. Using the chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) process as the target source of wastewater, a series of laboratory-scale studies were conducted to determine the required operating conditions for the efficient removal of the ultrafine particles. These operating criteria included charge loading (> or = 8 F m(-3)), current density (> or = 5.7 A m(-2)), hydraulic retention time (> or = 60 min), as well as the initially operational pH (7 to approximately 10). Furthermore, a steady-state transport equation with second-order reaction kinetics was employed to describe the rate of coagulation as the rate-limiting factor. The actual kinetic constant determined from the laboratory-scale experiments was approximately 1.2 x 10(-21) m3 s(-1), which was three orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated based on Brownian diffusion during the coagulation. The model was subsequently validated with a series of experiments using a pilot-scale electro-coagulation reactor geometrically similar to the laboratory-scale reactor with nearly twenty times volumetric scale-up.

  20. Continuous electrocoagulation of cheese whey wastewater: an application of Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Kandemir, Ayse; Erginel, Nihal; Ocal, S Eren

    2014-12-15

    In this study, treatment of cheese whey wastewater was performed using a uniquely-designed continuous electrocoagulation reactor, not previously encountered in the literature. An iron horizontal rotating screw type anode was used in the continuous mode. An empirical model, in terms of effective operational factors, such as current density (40, 50, 60 mA/cm(2)), pH (3, 5, 7) and retention time (20, 40, 60 min), was developed through Response Surface Methodology. An optimal region characterized by low values of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was determined. As a result of experiments, a linear effect in the removal efficiency of COD was obtained for current density and retention time, while the initial pH of the wastewater was found to have a quadratic effect in the removal efficiency of COD. The best fit nonlinear mathematical model, with a coefficient of determination value (R(2)) of 85%, was defined. An initial COD concentration of 15.500 mg/L was reduced to 2112 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 86.4%. In conclusion, it can be said that electrocoagulation was successfully applied for the treatment of cheese whey wastewater.

  1. Level Decreasing Kinetics Model of Heavy Metal Contents in the Coal Stockpile Wastewater with Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is one of methods used to treat wastewater in the coal stockpile without using coagulants. Characteristics of wastewater observed are heavy metals (Fe and Mn and pH.  The decrease in the heavy metals content and the increase in the pH of this wastewater treatment process will then be proposed in the adsorption kinetics model. The influence of  variations in currents and processing time were observed. The time variation of the adsorption process were 60 to 120 minutes with current variations from 1.3 to 3.0 Ampere at a fixed 12 voltages. The results obtained that the Fe content could be decreased to 0.03 ppm at 90 minutes while the content of Mn was decreased to 0.01 ppm at the same time. The increase in pH (7.11 was achieved when applying 2.5 A current at 90 minutes process time. The results obtained from the electrocoagulation method was then proposed in the model of the Langmuir isotherm adsorption kinetics and Freundlich isotherm.

  2. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent.

  3. Humic Acid Removal from Aqueous Environments by Electrocoagulation Process Using Iron Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present study the performance of electrocoagulation process using iron electrodes sacrificial anode has been investigated for removal of HA from artificial aqueous solution. The experiments were performed in a bipolar batch reactor with four iron electrode connected in parallel. Several working parameters, such as initial pH (3, 5, 7, and 9, electrical conductivity (50 V and reaction time were studied in an attempt to achieve the highest removal capacity. Solutions of HA with concentration equal 20 mg L-1 were prepared. To follow the progress of the treatment, samples of 10 ml were taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min interval. Finally HA concentration was measured by UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254 and TOC concentration was measured by TOC Analyser. The maximum efficiency of HA removal which was obtained in voltage of 50 V, reaction time of 75 min, initial concentration 20 mg L-1, conductivity 3000 µS/Cm and pH 5, is equal to 92.69%. But for natural water samples at the same optimum condition removal efficiency was low (68.8 %. It can be concluded that the electrocoagulation process has the potential to be utilized for cost-effective removal of HA from aqueous environments.

  4. A new approach to increasing the efficiency of low-pH Fe-electrocoagulation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Youri; Lahav, Ori

    2010-11-15

    Incomplete oxidation of Fe(II) species released from the anode to Fe(III) may impede iron electrocoagulation processes conducted under low dissolved oxygen and/or pHelectrocoagulation cell. The second unit oxidizes Cl(-) ions invariably present in the water to HOCl, which is capable of oxidizing Fe(II) species at a high rate, irrespective of pH or O(2(aq)) concentration. An electrolytic cell with a Ti/RuO(2) anode and Ti cathode was shown to successively operate in parallel to a sacrificial electrocoagulation cell (Fe anode and Ti cathode) to attain complete Fe(II) conversion to Fe(III) under low-pH conditions, in which, in the absence of the 2nd cell, unwanted Fe(II) species would have dominated the dissolved iron species. Current efficiency for Cl(2) production was 12.4% and 45.7% at 200 and 1000 mg Cl/l, respectively. Under three practical conditions (pH 6, [Cl(-)]=200 mg/l; pH 6, [Cl(-)]=400 mg/l; pH 5, [Cl(-)]=600 mg/l) the power demand of the combined system was 25.29, 12.7 and 8.1 kWh/kg Fe(III)(produced), respectively, suggesting that the presented approach is competitive at [Cl(-)]>∼600 mg/l.

  5. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, R., E-mail: sridhar36k@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Sivakumar, V., E-mail: drvsivakumar@yahoo.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Prince Immanuel, V., E-mail: princeimmanuel79@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode 638057, TN (India); Prakash Maran, J., E-mail: prakashmaran@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India)

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m{sup 3}. The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ELECTROCOAGULATION PROCESS FOR DIAZINON REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS BY USING IRON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bazrafshan, A. H. Mahvi, S. Nasseri, M. Shaieghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the removal of pesticide by electrocoagulation process. A glass tank in 1.56 L volume with four iron plate electrodes was used to perform the experiments. The electrodes connected to a DC power supply (bipolar mode. The tank was filled with synthetic wastewater were which contained diazinon pesticide in concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L. The percent of diazinon removal was measured at pH= 3, 7 and 10 and in electric potential range of 20-40V by thin layer chromatography method. The results indicated that initial concentration of diazinon can affect efficiency removal and for higher concentrations of diazinon, higher electrical potential or more reaction time is needed. The results showed that for a given time, the removal efficiency increased significantly with increase of voltage. The highest electrical potential (40V produced the quickest treatment with >99% diazinon reduction occurring after 60 min. The final pH for iron electrodes was always higher than initial pH. Finally it can be concluded that electrocoagulation process (using iron electrodes is a reliable, efficient and cost-effective method for removal of diazinon from aqueous environments, especially designed for pH=3 and voltage=40V.

  7. Investigation of TOC Removal from IndustrialWastewaters using Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AhmadiMoghadam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Formaldehyde and phenol are key precursors in the industrial manufacture of resins. Toxicity of these compounds prevents function of microbial populations, so they affect the biological treatments. The aim of this study was investigation of TOC removal from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing wastewater by electrocoagulation using Al- electrodes."nMaterials and Methods: This study is the laboratory scale experiment was conducted as a pilot. Wastewater sample was adjusted in the desired pH, electrical conductivity and current density, then it was placed in to the reactor contains four electrodes in aluminum. The electrodes were connected to a DC power supply (0-40V, 0-3A. Samples were collected for TOC determination in the middle of cell at regular time intervals. Collected samples were analyzed using TOC analyzer."nResults:The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the removal of TOC were current density 75 A/m2, solution pH 4 and Conductivity 3 mS/cm. In this condition energy consumption was found 22.5 kWh m-3 after 60 min reaction."nConclusion: This study shows that electrocoagulation of wastewater from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing can be used as a pretreatment process.

  8. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  9. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes.

  10. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  11. In vivo MRI assessment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by electrocoagulation: pitfalls of procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauveau Fabien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion (pMCAO by electrocoagulation is a commonly used model but with potential traumatic lesions. Early MRI monitoring may assess pMCAO for non-specific brain damage. The surgical steps of pMCAO were evaluated for traumatic cerebral injury in 22 Swiss mice using diffusion and T2-weighted MRI (7T performed within 1 h and 24 h after surgery. Temporal muscle cauterization without MCA occlusion produced an early T2 hyperintensity mimicking an infarct. No lesion was visible after temporal muscle incision or craniotomy. Early MRI monitoring is useful to identify non-specific brain injury that could hamper neuroprotective drugs assessment.

  12. Decolorization of reactive violet 5 dye in textile wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav N. Malinovic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The textile dyeing industry consumes large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the dyeing and finishing processes. Wastewater from printing and dyeing units is often rich in color, containing residues of reactive dyes and chemicals, such as complex components. This study investigates the decolorization of synthetic dye wastewater containing textile dye Reactive Violet 5 (RV5 by electrocoagulation. A laboratory batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of various operating parameters using aluminium (Al, iron (Fe and stainless steel (SS anode. The effect of dye concentration, current density, supporting electrolyte, sup­porting electrolyte concentration, electrolysis duration, and material of anode of the systems were evaluated. Color removal efficiency was 22, 91.5 and 99.8 % in 15 minutes using Al, Fe and SS anode, respectively (j = 10 mA/cm2, cNaCl = 0.171 M.

  13. A combined electrocoagulation-sorption process applied to mixed industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares-Hernandez, Ivonne [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca (Mexico); Barrera-Diaz, Carlos [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca (Mexico)]. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Roa-Morales, Gabriela [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca (Mexico); Bilyeu, Bryan [University of North Texas, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5310 (United States); Urena-Nunez, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-01

    The removal of organic pollutants from a highly complex industrial wastewater by a aluminium electrocoagulation process coupled with biosorption was evaluated. Under optimal conditions of pH 8 and 45.45 A m{sup -2} current density, the electrochemical method yields a very effective reduction of all organic pollutants, this reduction was enhanced when the biosorption treatment was applied as a polishing step. Treatment reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 84%, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) by 78%, color by 97%, turbidity by 98% and fecal coliforms by 99%. The chemical species formed in aqueous solution were determined. The initial and final pollutant levels in the wastewater were monitored using UV-vis spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. Finally, the morphology and elemental composition of the biosorbent was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectra (EDS)

  14. Submucosal electrocoagulation for prolapsed hemorrhoids:a new operative approach to hemorrhoidal varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yada,Yoshihiko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of submucosal electrocoagulation (SEC, a new radical operation for prolapsed hemorrhoids, in 403 patients with third- or fourth-degree hemorrhoids are reported. After resecting the anal skin tags that coexisted with prolapsed hemorrhoids, the hemorrhoidal varices could be resected and electrically coagulated through the wound without cutting the anal canal epithelium by using a fine needle-type electric knife. The results of this series indicated that SEC could dramatically reduce the incidence of the postoperative complications that sometimes occur after conventional hemorrhoid-ectomy, such as severe anal pain, massive anal bleeding and anal stenosis. Moreover, SEC could ensure that operated patients make an early return to social activities and have a satisfactory quality of life. Relapse of prolapsed hemorrhoids after SEC was rare.

  15. Treatment of automotive industry oily wastewater by electrocoagulation: statistical optimization of the operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GilPavas, Edison; Molina-Tirado, Kevin; Gómez-García, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    An electrocoagulation process was used for the treatment of oily wastewater generated from an automotive industry in Medellín (Colombia). An electrochemical cell consisting of four parallel electrodes (Fe and Al) in bipolar configuration was implemented. A multifactorial experimental design was used for evaluating the influence of several parameters including: type and arrangement of electrodes, pH, and current density. Oil and grease removal was defined as the response variable for the statistical analysis. Additionally, the BOD(5), COD, and TOC were monitored during the treatment process. According to the results, at the optimum parameter values (current density = 4.3 mA/cm(2), distance between electrodes = 1.5 cm, Fe as anode, and pH = 12) it was possible to reach a c.a. 95% oils removal, COD and mineralization of 87.4% and 70.6%, respectively. A final biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD) of 0.54 was reached.

  16. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS BY ELECTROCOAGULATION PROCESS USING IRON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bazrafshan, A. H. Mahvi, S. Nasseri, A. R. Mesdaghinia, F. Vaezi, Sh. Nazmara

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is the evaluation of cadmium removal from industrial wastewater by electrocoagulation process. For this study a glass tank in 1.56 L volume with four plate electrode was used to do experiments. The electrodes made of iron and connect to the positive and negative pole of DC power supply (bipolar mode. The tank was filled with synthetic wastewater that was containing cadmium ion in concentration 5, 50 and 500 mg/L and then it was started up. The percent of cadmium ion removal was measured at pH 3, 7 and 10 and in electric potential range of 20, 30 and 40 volts. At the end of each stage of experiment, volume of produced sludge was measured. The results obtained at different electrical potential showed that initial concentration of cadmium can effect on efficiency removal and for higher concentration of cadmium, higher electrical potential or more reaction time is needed. On the other hand, if the initial concentration increases, the time required of process should increase too. The final pH for iron electrodes was always higher than initial pH. As expected, the results showed that for a given time, the removal efficiency increased significantly with increase of current density. The highest electrical potential (40V produced the quickest treatment with >99% cadmium reduction occurring after only 20 min. The result showed that, in this process, the use of different electrical potentials can provide a wide range of pH for doing this process and electrocoagulation process (using iron electrodes is a reliable, safety, efficient and cost-effective method for removal of cadmium from industrial effluents, especially designed for pH =10 and voltage = 40V.

  17. Comparative study of humic acid removal and floc characteristics by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerjian, Lucy; Damaj, Ahmad; Salam, Darine

    2015-11-01

    The current study aims at investigating the efficiency of electrocoagulation for the removal of humic acid from contaminated waters. In parallel, conventional chemical coagulation was conducted to asses humic acid removal patterns. The effect of varying contributing parameters (matrix pH, humic acid concentration, type of electrode (aluminum vs. iron), current density, solution conductivity, and distance between electrodes) was considered to optimize the electrocoagulation process for the best attainable humic acid removal efficiencies. Optimum removals were recorded at pH of 5.0-5.5, an electrical conductivity of 3000 μS/cm at 25 °C, and an electrode distance of 1 cm for both electrode types. With aluminum electrodes, a current density of 0.05 mA/cm2 outperformed 0.1 mA/cm2 yet not higher densities, whereas a current density of 0.8 mA/cm2 was needed for iron electrodes to exhibit comparable performance. With both electrode types, higher initial humic acid concentrations were removed at a slower rate but ultimately attained almost complete removals. On the other hand, the best humic acid removals (∼90%) by chemical coagulation were achieved at 4 mg/L for both coagulants. Also, higher removals were attained at elevated initial humic acid concentrations. Humic acid removals of 90% or higher at an initial HA concentration of 40 mg/L were exhibited, yet alum performed better at the highest experimented concentration. It was evident that iron flocs were larger, denser, and more geometrical in shape compared to aluminum flocs.

  18. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohora, Emilijan, E-mail: emohora@ifc.org [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Roncevic, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Bozo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlovic, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} was 77% relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 {mu}g/l), relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m{sup 3} and 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm{sup 2}, A/V ratio = 0.248 cm{sup -1}. The NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 {mu}g As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  19. Effect of some operational parameters on the arsenic removal by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Berrin Zeliha; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Yilmaz, Alper Erdem; Fil, Baybars Ali

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a global problem that will likely become more apparent in future years as scientists and engineers measure the true extent of the problem. Arsenic poisoning is preventable though as there are several methods for easily removing even trace amounts of arsenic from drinking water. In the present study, electrocoagulation was evaluated as a treatment technology for arsenic removal from aqueous solutions. The effects of parameters such as initial pH, current density, initial concentration, supporting electrolyte type and stirring speed on removal efficiency were investigated. It has been observed that initial pH was highly effective on the arsenic removal efficiency. The highest removal efficiency was observed at initial pH = 4. The obtained experimental results showed that the efficiency of arsenic removal increased with increasing current density and decreased with increasing arsenic concentration in the solution. Supporting electrolyte had not significant effects on removal, adding supporting electrolyte decreased energy consumption. The effect of stirring speed on removal efficiency was investigated and the best removal efficiency was at the 150 rpm. Under the optimum conditions of initial pH 4, current density of 0.54 mA/cm(2), stirring speed of 150 rpm, electrolysis time of 30 minutes, removal was obtained as 99.50%. Energy consumption in the above conditions was calculated as 0.33 kWh/m(3). Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes was able to bring down 50 mg/L arsenic concentration to less than 10 μg/L at the end of electrolysis time of 45 minutes with low electrical energy consumption as 0.52 kWh/m(3).

  20. Collect microalgae by using electrocoagulation%电絮凝法收集微藻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 陆向红; 卢美贞; 计建炳

    2014-01-01

    采用电絮凝法采收微藻,研究考察了电源电压、盐度、微藻初始密度、搅拌速率、电极板的宽度以及电极材料等因素对电絮凝采收微藻效果的影响.对不同因素影响下微藻采收率的变化趋势进行了较为详细的解释,并伴有试验数据作为佐证.研究表明:在电压为5V,盐度为18.75 g/L(15 g氯化钠加入800 mL藻液中),搅拌速率为200 r/min,电极板宽度为3 cm,电极材料为铝电极时,眼点拟微绿球藻的采收率出现最大值,约为100%,微藻采收完全.%The author selected electrocoagulation to collect microalgae.Investigated the effects of voltage,salinity,initial algae density,stirring rate,width of electrode plate and electrode material on collecting microalgae by using electrocoagulation.The trend of microalgae recovery in different factors had been detailed explanation with experimental data as the evidence.The results showed that the recovery of microalgae reached a highest value of 100% when the voltage was 5 V,salinity was 18.75 g/L (15 g NaCl was added to 800 mL solution of algae),stirring rate was 200 r/min and width of electrode plate was 3 cm using aluminum as the electrode material.the microalgae was basic completely harvested.

  1. The EC discourse on vocational training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a ‘common vocational training policy' as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational...... training has served as a lever for the gradual expansion of the policy field into both general and higher education and for the establishment of a European discourse on Lifelong Learning. In the article, Ball's concept of "policy as discourse" is used to identify the changing spaces of possibility within...... EC vocational training policy (Ball, What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2), 1993)....

  2. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, S., E-mail: garavaglia@ifp.cnr.it; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics “P.Caldirola”, National Research Council of Italy, Milan (Italy); Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D. [IAM-AWP, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [IHM, KIT, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tran, Q. M. [CRPP, EPFL, EURATOM Association, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Franke, T. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  3. THEORY OF ACTIVE HITTINGS IS IN PROCESSES OF ELECTRO-COAGULATION THE ADMIXTURES IN WATER TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Березуцький

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  In the article theoretical bases of electro-coagulation of admixtures are examined in a water technological environment with the use of theory of the active hittings, which are based on the results of the executed researches and analysis of scientific information. Application of theory of the active hittings is in coagulation, provides high efficiency of process of extraction of admixtures from water environments during minimization of energy consumption and expenses of materials.

  4. Study on purification of syrup by electrocoagulation%糖汁电絮凝提纯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永春; 关瑞晨; 杨锋; 何仁

    2011-01-01

    采用电絮凝法对糖汁进行提纯,考察了电絮凝时间、电流密度、温度、电极间距以及初始pH对糖汁提纯效果的影响。结果表明,用铝做电极材料,电絮凝法处理糖汁的最佳工艺条件为:电絮凝时间16min、电流密度700A·m-2、温度50℃、电极间距10mm、初始pH4~9,在此条件下糖汁的简纯度提高率可以达到4.12%。%Treating of syrup by electrocoagulation method was studied. The factors affecting efficient of treatment,such as electrocoagulation time,current density,temperature,inter-electrode distance,initial pH were investigated. It was found that the optimal conditions using aluminum as electrode material:electrocoagulation time was 16min,current density was 700A·m-2,the temperature was 50℃,inter-electrode distance was 10mm and initial pH was 4~9. The percentage of increase of syrup apparent purity was 4. 12% under the optimal conditions.

  5. Use of adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) for the enhancement of removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek Narayanan, N; Ganesan, Mahesh

    2009-01-15

    The present work deals with removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic effluents in a batch stirred electrocoagulation cell with iron-aluminium electrode pair coupled with adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC). Several working parameters such as pH, current density, adsorbent concentration and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve higher removal capacity. Results obtained with synthetic wastewater revealed that most effective removal capacities of chromium (VI) could be achieved when the initial pH was near 8. The removal of chromium (VI) during electrocoagulation, is due to the combined effect of chemical precipitation, coprecipitation, sweep coagulation and adsorption. In addition, increasing current density in a range of 6.7-26.7mA/cm2 and operating time from 20 to 100min enhanced the treatment rate to reduce metal ion concentration below admissible legal levels. The addition of GAC as adsorbent resulted in remarkable increase in the removal rate of chromium at lower current densities and operating time, than the conventional electrocoagulation process. The method was found to be highly efficient and relatively fast compared to existing conventional techniques.

  6. The survey of electrocoagulation Process for removal dye Reactive Orange 16 from aqueous solutions using sacrificial iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Discharge of textile industries colored wastewaters without enough treatment into natural water supplies cause serious damages to the environment. This study was performed to investigate the effect of electrocoagulation for dye removal from synthetic wastewater using iron electrodes. Removal of dye reactive orange 16 (RO16 by electrocoagulation using iron electrode was conducted in a batch reactor with volume 1 liter. The effect of operating parameters such as current density, initial concentration of dye, pH and contact time was studied and the electrical energy consumption was calculated. The maximum efficiency of hardness removal which was obtained in current density of 20mA/cm2, optimum concentration 50mg L-1, optimum pH 5.5, reaction time of 30 min and NaCL concentration 1.5g/l are equal to 99.27%. Also COD removal efficiency is increased to 66%. Results show, electrocoagulation process by iron electrode is an effective method for reactive dye removal from colored wastewater.

  7. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3. NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na2SO4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4, the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m(2).

  8. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  9. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility... and EC invite your views on how to promote greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility...

  10. Teaching innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Vicki D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Donnelly, Gloria F

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare is essential to solve the "wicked problems" currently facing healthcare. This article focuses on nature of innovation and how it operates, how innovators think and view problems, how the theory and practice of innovation can be taught in novel ways, and how organizational cultures foster or suppress innovation. Examples of teaching strategies and nurse-driven innovation illustrate the theory and practice of innovation.

  11. Summary of ECE Presentations at EC-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There were nine ECE and one EBE presentation at EC-18. Four of the presentations were on various aspects of ECE on ITER. The ITER ECE diagnostic has entered an important detailed preliminary design phase and faces several design challenges in the next 2-3 years. Most of the other ECE presentations at the workshop were focused on applications of ECE diagnostics to plasma measurements, rather than improvements in technology, although it was apparent that heterodyne receiver technology continues to improve. CECE, ECE imaging and EBE imaging are increasingly providing valuable insights into plasma behavior that is important to understand if future burning plasma devices, such as ITER, FNSF and DEMO, are to be successful.

  12. Application of a hybrid Electrocoagulation-Fenton process in yarn dye wastewater: Kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riadi, L.; Sapei, L.; Lidiawati, T.; Agustin, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Reactive dyes contain a significant portion of colorants used in yarn dying process and also in textile industry. Since the COD content is usually high in such wastewater,we conducted a hybrid electrocoagulation-fenton method to treat the wastewater. This work describes the application of the hybrid system to the removal of chemical oxygen demand and color from the wastewater in a batch reactor. Having worked with initial pH of 3,0; temperature at 30°C, molar ratio of Fe2+/H2O2 =1/10 and the mol ratio H2O2/COD = 4, we got 88.3% COD conversion and 88.5% color removal. The COD degradation process can be explained in two phases, the first phase is instantaneous reaction and the second phase is first order reaction. The kinetic constant was 0.0053 minute-1 and the rate of COD degradation was 0.0053[COD] mg/L minute.

  13. Development of an empirical model for fluoride removal from photovoltaic wastewater by electrocoagulation process

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-01

    Electrocoagulation experiments were conducted with bipolar aluminium electrodes to determine the optimum conditions for the fluoride removal from synthetic photovoltaic wastewater. A high fluoride concentration in community water supplies can cause fluorosis which has a detrimental effect on human health in particular on teeth and bones. A full 23 factorial design of experiments was used to obtain the best conditions of fluoride removal from water solutions. The three factors considered were initial fluoride concentration, applied potential, and supporting electrolyte dosage. Two levels for each factor were used; supporting electrolyte (0 and 100), applied potential (10 and 30 V), and initial fluoride concentration (20 and 25 mg/L). Results showed that the optimum conditions for fluoride removal from photovoltaic wastewater containing an initial fluoride concentration of 20 mg/L were a supporting electrolyte dose of 100 mg/L and an applied potential of 30 V. These gave a residual fluoride concentration of 8.6 mg/L which was below the standard discharge limit. A mathematical equation showing the relation between residual fluoride concentration and the effective variables was also developed. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficiency of Removing Chromium from Plating Industry Wastewater using the Electrocoagulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghe-ei S.M.1 PhD,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chromium is one of the most important metallic pollutants in plating industry wastewater. This toxic metal is a serious threat to human health and to the environment due to its cumulative effects and non-degradability. This research intended to study the effects of pH, contact time, and voltage on the degree of chromium removal from wastewater of plating industry by using the electrocoagulation method. Materials & Methods This laboratory research conducted from late May to late November 2012. A 1000cc reactor at laboratory scale was used that included 4 aluminum electrodes of 90% purity, dimensions of 5 by 10cm, and thickness of 1mm, with parallel arrangement. Synthetic chromium-bearing wastewater was prepared at the initial concentration of 50mg/l. The process is done at pH values of 3, 7, and 9, electric potentials of 20, 30, and 40 volts contact durations of 20, 40, 60, and 80 minutes. Findings The degree of chromium reduction did not change linearly with time in the solution and strongly depended on the pH. The efficiency of chromium removal in the samples had an ascending trend with increases in voltage from 20 to 30 and 40 volts. The degree of chromium removal increased at longer contact times. Conclusion Lower pH, more contact time and higher voltages are effective factors in the chromium removal from wastewater by coagulation method.

  15. Simultaneous Removal of Turbidity and Humic Acid Using Electrocoagulation/Flotation Process in Aqua Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid-Mohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the applicability of the Electrocoagulation/Flotation (ECF process in batch operation was investigated for the simultaneous removal of turbidity and Humic acid (HA using Fe and Al electrodes. The effects of solution pH (3 - 12, electrical potentials (10 - 30 V, initial turbidity concentration (300 - 1200 NTU, and reaction time (10 - 30 minutes with or without HA were investigated in an attempt to achieve higher turbidity removal efficiency. The batch experimental results revealed that with initial turbidity of 300 NTU, at voltage of 30 V, after 30 minutes reaction times, and at pH values of 6 and 8, the ECF process for Fe and Al electrodes removed over 97% and 88% of turbidity, respectively. The percentage of turbidity removal from solution dropped with a decrease in voltages for both electrodes. The results displayed that the Fe-Fe electrode arrangement attained the highest performance for turbidity removal rate. As a result, ECF process was shown to be a very efficient, cost-effective, and promising process for efficient treatment of high turbid water. Regarding HA, the results showed that in ECF process over 67% and 43% of UV254 has been removed for Al and Fe electrodes, respectively at the optimum pH, 30 minutes reaction time and 30 V applied voltage. Thus, it can be considered that Fe and Al are the best electrodes for removing turbidity and HA, respectively.

  16. The effect of bipolar electrocoagulation during ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Prodromidou, Anastasia; Frountzas, Maximos; Bitos, Konstantinos; Perrea, Despina; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to study the effect of bipolar electrocoagulation during ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve. We searched Medline (1966-2015), Scopus (2004-2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2015), and Cochrane Central Register (CENTRAL) databases along with reference lists of electronically retrieved studies. The levels of antimullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following the excision of the benign ovarian cyst were defined as primary outcomes. Eight studies were finally included in our systematic review, which recruited 545 women. A metaanalysis was precluded because of significant heterogeneity in the methodological characteristics of the included studies. Data from the included studies suggest that the use of bipolar coagulation compared with ovarian sutures seems to result in significantly lower AMH and AFC during the first 3 months following the excision of the ovarian cyst. Two studies reported that this effect seems to persist at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Bipolar electrodiathermy seems to be accompanied by increased damage to ovarian reserve, which is indicated by the lower levels of AMH and AFC. However, definitive results are precluded because of the significant heterogeneity of included studies and the potential bias.

  17. Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process.

  18. Mechanism of Electro-Coagulation with Al/Fe Periodically Reversing Treating Berberine Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaonan; Liu, Zheng; Hu, Xiaomin

    2017-05-01

    The method of treating pharmaceutical wastewater by electro-coagulation with Al/Fe periodically reversing (ECPR) was proposed based on traditional electrochemical method. The principle of ECPR was generalized. Mechanism of ECPR to treat berberine pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated. Treatability and mechanism studies were conducted under laboratory conditions. For berberine wastewater (800 mg/L), decolourization efficiency and COD removal efficiency were highest to 98% and 95% respectively when voltage was 8V, reaction time was 60 min, alternating period was 10 S electrolyte concentration was 0.015 mol/L, stirring speed was 750 rpm, pH value was 3-10 and distance between two plates was 0.6 cm. For removal berberine, flocculation, floatation and oxidation provided 73%, 8% and 18% removal efficiency, which can be inferred by analysing UV-visible absorption spectrum, acidification experiment, EDTA shielding experiment, structure-activity relationship, oxidation and floatation. Meanwhile decolourization and COD removal conformed to apparent pseudo-first order and zero-order kinetics for 200mg/L and 400-1000 mg/L berberine wastewater respectively.

  19. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  20. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm{sup 2}, initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10{sup 6}x[OH]{sup 0.11}x[CD]{sup 0.62}x[IBC]{sup -0.57}x[DSE]{sup -0.}= {sup 04}x[T]{sup -2.98}x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  1. Simultaneous arsenic and fluoride removal from synthetic and real groundwater by electrocoagulation process: Parametric and cost evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Lokendra Singh; Mondal, Prasenjit

    2017-04-01

    Co-existence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater has raised severe health issues to living being. Thus, the present research has been conducted for simultaneous removal of arsenic and fluoride from synthetic groundwater by using electrocoagulation process with aluminum electrode. Effects of initial pH, current density, run time, inter electrode distance and NaCl concentration over percentage removal of arsenic and fluoride as well as operating cost have been studied. The optimum experimental conditions are found to be initial pH: 7, current density: 10 A/m(2), run time: 95 min, inter electrode distance: 1 cm, NaCl concentration: 0.71 g/l for removal of 98.51% arsenic (initial concentration: 550 μg/l) and 88.33% fluoride (initial concentration: 12 mg/l). The concentration of arsenic and fluoride in treated water are found to be 8.19 μg/l and 1.4 mg/l, respectively, with an operating cost of 0.357 USD/m(3) treated water. Pseudo first and second order kinetic model of individual and simultaneous arsenic and fluoride removal in electrocoagulation have also been studied. Produced sludge characterization studies also confirm the presence of arsenic in As(III) form, and fluoride in sludge. The present electrocoagulation process is able to reduce the arsenic and fluoride concentration of synthetic as well as real groundwater to below 10 μg/l and 1.5 mg/l, respectively, which are maximum contaminant level of these elements in drinking water according to WHO guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Orchestrating innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Boer, J. de

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating Innovation increases the probability of success, minimizing the probability of failure of technological innovations by creating sustained societal and economic value. Orchestrating innovation propagates to take into account and actively involve all relevant stakeholders of the (future)

  3. Use of EC-blowers contribute to green investment; Gebruik van EC-ventilatoren levert bijdrage aan groene investering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgens, G.; Ridder, A.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their small share in the entire use, applying EC blowers (electronically commutated) in coolers and condensers can provide an interesting contribution to a sound green investment. This additional investment with EC blowers will pay off through more efficient energy use and easy operation with rpm control. [Dutch] Door gebruik te maken van EC-ventilatoren (EC staat voor 'electronically commutated') op koelers en condensors kan, ondanks het kleine aandeel in het totaalverbruik, toch een interessante bijdrage geleverd worden aan een verantwoorde groene investering. Deze meerinvestering met EC-ventilatoren betaalt zich uit in zuinig energieverbruik en eenvoudige aansturing met toerenregeling.

  4. Innovation af innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , at innovation af innovationen forsøges gennemført på en måde, hvor tiden kræves at forholde sig til sin egen tidslighed i form af fremtid, nutid, fortid og ikke mindst i form af samtidighed. I tiden skal vi iagttage, hvordan vi iagttager tiden. Vi dobbelt-koder tiden på samme måde, som forskning forsker i...... organisationssystemerne. De to typer systemer kan noget helt bestemt med fænomenet tid. De kan synkronisere. Analyseres organisationssystemer ser vi, imidlertid at innovation kræver ro. Stærkt innovative systemer er militærsystemet og kunstsystemet, der også inddrages, og hvor vi ser paradokset mellem innovation og...... involution. Tid er med et medium og ikke et lufttomt rum. Tid er end ikke en gasart, men udgør et solidt fluidum, som samfundet bader i og flyder i, konstant i bevægelse. Reformer forudsætter former, og innovation forudsætter involution. Kun sådan muliggøres evolution....

  5. Innovation af innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , at innovation af innovationen forsøges gennemført på en måde, hvor tiden kræves at forholde sig til sin egen tidslighed i form af fremtid, nutid, fortid og ikke mindst i form af samtidighed. I tiden skal vi iagttage, hvordan vi iagttager tiden. Vi dobbelt-koder tiden på samme måde, som forskning forsker i...... organisationssystemerne. De to typer systemer kan noget helt bestemt med fænomenet tid. De kan synkronisere. Analyseres organisationssystemer ser vi, imidlertid at innovation kræver ro. Stærkt innovative systemer er militærsystemet og kunstsystemet, der også inddrages, og hvor vi ser paradokset mellem innovation og...... involution. Tid er med et medium og ikke et lufttomt rum. Tid er end ikke en gasart, men udgør et solidt fluidum, som samfundet bader i og flyder i, konstant i bevægelse. Reformer forudsætter former, og innovation forudsætter involution. Kun sådan muliggøres evolution....

  6. The optimization of electrocoagulation process for treatment of the textile wastewater by Response surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghodrati

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The experimental results indicated that the EC process is an efficient and promising process for the decolorization and COD removal of textile effluents. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values had a good correlation with the predicted ones, indicating suitability of the model and the success of the RSM in optimizing the conditions of EC process in treating the textile wastewater with maximum removals of color and COD under selected conditions of independent variables.

  7. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, Wafaa [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@est-uh2c.ac.ma [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Dassaa, A. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Chenik, H. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Azzi, M. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm{sup -2} and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E{sub dye}) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg{sub dye} was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg{sub dye} for disperse and 50 kWh/kg{sub dye} for the mixture.

  8. Guidelines for accurate EC50/IC50 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaugh, J L

    2011-01-01

    This article provides minimum requirements for having confidence in the accuracy of EC50/IC50 estimates. Two definitions of EC50/IC50s are considered: relative and absolute. The relative EC50/IC50 is the parameter c in the 4-parameter logistic model and is the concentration corresponding to a response midway between the estimates of the lower and upper plateaus. The absolute EC50/IC50 is the response corresponding to the 50% control (the mean of the 0% and 100% assay controls). The guidelines first describe how to decide whether to use the relative EC50/IC50 or the absolute EC50/IC50. Assays for which there is no stable 100% control must use the relative EC50/IC50. Assays having a stable 100% control but for which there may be more than 5% error in the estimate of the 50% control mean should use the relative EC50/IC50. Assays that can be demonstrated to produce an accurate and stable 100% control and less than 5% error in the estimate of the 50% control mean may gain efficiency as well as accuracy by using the absolute EC50/IC50. Next, the guidelines provide rules for deciding when the EC50/IC50 estimates are reportable. The relative EC50/IC50 should only be used if there are at least two assay concentrations beyond the lower and upper bend points. The absolute EC50/IC50 should only be used if there are at least two assay concentrations whose predicted response is less than 50% and two whose predicted response is greater than 50%. A wide range of typical assay conditions are considered in the development of the guidelines.

  9. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  10. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  11. Innovative didaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe

    Innovative didaktik. This deals with innovative didaktik from at methodological point of view in three ways - how to define the concept, how to develop it and how analyse it. Issues analysed: How to create innovative students? How to create innovative learning envoriments? These are core questions...

  12. Innovative didaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe

    Innovative didaktik. This deals with innovative didaktik from at methodological point of view in three ways - how to define the concept, how to develop it and how analyse it. Issues analysed: How to create innovative students? How to create innovative learning envoriments? These are core questions...

  13. Orchestrating innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; J. de Boer

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating Innovation increases the probability of success, minimizing the probability of failure of technological innovations by creating sustained societal and economic value. Orchestrating innovation propagates to take into account and actively involve all relevant stakeholders of the (future) ecosystem in which the innovation will, can or has to be adopted.

  14. Optimization of material and energy consumption for removal of Acid Red 14 by simultaneous electrocoagulation and electroflotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmandfar, Amin; Ayati, Bita; Khodadadi Darban, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Decolorization of wastewater of industries which consume dye is an environmental priority. Electrocoagulation and electroflotation methods are appropriate for treatment of these wastewaters. This study investigates the effect of four parameters, electrical conductivity, current density, initial dye concentration, and initial pH, on the performance of a simultaneous electrocoagulation/electroflotation system for removal of Acid Red 14. The optimum values of these parameters were determined based on the amount of electrical energy and aluminum consumption and the best performance of coagulation and bubble generation. The optimum condition was revealed to be electrical conductivity=1,600 μS/cm, current density=60 mA/cm2, initial dye concentration=185 mg/L and initial pH=7. After less than 180 min of electrolysis, 90% dye removal was achieved with a specific energy consumption=102 kWh/kg dyeremoved, anode dissolution=2.09 kg Al/kg dyeremoved and sludge total suspended solids=15,050 mg/L. Liquid chromatography-UV-mass spectroscopy analyses were conducted on samples of raw and treated wastewater. Results showed that intermediate compounds formed from the breaking of the dye molecules. The advantages of this method are a low material and energy consumption. The amount of produced sludge was low; consequently sludge disposal and management costs would be reduced. This method should be used cautiously for treatment of textile wastewater due to the formation of intermediate compounds.

  15. Phenolic compounds removal from mimosa tannin model water and olive mill wastewater by energy-efficient electrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kraljić Roković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of NaCl concentration, time, and current density on the removal efficiency of phenolic compounds by electrocoagulation process, as well as to compare the specific energy consumption (SEC of these processes under different experimental conditions. Electrocoagulation was carried out on two different samples of water: model water of mimosa tannin and olive mill wastewater (OMW. Low carbon steel electrodes were used in the experiments. The properties of the treated effluent were determined using UV/Vis spectroscopy and by measuring total organic carbon (TOC. Percentage of removal increased with time, current density, and NaCl concentration. SEC value increased with increased time and current density but it was decreased significantly by NaCl additions (0-29 g L-1. It was found that electro­coagulation treatment of effluents containing phenolic compounds involves complex formation between ferrous/ferric and phenolic compounds present in treated effluent, which has significant impact on the efficiency of the process.

  16. Modeling the removal of Sunfix Red S3B from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation process using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh Ha Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of artificial neural networks (ANNs to predict the dye removal efficiency (color and chemical oxygen demand value of Electrocoagulation process from Sunfix Red S3B aqueous solution. The Bayesian regulation algorithm was applied to train the networks with experimental data including five factors: pH, current density, sulphate concentration, initial dye concentration (IDC, and electrolysis time. The predicting performance of the ANN models was validated through the low root mean square error value (9.844 %, mean absolute percentage error (13.776 % and the high determination coefficient value (0.836. Garson, Connection weight method and neural interpretation diagram were also used to study the influence of input variables on dye removal efficiency. For decolorization, the most effective inputs are determined as current density, electrolysis time and initial pH, while COD removal is found to be strongly affected by initial dye concentration and sulphate concentration. Through these steps, we demonstrated ANN’s robustness in modeling and analysis of electrocoagulation process.

  17. Effect of anions on removing Cu2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ in electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanay, Özge; Hasar, Halil

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, the performance of electrocoagulation process with aluminum electrodes in the treatment of Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) containing aqueous solutions was investigated by depending on type of anion in solution, considering some operating conditions such as initial metal concentration and pH. Results obtained from synthetic wastewater showed that type of anion in solutions has a significant effect on the metal removal. The initial concentration of zinc influenced significantly the performance of electrocoagulation process as compared with the results obtained from Mn and Cu metals. Anions studied did not generate an important difference between pH variations. Best removals for three metals were achieved with increasing the pH in the presence of both anions. Total removals of copper and zinc reached almost 100% after 5 min at pH values > 7. At the end of the experiments for 35 min, the Mn removals were 85 and 80% in the presence of sulfate and chloride anions, respectively.

  18. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile wastewaters with Al or Fe electrodes: compared variations of COD levels, turbidity and absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Inoussa; Maiga, Amadou Hama; Wéthé, Joseph; Valentin, Gérard; Leclerc, Jean-Pierre; Paternotte, Gérard; Lapicque, Francois

    2009-09-30

    Electrocoagulation technique has been used for the treatment of two wastewaters issued by textile industry. Treatment was carried out in a discontinuous system provided with aluminium or iron electrodes, and with recirculation of the liquid. The efficiency of the technique was followed depending on the electrode material in terms of water treatment, current efficiency of the dissolution, cell voltage, energy consumption to reach the same COD or turbidity abatement: regardless of the quality of the phase separation in the flocculation section downstream of the electrocoagulation cell, the two metals were found to be of comparable efficiency. Besides COD and absorbance were shown to follow similar, regular variations along the treatment; experimental data could be interpreted by a simple model involving the overall equilibrium between the metal dissolved--in the form of hydroxides--and the polluting substance. Abatement of the waste turbidity was observed to obey another law, with a sharp reduction of turbidity after a preliminary phase, where accumulation of metal hydroxide has no effect on this variable.

  19. Investigation of the electro-coagulation treatment process for the removal of total suspended solids and turbidity from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Alaadin A

    2008-03-01

    In this work, raw municipal wastewater was electro-coagulated for the removal of total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, and particulate BOD using stainless steel electrodes. The removal efficiency of TSS and turbidity is shown to depend on the amount of iron generated from the anode of the reactive electrode used in this study, when applying the lower currents of 0.05 A and 0.1A. For such lower currents, the results suggested that the removal is consistent with charge neutralization coagulation mechanism. When applying higher currents of 0.2 A, 0.4 A, and 0.8 A, the results suggested that the dominant removal mechanism is sweep-floc coagulation as the generated soluble ferrous ions are converted to insoluble ferric ions due to oxidation with chlorine generated during the electrochemical process at the higher currents. The highest TSS removal efficiency of 95.4% occurred at a current of 0.8A and contact time of 5 min. The effect of electro-coagulation on the removal of particulate BOD was shown to depend on the TSS removal efficiency.

  20. A combination of electro-enzymatic catalysis and electrocoagulation for the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Di; Du, Penghui; Li, Haitao; Liu, Chenming; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Crittenden, John C; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-10-30

    We in this study investigated a novel electrochemical approach combining electro-enzyme and electrocoagulation to precipitate bisphenol A (BPA) from water containing humic acid (HA). Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the graphite felt of Ti electrode as HRP-GF/Ti cathode, with aluminum plate anode establishing a pair of working electrodes. BPA was 100% removed and the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) reached 95.1% after 20-min sequencing treatment with the current density of 2.3 mA/cm(2). Real wastewater (TOC=28.76 mg/L, BPA=4.1 μg/L) also can achieve 94% BPA removal and 52% TOC reduction after sequencing treatment. Additionally, coupled electro-system with continuous flow only required energy of 0.016 kWh/m(3) to achieve simultaneous 90% BPA and 85% TOC removal. As indicated in the time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR spectra, the electro-enzymatic process not only oxidized BPA into dimer and BPA-3,4-quinone, but also greatly altered the chemical and structural features of HA, where hydrophilic moieties (phenolic and alcohols) transformed into hydrophobic forms (ethers, quinone and aliphatic). These polymerized products were effectively separated from aquous solution during anodic electrocoagulation, leading to significant removal of BPA and TOC. Thus, the coupled process may provide a faster and less energy strategy to control certain emerging contaminants in water/wastewater treatment.

  1. EC Hidraulic Drive Cylinder Relief Vlave Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-04-03

    This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.

  2. Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Meier, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Meier, C., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings. In C. D. Kloos, D. Gillet, R. M. Crespo García, F. Wild, & M. Wolpers (Eds.), Towards Ubiquitous Learning: 6th European Conference of Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2011 (pp. 531-536). Sept

  3. Collaborative innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Sørensen, Eva; Hartley, Jean

    2013-01-01

    There are growing pressures for the public sector to be more innovative but considerable disagreement about how to achieve it. This article uses institutional and organizational analysis to compare three major public innovation strategies. The article confronts the myth that the market......-driven private sector is more innovative than the public sector by showing that both sectors have a number of drivers of as well as barriers to innovation, some of which are similar, while others are sector specific. The article then systematically analyzes three strategies for innovation: New Public Management...... for enhancing public innovation is contingent rather than absolute. Some contingencies for each strategy are outlined....

  4. Electrocoagulation treatment of oiifield biochemical sewage%电絮凝处理油田生化出水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 王海峰; 吴明铂; 郑经堂

    2012-01-01

    为了减轻对后续处理中超滤膜的污染,采用电絮凝法处理油田生化出水,降低油田生化出水中的有机物含量。研究了电流强度、曝气时间和pH值对水中总有机碳(TOC)和浊度除去效果的影响以及pH值随曝气时间的变化趋势,通过红外光谱对絮凝处理前后水中总溶解固体进行了分析,优化了电絮凝的工艺条件。研究表明,当水流速度控制在50mL/s,电流强度为2 A,500 mL絮凝出水的曝气时间为30 min时,整套絮凝工艺对TOC的去除率为48%,浊度去除率为42.9%,COD去除率为44%。%Oilfield biochemical sewage was treated by electrocoagulation to remove impurities and relieve subsequent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. Effects of current intensity, aeration time, and pH value on the re- moval efficiency of TOC and turbidity were investigated, and the change of pH value caused by aeration time was studied. FTIR was employed to analyze the sev~ages before and after electroeoagu[ation treatment. The operation conditions of electrocoagulation treatment for oilfield biochemical sewage were optimized. Results show that the removal efficiencies of TOG, turbidity and COD are 48% , 42.9% , and 44% for 500 niL of electrocoagulation sewage when flow speed, current intensity, and aeration time are 50 mL/s, 2 A and 30 min,respectively.

  5. Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  6. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  7. Science Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  8. Responsive Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten

    Although the importance of stakeholder networks has been recognized in recent years, a non-teleological model that incorporates their collective sensing into innovation processes has so far not been developed. Hence, this paper argues that traditional linear and sequential innovation models...... are insufficient in hypercompetitive environments. Instead, it is proposed that companies should ground their innovation processes in the collective sensing of frontline-employees and customers that operate around the organizational periphery. This frames the concept of responsive innovation, where key...

  9. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  10. Encouraging innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Anthony A

    2014-02-01

    Innovation is central to the scientific endeavor, and yet the current system of funding in the United States discourages innovation, especially in the young. Subtle alterations to the funding system, guided in part by the success of the European Research Council, could have major effects on encouraging innovation.

  11. Innovative Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  12. Brugerdreven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2007-01-01

    På et generelt plan er vores afsæt et opgør med traditionelle modeller for kreativitet og innovation. Artiklen mener, at brugerdreven innovation ikke bare en god idé, men en beskrivelse af, hvordan innovation finder sted. Vores afsæt er interaktionsdesign, hvor vi bygger på den antagelse...

  13. Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Claudio; Soto-Salazar, César; Toral, M Inés

    2006-12-01

    Chemical, electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine the effectiveness of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium. The electrochemical process, which uses electrodes of commercial laminate steel, was applied to simulated wastewater containing 12 mg dm(-3) of copper, 4 mg dm(-3) of lead and 4 mg dm(-3) of cadmium. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as pH=7, flow rate=6.3 cm(3) min(-1) and a current density between 31 and 54 A m(-2). When the electrode geometric area and time of electrolysis reached critical values, the copper removal reached a maximum value of 80%. A linear relationship was identified between the current density and the mass of generated sludge. In addition, a linear relationship was found between specific energy consumption and current density. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of an industrial-scale electrolytic reactor.

  14. Innovation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R

    2016-10-11

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975-1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more.

  15. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  16. A new rat model of glaucoma induced by intracameral injection of silicone oil and electrocoagulation of limbal vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xue-qian; TIAN Bei; LIU Zhi-cheng; WEI Wen-bin; TAO Yong; SUN Shi-jie; ZHANG Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background A satisfied glaucoma model is absent now.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of intracameral injection of silicone oil and electrocoagulation of corneal limbal vessels and episcleral veins in the rats to establish glaucoma model.Methods Operation was performed in each of the left eyes of 90 adult male rats.Right eyes were used as controls.Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) was performed with an applanation tonometer (Tong-Pen).Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were retrogradely labeled by applying FluoroGold onto the bilateral superior colliculus.Results During the follow-up (24 weeks),the lOP of the study eyes was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control eyes (at final examination,IOP of control eyes was (13.4±1.0) mmHg and lOP of study eyes was (16.1±1.8) mmHg).Correspondingly,at 24 weeks after operation,the RGCs density of the study eyes (2286.11±290.45/mm2) was significantly lower than the control eyes (2626.46±164.85/mm2,P<0.01).In the operated eyes,histological examination showed excavation of optic disc and increased neuroglial cells in the optic nerve,reduced thickness of retina and diminution of retinal ganglion cells,and atrophy of ciliary body and iris.Notably,the anterior chamber angle of the operated eye remained open.Conclusions A combination of intracameral injection of silicone oil and electrocoagulation of comeal limbal vessels and episcleral veins may establish a reliable glaucoma model for further research.

  17. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  18. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  19. Workplace innovation and social innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Ben Fruytier; Steven Dhondt; Peter R.A. Oeij; Jürgen Howaldt

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to the special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to enh

  20. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa M, G.; Barrera D, C.; Balderas H, P.; Zaldumbide O, F. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes P, H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Bilyeu, B., E-mail: groam@uaemex.mx [Xavier University of Louisiana, Department of Chemistry, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 10{sup 6}Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10{sup -5} mg L{sup -1}. Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L{sup -1} AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  1. Temperature Control of Evaporative Cooler (EC for Converter Dry Dedusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The converter dry dedusting is more complicated with higher requirements in automatic control than the wet dust extraction. The key difficult point is the EC temperature control. This paper puts forth a method to effectively deal with the fluctuated-drastically temperature caused by control lagging at the EC outlet in the traditional converter dry dedusting. The EC outlet temperature can be under control of technological requirement by combining controls of proportion, empirical value, fuzziness and PID. The intelligent system is available with parameter auto tuning, which facilitates the on-site debugging greatly for operators. The result of the on-site application suggests that this method can be used to well handle some technological difficulties in the EC temperature control.    

  2. Electronic Project of Taxation Based on EC Under Single Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; ZENG Xiao-ping

    2002-01-01

    Because of no real location and its virtual interaction, the information flow, the cash flow and the logistic flow of EC(Electronic Commerce) are to be separated individually. So the traditional taxation based on those three flows is challenged. Under this condition, this paper researches how to levy taxes on EC through internet using internet technology. As to simplify the model, it relates under a single nation. But it will also give some measures about the international trades.

  3. Progress in conceptual design of EU DEMO EC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Saul; Bruschi, Alex; Franke, Thomas; Granucci, Gustavo; Grossetti, Giovanni; Jelonnek, John; Moro, Alessandro; Poli, Emanuele; Rispoli, Natale; Strauss, Dirk; Tran, Quang Minh

    2017-07-01

    Since 2014 under the umbrella of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive (WPHCD) is performing the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems of the future fusion power plant DEMO. This presentation covers the activities performed in the last two years on the EC system conceptual design, as part of the WPHCD, focusing on launchers, transmission lines, system reliability and architecture.

  4. [Comparative analysis of application of highly intensive laser irradiation and electrocoagulation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed for destructive forms of an acute calculous cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichitayio, M Yu; Bazyak, A M; Klochan, V V; Grusha, P K; Goman, A V

    2015-02-01

    Comparative analysis of results of the laser diode (the wave length 940 nm) and elec- trocoagulation application while performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was con- ducted. For an acute calculous cholecystitis 52 patients were operated, in whom instead of electrocoagulation the laser was applied, provide for reduction of thermal impact on tissues, the complications absence, reduction of the patients stationary treatment duration postoperatively from (5.2 ± 1.2) to (4.9 ± 0.6) days.

  5. 电絮凝用于焦化废水脱色的研究%Study on decolorization of coking wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张垒; 薛改凤; 张楠; 刘尚超; 段爱民; 刘璞

    2011-01-01

    The decolorization and chemical oxygen demand(COD) reduction of coking wastewater has been carried out by electrocoagulation process.In the meanwhile effects of operating parameters,such as current density,pH of solution,electrolyte concentration and hydraulic residence time(HRT) on decolorization by continuous electrocoagulation are further studied in order to optimize process performance.The UV-Vis spectrum data proves that organic pollutants of the coking wastewater can be effectively degraded and decolorized by electrocoagulation.Results show that the effects of electrocoagulation process on the decolorization of the coking wastewater are obvious and up to 91% of color removal efficiency is obtained after 80 min reaction at 25 ℃ with a current density of 30 mA /cm2,a pH of 8.0,an electrode distance of 1.0 cm and a supporting electrolyte concentration of 0.5 g /L.%采用了连续电絮凝工艺对焦化废水进行深度处理,考察了电流密度、溶液pH值、电解质密度和水力停留时间等工艺参数对脱色效率的影响。UV-Vis谱图证实了电絮凝能有效地对有机物进行降解和脱色。结果表明,电絮凝工艺对焦化废水脱色效果明显,当电流密度为30 mA/cm2,pH值为8.0,极板距为1.0 cm,支持电解质浓度为0.5 g/L,在25℃下反应80 min后脱色效率达91%以上。

  6. Efficacy of high frequency electrocoagulation for colorectal polyps under colonoscopy%大肠息肉125例内镜下治疗效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠明; 周明霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of high frequency electrocoagulation for colorectal polyps under colonoscopy. Methods One hundred and twenty-five patients treated by high frequency electrocoagulation under colonoscopy from May 2007 to May 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Results One hundred and twenty-five patients with 281 polyps were successfully treated, 98 polyps were cauterized by high frequency electrocoagulation, 91 polyps were removed by the high frequency snare, and 92 polyps were treated by argon plasma coagulation. The complications included 4 cases of hemorrhage and 1 case of perforation. The incidence of complications was 4. 0% . ConclusionHigh frequency electrocoagulation under colonoscope is an effective and safe method for colorectal polyps.%目的 探讨大肠息肉内镜下治疗的疗效及安全性.方法 对2007年5月~2011年5月施行肠镜下息肉高频电凝切除的125例病例进行回顾性分析.结果 本组125例患者,共281枚息肉均予高频电凝切除,治疗过程中98枚采用圈套电凝电切,91枚采用电凝烧灼,92枚采用氩离子凝固术.本组并发症中有4例并发出血,1例并发穿孔,并发症发生率为4.0%.结论 内镜下高频电凝切除大肠息肉是一种简便、安全和有效的方法.

  7. 腹腔镜阑尾切除术中系膜处理分析%Comparative Study of Mesoappendix Electrocoagulation and Silk Ligature in Laparoscopic Appendectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文伟; 劳日初; 黄永泰; 叶卫东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effects of mesoappendix electrocoagulation and silk ligature in LA. Methods 709 cases of appendicitis were treated by LA using either electrocoagulation or silk ligature to ligate the mesoappendix. The therapeutic effect of the two groups were compared. Results Laparoscopic appendectomy was successfully completed in 709 cases. Conclusion The two methods of treating the mesenterium are reliable. Compared to silk ligature,electrocoagulation is easy to be mastered,and it can decrease operating time and reduce the hospitalization fees.%目的:比较腹腔镜阑尾切除术(LA)“阑尾系膜电凝法”和“丝线结扎法”的临床效果。方法随机将709例患者分为两组,分别采用“阑尾系膜电凝法”和“丝线结扎法”处理阑尾系膜,对比其治疗效果。结果709例均顺利完成手术。结论两种系膜处理方法均可靠,系膜电凝法较丝线结扎法可明显缩短手术时间,节省住院费用,操作简单可行。

  8. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  9. Innovation @ NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  10. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  11. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  12. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  13. Managing Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1991-01-01

    Describes one library's use of technological innovation to provide Associated Press updates over the library's 24-hour dial-up service during the Persian Gulf War. Suggests five rules for innovation: (1) develop a shared vision; (2) foster frequent, formal, and informal communication; (3) empower employees; (4) take limited risks; and (5) use, but…

  14. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. Theories within SNM look upon innovation in a sector as a socio-technical phenomenon and identifies three levels of socio......-technical interaction within which sectorial innovation can be explained. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built in the existing ways of working and developing over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the sociotechnical landscape through...... trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being...

  15. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  16. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  17. Everyday Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers’ everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable...... difficulties. Design/methodology/approach – Based on two ethnographic field studies, we analyse vocational teaching situations in which teachers and students engage in daily remaking of the vocational educational training practice. It is argued that these everyday situations can be understood as innovative...... transformation of participation and practice. Findings – The exploration of teachers’ practicing new learning spaces sheds light on innovation potential embedded in everyday educational practices. The paper thus challenges the celebration of radical innovation and argues that innovation emerges from everyday...

  18. Responsible innovation

    CERN Document Server

    De Woot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Economic development is rooted in disruption, not in equilibrium. And a powerful engine of economic development is innovation; but is this innovation always for the common good? The dark side of the extraordinary dynamism of innovation lies precisely in its destructive power. If simply left to market forces, it could lead to social chaos and great human suffering. To face the challenges of our time, we must create the proper climate and culture to develop strong entrepreneurial drive. But, more than ever, we must give this entrepreneurial drive its ethical and societal dimensions. Responsible innovation means a more voluntary orientation towards the great problems of the 21st century, e.g. depletion of the planet's resources, rising inequality, and new scientific developments potentially threatening freedom, democracy and human integrity. We need to transform our ceaseless creativity into real progress for humankind. In this respect, the rapid development of social innovation opens the door for new methods an...

  19. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  20. Online Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

    ways of communicating, cooperating and coordinating during the innovation and product development process. Moreover, it challenges the traditional business model in that it forces the actors involved to shift the focus from the innovation itself to the identification of new supporting services higher...... implications for existing software manufacturers. The paper therefore includes the case of IBM, a company which has successfully integrated this new and more open way of collaboration into its business model. Findings - The paper concludes that online computer-based innovation fundamentally challenges current......  Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of online networking during the innovation process, including its role(s) in communication, cooperation and coordination. The paper neither implicitly assumes that online computer-based networking is a prerequisite for the innovation...

  1. Alpha- and EC-decay measurements of {sup 257}Rf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessberger, F.P. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Antalic, S.; Andel, B.; Kalaninova, Z. [Comenius University in Bratislava, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mistry, A.K.; Laatiaoui, M. [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, D.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Block, M. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Piot, J.; Vostinar, M. [GANIL, Caen (France)

    2016-07-15

    Alpha- and Electron capture (EC) decay properties of {sup 257}Rf were investigated by measuring α-γ coincidences and correlations between conversion electrons (CE) emitted during the process of EC decay of {sup 257}Rf and α decays of the daughter isotope {sup 257}Lr. So far, previously unobserved α (8296 keV)-γ (557 keV) coincidences were measured and interpreted as decays of {sup 257m}Rf (11/2{sup -}[725]) into the 7/2{sup -}[743] level in {sup 253}No. A search of delayed coincidences between α particles and signals at E ≤ 1000 keV, which are interpreted as being due to CE emission, revealed a clear correlation between CE and α particles from the decay of {sup 257}Lr, which is regarded as a direct proof of the EC decay of {sup 257g}Rf and {sup 257m}Rf. (orig.)

  2. ECS: efficient communication scheduling for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lu; Hong, Feng; Guo, Zhongwen; Li, Zhengbao

    2011-01-01

    TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs), because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS) for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols.

  3. The Danish EC/EU referenda from 1972-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Kristian Ersbøll Berg; Sander, Rasmus Christian Wolff

    2016-01-01

    The main research question of this thesis is: “By which dominant discourses are truth value claimed in an electoral campaign prior to a Danish EC/EU referendum and how is this ‘a collective activity of thinking’?” To answer the research question, a Governmentality analysis of the Danish EC/EU referenda from 1972-2015 is conducted based on the theoretical framework of Michel Foucault, Nikolas Rose & Peter Miller and Mitchell Dean. Furthermore, four qualitative interviews with politicians an...

  4. ECS: Efficient Communication Scheduling for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs, because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols.

  5. European Company Survey : construction of the workplace innovation index and selection of companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Corral, A.; Isusi, I.; Totterdill, P.; Karanika-Murray, M.

    2014-01-01

    For the selection of company cases from the ECS 2013 dataset for the Eurofound-project on workplace innovation, TNO-IKEI has developed a selection procedure. This report describes the procedure. The end result of this selection is a list of ID-numbers of the companies in the ECS that are expected to

  6. European Company Survey : construction of the workplace innovation index and selection of companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Corral, A.; Isusi, I.; Totterdill, P.; Karanika-Murray, M.

    2014-01-01

    For the selection of company cases from the ECS 2013 dataset for the Eurofound-project on workplace innovation, TNO-IKEI has developed a selection procedure. This report describes the procedure. The end result of this selection is a list of ID-numbers of the companies in the ECS that are expected to

  7. Design & Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, Per; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    The new design and innovation programme at DTU is challenging some of the standard concepts dominating most engineering educations. The programme, its background, context and basic educational ideas are presented and discussed in this paper. To build competences that match the need for innovative...... and design oriented engineers in industry and society has turned out to challenge a number of the standard – and often taken for granted – concepts in engineering education still dominated world wide by rather strict norms and concepts of learning that do not challenge the students creativity and innovative...

  8. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....

  9. Responsive Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten

    of the firm’s daily operations. Yet, they are rarely asked to provide updated information about critical issues. The present paper seeks to conceptually develop the notion of responsive innovation, by drawing on literary streams concerning collective sensing, strategic issue diagnosis and integra......-tive strategy within a micro foundations perspective. It is posited that companies should root their innovation processes in the collective sensing of frontline-employees and customers that operate around the organizational periphery. This frames the con-cept of responsive innovation, where individuals engaged...

  10. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....

  11. The ITER EC H&CD upper launcher: Structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaeh, P.; Aiello, G.; de M. Baar,; Chavan, R.; Elzendoorn, B.; Goodman, T.; Henderson, M.; Kleefeldt, K.; Landis, J. D.; Meier, A.; Ronden, D.; Saibene, G.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Serikov, A.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2011-01-01

    Four ITER EC H&CD (Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive) Upper Launchers will be installed in the ITER Tokamak to counteract plasma instabilities by injection of up to 20 MW of millimeter-wave power at 170 GHz. Each Launcher features a structural system which is equipped with eight b

  12. The E-C Translation of Vocabularies in Sports News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many world top level sports events take place in China. The exchange in sports field between China and international society adds more significance to the E-C translation of sports news. This paper analyses the lexical features of sports news and then explains some difficulties in the translation of the words of sports news.

  13. EC-aided Gas Project Wound Up Satisfactorily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Anfang

    1995-01-01

    @@ China and European Community signed an agreement on technical cooperation in March 1989,which offers China an EC aid of 2.6 million Ecu (3.32 million US dollars) for the energy project titled"Development of China's natural gas resources."

  14. EC-LEDS Supports the Low-Carbon Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    EC-LEDS is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries to create and implement low emission development strategies, or LEDS -- development frameworks that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing greenhouse gas emissions over the medium to long term.

  15. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    welcome

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... sp is not susceptible to Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac toxin so, there is ... encodes an insecticidal protein Cry1EC, (ii) 35S promoter from cauliflower ... the embryogenic calli were treated with the bacterial suspension by shaking ...

  16. EC-CERN Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signature

    CERN Multimedia

    EC audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    Signature of the Memorandum of Understanding EC-CERN at Brussels with Mr. José Manuel Silva Rodriguez, European Commission Director General for Research , Rolf Heuer, CERN’s Director-General and Torsten Akesson, President of the CERN Council

  17. EC-LEDS Mexico: Advancing Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    EC-LEDS works with the government of Mexico to help meet its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. The program targets specific, highly technical areas where Mexico has indicated the program can add value and make an impact.

  18. Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy

      Innovation is the forgotten key to modern systems development - the element that defines the enterprising engineer, the thriving software firm and the cutting edge software application.  Traditional forms of technical education pay little attention to creativity - often encouraging overly...... rationalistic ways of thinking which stifle the ability to innovate. Professional software developers are often drowned in commercial drudgery and overwhelmed by work pressure and deadlines. The topic that will both ensure success in the market and revitalize their work lives is never addressed. This book sets...... out the new field of software innovation. It organizes the existing scientific research into eight simple heuristics - guiding principles for organizing a system developer's work-life so that it focuses on innovation....

  19. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  20. Innovation Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA promotes environmental stewardship by recognizing innovators in schools, communities and businesses in categories such as environmental education, green chemistry, smart growth, green power, and reducing air pollution and climate change impacts.

  1. Reconsidering Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2014-01-01

    and debates about change, myths, and othering can help us rethink theoretical approaches to innovation in organizational studies, and the concern is especially to consider the implications that our “innovation myths” can have for public employees and the valuation their work. The argument in the paper......, is by taking the reader along on a journey through a fieldwork that changed my own understanding of innovation, made me look for alternative theories to address cultural understandings of change and continuity in organizational settings, and brought me back to myths of creation, Claude Lévi......Innovation and reforms seem to be on the agenda everywhere, not least in political attempts to reorganize the public sector in ways that are supposed to enable our welfare societies to survive economic turmoil and sinister future prognosis. This paper examines how classical anthropological theories...

  2. Reconsidering Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Innovation and reforms seem to be on the agenda everywhere, not least in political attempts to reorganize the public sector in ways that are supposed to enable our welfare societies to survive economic turmoil and sinister future prognosis. This paper examines how classical anthropological theories...... and debates about change, myths, and othering can help us rethink theoretical approaches to innovation in organizational studies, and the concern is especially to consider the implications that our “innovation myths” can have for public employees and the valuation their work. The argument in the paper...... is that innovation is better understood as a perspective (a prism) than as a product or a process, and that this perspective tends to “other” people who’s work is not visible as a positive asset in a budget, but may be visible as a positive contribution in people’s lives. The way in which that point is made...

  3. Online Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

    on proprietary knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - The paper borrows from the theory of communities-of-practice, which takes into account social relations, contacts, and the transfer and incorporation of knowledge. Open source innovation is not the exclusive preserve of computer nerds, but also has...... implications for existing software manufacturers. The paper therefore includes the case of IBM, a company which has successfully integrated this new and more open way of collaboration into its business model. Findings - The paper concludes that online computer-based innovation fundamentally challenges current...... for practitioners directly involved in innovation and product development. Originality/value - This paper develops a conceptual framework for understanding product development based on non-proprietary knowledge, which cannot be adequately accounted for by traditional corporate innovation theory alone....

  4. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  5. Feasibility of electrocoagulation/flotation treatment of waste offset printing developer based on the response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the printing plate developing process, the offset printing developer undergoes changes, as well as enrichment by the various chemicals, i.e. metals, organic binders and photosensitive compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF treatment efficiency for the removal of copper, turbidity and organic substances from the waste offset printing developer (WOPD. The effect of operational parameters, such as electrode materials, current density, interelectrode distance and operating time, was studied. Also, the response surface analysis was applied to evaluate the effect of main operational variables and to get a balanced removal efficiency of investigated WOPD parameters by ECF treatment. The removal efficiency increases significantly with the increasing of operating time and mainly increases with the increasing of current density. The obtained results show that the interelectrode distance and combinations of electrodes determine the removal efficiency of copper, turbidity and organic substances. Based on the obtained results, the optimized parameters for the ECF treatment removal of investigated WOPD parameters were identified as: Al(−/Fe(+ electrode combination with interelectrode distance of 1.0 cm, operating time of 5 min and current density of 8 mA cm−2. This study confirms the practical feasibility of ECF method for treating real printing industrial effluent under optimum conditions.

  6. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou0388@hotmail.com [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kai-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  7. Taguchi Modeling for Techno-Economical Evaluation of Cr+6 Removal by Electrocoagulation Process With the Aid of Two Coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to apply the Taguchi method for techno-economical evaluation of Cr+6 removal using the electro-coagulation process with the aid of two different coagulants (FeCl3 and PAC. Taguchi orthogonal array L27 (313 was applied for analyzing the effect of four variables including initial pH, reaction time, current density and coagulant types in an attempt to improve the chromium removal efficiency. Based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N and the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the results indicated that the reaction time was the most important variable on the hexavalent chromium removal efficiency. However, the current density, reaction time and coagulant types significantly influenced the operating costs. The optimum conditions for the mentioned variables were found to be an initial pH of 7, a reaction time of 60 min, a current density of 12.5 mA/cm2 and FeCl3 as a coagulant. Due to the interaction between the initial pH and coagulant type at pH 7, PAC also considered as a coagulant in this experiment. Under the mentioned conditions, the removal efficiencies of 92% and 95% were achieved using the chromium removal process by FeCl3 and PAC, respectively.

  8. Kinetics, isothermal and thermodynamics studies of electrocoagulation removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution using steel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Balakrishnan, Ramesh Babu

    2015-09-01

    Electrocoagulation was used for the removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution, and the process was carried out in a batch electrochemical cell with steel electrodes in monopolar connection. The effects of some important parameters such as current density, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration, on the process, were investigated. Equilibrium was attained after 10 min at 30 °C. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Avrami kinetic models were used to test the experimental data in order to elucidate the kinetic adsorption process; pseudo-first-order and Avrami models best fitted the data. Experimental data were analysed using six model equations: Langmuir, Freudlinch, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Sips isotherms and it was found that the data fitted well with Sips isotherm model. The study showed that the process depends on current density, temperature, pH and initial dye concentration. The calculated thermodynamics parameters (Δ G^circ ,Δ H^circ {text{and}}Δ S{^circ } ) indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  9. Effect of pH and chloride concentration on the removal of hexavalent chromium in a batch electrocoagulation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, M.G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Herranz, V., E-mail: vperez@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montanes, M.T.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Guinon, J.L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-09-30

    In this work, the effect of pH and chloride ions concentration on the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater by batch electrocoagulation using iron plate electrodes has been investigated. The initial solution pH was adjusted with different concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The presence of chloride ions enhances the anode dissolution due to pitting corrosion. Fe{sup 2+} ions formed during the anode dissolution cause the reduction of Cr(VI) to form Cr(III), which are co-precipitated with Fe{sup 3+} ions at relatively low pH. The reduction degree of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and the solubility of metal hydroxide species (both chromic and iron hydroxides) depend on pH. At higher concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by Fe{sup 2+} ions is preferred, but the coagulation of Fe{sup 3+} and Cr(III) is favoured at the lower H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentrations.

  10. What is Media Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand and explain current developments in the media landscape, using the lens of innovation and innovation theory adds value to media research. This chapter gives a theoretical introduction to the concept of innovation. It argues that media innovations may be related to product innovation, process innovation, position innovation, paradigmatic innovation and social innovation, and that innovation may involve different degrees of novelty. The chapter also highlights key influen...

  11. 电凝法制作大鼠脑卒中模型的改良研究%Improved electrocoagulation method for establishing rat cerebral apoplexy model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海朋; 胡永波; 张小东; 王娜; 谢鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve the electrocoagulation method for establishing a rat cerebral apoplexy model, and to evaluate the improved electrocoagulation method. Methods Rat cerebral apoplexy models were established with Tamura method and an improved electrocoagulation method separately. Twenty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (body weights 200 to 300 g) were divided into five groups; a Tamura operation group, a Tamura sham-operation group ( no middle cerebral artery occlusion) , a first improved operation group (middle cerebral artery occlusion in position 1) , a second improved operation group (middle cerebral artery occlusion in position 2) , and an improved sham-operation group ( no middle cerebral artery occlusion). After operation, the neurological deficit and cerebral infarction area and site of rats were tested. Results Compared with Tamura method, the improved electrocoagulation method had shorter operation time and did not induce temporomandibular joint disorder. No obvious neurological deficit was found in the rats of the first improved operation group, but obvious paralysis of limbs was found in the rats of the second improved operation group. The rats of the first improved operation group that had infarction confined in the cerebral cortex exhibited a smaller infarction area than the rats of the second improved operation group that had infarction in the cerebral cortex and lateral caudoputamen. Conclusion The improved electrocoagulation method is simpler and more efficient, has lower requirements for equipments and operation techniques, and causes less injury to rats. With middle cerebral artery occlusion at different sites, the improved electrocoagulation method can induce cerebral infarction in different areas and at different sites, and thus, is suitable for experiments with different conditions and purposes.%目的 对电凝制作大鼠脑卒中模型方法进行改良及评价.方法 将26只成年雄性SD大鼠(体质量200~300 g)分成5

  12. Social innovation as institutional innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards Schachter, Mónica E.; Benneworth, Paul; Amanatidou, Effie; Gulbrandsen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo presentado a la Annual Conference of the EU-SPRI Forum: "Innovation policies for economic and social transitions: Developing strategies for knowledge, practices and organizations" celebrada en Helsinki (Finlandia) del 9 al 12 de junio de 2015.

  13. Seizure threshold to lidocaine is decreased following repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, J; Seidelin, J; Bolwig, T G

    1993-01-01

    Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days, an ECS weekly for 18 weeks, and 18 sham treatments, respectively. Twelve weeks after the last ECS...

  14. Seizure threshold to lidocaine is decreased following repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, J; Seidelin, J; Bolwig, T G

    1993-01-01

    Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days, an ECS weekly for 18 weeks, and 18 sham treatments, respectively. Twelve weeks after the last ECS...

  15. 电絮凝强化陶瓷微滤膜出水水质研究%Enhanced Effluent Quality of Ceramic Microfiltration Membrane Combined with Electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振; 姚吉伦; 庞治邦; 刘波

    2016-01-01

    In order to treat micro-polluted surface water more effective by using ceramic microfiltration mem-brane, electrocoagulation was employed to improve the effluent quality of ceramic membrane.Factors such as cur-rent density, influent flow and filtering mode that affected the effluent quality in hybrid process was studied.The optimized operating conditions were current density of 2.0 mA/cm2 , influent flow of 4 L/min and cross flow filtra-tion with 100%excretion rate.At the same time, the comparison of ceramic microfiltration membrane performance with chemical-coagulation and electrocoagulation pretreatment were conducted.The results indicated that conven-tional chemical coagulation was superior to electrocoagulation in organic matter removal and the gap in it raised with the increasing of Al3+concentration.%为提高陶瓷微滤膜净化微污染水的效果,采用电絮凝预处理工艺提高陶瓷膜的出水水质。研究了电流密度、进水流量以及过滤模式对组合工艺出水水质的影响,得到了最佳运行参数:电流密度2.0 mA/cm2,进水流量4 L/min,过滤模式为错流过滤浓水全排除。同时,对比了化学絮凝和电絮凝对陶瓷微滤膜出水水质的影响,结果表明:电絮凝对有机物的去除效果不及化学絮凝,两者的差距随着Al3+浓度的增加而增大。

  16. 双极电凝治疗儿童鼻出血疗效分析%Analysis of curative effect of bipolar electrocoagulation in children epistaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of bipolar electrocoagulation and cryotherapy in the treatment of children epistaxis. Methods 118 cases of children epistaxis in our hospital were divided into two groups,treatment group were performed with bipolar electrocoagulation and control group with cryotherapy. The curative effects were compared between the two groups. Results The curative effect of treatment group is superior to that of control group(P<0.01). Conclusion Bipolar electrocoagulation is superior to cryotherapy in treatment of children epistaxis and it is a safe, effective, simple operation, rapid treatment with less pain.%  目的观察双极电凝治疗儿童鼻出血的疗效。方法选择2009年1月-2012年1月在我科门诊治疗的118例鼻出血患儿,分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组采用双极电凝治疗,对照组采用冷冻治疗,比较2组患者的治疗效果。结果双极电凝治疗儿童鼻出血疗效优于冷冻疗法,2组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论双极电凝治疗儿童鼻出血是一种安全、有效的治疗方法,具有操作简便、迅速、痛苦小等特点,值得临床推广应用。

  17. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather

  18. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Res

  19. EC,ASMC and Macrophage Oxidize Human Low Density Lipoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Zhao-ming; Wu Jun-zhu; Li Xiao-ming; Chen Li-da; Hong Jia-ling

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo , LDL was incubated with endothelium cell (EC),artery smooth muscle cell (ASMC) and macrophage, and then the change of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in cell and medium and the oxidation of LDL by those three cells were assessed. The result showed that LDL promoted the activity of cellular and secretive myeloperoxidase which was concentration-dependent on LDL; with elevation of MPO activity, oxidation of LDL intensified, which was expressed by the formation of conjugated dienes and the elevation of thiobarbituric acid teactive substance (TBARS). Macrophage's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL at both low and high concentration; EC's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL only at high concentration and ASMC's MPO activity wasn't sensitive to LDL concentration change. The results suggest that Macrophage might be crucial to the oxidation of LDL in vivo, in which MPO might play an important role.

  20. EC,ASMC and Macrophage Oxidize Human Low Density Lipoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai; Zhao-ming; Wu; Jun-zhu; 等

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo, LDL was incubated with endothelium cell (EC),artery smooth muscle cell (ASMC) and macrophage, and then the change of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in cell and medium and the oxidation of LDL by those three cells were assessed. The result showed that LDL promoted the activity of cellular and secretive myeloperoxidase which was concentration-dependent on LDL; with elevation of MPO activity, oxidation of LDL intensified, which was expressed by the formation of conjugated dienes and the elevation of thiobarbituric acid teactive substance (TBARS). Macrophage's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL at both low and high concentration; EC's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL only at high concentration and ASMC's MPO activity wasn't sensitive to LDL concentration change. The results LDL in vivo, in which MPO might play an important role.

  1. X-ray spectroscopy in the EC nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung Kook; Cho, Hyun Jae; Nha, Sang Kyun

    1998-10-01

    The probabilities PKK of double K-shell vacancy production per K electron capture decay and per K internal conversion of 109Cd and 207Bi have been determined by means of the double- and triple-coincidence experiments using Kα X-ray and K internal conversion. For 109Cd we find PKK(EC) = (4.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -5 and PKK(IC) = (4.32 ± 0.46) × 10 -5, and for 207Bi, PKK(EC) = (2.54 ± 0.50) × 10 -5. The observed X-ray energy shifts of the hypersatellite Ag ( Kα1H) X-ray and the hypersatellite Pb ( Kα1H) X-ray lines are 545±15 eV and 1238±45 eV, respectively.

  2. Nanoscale Bio-Molecular Control Using EC-OWLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P; Voros, J; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M

    2002-11-20

    A recently developed technique termed ''Electrochemical Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy'' (EC-OWLS) [1] combines evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. Initial EC-OWLS investigations efficiently monitored molecular surface adsorption and layer thickness changes of an adsorbed polymer layer examined in situ as a function of potential applied to a waveguide1. A layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high refractive index waveguide for optical sensing, and a conductive electrode; an electrochemical flow-through fluid cell incorporated working, reference and counter electrodes. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) served as a model, polycation adsorbate. Results indicate that adsorption and desorption of PLL-g-PEG from aqueous buffer are a function of applied potential, and that binding events subsequent to PLL-g-PEG functionalization are dependent on reorganization in the molecular adlayer.

  3. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Turcu; Ian Foster; Svetlozar Nestorov

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.). Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined applicat...

  4. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  5. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  6. On E-C Translation of Proprietary Business Brand Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-min; ZHAO Wan-li

    2015-01-01

    An excellent translation of proprietary business brand terms is more important in international trade. Diverse cultural backgrounds and purposiveness of products are the most influential factors. The research tries to analyze the elements of cultural background and aims of products that affect E-C translation of proprietary business brand terms by descriptive study method and experience summary method, and then to provide methods to overcome these difficulties.

  7. Reconsidering Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Innovation og reformer er på dagsordenen allevegne, ikke mindst i politiske forsøg på at reorganisere den offentlige sektor for at få velfærdssamfundet til at kunne overleve økonomisk tumult og dystre fremtidsprognoser. Dette papir undersøger, hvordan klassiske antropologiske teorier og debatter om...... forandring og myter kan hjælpe os med at genoverveje teoretiske forståelser af innovation i organisatoriske studier. I særlig grad sættes der fokus på de implikationer som vores "innovationsmyte" kan have for offentligt ansatte og værdsættelsen af deres arbejde. Analysens argument er, at innovation ikke skal...

  8. Collaborative innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2011-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. Although the idea of involving internal and external actors in the new product development (NPD) process is not new, the knowledge about...... the benefits and pitfalls is still limited. This paper aims to contribute to refining the concept of open innovation, by investigating how strategic priorities influence the degree of external and internal involvement in the NPD process, moderated by contextual factors. The results indicate that suppliers...... are heavily involved in the NPD process in firms in B2C markets aiming at increasing the innovation volume. For B2B companies the reverse picture emerges. However, when the aim is to increase the radicality of new products, suppliers and customers are heavily involved for firms in B2B markets....

  9. Brugerdreven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2007-01-01

    På et generelt plan er vores afsæt et opgør med traditionelle modeller for kreativitet og innovation. Artiklen mener, at brugerdreven innovation ikke bare en god idé, men en beskrivelse af, hvordan innovation finder sted. Vores afsæt er interaktionsdesign, hvor vi bygger på den antagelse......, at udviklingen af it-systemer i høj grad handler om, hvordan sådanne systemer medierer praksis lokalt frem for fokus på tekniske detaljer eller traditionel kognitiv HCI-design. Denne praksis ser vi som en mediering mellem omstændigheder og processer, hvor tekniske systemer ikke skal ses som en neutralt...

  10. Innovative studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Lilian; Boelsmand, Jens

    Innovative studerende præsenterer en metode til at designe projekter, som gør en forskel i velfærdssamfundet, det vil sige skaber merværdi i virkelighedens verden. Undervejs trænes studerendes innovative kompetencer til at nytænke ydelser, produkter og processer, som skaber værdi for borgerne i...... samfundet.Metoden er bygget op om modellen FIRE-Designs fire faser: Forstå, Ideudvikle, Realisere og Evaluere. Første del af bogen beskriver modellens faser og forklarer begreber som kreativitet, innovation, entreprenørskab, intraprenørskab og iværksætteri. Anden del giver undervisere og studerende en række...

  11. Emergency EC-IC bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Ishizaka, Shigetoshi; Kanaya, Kohei; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has no preventive effect on subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A few studies have assessed whether an urgent EC-IC bypass surgery is an effective treatment for main trunk stenosis or occlusion in acute stage. The authors retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients who underwent urgent EC-IC bypass for symptomatic internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion between January 2003 and December 2011. Clinical characteristics and neuroimagings were evaluated and analyzed. Based on preoperative angiogram, responsible lesions were the internal carotid artery in 19 (32.8%) patients and the middle cerebral artery in 39 (67.2%). No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed improvement of neurological function after surgery, and 74.1% of patients had favorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was associated with insufficient collateral flow and new infarction after bypass surgery.

  12. Effektiv innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret; Brandi, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Er det vækst og udvikling eller åbenhed, videnudvikling, netværk, leg og innovation? Eller er det prisregulering, tilpasning og stærk styring, som skal gøre universiteterne til førende drivkræfter for dansk vækst?......Er det vækst og udvikling eller åbenhed, videnudvikling, netværk, leg og innovation? Eller er det prisregulering, tilpasning og stærk styring, som skal gøre universiteterne til førende drivkræfter for dansk vækst?...

  13. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: Structural system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, Peter, E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano; Gessner, Robby; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Serikov, Arkady [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► ITER EC H and CD Launcher goes towards final design. ► European consortium founded for bringing the EC H and CD launcher towards final design. ► New design updates for dedicated components of the ITER EC H and CD launcher. -- Abstract: After approval of the preliminary design of the ITER EC H and CD Upper Launcher, ECHUL-CA, a consortium of several European research institutes, was founded to pool resources for approaching the final design. At the end of 2011 the consortium has signed a 2 years contract with F4E to go ahead with the work on the launcher. The contract deals with design work on both the port plug, forming the structural system, and the mm-wave-system, which injects the RF-power into the plasma. Within the period of this contract all components being part of the Tritium confinement, of which the closure plate, the support flange, the diamond windows and the waveguide feed-throughs are the most outstanding ones, will get the status of the final design. Important steps to be done for the structural system are the optimization of the mechanical behavior of the launcher, leading to minimum deflections of the port plug during plasma disruptions and optimum seismic resistance. To reduce the effect of halo currents it was decided to recess the first wall of 100 mm compared to the regular blanket tangent. This recess requires substantial changes of the cooling system and the thermo-hydraulic design of the launcher. Also the layout of the shielding arrangement and the integration of the mm-wave system need significant revision. Moreover manufacturing aspects and enhanced remote handling capability are taken into account. For the final design also quality aspects must be considered; thus the design is elaborated with respect to applicable codes and standards, material specifications, risk analyses and the RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) analysis to guarantee maximum performance of the device. This paper

  14. Business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services. Smart EC solution; Kigyoka nrenkei system solution system. Smart EC solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)

  15. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  16. Effektiv innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret; Brandi, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Er det vækst og udvikling eller åbenhed, videnudvikling, netværk, leg og innovation? Eller er det prisregulering, tilpasning og stærk styring, som skal gøre universiteterne til førende drivkræfter for dansk vækst?...

  17. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  18. EC6 for Darlington - a managed-enhancements replication project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, M.R. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    CANDU 6 design has a well-deserved reputation for lifetime performance and on-time, on-schedule construction. Candu Energy is finalizing development of an upgraded reactor product, the Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6), which incorporates the CANDU 6's well-proven features, and adds enhancements that make the reactor even more safe and easier to operate. The EC6 is the only mid-sized reactor (700 MWe class) with a proven pedigree that meets modern reactor expectations and regulatory standards. It is sized for smaller grids and also has outstanding fuel-cycle capability. Some of the key features incorporated into the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, addressing obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the operating plants. The EC6 utilizes modern computers and a distributed control system housed in an advanced control room which, along with automated testing and on-line diagnostics, make the plant easier and safer to operate, with minimal operator intervention. An array of health monitoring equipment are also installed to foretell impending equipment problems, which can be acted upon, avoiding complications that could result in forced shutdowns. Improvements to the fire protection system and enhanced security features will further protect the assets. Containment and seismic capability are upgraded to meet modern standards. The first deployment of the EC6 is anticipated in Canada; other markets are also being pursued. The EC6 reactor is designed for a target lifetime capacity factor of 92% including 94% year-to-year and a 1% Forced Loss Rate. Since the number and duration of maintenance outages impact plant capacity factors, periodic short duration maintenance outages of less than a month once every 36 months is a key target of the EC6 reactor. This objective is achieved by automating a number of tasks such as shutdown systems testing. The

  19. The treatment of chromium containing wastewater using electrocoagulation and the production of ceramic pigments from the resulting sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Onpeker, Suzan Eroglu; Ozel, Emel

    2017-09-15

    This research experimentally investigates the treatment of authentic electroplating wastewater with high Cr(VI) content by electrocoagulation with the obtained sludge being reused as a raw material to produce inorganic pigments. A zero waste process is introduced to help conserve resources and to minimize environmental effects. The effects of operational parameters on electrocoagulation are determined in a batch stirred reactor using an iron electrode. The best performance was observed when a current density 20 mA/cm(2), pH 2.4 and 0.05 M NaCl electrolyte were maintained. The initial Cr(VI) concentration of 1000 mg/L was almost completely abated (∼100%) at an energy cost of 2.68 kWh/m(3), fulfilling the EPA guideline of 2.77 mg/L within a single step process. The sludge was characterized using XRD and XRF showing that the sludge is a rich source of iron and chromium and can be reused to produce value added ceramic pigments. Pigments prepared in this way appeared to be reddish brown and black color in transparent glaze and were also characterized using XRD and XRF. In this study, a zero waste process is successfully introduced with ∼100% Cr(VI) removal, with subsequent reuse of the resulting sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 电絮凝法进行废水处理的研究进展%Wastewater treatment using electrocoagulation technology:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰振; 杨波; 张鸿; 赵绪新; 刘剑洪

    2012-01-01

    The principles and characteristics of the research progress in wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation are summarized. The processes of hydrolyzing and polymerization of Al3+, Fe3+ are analyzed, and the functions of relevant influencing factors are discussed,including electrode materials,pH,current density,etc. In addition,some engineering applications of the electrocoagulation technology are reviewed, including the removal of chromium, phosphorus, fluorine ions,dye pollutants,etc. The existing problems in the above researches and applications and the developing trends of this technology in the future are brought forward.%综述了电絮凝法处理废水的原理和特点,解析Al3+、Fe3+的水解聚合过程,并探讨相关影响因素的作用,包括电极材料、pH、电流密度等,列举了电絮凝法的部分实际应用,包括处理废水中的铬、磷、氟、染料污染物等,并提出目前研究和应用存在的问题及今后该技术的发展方向.

  1. Application of electrocoagulation technology to water treatment%电絮凝技术在水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石磊; 江旭佳; 洪国良; 童美萍

    2013-01-01

    As an environment-friendly technology,electrocoagulation has many advantages,such as less occupied land,wide pollutant species to be removed,high removing efficiency and easy operation,etc.Therefore,it has been widely used for treating various non-biodegradable polluted wastewater and influencing factors of this technology are fully discussed.Some typical applications of the technology to water treatment are analyzed.At the end,by using bibliometric method,the hotspots and devolopment trend of electrocoagulation technology are analyzed.%电絮凝作为一种环境友好型技术,具有占地面积小、去除污染物种类广、去除效率高、工艺操作简便等优势被广泛应用到各种难降解污染废水的处理中.从探讨电絮凝技术的基本原理、影响因素出发,分析了当下利用电絮凝进行废水处理的热点及重点研究.最后采用文献计量学方法分析了电絮凝技术的研究热点及发展趋势.

  2. Comparative study of the safety and efficacy of liquid and dry monopolar electrocoagulation in experimental canine bleeding ulcers using computerized energy monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, C P; Mills, T N; Dark, J M; Lewin, M R; Bown, S G; Northfield, T C; O'Sullivan, J P; Salmon, P R

    1984-01-01

    The drawbacks of monopolar electrocoagulation in the control of gastrointestinal bleeding include tissue adherence, unpredictable energy deposition, and a high incidence of tissue damage. Introduction of a conductive interfacial film of liquid between the monopolar electrode and the bleeding point during electrocoagulation may overcome these drawbacks. A prospective, controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a monopolar electrode in liquid and dry modes when used to coagulate experimental canine bleeding ulcers. All experiments were done in open fashion via a gastrotomy with hand-held electrodes. An analog computer, which could be connected between a standard electrosurgical generator and the electrode, was designed and built to monitor and control the energy delivered to the tissue. Both liquid and dry electrodes were highly effective in stopping bleeding. The liquid electrode was found to be superior to the dry electrode in that tissue adherence was eliminated and energy deposition was more predictable, varying less with angle of incidence. The liquid electrode caused less macroscopic serosal damage and less full-thickness histologic damage if the total energy or number of pulses was limited; however, both caused microscopic full-thickness damage in one-half of the experimental ulcers treated, although no perforations occurred.

  3. 电絮凝处理煤层气产出水%Treatment of water produced with coal-bed methane by electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 冯启言; 宋均轲; 蔡娟

    2012-01-01

    Electrocoagulation was applied to water produced with coal-bed methane treatment.Comparing aluminum and iron electrodes,the former one was selected in the electrocoagulation experiments.The effect of the operational parameters such as inter-electrode,the pH value and current density was investigated.The results showed that the electrocoagulation was an effective water treatment technique for water produced with coal-bed methane.The optimum working pH was found to be in the neutral condition,allowing water produced with coal-bed methane to be treated directly without adding soluble salts to the water and changing the pH of the solution.The appropriate experimental conditions for water produced with coal-bed methane treatment by electrocoagulation are quantified.Electrode distance is 1 cm.The current intensity is 30 A/m2.The COD and SS reach 9.6 mg/L and 8.5 mg/L after 10 min reaction,of which the removal efficiencies are about 75.1% and 88.8%,respectively.The pH value of effluent is 7.8.The power requirement is 1.75 kWh/m3.Experimental investigations show that the electrocoagulation is an effective water treatment technique for water produced with coal-bed methane.%采用电絮凝法处理煤层气产出水,通过铁和铝2种电极材料的处理效果的比较,选择铝电极进行实验,研究了电极间距、原水pH值以及电流密度等因素对电絮凝处理效果的影响。实验结果表明,电絮凝法对煤层气产出水的化学需氧量(COD)和固体悬浮物(SS)具有良好的去除效果,原水pH接近中性时处理效果较好,电絮凝处理过程中不需添加可溶性盐和改变pH值。实验中确定的电絮凝处理条件为:电极间距1 cm,电流密度30 A/m2,反应10 min后,出水的COD、SS分别为9.6 mg/L和8.5 mg/L,去除率分别达到75.1%和88.8%,出水pH为7.8,电能消耗为1.75 kWh/m3。

  4. Rethinking Open Innovation Beyond the Innovation Funnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanhaverbeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In his article, I first argue that open innovation can be applied in situations where companies do not themselves develop new products or services. As a consequence, open innovation becomes relevant for a much larger group of organizations than previously considered. Second, I argue that open-innovation scholars have insufficiently differentiated open-innovation initiatives in terms of their impact on companies’ growth: some open-innovation initiatives lead to incremental innovations in an existing business while, in other cases, open-innovation initiatives are used to establish completely new businesses. Both arguments illustrate the need to integrate open-innovation initiatives into the strategy of the firm.

  5. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  6. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  7. Integration of IC/EC systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, T., E-mail: Thibault.Gassmann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Beaumont, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baruah, U.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Chiocchio, S.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Denisov, G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Mukherjee, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Rasmussen, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6483 (United States); Saibene, G.; Sartori, R. [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanga, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems that are to be installed in ITER during the construction phase, are the electron cyclotron (EC) and ion cyclotron (IC) systems. They are complex assemblies of high voltage power supplies (HVPS), RF generators, transmission lines and antennas. Their design and integration are constrained by many interfaces, both internal, between the subsystems, and external, with the other ITER systems. In addition, some components must be compatible with a nuclear environment and are classified as Safety Important Component. This paper describes the processes implemented in ITER to ensure proper integration.

  8. Fairness and the EC budget: Is Spain tilting at windmills?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Roger; Jones, Philip

    1991-01-01

    The poorer member states of the EC are often disappointed at what they see as a very limited degree of redistribution of resources away from the richer members towards the less well off. In a recent paper to the intergovernmental conference (IGC) on political union, for example, Spain calls for a number of measures, including explicit inter-state budget transfers, in order to increase the rate of convergence of income levels across member states. The purpose of this paper is to review the deg...

  9. Innovation Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Current regulatory approaches are ill-equipped to address the challenges of governing through periods of disruptive technological change. This article hones in on the use of assessment regimes at the level of the European Union, particularly in the work of the Commission, to argue for a missing...... middle between technology assessment and impact assessment. Technology assessment focuses on the upstream governance of science and technology, while impact assessment focuses on the downstream governance of the impacts of specific policy options. What is missing is a form of midstream governance, which...... I label innovation assessment, to steer polities through periods of disruptive technological change, during which innovations have taken concrete forms and are beginning to diffuse, but still exhibit much scope for rapid, unexpected change and alternative trajectories of development. By juxtaposing...

  10. Innovation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrweiler, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Individual Level) and social structures (Social-Organizational Level) and the interactions between these levels. At the concept level, new ideas are the nodes that are created and linked, kept open for further investigation or closed if solved by actors at the individual or organizational levels. At the individual level, the nodes are actors linked by shared worldviews (based on shared professional, educational, experiential backgrounds) who are the builders of the concept level. At the social-organizational level, the nodes...

  11. Disruptive innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Viglia, Giampaolo; Werthner, H.; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of disrupting innovations has generated significant market changes, modifying the dominant logic and affecting the strategic positioning of companies. This structural change is affecting market structure, the networks and the services that tourism players are supposed to use (Gretzel et al. 2015). One can also refer to the notion of digital infrastructure, which provides a nice framework that connects the different stakeholders, their relations as well as internal dynamics. At t...

  12. Disruptive innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Viglia, Giampaolo; H. Werthner; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of disrupting innovations has generated significant market changes, modifying the dominant logic and affecting the strategic positioning of companies. This structural change is affecting market structure, the networks and the services that tourism players are supposed to use (Gretzel et al. 2015). One can also refer to the notion of digital infrastructure, which provides a nice framework that connects the different stakeholders, their relations as well as internal dynamics. At t...

  13. EC power sources: European technological developments towards ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicelli, T. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: tullio.bonicelli@tech.efda.org; Alberti, S. [EPFL-CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy); Dormicchi, O. [Ansaldo Superconduttori SpA, C.so Perrone, Genoa (Italy); Fasel, D.; Hogge, J.P. [EPFL-CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Illy, S.; Jin, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM FZK, IHM, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lievin, C. [Thales Electron Devices (TED), 2 Rue de Latecoere, F-78141 Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Mondino, P.L. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piosczyk, B.; Rzesnicki, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM FZK, IHM, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santinelli, M. [ENEA Frascati, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Taddia, G. [OCEM, Via 2 Agosto 1980 11, 40016 San Giorgio di Piano (Italy); Thumm, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM FZK, IHM, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tran, M.Q. [EPFL-CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    The activities in Europe towards the development of the EC power sources for ITER are centered on the development of a 170 GHz, 2 MW, CW coaxial cavity gyrotron of collector potential depressed (CPD) type. A gyrotron with a higher unit power than the ITER reference (1 MW) would yield a reduction of the installation costs, a more compact launcher design and, if required, an increase of the power delivered through one port. Tests proving the principle were successfully performed on a short-pulse experimental gyrotron delivering up to 2.2 MW in single mode. Following this success, a coordinated and fully consistent programme of development has been launched. The first industrial 2 MW prototype is now at an advanced stage of construction. The associated superconductive magnet producing 6.86 T on the cavity axis is also being procured. Dummy loads suitable for short and CW operation are also part of the development effort. Finally, a new EC test facility, with the features necessary for the testing of the gyrotron up to full power in CW, has been established and includes a fully solid-state power supply system.0.

  14. EC power management and NTM control in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca; Fredrickson, E.; Henderson, M.; Bertelli, N.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Nowak, S.; Poli, E.; Sauter, O.

    2016-10-01

    The suppression of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) is an essential requirement for the achievement of the demonstration baseline in ITER. The Electron Cyclotron upper launcher is specifically designed to provide highly localized heating and current drive for NTM stabilization. In order to assess the power management for shared applications, we have performed time-dependent simulations for ITER scenarios covering operation from half to full field. The free-boundary TRANSP simulations evolve the magnetic equilibrium and the pressure profiles in response to the heating and current drive sources and are interfaced with a GRE for the evolution of size and frequency of the magnetic islands. Combined with a feedback control of the EC power and the steering angle, these simulations are used to model the plasma response to NTM control, accounting for the misalignment of the EC deposition with the resonant surfaces, uncertainties in the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction and in the magnetic island detection threshold. Simulations indicate that the threshold for detection of the island should not exceed 2-3cm, that pre-emptive control is a preferable option, and that for safe operation the power needed for NTM control should be reserved, rather than shared with other applications. Work supported by ITER under IO/RFQ/13/9550/JTR and by DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Everyone talk about EC technology - What's about this technology? AC versus AC technology; Alle reden von EC-Technologie - was bringt sie wirklich? AC- versus EC-Motorentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-12-15

    Meanwhile, the EC motor technology is the state of the art in fans. In the consciousness of a possible energy conservation, the EC motor technology is demanded to a large extent with the new installations of the customers. But how high are the possible savings actually? A comparative measurement at a condenser of Guentner AG (Fuerstenfeldbruck, Federal Republic of Germany) supports information.

  16. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geological samples collected as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project are curated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a partner in the ECS Project. To...

  17. Research on Intellectual Property Conflicts Identification in Knowledge Transferring among EC Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shibin

    As the lacks of existing research about intellectual property conflicts management of EC enterprise, the paper analysis the intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by intellectual property types, then, the paper makes research on intellectual property conflicts identification in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises, and gives relative assumption, meanwhile, the paper makes quantities identification of intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by evidential theory, finally, the paper gives the further research orientations.

  18. File list: Oth.ALL.50.EcR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.EcR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others EcR All cell types SRX032127,SRX030963,SR...X032126 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.EcR.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Prs.10.AllAg.PrEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Prs.10.AllAg.PrEC hg19 Histone Prostate PrEC SRX539656,SRX539659,SRX539658,SRX1...54496,SRX539657,SRX154494 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Prs.10.AllAg.PrEC.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Prs.20.AllAg.PrEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Prs.20.AllAg.PrEC hg19 Histone Prostate PrEC SRX539656,SRX539659,SRX539658,SRX1...54494,SRX154496,SRX539657 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Prs.20.AllAg.PrEC.bed ...

  1. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Cheng, Ya-Fang; Nordmann, Stephan; Birmili, Wolfram; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Ma, Nan; Wolke, Ralf; Wehner, Birgit; Sun, Jia; Spindler, Gerald; Mu, Qing; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP) measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc) emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2-10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10-30 % for Russia and 5-10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus). This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20-40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  2. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard se...

  3. Evolutional expediency of innovations of different novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Hlinenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of innovative idea selection may be increased if the methodology of indicative estimation of expediency of innovative project realization on principles of its evolutional correctness (EC and efficiency (EE is applied. This methodology envisages the consistent evaluation of EC and EE of an innovation object (InOb, novelty degree, nature and result of innovative transformation etc. by calculation of corresponding partial indicators that reflect the change of the evolutional state of constituents of the innovative system according to base evolutional models. The values of the indicators are compared to reference coefficients of confidence in successful project realization under appropriate success factors with further consideration of the revealed evolutionary risks in the project discount rate. The aim of the article. The aim of this research was to develop a methodology of indicative estimation of evolutional expediency of innovative transformation of certain novelty degree and nature, including the methods of determination and calculation of the indicators and taking into account the excessive evolutional risks related to the degree of novelty in the discount rate of the project. The results of the analysis. In accordance to the worked out methodology of indicative estimation of evolutional expediency of project realization the indicators of innovation EC and EE are qualitatively estimated after the degree of efficiency of the change of the evolution state of innovative system constituents on s-curves and lines of evolution, while the corresponding quantitative values are estimated by comparison to corresponding qualitative and quantitative values of coefficients of confidence in project realization. Correctness of the novelty degree and nature of innovative transformation is determined by the degree of accordance of them to the evolutional state of InOb and its surroundings. On the basis of the conformities of change of innovation

  4. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Parkinson's disease: ECS and dopamine enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumper, Samantha K; Ahle, Gabriella M; Liebman, Lauren S; Kellner, Charles H

    2014-06-01

    In addition to its effects in major psychiatric illness, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known to have a beneficial effect on the core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This effect is believed to be mediated via dopamine in the striatum. Electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the animal analogue of ECT, is the model in which investigators have sought to elucidate the specific dopaminergic mechanisms by which ECT exerts its therapeutic effect in PD. Electroconvulsive shock has been given to intact animals as well as to animals with neurotoxic lesions that create parkinsonism. In this paper, we selectively review the electroconvulsive shock literature on dopamine in the striatum. Electroconvulsive shock, and by extension, ECT, is associated with increased dopamine release and modulation of dopamine receptors. Better understanding of how ECT works to enhance dopaminergic systems in the brain could help to make it a more accepted treatment for PD.

  5. Integrating Amazon EC2 with the CMS Production Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, Andrew Malone

    2011-01-01

    As cloud middleware and cloud providers have become more robust, various experiments with experience in Grid submission have begun to investigate the possibility of taking previously Grid-Enabled applications and making them compatible with Cloud Computing. Successful implementation will allow for dynamic scaling of the available hardware resources, providing access to peak-load handling capabilities and possibly resulting in lower costs to the experiment. Here we discuss current work within the CMS collaboration at the LHC to both perform computation on EC2, both for production and analysis use-cases. We also discuss break-even points between dedicated and cloud resources using real-world costs derived from a CMS site.

  6. A Brief Study on Englinese in E-C Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏雅; 司园园

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to analyze Englinese, a kind of intermittent language in between English and Chinese in the practice of E-C translation. Due to the differences of the two languages, translators tend to be influenced by the original English and have the“imprint”of that language in their translation work, thus creating a kind of third language, which is termed with the coined word“Englinese”. The manifestations are summarized as redundancy, mechanical application of English syntax and interpretation of words at face value. By pointing out the existence of this phenomenon and analyzing the causes of it, we are trying to alert the translators of this inappropriate practice and help guarantee the purity of both languages.

  7. EC as PIE: five criteria for executing a successful DNP final project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Julee; Caruso, Diane; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hypes, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    The goal of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs should be to produce nurses that are uniquely prepared to bridge the gap between the discovery of new knowledge and the scholarship of translation, application, and integration of this new knowledge in practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006). However, there is concern over the variability in DNP programs and expected outcomes. The aim of this article is to describe a 5-point system of evaluation to determine whether a DNP final project meets the outcomes of the AACN Essentials of Doctoral Education in Advanced Nursing Practice (2006) in a comprehensive and rigorous way. In brief, the five criteria that must be met are represented by the acronym EC as PIE (E = Enhances; C = Culmination; P = Partnerships; I = Implements; E = Evaluates). Each criterion must be present and come together to form one complete "pie" representing evidence-based practice that is robust and innovative, culminating in a rigorous doctoral level DNP final project. In addition, we provide detailed examples of how these standards are currently being successfully implemented and discuss additional possibilities.

  8. The climate policy of the EC - too hot to handle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Has the climate policy of the European Community (EC) become stronger According to our criteria for strength, it has not. First, even with perfect and timely implementation of the climate package, there is no guarantee that the Community will succeed in curbing the anticipated growth of future CO[sub 2] emissions by the year 2000, to at least 12% of 1990 levels. Part of the decrease is expected from quite uncertain ''educative effects'', while 1.5% is left to ''new activities foreseen''. In addition, the expanding transport sector, which formed a central part of earlier proposals, has to a large extent been left out of the Community's climate policy. The stabilization target was adopted in October 1990; in 1991, CO[sub 2] emissions increased by about 4% in the Community. Secondly, the adoption and implementation of the climate package is uncertain. No legal proposals presented in the spring of 1992 have yet been adopted by the Council. Moreover, the proposed energy/carbon tax, which is to account for half of expected reductions, will not be implemented until other OECD countries follow suit. Thirdly, despite the clear political signals of the Community stabilization objective, almost half the member countries have no national goal and only three have a national policy on how to achieve their goals. Thus, from the remarkably smooth process up to goal formulation, the Community's climate policy seems to have been substantially watered down. On the other hand, the climate policy of the EC currently exists as a political commitment, and is thus quite sensitive to general political developments and fluctuations both within the Community and outside. 129 refs., 9 tabs.

  9. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyana Rachel Palo Mello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH, control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1. EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g. miR-133 and miR-375, as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g. miR-3745 and miR-3761. Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  10. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea NAGY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.

  11. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...... policy arenas do contribute to policy innovation but also that the degree to which they do so depends on the institutional design of these arenas....

  12. Electro-thermal Injury to the Ureter by Bipolar Electrocoagulation in Rabbits%输尿管双极电凝热损伤的动物实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆立; 陆安伟; 黄林; 李惠; 潘佩英

    2013-01-01

    of clinical complications after electro-thermal injury to the ureter by bipolar electrocoagulation. Methods Thirty-six Japanese long-eared rabbits (1.9-2.4 kg, 6-8 months old) were randomly divided into two groups for phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ experiments (12 and 24 animals respectively). In phase Ⅰ experiment, totally 60 pieces of smooth muscles were collected from the 24 ureters of the 12 rabbits. The 60 pieces of ureteral smooth muscles were then divided into control, and 1- and 3-second electrocoagulation (bipolar electrocoagulation at 40 W) groups with 20 in each. The extent and frequency of smooth muscles contraction in the 1- and 3-second electrocoagulation groups, as well as histopathological changes of the injured segments were determined. In phase Ⅱ experiment, the rest 24 rabbits were randomly divided into 1- and 3-second electrocoagulation groups with 12 in each; electrocoagulation was made at the ureter at one side, 8 cm away from the renal pelvis. We observed the complications occurred to the ureter during two weeks after the operation, and then killed the rabbits to collect the injured ureter to determine its histopathological changes. Results In phase Ⅰ experiment, the frequency and extent of contraction of the ureteral smooth muscles were (15.85 ±3.65) times/min and (0.835 ±0.182) g; (36.35 ±9.54) times/min and (0.335 ±0.096) g, and (43. 95 ± 10. 03) times/min and (0. 320 ± 0. 096) g, respectively in the control, and 1- and 3-second electrocoagulation groups. After electrocoagulation, the frequency of muscle contraction increased significantly, and extent of contraction decreased significantly (both P= 0.000). In phase Ⅱ experiment, in 1-second electrocoagulation group, 2 cases of urine leakage were detected (2/12, 17% ) , which was cured spontaneously afterwards; the frequency and extent of ureteral contraction were (25. 58 ± 3. 20) times/min and (0.483 ±0.093) g, which were significantly lower and higher respectively than those in the 1

  13. Techno-economical optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal by combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through MOPSO using RSM and ANFIS models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2013-10-15

    In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models were applied for optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal using combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). By applying RSM, the effects of five independent parameters including applied current, reaction time, initial dye concentration, initial pH and dosage of Poly Aluminum Chloride were studied. According to the RSM results, all the independent parameters are equally important in dye removal efficiency. In addition, ANFIS was applied for dye removal efficiency and operating costs modeling. High R(2) values (≥85%) indicate that the predictions of RSM and ANFIS models are acceptable for both responses. ANFIS was also used in MOPSO for finding the best techno-economical Reactive Blue 19 elimination conditions according to RSM design. Through MOPSO and the selected ANFIS model, Minimum and maximum values of 58.27% and 99.67% dye removal efficiencies were obtained, respectively.

  14. Establishment of mouse endometrial injury model by electrocoagulation%小鼠子宫内膜电凝损伤模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓晓; 林小娜; 江寅申; 施丽冰; 王婕妤; 赵莉娟; 张松英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish the murine model of moderate endometrial injury.Methods Electrocoagulation was applied to induce endometrial injury of ICR mice with 0.5 watts power while contralateral uterine cavity acted as control without electrocoagulation.The endometrial histomorphology was observed in 7 days later by microscopy and fetal number of each lateral uterus assessed at 17.5 days after pregnancy.Results At 7 days post-electrocoagulation, the average endometrial thickness of operating side was significantly thinner than that of control side (1.14 ±0.08 vs 1.88 ±0.15 mm, P<0.05).The density of endometrial glands of operating side was significantly lower than that of control side (20 ±2 vs 32 ±3 per 100x field, P<0.05).After pregnancy, the average number of embryos at operating side decreased by 63.1% compared with control (3 ±2 vs 8 ±2, P <0.01).Conclusion The established model of endometrial electrocoagulation injury shows morphologic changes and decreased fertile ability.It has potential uses for animal studies of endometrial injury treatment.%目的:建立小鼠子宫内膜适度损伤模型。方法采用自制的单极电针插入ICR小鼠一侧子宫腔,以0.5 W功率电凝损伤子宫腔;对侧子宫为对照。比较术后7 d不同侧别单层子宫内膜厚度和相同高倍视野下子宫内膜腺体与血管数目比值。妊娠后17.5 d比较小鼠双侧子宫鼠胎个数差别。结果术后7 d损伤侧小鼠子宫内膜厚度(1.14±0.08)mm,对照侧(1.88±0.15)mm ,两者比较P<0.05;高倍视野下内膜腺体数目损伤侧(20±2)个,对照侧(32±3)个,两者比较P<0.05;损伤侧平均鼠胎数目(3±2)只,对侧(8±2)只(下降62.6%),两者比较P<0.01。结论电凝损伤后小鼠子宫内膜的形态学改变和功能学测试符合子宫损伤模型需要,适用于子宫内膜损伤的动物研究。

  15. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to discharges of heavy metal containing sludge from textile industries is a common nuisance in Bangladesh, where no treatment of sludge is carried out before final disposals. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF was employed in the present study to analyze the heavy metal content of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS collected from a composite textile industry. Thirteen heavy metals, viz., Mn, Ti, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, V, Cr, Zr, Hg, Cd, Nb and Ga, were detected. Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd exceeded the permissible limit to apply the EMHS in agricultural land. Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were compared to the values of the European legislation to evaluate the environmental risk and to classify the wastes as inert wastes or as wastes that have to be control landfilled. EMHS was categorized as class I and needs to be deposited in controlled landfills.

  16. Parametric and energy consumption optimization of Basic Red 2 removal by electrocoagulation/egg shell adsorption coupling using response surface methodology in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Zhao, Meixia; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Lili; Liu, Xingjuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) model was applied for optimization of Basic Red 2 (BR2) removal using electrocoagulation/eggshell (ES) coupling process in a batch system. Central composite design was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of process parameters including current density, reaction time, initial pH and ES dosage on the BR2 removal efficiency and energy consumption. The analysis of variance revealed high R(2) values (≥85%) indicating that the predictions of RSM models are adequately applicable for both responses. The optimum conditions when the dye removal efficiency of 93.18% and energy consumption of 0.840 kWh/kg were observed were 11.40 mA/cm(2) current density, 5 min and 3 s reaction time, 6.5 initial pH and 10.91 g/L ES dosage.

  17. Application of bipolar electrocoagulation to tracheotomy%双极电凝在气管切开手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 黄魏宁; 杨弋; 张雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the efficancy of tracheotomy. Methods A total of 60 patients of tracheotomy with a mean age of 69 years ( range 29 to 99) were enrolled in the study. The 60 patients were divided into group A ( n = 30) and group B (n = 30). In group A, bleeding was controlled by means of oppression or ligation during the operation, but in group B bioplar electrocoagulation was applied as the bleeding control method. Results A total of 60 tracheotomies were successfully performed. In group A (without bioplar electrocoagulation) and group B (with bioplar electrocoagulation), number of gauze piece during the operation, operative time, and number of replacing blood soaked dressings during 24 hours were 2.17 ±0.70 vs. 1.10 ±0. 31,21. 80 ±2. 72 vs. 17. 15 ±1.38 and 2.77 ± 1.38 vs.1.93 ±1.02, repectively. And the complications were less in group B than in group A(I6.67% vs. 36.67%). Conclusion Bioplar electrocoagulation in tracheotomy provides a good view field in the surgery and a good outcome with few complications.%目的 总结双极电凝在气管切开手术中应用的经验.方法 开放式气管切开术患者60例.年龄29 ~99岁,平均(69±5.7)岁.分为A、B两组:A组30例,术中不采用双极电凝,采用压迫法、结扎法止血;B组30例,术中采用双极电凝止血.比较其止血纱布使用的块数、手术所需时间、术后气管垫敷料浸透数及手术并发症.结果 术中未使用双极电凝组与使用双极电凝组其术中所用止血纱布块数为(2.17±0.70)块比(1.10±0.31)块,手术时间为(21.80±2.72)分钟比(17.15±1.38)分钟,术后24小时敷料血浸透数为(2.77±1.38)块比(1.93±1.02)块,两组各指标差异有显著性.手术后并发症发生率B组低于A组,分别为5例(16.7%)和11例(36.7%).结论 开放式气管切开手术中采用双极电凝止血,术野清晰,操作方便,手术并发症少.

  18. Influence of filling ratio and carrier type on organic matter removal in a moving bed biofilm reactor with pretreatment of electrocoagulation in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, C; Martín-Pascual, J; González-Martínez, A; Calderón, K; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Poyatos, J M

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is great concern about limited water resources and water quality, which require a more advanced technology. The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) has been shown to be an efficient technology for removal of organic matter and nutrients in industrial and urban wastewater treatment. However, there are some pollutants which are more difficult to remove by biological processes, so this process can be improved with additional physical and chemical treatments such as electrocoagulation, which appears to be a promising technology in electrochemical treatments. In this research, urban wastewater was treated in an MBBR plant with an electrocoagulation pre-treatment. K1 from AnoxKaldnes and AQWISE ABC5 from Aqwise were the carriers studied under three different filling ratios (20, 35, and 50%). The experimental pilot plant had four bioreactors with 20 L of operation volume and a common feed tank with 100 L of operation volume. The movement of the carriers was generated by aeration and stirrer systems. Organic matter removal was studied by analysis of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). The maximum organic matter removal in this MBBR system was 65.8% ± 1.4% and 78.4% ± 0.1% for K1 and Aqwise ABC5 carriers, respectively. Moreover, the bacterial diversity of the biofilm was studied by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. 20 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, being the predominant population: β-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria.

  19. Innovative Pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and educational changes might challenge or facilitate learning for students and educators. Besides its relevance within the education sector, the content presented here can be applied in non-formal learning environments, such as museums, cultural institutions, as well as other educational settings where emotions......The main purpose of this book is to take a closer look at how students and teachers in educational institutions apply the innovative, the playful and the emotional and creative dimensions of learning. With this contribution, the authors aim at reaching an international audience of educators...... at several levels, including primary and secondary schools, higher and adult education, university colleges, graduate, undergraduate and PhD schools. Driven by the common interest of the authors to reflect on emotions in education, the chapters in this book encompass multiple perspectives: the socio...

  20. Funding innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, six knowledge and technology transfer activities are set to benefit from a dedicated fund made available by the Knowledge Transfer group. This initiative cements CERN’s commitment to sharing its technological knowledge and expertise with society.   GEM detectors for flame detection and early earthquake prediction, radio-frequency absorbers for energy recovery, and exotic radioisotopes for medical applications are among the projects funded by the recently introduced KT Fund. “CERN’s scientific programme generates a considerable amount of intellectual property, a natural driver for innovation,” explains Giovanni Anelli, Head of the Knowledge Transfer Group. “Very often, though, financial support is needed to bring the newly-born technologies a step further and make them ready for transfer to other research institutes or to companies.” This is where the KT fund comes into play. It provides vital support in the early sta...

  1. Innovation in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has many innovation programs that can help the public bring innovative solutions to their local areas by reducing waste, engaging students to contribute innovative ideas, and helping businesses implement sustainable practices.

  2. Creativity and group innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on M. West's article regarding the validity of an integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Variables affecting the level of team innovation; Relationship between predictors and team innovation; Promotion of constructive conflict.

  3. Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe; Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    For many public organizations innovation has become a widely recognized approach for changing and developing the organization. However, for innovation to become effective it must be implemented. The implementation of innovation is important at all organizational levels – it encompasses the behavi......For many public organizations innovation has become a widely recognized approach for changing and developing the organization. However, for innovation to become effective it must be implemented. The implementation of innovation is important at all organizational levels – it encompasses...... strategies are public managers using in order to create more innovative work behaviour? How do public managers create an innovative climate in the organization which affects the innovative work behaviour positively? In this paper we examine the implementation of innovation in a large Danish municipality...... a multi-level analysis of the possibilities for managers at different organizational levels to affect the implementation of innovation through the innovative work behaviour of the employees....

  4. Innovative potential, innovative strategy, environment factors, estimation of innovative potential, innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Chernoivanova, G.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the elements of the innovation potential and the criteria for its evaluation. It is proposed methodical approach to the formation of innovation strategies with innovative potential.

  5. INTERORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Dan SERGHIE

    2013-01-01

    The directions of research on innovation or on the staging of innovative processes progress have evaluated over time from an innovational perspective constraint within an activity pursued by the entrepreneur (regarded as an entity creating possible and numerous innovative combinations) to an innovational perspective (induced in innovative processes and structures) framed and carried wider within the organizational internal environment, as response triggered and driven by market requirements. ...

  6. Electrolytic treatment of liquid effluents: decontamination by electro coagulation of release water of a petroleum platform; Traitement electrolytique des effluents liquides: decontamination par electrocoagulation des eaux de rejet d'une plate forme petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Ch.P.; Ngameni, E.; Poumiba, S. [Yaounde Univ., Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Dept. de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences (Cameroon); Darchen, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2005-07-01

    The water releases of petroleum platforms present lots of pollutants; Usually, these waters are reinjected in ground water when it is possible. In the other cases they are released at the surface and need then a treatment. The electro-coagulation is a suitable method often used. The authors propose to study the optimum conditions of decontamination by this method, by a parametric evaluation (water flow, charge density, ph). Experiments used iron and aluminium electrodes. (A.L.B.)

  7. Saharan dust contribution to PM levels: The EC LIFE+ DIAPASON project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Wille, H.; Sozzi, R.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Frey, S.; Bolignano, A.; Di Giosa, A.

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of Saharan-dust advections to both daily and annual PM average values can be significant all over Southern Europe. The most important effects of dust on the number of PM exceedances are mostly observed in polluted areas and large cities. While a wide literature exists documenting episodes of Saharan dust transport towards the Euro-Mediterranean region and Europe in general, a limited number of studies are still available providing statistically significant results on the impact of Saharan dust on the particulate matter loads over the continent. A four-year (2001-2004) study performed in Rome (Italy) found these events to contribute to the average ground PM10 with about 15±10 µg/m3 on about 17% of the days in a year. Since the PM10 yearly average of many traffic stations in Rome is close to 40 μg/m3, these events can cause the PM10 concentration to exceed air quality limit values (50 μg/m3 as daily average) set by the EU Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC. Although the European legislation allows Member States to subtract the contribution of natural sources before counting PM10 exceedances, definition of an optimal methodology to quantitatively assess such contribution is still in progress. On the basis of the current European Guidelines on the assessment of natural contributions to PM, the DIAPASON project ("Desert-dust Impact on Air quality through model-Predictions and Advanced Sensors ObservatioNs", recently funded under the EC LIFE+ program) has been formulated to provide a robust, user-oriented methodology to assess the presence of desert dust and its contribution to PM levels. To this end, in addition to satellite-based data and model forecasts, the DIAPASON methodology will employ innovative and affordable technologies, partly prototyped within the project itself, as an operational Polarization Lidar-Ceilometer (laser radar) capable of detecting and profiling dust clouds from the ground up to 10 km altitude. The DIAPASON Project (2011

  8. Services in innovation - Innovation in services

    OpenAIRE

    Hauknes, Johan

    1998-01-01

    There has been a considerable gap between efforts to understand innovation and other change processes, and ongoing structural changes in national economies. The SI4S project has aimed at developing concepts, empirical evidence and proposals for practical action concerning the role of services in European innovation systems. The general objectives were to map, understand and analyse the changing role of services and service innovations as users, carriers, shapers and sources of innovations in ...

  9. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  10. High-Statistics β+ / EC -Decay Study of 122Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jigmeddorj, Badamsambuu; S1292 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Xe isotopes are centrally located in the Z > 50 , N vibrational structure influenced by proton subshell gaps, perhaps leading to shape-coexistence that could give rise to strong E 0 transitions. Recent work on 124Xe has established nearly identical quadrupole collectivity for the pairing vibrational 03+ band and the ground state band. However, in 122Xe, the 03+ state has not been firmly identified. A high-statistics 122Cs β+ / EC decay experiment to obtain detailed spectroscopic data for low-spin states was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility using the 8 π γ-ray spectrometer and its auxiliary detectors including PACES, an array of five Si(Li) detectors, for conversion electron spectroscopy. The decay scheme has been considerably extended through a γ- γ coincidence analysis, and 0+ states have been identified via γ- γ angular correlations. This work supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.

  11. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Turcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.. Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined application performance model. A first goal of our performance measurements is to determine an optimal file size for our application to consume. Using the subset-sum first fit heuristic we reshape the input data by merging files in order to match as closely as possible the desired file size. This also speeds up the task of retrieving the results of our application, by having the output be less segmented. Using predictions of the performance of our application based on measurements on small data sets, we devise an execution plan that meets a user specified deadline while minimizing cost.

  12. Integrated one-pot enrichment and immobilization of styrene monooxygenase (StyA) using SEPABEAD EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruinatscha, Reto; Karande, Rohan; Buehler, Katja; Schmid, Andreas

    2011-07-18

    A straightforward one-pot procedure combining enrichment and immobilization of recombinantely expressed FADH₂ dependent styrene monooxygenase (StyA) directly from Escherichia coli cell extracts was investigated. Sepabeads EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers were employed to non-covalently adsorb StyA from the cell extracts depending on basic parameters such as varying initial protein concentrations and pH. The protein fraction of the cell extract contained around 25% StyA. At low initial protein concentrations (2.5 mg mL⁻¹) and pH 6, the enzyme could be enriched up to 52.4% on Sepabeads EC-EA and up to 46.0% on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, accounting for an almost complete StyA adsorption from the cell extracts. Higher initial protein concentrations were necessary to exploit the high loading capacity of the beads. At 20 mg mL⁻¹, up to 37.6% of the theoretical bead loading capacity could be utilized for StyA binding using Sepabeads EC-EA, and 34.0% using Sepabeads EC-Q1A. For both carriers, protein leakage under reaction conditions could be reduced to less than 2%. During assays, the FADH₂ cofactor necessary for StyA activity was supplied by the NADH-FAD reductase component styrene monooxygenase B (StyB). StyA immobilized on Sepabeads EC-Q1A displayed twice as high styrene epoxidation rates (0.2 U mg(StyA)⁻¹) as compared to Sepabeads EC-EA. This activity could be increased to 0.7 U mg(StyA)⁻¹ by co-immobilizing StyB on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, which corresponds to 33% of the soluble StyA activity.

  13. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  14. Workplace innovation and social innovation : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howaldt, Jürgen; Oeij, Peter R.A.; Dhondt, Steven; Fruytier, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to the special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to enh

  15. Workplace innovation and social innovation: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Fruytier, B.

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to this special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to en

  16. Workplace innovation and social innovation: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Fruytier, B.

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to this special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to en

  17. Workplace innovation and social innovation: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Fruytier, B.

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to this special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to

  18. 205 cases of endoscopic hemostasis to treat epistaxis by using an electrocoagulation device with suction%鼻内镜下用带吸引电凝器治疗鼻出血205例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲; 车娜; 张宇; 张晓林; 常永军; 葛荣明

    2013-01-01

    Objective o discuss the method of endoscopic electrocoagulation in the treatment of epistaxis.Methods Retrospectively analysis 205 cases of intraoperative treatment of epistaxis by using an electrocoagulation device with suction in our department.Results Of the 205 cases,a cases stopped bleeding after surgery,during 3-month follow up,6 case showed rebleeding,while 199 show no recurrent epistaxis.Conclusion The advantages of using an electrocoagulation device with suction during endoscopic intraoperative treatment of epistaxis include clear field of view,correct operation scope,and less painful.%目的:探讨鼻内镜下电凝止血的方法。方法回顾性分析我科在鼻内镜下用带吸引的电凝器治疗205例鼻出血患者临床资料。结果205例中,199例一次性治愈,随访3月内再次鼻出血的6例。结论在鼻内镜下用带吸引的电凝器止血,视野清晰,止血准确,病人痛苦小,效果良好。

  19. EC4IT - A Guide to European Commission Projects for CERN/IT department

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R

    2012-01-01

    European Commission (EC) projects represent an important source of external funding for a number of activities in which IT department is involved. The EC has a set of procedures and formalities for the preparation, negotiation, execution and completion of projects that are different to those normally used at CERN. This document gives an overview of the administrative, financial, reporting and managerial steps involved in participating in an EC project.

  20. An upper bound on the size of m-ary t-sEC/AUED codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-cheng; FU Fang-wei; CHANG Zu-ling

    2006-01-01

    Finding good upper bound for the size of m-ary t-symmetric error correcting codes (t-sEC/AUED codes) codes is the main problem in the coding theory of m-ary t-sEC/AUED codes. Based on the method of Lagrange multipliers, We shall derive an upper bound on the size of m-ary t-sEC/AUED in this paper. Some examples achieved this upper bound are also given in this paper.

  1. Mitochondria and the insect steroid hormone receptor (EcR): A complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2016-10-01

    The actions of the insect steroid molting hormones, ecdysteroids, on the genome of target cells has been well studied, but little is known of their extranuclear actions. We previously showed in Rhodnius prolixus that much of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) resides in the cytoplasm of various cell types and undergoes shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm with circadian periodicity, possibly using microtubules as tracks for translocation to the nucleus. Here we report that cytoplasmic EcR appears to be also involved in extranuclear actions of ecdysteroids by association with the mitochondria. Western blots of subcellular fractions of brain lysates revealed that EcR is localized in the mitochondrial fraction, indicating an intimate association of EcR with mitochondria. Confocal laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry using anti-EcR revealed abundant co-localization of EcR with mitochondria in brain neurons and their axons, especially intense in the subplasmalemmal region, raising the possibility of EcR involvement in mitochondrial functions in subplasmalemmal microdomains. When mitochondria are dispersed by disruption of microtubules with colchicine, EcR remains associated with mitochondria showing strong receptor association with mitochondria. Treatment in vitro with ecdysteroids of brains of developmentally arrested R. prolixus (containing neither ecdysteroids nor EcR) induces EcR and abundant co-localization with mitochondria in neurons, concurrently with a sharp increase of the mitochondrial protein COX 1, suggesting involvement of EcR in mitochondrial function. These findings align EcR with various vertebrate steroid receptors, where actions of steroid receptors on mitochondria are widely known and suggest that steroid receptors across distant phyla share similar functional attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  3. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Townsend

    2002-03-01

    Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 412.9 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,516.1 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 228.0 meters, approximately two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 81 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 212 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 30 samples. The well was collared in rhyolite lava and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of borehole data indicates that this well was drilled within the margins of the buried Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks calderas, and that caldera collapse in this area was deeper than expected, resulting in a section of Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon (caldera-filling deposit) that is much thicker than expected.

  5. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  6. Comparison of Removal Effects in Azo Dyed Wastewater between Direct Current and Alternating Current Electrocoagulation%直流电和交流电凝聚法处理偶氮染料废水的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉华; 苍晓艺; 赵首权; 金德才; 董瑞蛟

    2011-01-01

    The paper aimed to compare the different effects of removing azo dye in wastewater between direct current(DC) and alternating current(AC) electrocoagulation methods, and explored the impact of current density on the treatment effect. In this experiment, iron was served as anode, graphite column was served as cathode, the current density was changed, contrastive experiments were carried out with DC and AC electrocoagulation methods. The results showed that the removal ratio of azo dye concentration increased with the increase of the current density, when the current density was 0. 083 mA/cm2, the removal ratio of azo dye concentration arrived at 97.63%, which also removed colority, CODcr, NH3-N to a certain degree. But the treatment ability of azo dye in wastewater by AC electrocoagulation was poor, and the maximum removal ratio of azo dye concentration was only 16. 01%. Thus, DC electrocoagulation combined with electrolysis,flocculation,and other functions could treat azo dyed wastewater effectively. However, removal of azo dye from wastewater by AC electrocoagulation could not get significant effect.%目的 考查直流电凝聚法和交流电凝聚法对偶氮染料废水处理效果的差异.探索电流密度对处理效果的影响.方法 以铁皮为阳极,石墨柱为阴极,改变电流密度,分别用直流电和交流电进行电凝聚对比试验.结果 直流电凝聚法对染料质量浓度的去除率随电流密度的增大而增大,当电流密度为0.083 mA/cm2时,染料质量浓度的去除率达到97.63%.同时,色度、CODCr、氨氮也有一定的去除效果.而交流电凝聚法对偶氮染料废水的处理能力较差,其染料质量浓度的最大去除率为16.01%.结论 直流电凝聚法在电解、絮凝等共同作用下可有效的处理偶氮染料废水,而交流电凝聚法对偶氮染料废水的处理无明显效果.

  7. Evaluation of using titanium clips in high-frequency electrocoagulation and electroresection of gastrointestinal polyps%金属钛夹在消化道息肉高频电凝电切术的应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 浦江; 刘超群; 付山峰; 王晓辉; 于兰; 崔立红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨金属钛夹在消化道息肉高频电凝电切术中的应用价值与安全性评价.方法 2009年6月至2011年6月对253例直径大于0.5 cm的消化道息肉患者进行金属钛夹联合高频电凝电切术治疗.对于山田Ⅲ型、Ⅳ型息肉先用钛夹钳夹蒂根部后进行高频电凝电切术,对于山田Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型息肉先进行黏膜下注射,息肉隆起后行高频电凝电切术,再用钛夹夹闭创面.结果 253例共312枚息肉,切除307枚,使用钛夹344枚,成功率98.4%.所有病例术中、术后未见出血及穿孔等并发症.结论 对消化道息肉应用金属钛夹联合高频电凝电切术是一种操作简便、安全性高、疗效好的治疗方法,可以有效防止出血、穿孔等并发症的发生.%Objective To evaluate application value and safety of using titanium clips in high-frequency electrocoagulation and electroresection of gastrointestinal polyps. Methods 253 cases of gastrointestinal polyps (diameter larger than 0. 5 cm) in patients were resected by using titanium clips combining high-frequency electrocoagulation and electroresection from June 2009 to June 2011. Yamada type HI , TV polyps were resected by using high-frequency electrocoagulation and electroresection after clamping the pedicle roots with titanium clips. After submucosal injection, Yamada type I , U polyps were uplifted and then resected by using high-frequency electrocoagulation and electroresection, then the wounds were clipped with titanium clips. Results There were 312 polyps in 253 patients, 307 polyps were resected successfully by 344 titanium clips, and the success rate reached 98. 4%. No case showed bleeding,perforation and other complications during intranperative or postoperation. Conclusion Titanium clips combining high-frequency electrocoagulation and electroresection in gastrointestinalpolyps removal is a simple,safe and effective treatment and the therapy can effectively prevent bleeding,perforation and

  8. Innovation: a necessary luxury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Duin, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Innovate, innovate, innovate, it has become the mantra of any modern company. But how much stands of these ambitions after the business case is completed. And what does it take to truly innovate as a company. Patrick van der Duin sheds light on the subject from a corporate as well as an academic per

  9. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  10. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, E.; Nooteboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of entrepreneurship and its relation to innovation along a cycle in which exploration and exploration follow upon each other. We place the roles of entrepreneurship in innovation policy within this cycle of innovation. Different types of innovation along the cycle of

  11. Innovation fri for floskler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Roberto Verganti, 2009, Design-Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating what things mean, Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 27. november......Anmeldelse af Roberto Verganti, 2009, Design-Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating what things mean, Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 27. november...

  12. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  13. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...... waste, energy taxaton, and freight transport (from EC Poncelet, Books of note, Environment Jun 1998; 40:5)....

  14. HOW TO WRITE RIGHT PROJECT IN THE NEW BUDGET OF THE EC IN 2014-2020 YEAR FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester MARKUSIK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Real barrier in development of enterprise can be technology absorption barrier, that means non suitable potential, that make un possible effective adaptation right technical solution from market, are higher in the cause small enterprises (a specially in micro enterprises and SME, most of that without human resources, capital limiting, loose or limit base of development and difficult achievement to financial sources from EC. In the article were shown principles of application and management with innovation projects in small enterprises, that are absorption from science sphere.

  15. Innovation and Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Bock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring that organizational innovation generates value increasingly requires effective marketing management. Prior studies, however, report conflicting effects of chief marketing officer (CMO leadership on how well the firm exploits innovation. These inconsistencies may be associated with firm-level innovation effort, customer focus, and industry type. We analyze archival data from 587 interviews with global CEOs to explain the effect of CMO leadership on outcomes of organizational innovation. CMO leadership of the firm’s primary innovation mode is positively associated with product–market innovation effort but not marginal revenue from innovation. CMO leadership also moderates the relationship between customer focus and innovation revenue. Predictive validity testing shows that these effects are especially important for service firms. The benefits of CMO-led innovation have specific limitations that firms must consider for organization-wide innovation efforts.

  16. Marketing Innovations in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Božić

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the introduction of marketing innovations by companies in Croatia. This study provides an insight into the innovativeness with regard to the introduction of marketing innovations. It explores the presence of marketing innovations in general and the introduction of four types of marketing innovation (significant changes to the aesthetic design or packaging, new media or techniques for product promotion, new methods for product placement or sales channels...

  17. Grassroots innovations and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adrian; Stirling, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this working paper we introduce an area of activity that has flourished for decades in all corners of the globe, namely grassroots innovation for sustainable development. We also argue why innovation in general is a matter for democracy. Combining these two points, we explore how grassroots innovation can contribute to what we call innovation democracy, and help guide innovation so that it supports rather than hinders social justice and environmental resilience. \\ud \\ud We suggest it does ...

  18. INNOVATION IN MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. C. Arjunan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIt is possible in marketing, as in any other field, to apply the principles of creativity and the processes of innovation, to find new ways of marketing effectively. This article is going to look at a slightly different issue around innovation: how innovation in the enterprise – innovations in products and services – creates special challenges for the marketing function. In fact, as we‘ll see, true, radical innovation is a traditional marketer‘s nightmare.

  19. Epigenetic reprogramming governs EcSOD expression during human mammary epithelial cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh-Fitzgerald, M L; Fitzgerald, M P; Zhong, W; Askeland, R W; Domann, F E

    2014-01-16

    Expression of the antioxidant enzyme EcSOD in normal human mammary epithelial cells was not recognized until recently. Although expression of EcSOD was not detectable in non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured in conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture conditions, EcSOD protein expression was observed in normal human breast tissues, suggesting that the 2D-cultured condition induces a repressive status of EcSOD gene expression in HMEC. With the use of laminin-enriched extracellular matrix (lrECM), we were able to detect expression of EcSOD when HMEC formed polarized acinar structures in a 3D-culture condition. Repression of the EcSOD-gene expression was again seen when the HMEC acini were sub-cultured as a monolayer, implying that lrECM-induced acinar morphogenesis is essential in EcSOD-gene activation. We have further shown the involvement of DNA methylation in regulating EcSOD expression in HMEC under these cell culture conditions. EcSOD mRNA expression was strongly induced in the 2D-cultured HMEC after treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. In addition, epigenetic analyses showed a decrease in the degree of CpG methylation in the EcSOD promoter in the 3D versus 2D-cultured HMEC. More importantly, >80% of clinical mammary adenocarcinoma samples showed significantly decreased EcSOD mRNA and protein expression levels compared with normal mammary tissues and there is an inverse correlation between the expression levels of EcSOD and the clinical stages of breast cancer. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis analysis of some of the tumors also revealed an association of DNA methylation with the loss of EcSOD expression in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of EcSOD inhibited breast cancer metastasis in both the experimental lung metastasis model and the syngeneic mouse model. This study suggests that epigenetic silencing of EcSOD may contribute to mammary tumorigenesis and that restoring the extracellular superoxide scavenging

  20. Innovation, what innovation? : a comparison between product, process and organisational innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Harry; During, Willem E.

    2001-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts three types of innovations, namely, product innovation, process innovation and organisational innovation. From similarities and differences between these three types, implications for the theory and practice of innovation management are inferred. Most of these imp

  1. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  2. Removal of fluoride by combined technology of electrocoagulation-flotation-filtration%电絮凝-气浮-砂滤组合工艺除氟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天明; 王洪杰; 兰华春; 葛建团; 巩文信; 赵旭

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using the combined technology of electrocoagulation-flotation-filtration.Effects of the voltage,hydraulic retention time(HRT) and initial fluoride concentration on the efficiency of fluoride removal were systematically evaluated.Results showed that the fluoride concentration was reduced to 0.92 mg/L with the initial fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg/L,HRT of 10 min and voltage of 15 V;the fluoride concentration was reduced to 0.98 mg/L with the initial fluoride concentration of 2.5 mg/L,HRT of 15 min and voltage of 15 V.The change of aluminum species in the effluent with time was characterized by Al-Ferron timed complex-colorimetric method.The result indicated that the content of Ala in the effluent of electrocoagulation unit rapidly decreased below 5% with the increase of time;the content of Alb in the effluent of both electrocoagulation and floatation units was above 50%;the content of Alc in the effluent of both units increased with time.%为了有效去除水中的氟离子,对电絮凝-气浮-砂滤组合工艺除氟(F-)离子进行了研究。详细考察了电压、电絮凝停留时间和初始F-离子浓度等参数对除F-离子效率的影响。结果表明:当初始F-离子浓度为1.50 mg/L,停留时间为10 min,电压为15 V条件下,出水F-离子浓度为0.92 mg/L;当初始F-离子浓度为2.5 mg/L,停留时间为15 min,电压15 V条件下,出水F-离子浓度为0.98 mg/L。用Al-Ferron逐时络合比色法表征了电絮凝和气浮单元出水中铝形态随时间的变化。结果显示:电絮凝出水Ala含量随时间增加迅速降低到5%以下,电絮凝和气浮单元出水Alb含量均占到50%以上,Alc含量均随时间增加而增加。

  3. [Size distributions of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in Shanghai atmospheric particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hua; Wei, Nan-Nan; Liu, Wei; Lin, Jun; Fan, Xue-Bo; Yao, Jian; Geng, Yan-Hong; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Size distributions of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric particles with size range from 7.20 microm, collected in Jiading District, Shanghai were determined. For estimating size distribution of SOC in these atmospheric particles, a method of determining (OC/EC)(pri) in atmospheric particles with different sizes was discussed and developed, with which SOC was estimated. According to the correlation between OC and EC, main sources of the particles were also estimated roughly. The size distributions of OC and SOC showed a bi-modal with peaks in the particles with size of 3.0 microm, respectively. EC showed both of a bi-modal and tri-modal. Compared with OC, EC was preferably enriched in particles with size of particles (particles. OC and EC were preferably enriched in fine particles (particles with different sizes accounted for 15.7%-79.1% of OC in the particles with corresponding size. Concentrations of SOC in fine aerosols ( 3.00 microm) accounted for 41.4% and 43.5% of corresponding OC. Size distributions of OC, EC and SOC showed time-dependence. The correlation between OC and EC showed that the main contribution to atmospheric particles in Jiading District derived from light petrol vehicles exhaust.

  4. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  5. Status of Europe’s contribution to the ITER EC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albajar F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron cyclotron (EC system of ITER for the initial configuration is designed to provide 20MW of RF power into the plasma during 3600s and a duty cycle of up to 25% for heating and (co and counter non-inductive current drive, also used to control the MHD plasma instabilities. The EC system is being procured by 5 domestic agencies plus the ITER Organization (IO. F4E has the largest fraction of the EC procurements, which includes 8 high voltage power supplies (HVPS, 6 gyrotrons, the ex-vessel waveguides (includes isolation valves and diamond windows for all launchers, 4 upper launchers and the main control system. F4E is working with IO to improve the overall design of the EC system by integrating consolidated technological advances, simplifying the interfaces, and doing global engineering analysis and assessments of EC heating and current drive physics and technology capabilities. Examples are the optimization of the HVPS and gyrotron requirements and performance relative to power modulation for MHD control, common qualification programs for diamond window procurements, assessment of the EC grounding system, and the optimization of the launcher steering angles for improved EC access. Here we provide an update on the status of Europe’s contribution to the ITER EC system, and a summary of the global activities underway by F4E in collaboration with IO for the optimization of the subsystems.

  6. Innovation Types and Talent Management for Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Companies need to become innovative and in order to do so, they must learn how to be able to manage the talent of their workforce In this working paper we have reviewed the literature concerning the concept of innovation as a key for the challenge for change in companies to establish a synthesis and a classification of the types of innovation required. We propose a number of competencies needed by the different staff members (support, technicians, managers, etc as well, so that they can succeed in being innovative in different ways.

  7. IUDs as EC? Limited awareness and high reported acceptability: evidence from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, Margaret; Arribas, Lia; Coccio, Elina; Heredia, Graciela; Jagroep, Sherani; Palermo, Tia

    2014-11-01

    We explored knowledge and attitudes regarding the copper intrauterine device (IUD) as emergency contraception (EC) among women in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We interviewed a convenience sample of women attending a family planning center at a public hospital. Participants were asked about knowledge and use of contraceptives, including EC (pre-script). Then they were given information about the IUD as EC and subsequently asked about acceptability of using the copper IUD as EC (post-script), the primary outcome in this analysis. We analyzed data on 273 women. While only 1.83% of participants knew the IUD served as EC at baseline, 79.85% said they would be willing to use the device as such if the need arose after given relevant information. Multivariate results from a pre-script revealed that women with low levels of education and those born outside of Argentina were less knowledgeable about EC pills. Only previous use of the IUD was associated with high levels of IUD knowledge. Post-script, results indicated that being Argentine [odds ratio (OR)=2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21, 3.81] and previous IUD use (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.07, 4.19) were positively associated with considering the IUD as EC. Nulliparity was negatively associated with willingness to use the IUD as EC (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.22, 0.86). We examined acceptability of the copper IUD as EC in a Latin American setting and found that, while prior levels of knowledg'e were low, acceptability of the IUD as EC was high. Implications for programming and policy include outreach and education regarding this highly effective method and advocacy to change existing regulations in Argentina prohibiting the use of IUD as EC. After given information about the IUD as a method of EC, women interviewed said they would be willing to use the IUD EC despite their limited prior knowledge of this method. With more widespread information and availability of the IUD as EC, more women may opt for this highly effective method, which

  8. 电凝聚控制 MBR 膜污染的研究%Research on Controlling MBR Membrane Fouling by Electro-Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱光升; 胡筱敏; 陈文希; 戚重阳

    2016-01-01

    试验考察了 SECMBR 的膜过滤特性,探讨了电凝聚对控制 MBR 膜污染的作用及机理.试验结果表明:胞外聚合物(EPS)、溶解性代谢产物(SMP)、ζ电位和污泥颗粒粒径等是膜污染的重要影响因素. SECMBR 的膜污染远小于 SMBR;SECMBR 原位溶出铁离子与 EPS 结合,絮凝性增强,滤饼层污染减轻;SECMBR 中电凝聚可降低单位容积活性污泥分泌的 SMP 与 EPS,减轻膜污染;SECMBR 降低 EPS 和 SMP 中主要污染物蛋白质的比例,减轻膜污染;ζ电位与 Rc 之间呈负相关,在 SMBR 与 SECMBR 中相关度分别为-0.7988和-0.5574.SECMBR 在电场与铁粒子作用下降低了ζ电位绝对值,减轻了膜污染.%Filtration characteristics of the submerged electric coagulation membrane bioreactor (SECMBR)membrane was investigated,function and mechanism of controlling MBR membrane fouling by electrocoagulation was discussed.The results show that the extracellular polymers (EPS),soluble microbial products (SMP),ζpotential and sludge particle size are the important influence factors of membrane fouling.Membrane fouling of SECMBR is much less than that of SMBR.In the SECMBR,the in situ dissolved iron ion combines with EPS which can enhance flocculation and alleviate pollution of cake layer.Electrocoagulation can reduce SMP and EPS secreted by unit volume activated sludge in SECMBR,and alleviate membrane pollution. SECMBR reduces the proportion of protein which is main pollution in EPS and SMP,and reduces membrane pollution.ζpotential has a negative correlation with Rc . Correlation degree is-0.798 8 and -0.557 4 in SMBR and SECMBR.Under the effect of electric field and iron ion, the ζpotential absolute value is reduced,and membrane pollution is alleviated.

  9. Innovation and collective entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2012-01-01

    different perspectives on innovation and social innovation and the dynamic interaction through collective entrepreneurship in the the social and solidarity economy; bringing out process and outcome dimensions of innovation. And it will develop an understanding of the drivers and barriers to innovation......This paper aims to examine different forms of innovation including social innovation, and why innovation and social innovation have become important themes in public policy – in a context of the increasing and diverse demands on welfare regimes, and in an era of constrained budgets. It will review......, including the role of the institutional and policy framework. It will set this analysis within the context of public policy, demonstrating the role of public policy in enabling such innovations in the social and solidarity economy....

  10. Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe; Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    work behaviour of the employees in a particular empirical setting. Innovative work behaviour has become an important concept in the literature on innovation. Theories on managing change and innovation in public service organizations would suggest that managers have several possibilities when ensuring...... the implementation of innovation. There is, however, still a gap (both empirical and theoretical) in the literature on how managers can contribute to and strengthen the employees’ innovative work behaviour in public service organizations. Therefore, we focus on the following research questions. Which management...... strategies are public managers using in order to create more innovative work behaviour? How do public managers create an innovative climate in the organization which affects the innovative work behaviour positively? In this paper we examine the implementation of innovation in a large Danish municipality...

  11. Ukraine: Resuscitation of Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliakova Olha Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying, generalizing and structuring the current problems in the sphere of innovations of Ukraine and development of proposals for their solution. The article analyzes the key indicators of innovation activity of enterprises of Ukraine for the period 2005-2015, carries out the international comparisons using data reports of «Global innovation index – 2016" and «European Innovation Scoreboard 2016», revealing worsening of negative tendencies in the sphere of innovations of Ukraine. The carried out study allowed to formulate three directions under which the key problems in the sphere of innovations of Ukraine and the ways for resuscitation of innovations were structured: financing, innovation activity of enterprises and its State regulation, organizational and infrastructural provision. As a matter of priority, development and approval of an integrated strategy for the development of innovation, science and education of Ukraine have been proposed.

  12. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  13. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  14. Monopolar Electro-Coagulation Process for Azo Dye C.I. Acid Red 18 Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Azarian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of wastewaters containing an untreated dye results in aesthetic problems and an increase in gases solubility, which causes light transmission inhibition into water bodies. In spite of advantages of physicochemical and biological methods, these processes produce huge amounts of sludge, toxic by-products and require several oxidant chemicals. By contrast, electrochemical processes because of their high versatility, high efficiency and eco-friendly properties are more acceptable. In the present study, the removal of azo dye Acid Red 18 and chemical oxygen demand (COD from synthetic wastewater by monopolar (EC process was investigated and key parameters such as operating time, current density (CD, initial pH and energy, and electrode consumption were optimized. It was found that the process had a very good efficiency in the removal of both COD and color; for the iron electrode, the maximum amounts of color and COD removal were 99.5% and 59.0%, respectively. An operating time of 45 min, pH of 7 and CD of 1.2 mA/cm2 was selected as the optimized condition. The optimization of variables is extremely crucial as it results in a decrease in costs, energy and electrode consumption. Overall, the iron electrode used less energy than the aluminum electrode and was more acceptable for use in this process due to economical reasons. The findings of UV/vis spectra illustrated that the structures of this dye were removed by the process. In comparison with traditional methods such as aerobic and anaerobic systems, the EC process is a suitable alternative for the treatment of wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  15. Collaborative innovation ensues innovation through pastiche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulgencio, H.T.; Duysters, G.; Hoyos, A.; Kaminishi, K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the means to address societal challenges in the European Union is through social innovation programs and through increased call for collaboration amongst public and private entities. This paper presents a theory that innovation through pastiche is an unacknowledged trend in the field of

  16. Collaborative innovation ensues innovation through pastiche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulgencio, H.T.; Duysters, G.; Hoyos, A.; Kaminishi, K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the means to address societal challenges in the European Union is through social innovation programs and through increased call for collaboration amongst public and private entities. This paper presents a theory that innovation through pastiche is an unacknowledged trend in the field of colla

  17. A global inventory of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions (ANCAT/EC 2). A revised inventory (1996) by the ECAC/ANCAT and EC working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R.M. [Great Minister House, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transfert London

    1997-12-31

    Results of the ANCAT/EC 2 inventory produced by the European ANCAT/EC emissions inventory group is reported. The base year inventory has been completed and is currently being written up for report publication. The ANCAT/EC 2 inventory in the base year, 1991/92, has accounted for a total fuel burn of 132.5 Tg/yr and a NO{sub x} mass of 1.82 Tg/yr. The civil subsonic fleet average emissions index is EI NO{sub x} 13.9. The inventory has accounted for 80% of the IEA refined jet fuel total for 1992. The forecast 2015 inventory accounts for 289.4 Tg/yr fuel and 3.48 Tg/yr NO{sub x}, increases of 118% and 91% respectively. Both datasets will be reported fully in the next few months. (author) 5 refs.

  18. COST network genderSTE: Networking Gender Equality in Research and Innovation in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender is one of five priorities of the European Research Area, as stated in the Communication adopted in July 2012 entitled A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth (EC 2012c. Following this Communication, the EC has fully integrated gender dimensions in its proposal for a regulation on the new research framework program Horizon 2020¸ which includes in article 15 a provision for gender mainstreaming (EC 2011b. One final upcoming policy instrument announced by the EC is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation that will address member states and be adopted in the next months. Against this European policy background , the international COST network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment aims at enhancing a better integration of gender dimensions in science and technology at three main levels: i promoting women’s careers in science and technology through structural change of institutions (as recommended by EC by disseminating existing research and practice; ii promoting a better integration of gender in the content of science, research and technology, by dissemination existing research on the topic, ie the UE-US Gendered Innovations Project; iii identifying gender dimensions relevant to environment-related Horizon2020 Grand Challenges and other urban EC initiatives.  

  19. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring according to 2000/60/EC and 2006/118/EC directives in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Balsotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize monitoring activities as well to adapt it to legislative framework, since 2011 Piedmont Regional Groundwater Monitoring Network (RMRAS has undergone several upgrades interesting both number of monitoring points and such points location. This process, according to WFD proceedings, has also involved modifications on the analytical protocol adopted as well as on the final configuration of groundwater bodies (GWB Main results from first WFD triennium implementation (2009- 2011, by applying the new monitoring system, has had as a consequence a new definition of Chemical Status, according to D.lgs. 30/2009 and Decreto 260/2010, which allows us to express some considerations on the methodological approach proposed by the above mentioned legislation. In general, emerges a very articulated monitoring and classification system which allows to provide additional elements of knowledge than in the past. Others innovative aspects include modulation of monitoring cycles (Surveillance-Operational Monitoring and Punctual Operational Monitoring related with an upgrade of analytical programs, toward a general approach much more tied to the pressures which are insisting over GWBs. Study of main contaminants occurrences compared with their SQA/ VS allow to obtain a more detailed overview to assess main implications that favored groundwater contamination. Chemical Status definition may be influenced by the natural background values (VF of certain elements in very specific context. In Piedmont case such phenomena involves Nickel and ChromeVI. VF determination can give as a result VS modification for the considered elements inside the entire GWB area or parts of it. However, difficulties arise when attempting accurate discrimination from mixed contributions (natural + anthropogenic occurring in complex environmental scenarios.

  20. Personal Innovativeness, Perceived Organizational Innovativeness, and Computer Anxiety: Updated Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses personal innovativeness, perceived organizational innovativeness, and computer anxiety in relation to distance education. Investigates the reliability of measures used in relevant research studies, including the Innovativeness Scale, Perceived Organizational Innovativeness Scale, and Computer Anxiety Index. (Contains 12 references.) (LRW)

  1. Innovating innovation Policy. Rethinking green innovation policy in evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Dinica, V.; Marquart, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced environmental standards such as sustainability require substantial improvements in the environmental performances of present technologies. Governments are faced with the challenge to design green innovation policies able to support producers and users of technologies to comply with such

  2. Pathfinder Innovation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathfinder program supports high-risk, high-reward research ideas with funding and staff time. The goal is to feed a culture of innovation in the Agency and integrate innovative ideas in EPA research programs.

  3. Innovation and STEM Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  4. Diversity and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Timmermans, Bram; Kristinsson, Kári

    2007-01-01

    Denne metoderapport udgør og beskriver den kvantitative analyse, som er grundlaget for kapitel 6 og appendiks 2 i Forsknings- og Innovationsstyrelsens rapport om Innovation og mangfoldighed - Ny viden og erfaringer med medarbejderdreven innovation...

  5. Dis-locating innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barba Latta, Iulian I.V.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation dwells on an experimental approach to the emergence of alternative innovations, interrogated through their spatiotemporal and material conditions. Proceeding from the more recent spate of contributions that grant recognition to innovation processes as a common feature of any

  6. Characterization of integrons among Escherichia coli in a region at high incidence of ESBL-EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Ming; Wang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Jun; Li, Qin; Zhu, Ya-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aim of study was to investigate the distribution of the integrons in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates, and analyze the possible relationship between the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the integrons. Methods : The antimicrobial profiles of 376 E. coli strains were analysed by disk diffusion test. The integron genes and variable regions were detected by PCR. Some amplicons were sequenced to determine the gene cassettes style. Results : Of 376 isolates, 223 isolates (59.3%) were confirmed as ESBL-EC. Comparison to ESBL-negative E. coli, the high rates of resistance to the third and fourth generation of cephalosporins, penicillins and amikacin were found in ESBL-EC. Only class 1 was integron detected in the isolates, and the prevalence of it was 66.5%. It was commonly found in ESBL-EC (77.6%, 173/223), which was higher than that of ESBL-negative E. coli (50.3%, 77/153) (pESBL-EC, while in 9.1% isolates of ESBL-negative E.coli. Conclusion : The high incidence of ESBL-EC with resistance to multiple antibiotics were detected in the isolates from Blood stream infection (BSI). More resistant gene cassettes in ESBL-EC may partially underlie the high resistance to amikacin, while no relation exists between the high incidence of ESBL-EC and classes 1~ 3 integrons in this region.

  7. 电絮凝法处理印染废水研究%Research on Dyeing Wastewater Treatment by Electrocoagulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张引沁

    2011-01-01

    用电絮凝法处理印染废水,考查了反应时间、极板电压、废水pH值和电极间距对印染废水CODcf去除率的影响.通过正交试验,确定了电絮凝法印染废水处理过程的优化条件为:反应时间40min,极板电压35V,废水pH值8,电极间距3cm,CODcr去除率可迭89.65%.%Dyeing wastewater was treated by electrocoagulation method. The effects of reaction time, electrode voltage, wastewater pH and distance between electrodes on CODer removal rate were studied. By orthogonal experiments, the optimum conditions of the electroagulation have been obtained. The results show that when the reaction time is 40 min, the electrode voltage is 35 V, wastewater pH is 8 and the distance between electrodes is 3 em, the removal rate of CODcr is 89.65%.

  8. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  9. Random pharmacokinetic profiles of EC-MPS in children with autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Guido; Sharma, Ajay Parkash; Levy, Deborah M; Yasin, Abeer

    2010-01-04

    : Therapy with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has become a valuable therapeutic option in children with autoimmune disease. MMF prescription in children with autoimmune diseases differs from that in transplant recipients in terms of different dosing regimen, and concomitant administration of other immunosuppressive medications. Recently, another formulation of the same active compound, mycophenolic acid (MPA), has become available as enteric-coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS). Dosing and pharmacokinetics of EC-MPS in pediatric autoimmune disease have never been studied. S: We therefore performed a pilot study on 6 patients, who were treated with EC-MPS. All patients underwent 1-2 full 10-point pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles over a 12-hour dosing interval. We compared the results with that of 22 similar patients on MMF therapy. : Median EC-MPS dose was 724 mg/m2 (range 179-933 mg/m2). The MPA Area-Under-The-(Time-Concentration)-Curves (AUCs) on MMF and EC-MPS were comparable (54.4 mg x h/L on MMF and 44.0 mg x h/L on EC-MPS, n.s., Mann Whitney). After correcting for bioequivalence, the dose-normalized AUCs were also similar on both the formulations. However, PK profiles on EC-MPS were quite random, and time to maximum concentration varied from 30 minutes to 720 minutes. The concentration at six-hour correlated best with the AUC. This was different from a homogenous PK-profile on MPA. : EC-MPS has a different PK profile from MMF. The data suggest that patients on EC-MPS must undergo a complete PK profile to assess adequate exposure. The 6-hour concentration provides an estimate of the exposure and should be targeted between 3-4 mg/L.

  10. Diversity and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Timmermans, Bram; Kristinsson, Kári

    2007-01-01

    Denne metoderapport udgør og beskriver den kvantitative analyse, som er grundlaget for kapitel 6 og appendiks 2 i Forsknings- og Innovationsstyrelsens rapport om Innovation og mangfoldighed - Ny viden og erfaringer med medarbejderdreven innovation......Denne metoderapport udgør og beskriver den kvantitative analyse, som er grundlaget for kapitel 6 og appendiks 2 i Forsknings- og Innovationsstyrelsens rapport om Innovation og mangfoldighed - Ny viden og erfaringer med medarbejderdreven innovation...

  11. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes...... the foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  12. 16 tales of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, mode...... and innovation theories within their own organization. Here they share their unique insights into the processes, methods and the impact of their academic work with innovation in practice....

  13. An Overview of Models of Distributed Innovation. Open Innovation, User Innovation, and Social Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    GABISON Garry; PESOLE ANNAROSA

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses models of distributed innovation and how they differ in their nature, effects, and origins. Starting from Open Innovation, the paper analyses its methodological evolution, some of its applications, and the opportunities to apply it in a social context. Open Innovation has gained traction in the last ten years and because of this popularity, Open Innovation has been endowed with numerous meanings. This paper dives into the large literature associated with Open Innovati...

  14. Innovating for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry.......The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry....

  15. Dynamics of rapid innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, T. M. A.; Reeves, M.; Palma, R.; Farr, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is to organizations what evolution is to organisms: it is how organisations adapt to changes in the environment and improve. Yet despite steady advances in our understanding of evolution, what drives innovation remains elusive. There is a tension between a managerial school, which seeks a systematic prescription for innovation, and a visionary school, which ascribes innovation to serendipity and the intuition of great minds. We therefore provide a mathematical foundation for innova...

  16. The Impact of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    With funding from MetLife Foundation, the League for Innovation in the Community College engaged in a yearlong study in 2009 of the nature of innovation in the community college. Using recipients of the League's Innovation of the Year Award at 19 community colleges during the period from 1999 through 2008 as a data set, the authors used document…

  17. Ports and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taneja, P.; Vellinga, T.; Van Schuylenburg, M.

    2012-01-01

    A volatile environment, dynamic markets, and challenges created by new environmental and social consideration demand innovative solutions. Innovation is the implementation of ideas to create value. It promises ports resilience into the future. In this paper we trace some recent successful innovation

  18. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  19. Speeding Up Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations...

  20. Managing Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal Suyash; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Mudambi, Ram

    In this article, we treat innovation as a multidimensional construct spanning people, technologies, and geographies. We study how these dimensions interact and impact firms' inventor networks and the ultimate innovation performance. We identify five distinct planes in which inventor networks reside...... distribution of ties deteriorates rather than enhances innovation performance....